Chemical Compound: Sucrose
Sugar (Sucrose) -- C12H22O11
The compound chosen for discussion in the paper is- sucrose. The reason behind choosing this compound is that it is a substance of everyday use, consumed worldwide. Its commonness has led people to consider sucrose as an ingredient whose solitary purpose is what it is commonly used for- as sugar- and not in the form of a chemical compound. Therefore, sucrose is chosen for study out of curiosity regarding it.
This paper will look into a chemical and physical description of sucrose, its economic significance, its relation to prior class studies, as well as its change of state. Employing various concepts like 'international system of measurements (SI)' units, the properties of the compound will be elucidated.
Pure sucrose, often, takes the form of an odorless, colorless, fine crystalline powder having a sweet, pleasant taste. It can be prepared in solid form, as a liquid, or as a dry powder. Large crystals precipitated from sucrose's water solutions onto any nucleation surface or string form a popular confection, rock candy. At 186 degrees Celsius, sucrose melts, decomposing to become caramel; when combusted, sucrose decomposes into carbon dioxide, water and carbon. Through the process of hydrolysis, sucrose is broken down by water; however, this reaction is so very slow that one could watch a sucrose solution for several years and not notice any significant change. However, on adding enzyme (sucrase) the process of hydrolysis takes place at a rapid pace (edinformatics, n.d.).
Provide molecular weight, constituent elements, types of bonding, and polarity.
342.29648 g/mol (gram/mole)
Carbon, hydrogen, Oxygen
Hydrogen Bond Donor Count
Hydrogen Bond Acceptor Count
Rotatable Bond Count
Topological Polar Surface Area
Heavy Atom Count
Sucrose's glycosidic bond is sometimes called 'a-b-1-2 bond', owing to the fact that an alpha-OH molecule from glucose bonds with a beta-OH molecule of sucrose; also, we are going from glucose's #1 carbon atom to fructose's #2 carbon atom.
Molecular Weight: 342.3
Melting Point: 320 to 367 " F (decomposes)
Boiling Point: Decomposes
Vapor Pressure: 0 mmHg (approximately)
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): data unavailable
Water Solubility: greater than or equal to 100 mg/mL at 66° F
Specific Gravity: 1.59 at 68.0 " F
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): 0.045 gram/Liter (Cameo Chemicals, n.d.).
(F= Fahrenheit; mm= millimeter; Hg= mercury; mg= milligram; mL= milliliter)
Sucrose is an important constituent of cough syrups, due to its bodying property and solubility. Sugar (sucrose) also plays the role of a diluent, for controlling active ingredients' concentration in tablets; additionally, sugar acts as binder for holding together tablet ingredients.
Scientists have proclaimed that sugar can successfully be utilized for treating serious burns and wounds, which don't respond to conventional treatment. Sugar, through dissolving in an open wound's tissues, creates an environment that checks the growth of bacteria. Sugar is also thought to supply the necessary nourishment, required for regrowth of damaged tissues.
Researchers are closely studying functionality of sucrose to develop useful products in many areas of application. Sucrose epoxies, sucrose esters and bio-plastics are some of the specific products, derived from sucrose, that have garnered industry representatives' and researchers' attention.
Sugar is one the most important agricultural products.. The worldwide export trade of sugar in 2011 was worth 47 billion dollars, showing a drastic increase from the 2000 estimate (which was 10 billion dollars). Of this $47 billion, 33.5 billion dollars' worth of sugar is exported by developing nations and 12.2 billion dollars' worth by developed nations. This industry forms the means of support for millions of individuals worldwide -- not just estate workers and smallholders, but also family dependents and people working in the broader industry. Nearly 160 million sugar tonnes are produced per annum. The world's largest producer of sugar is Brazil (22%), followed by India and the EU (European Union) at 15% and 10%, respectively. Over 123 countries...
Nearly 80% global sugar production is derived from tropically-grown sugar cane; the remaining 20% is derived from sugar beet (which is grown in Europe and other temperate regions) (Fairtrade Foundation, 2013).
1. Sugarcane is considered a cash crop; it gives farmers ready cash.
2. The main use of sugarcane is in sugar manufacturing.
3. One can also use sugar cane in juice and syrup preparations, and for chewing.
4. The numerous byproducts of sugarcane, such as molasses, bagasse, immature tops, pressmud cake etc. are utilized for diverse purposes.
