They are compounds that have carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. There are 3 forms of carbohydrates. First are the monosaccharides which are simple sugars. They have simple structures in the ration of 1:2:1. They usually contain 5-6 atoms of carbon arranged in a 5-6 member ring. Oligosaccharides are monosaccharides which are combined in short strings that are linked together through dehydration synthesis. Sucrose is one of the oligosaccharides. It is a disaccharide since it consists of simply two monosaccharides. The last form are the polysaccharides which are straight or branched chains of monosaccharides joined together. Polysaccharides store energy. In animals, the storage polysaccharide is glycogen while in plants, it is starch Johnson 37-38()
Lipids are insoluble organic molecules. There are three subclasses. First are the triglycerides which are neutral fats synthesized from one glycerol molecule and three fatty acids. Fatty acids on the other hand are chains of hydrocarbons with…… [Read More]
The entire unit is known as a photosytem and in green plants, one finds two of these systems, photosystem I and photosystem II, both of which are involved in the light reactions of photosynthesis. Light energy absorbed by these pigments of the antenna complex is "passed to the reaction center chlorophyll molecules from which it passes along an electron-transport chain" (lankenship, 215). Photosystems II contains a kind of chlorophyll a (P680) which shows maximum light absorption at a wavelength of about 684 nm. When activated by sunlight, a pair of electrons become excited and leave photosystem II and is replaced by electrons from the photolysis of H2O, summarized as 2H2OO2+4H++4e-.
Molecular oxygen is then released and the protons pass into the lumen (the central space that remains in a cell that has lost its living contents) of the thylakoid (an elongated, flattened fluid-filled sac that forms the basic unit of…… [Read More]
Based on the fact that our class focuses on atoms, atomic structure, chemical bonds, nuclear chemistry (radioactivity, nuclear equation, half life, radio isotopes, artificial transmutation, etc.), this article review aims to provide a summary of a related story named "IBM Scientists First to Image the 'Anatomy' of a Molecule; Imaging Individual Atoms Within A Molecule Has Been A Long-standing Goal of Surface Microscopy" by the IBM press team in the August 28, 2008, M2PressWIRE; Vol. 92, No. 1. The main hypothesis for the article was to provide insights into the fact that "scientists have now been able to image the 'anatomy' -- or chemical structure -- inside a molecule with unprecedented resolution, using a complex technique known as noncontact atomic force microscopy." (IBM)
The reason that this breakthrough is so critical to the science world is because of its affects on the nanotechnology industry. "The results push the exploration…… [Read More]
The Many Dimension of ed
ed is one of the oldest colors known to humans. It is a color that carries with it significant emotional meanings. ed occurs in nature on Earth and in the cosmos. It is a dynamic color affecting people and animals. The paper will explore the history of the color red with regard to its chemical properties, natural history, and cultural significance. The study of color proves useful and fruitful across a plethora of disciplines such as chemistry, advertising, psychology, and art. For many humans, colors and sight circumscribe reality. For such people, life without colors diminishes its exuberance and meaning. The paper addresses multiple topics regarding the color red reflecting upon the ways the color generates meaning for individuals and cultures.
Humans perceive only a fraction of the light spectrum. Of the part of the spectrum that is visible to the human eye, the…… [Read More]
The Prosperous Autobiography of Phosphorus
Greetings humans, this message is from your friend, Phosphorus. That's Phosphorus with a "-us" and not an "-ous" and it is often misspelled. I am an element, not an adjective. You may not be unaware of the special connection you have with me, but it exists nonetheless. For you see, I, Phosphorus, am "an essential component of living systems and is found in nervous tissue, bones and cell protoplasm." (Winter, 2012)
Quite simply, I am a part of you humans (and many other species) and you could not exist without me, so make sure you eat a balanced diet with appropriate amounts of me! In human beings, I am most present in your bones, including your teeth. I can also be found in your nucleic acids and energy carriers such as DNA or NA, and lipids & enzymes, respectively. (Chandrasekaran, 2012) I also am…… [Read More]
When it comes to nutrition, terms like carbohydrate, lipid, monosaccharide, protein and cholesterol can sound almost like a foreign language. With all the conflicting reports of what affects your body and what does harm, it is no wonder that people are so confused. Yet the importance of these substances is so vital that by understanding what these things are, as well as how they are used by our bodies can certainly benefit our health and overall well being.
By definition, a carbohydrate is group of chemical compounds that exist when hydrogen and oxygen (H2O) are then combined with carbon (Ed., Encarta). Carbohydrates are the largest group of organic compounds found in nature (Encarta). Humans, animals, plants and bacteria all use carbohydrates, and the uses for them varies depending on the organism using them. Plants use them for structural uses - as in the cellulose and hemicellulose that are…… [Read More]
Recording of observations took place throughout.
In the first reaction, after adding the KOH solution to the beaker with the clean aluminum strips, the solution turned to a dark purple color, almost appearing black at times. The aluminum clearly began to dissolve, when it was visible in the solution, and bubbles began to form on the surface of the solution. As the solution was allowed to cool following the reaction, the bubbles and the vapor given off by the mixture (causing the necessity for venting during this experiment) became far less apparent. Following the reaction and the proper carrying out of the filtration steps multiple times, the solids were removed from the reaction mixture and a colorless filtration mixture was left in the reaction beaker.
Adding 20mL of 6 M. sulfuric acid to the colorless filtration liquid caused the mixture to become cloudy and white, and solid precipitates began…… [Read More]
The chemical make up of vitamin B6 has been studied for many years. The isolation of pure crystalline vitamin B6 was first reported in 1935, four years after acknowledgment of this particular member of the vitamin B, complex. Separately, but somewhat later, several other people also accounted for the isolation of vitamin B6. Within a year many experts demonstrated that vitamin B6 was a pyridine derivative, distinctively 3-hydroxyl-4, 5- dihydroxymethyl- 2-methyl- pyridine. The term pyridoxine, used for this compound has become generally accepted (Gyorgy, n.d.).
Over the years many others confirmed that a phosphoric derivative of pyridoxal, later acknowledged as pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (II; = -CHO), is the coenzyme of a large collection of specific enzymes catalyzing responses of amino-group transport, decarboxylation and other metabolic alterations of individual amino acids. In the route of enzymic transamination, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate undergoes reversible adaptation into pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (II; = -CH2NH2), which has coenzyme activity…… [Read More]
Chemistry Through Veterinary Medicine
The Use of Acepromazine to Control Fear and Aggression in Dogs
My friend, Kathy, has a dog named Mollie, who is a 4-year-old "rescue dog" that weighs 60 lbs. And has the verified DNA of a Malamute/German Shepherd/olf mix. Mollie is literally a moody bitch: a female dog that is sometimes friendly and sometimes hostile. She can definitely frighten people because she looks like a wolf, complete with piercing eyes and long, sharp, gleaming fangs. On October 1st, Mollie was taken to her veterinarian's office for her scheduled Rabies vaccination. Unfortunately, Mollie acted so fearfully and aggressively that the veterinarian and her 3 assistants could not control Mollie long enough to muzzle her and administer the vaccination. The veterinarian gave Kathy Acepromazine in 25 mg. pills and told Kathy that: Acepromazine is better than a sedative; it controls the dog's fear and aggression for 4 --…… [Read More]
Chemistry Time Traveler
Transported into 100 B.C. Rome with Latin fluency, and comprehension of and in possession of 21st century knowledge; the task of dazzling the Roman Senate with the articulation of triumphs and successes of scion generations was straightforward. Yet now under the duress of an approaching deadline "to produce something which will convince" (Case Guidelines) the Senate of the technological and intellectual prowess of future humanity; the task seems insurmountable.
Reflecting on two millenniums of human evolution in the span of one short week; the realization that society has prospered and advanced due to successive generations: learning, using, and developing the ideas and genius of those that had come prior, bears a heavy responsibility on this time traveler. Knowledge and innovation then are not solely about the single inspiration of a great mind, but rather "in a new idea, borrowed from economics, known as collective intelligence:…… [Read More]
Because depleted Uranium is a toxic metal, it remains dangerous to the environment and its inhabitants long after the cessation of hostilities in which it is used. Furthermore, on combustion, depleted Uranium also aerosolizes releasing particles sufficiently small to be inhaled into the lungs where it represents a deadly medical threat. Likewise, it is also capable of contaminating food crops and water where it is ingested with similarly devastating medical consequences. Recent studies (i.e. since the first Gulf War of 1991) have revealed dramatic increases in cancers and birth defects known to be associated with Uranium contamination and poisoning in the populations of Iraq as well as in Bosnia where U.S. coalition aircraft enforced the UN-imposed no fly zone in connection with the 1992 operations in the Balkan Conflict. The results of these studies strongly suggest that reevaluation may be necessary to justify the continued use of depleted Uranium…… [Read More]
Air monitoring provides the following contaminant concentrations at the approximate center of a fire scene in which acres of automobile tires are burning: Carbon monoxide @ 1700 ppm; Carbon dioxide @ 7000 ppm; and Sulfur dioxide @ 600 ppm. Ignoring synergistic effects between these gases, the following are individual concentrations that are considered life-threatening to the EH&S or FS professional responding to the scene: carbon monoxide: 50 ppm, carbon dioxide: 350 ppm, and sulfur dioxide: 120 ppm.
Certain combustion products are produced when materials made from polyacrylonitrile smolder and burn. The major products of thermal decomposition include hydrogen chloride, benzene and unsaturated hydrocarbons. In the presence of oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and water are included among the common combustion products. The main toxic products from PVC fires are hydrogen chloride (a sensory and pulmonary irritant) and carbon monoxide (an asphyxiant).