5. Molasses is utilized in preparation of chemicals like alcohol.
6. Bagasse functions as a fuel, and as a raw material in making paper.
7. Immature tops are utilized as fodder.
8. Pressmud cake is utilized in the form of manure
9. Trash is utilized in composting, thatching huts and mulching.
10. Cane stubbles are also utilized as fuel, as well as in making compost.
Type of reaction
Several chemical processes are accompanied by release of energy, whether as light, heat or sound. Such reactions are called exothermic reactions. They may take place spontaneously, resulting in higher system entropy or randomness (?S > 0). These reactions are represented by negative flow of heat (i.e. The reaction system loses heat to surroundings) and decreased enthalpy (?H < 0). Exothermic reactions in laboratories generate heat or might even cause an explosion (Helmenstine, n.d.). This reaction depicts a nearly-one-minute time delay before proceeding. As the process of dehydration commences, the acid begins turning yellow. Since this reaction is of an exothermic nature, the dehydration rate accelerates with heating up of the acid. As sugar molecules get divested of water, heat produced in the reaction system converts water to steam; this subsequently expands the residual carbon to a smoking, porous, black column, which expands from the vessel, giving rise to an acrid, choking vapor that smells of burnt carbon.
Heat of reaction
Dehydration is the loss of water content (along with carbon and heat in sucrose following the chemical reaction of sucrose with sulfuric acid (H2SO4 ):
C12H22O11(s) ? 12C(s) + 11H2O (g) ?H = -918.9 kJ / mol
As the reaction shows, it generates heat and is hence depicted by a negative change in enthaloy of the system. This is an exothermic reaction..
This dehydrated sucrose releases water which dilutes the sulfuric acid. The subsequent reaction is also exothermic, releasing heat into the environment:
H2SO4(l) ? H2SO4(aq) ?H = - kJ / mol
The combined heat released due to the dual exothermic reactions accelerates the process of dilution and dehydration.
All products, reactants, and catalysts
Sugar is dehydrated:
C12H22O11 = 12C (graphite) + 11H2O (l)
Sulfuric acid is hydrated:
H2SO4. n H2O + m H2O = H2SO4 . n1 H2O + heat (2)
(n = .11 moles, m = 11 X 2.0 moles of sucrose = 2.2 moles, and n1 = 2.3 moles.) (Shakhashiri, 1983).
Sulfuric acid is a highly corrosive and strong acid that may damage one's skin. Therefore, safety goggles and gloves must be worn while handling it. Hot steam is produced in the course of the reaction. Thus, one must stand at a distance from the reaction vessel, and reduce the degree of contact of one's skin with the vapors from protection from burns. The remaining material should be placed back in the hood. The fumes can be irritating (Shakhashiri, 1983).
Summary of other possible reactions
Difference in state
Difference in the reactivity of the compound with the reactivity of a similar compound
Sucrose acts as a reducing agent. Its reactions with chlorates, perchlorates, and other oxidizing agents are explosive in nature. Sucrose can be hydrolyzed by action of yeast enzyme, invertase and the action of dilute acids (NTP, 1992). When concentrated form of sulfuric acid is added to it, sucrose chars quickly and exothermically. Sodium chloride is a generally unreactive compound. If a concentrated form of sulfuric acid or any other non-volatile acid is added to it, sodium chloride releases hydrogen chloridegas (Cameo Chemicals, n.d.).
Change in the heat of reaction
Given that the reaction's nature is exothermic; when the reaction is at its equilibrium and the system's temperature is increased, this rise in temperature will correspond to heating the reaction vessel. This heat influx will take the reaction away from its equilibrium state- equilibrium is restored by nature by removal of some of the extra heat. Since it is an exothermic reaction, it generates heat while proceeding further. According to Le Chatelier's Principle, the system reacts for removing additional heat; therefore, it must move reverse, thereby converting the products formed back into reactants. Conversely, when the system's temperature is decreased (i.e. If heat from the reaction system is removed), the reaction takes place in the direction that opposes this heat removal. Thus, forward reaction takes…
Lactose if one of the major components of milk, and plays a crucial role in human development. This paper will examine the structure, function, physical properties, chemical properties, reactions, and everyday uses of lactose. In addition, a discussion of the common issue of lactose intolerance in humans is included. A natural sugar found in milk, lactose is likely one of the most commonly identifiable of all milk ingredients (except perhaps calcium).