There exists a combination of properties that is…… [Read More]
Alzheimer's: The Disease & Medication
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a kind of dementia; it is, in fact, the most frequently occurring form of dementia. Alzheimer's Diseases is named for the German psychiatrist and neuropathologist, Alois Alzheimer who first described the disease over 100 years ago in 1906. Alzheimer's is a degenerative disease and those who suffer from it worsen as time goes on. Alzheimer's leads to many fatalities and as of today, a cure remains to be found. Though there are cases of dementia in young people and adults, most people who suffer from Alzheimer's disease are in their mid to late sixties. There are some statistics that predict that within forty years, less than one in hundred people around the world will suffer from Alzheimer's disease. This paper will address Alzheimer's disease from a medical perspective, providing insight as to leading pharmaceutical treatments for patients.
Though the symptoms…… [Read More]
hen the drug penicillin finds the bacteria, penicillin blocks the bacteria's ability to produce this chemical, making it impossible for the bacteria to perform respiration. Numerous other drugs have been derived from penicillin and are referred to as sulfa drugs.
hen the goal is to prevent certain bodily functions and reactions from taking place, the drugs used are called hormones. The most commonly used hormones are for birth control. There are two chemical components to birth control hormones. The first chemical synthesizes the natural hormone known as estrogen. hen high levels of this hormone are introduced into the body, the body reads the hormone and assumes it is pregnant. The result is that the body does not allow implantation. The second chemical used to copy natural hormones is progesterone. Progesterone within the body triggers ovulation. hen mimicked using chemicals, the body does not ovulate (Lide, 70). hen these two artificial…… [Read More]
Demonstrating the Carbon Dioxide Content of Gaseous Yeast Digestive Byproducts:
To demonstrate that the gas produced by yeast is carbon dioxide, the instructor can let students exhale through a straw into a test tube filled with lime juice. The lime juice will turn a milky white color, which is the test for carbon dioxide. To show that the gas produced by yeast also contains carbon dioxide, fill one test tube with lime juice and another test tube with warm water, yeast, and sugar. Then use a rubber stopper with a hole in it to seal the test tube with the yeast. Place a glass pipette through the hole in the rubber stopper (but not all the way into the yeast solution). Place the other end of the glass pipette into the lime juice in the other test tube. When the gas produced by the yeast begins to bubble into the…… [Read More]
Bottled water presently ranks as the second biggest commercial beverage sold in the U.S. By volume and in greater in utilization than that of tea, apple juice, coffee and milk in Canada (H20, Liquid Profit? The economic impacts of bottled water, n.d).
The bottled drinking water industry is an expansion business with tremendous increases and income occasions for the capitalist. The bottled water business increased about ten percent in 2005, while carbonated soft drinks profits were basically level. It is thought that there are a number of things that drive the marketplace. It is known that people like to have a tap water replacement, but it's actually driven by people's necessities for an improved option to the broad collection of drinks that are on the market (5 Steps to Success in the Private Labeled Bottled ater Business, 2011).
I feel that promoting bottled water is not the way to go.…… [Read More]
Chemistry at work. Every facet of our existence -- living or non-Living -- is a completed or ongoing chemical process.
More than one hundred elements (basic units of chemical compounds) have been identified thus far: most are stable, others are reactive and dangerous. The ones with the highest atomic numbers (total number of protons or electrons in the atoms) are created in laboratories and have brief existences. About twenty are radioactive -- and the harm their intrinsic energies can wreak was in evidence in Hiroshima and Nagasaki towards the end of Word War II (Hachiya, 1945).
Yet, most elements are the bases of food, shelter and clothing -- the basic necessities of life. The air we breathe is a cocktail composed of approximately 78% nitrogen gas, 20% oxygen gas, carbon dioxide and other gases in trace amounts (Aquatext, 2000). Upsetting this critical balance causes adverse effects such as global warming…… [Read More]
Chemistry and iology on Christian Mind
The Effects Chemistry and iology on Christian Mind
Science and Christianity share a very conflicting relationship. There are different faces of this relationship and we can determine this relationship by using different models. One of such models suggests that science and Christianity are in conflict with each other. Though both of these areas ask you the same question but the answers which they seek are entirely different. An evident example of this phenomenon is the stuff which is being published by atheist scientists who ask rhetorical questions in their readings which force the people to select either science or religion. [footnoteRef:2] [2: Richard James, Test of FAITH Science and Christianity Unpacked Youth Leader's Guide, (Kingston: Oxygen,) http://www.testoffaith.com/youth/Test_of_FAITH_youth_leaders_guide.pdf (accessed March 19, 2013), 6-8.]
The other model suggests that science and Christianity complement each other. In other words, this model suggests that science and Christianity seek…… [Read More]
chemistry of pesticides, including characteristics and their effects on the environment. What are pesticides? They are substances, including chemical, biological, antimicrobial, or disinfectant, or some type of mixtures of these substances, that are used to control pests like weeds, insects, microbes, and other pests. The word itself comes from the Latin word "cida," which means "killer" (1). For most people, the word "pesticide" really means some kind of poison used to control indoor and outdoor pests like insects. The use of pesticides really took off around the world after World War II ended in 1945, but humans have used organic substances to control pests for thousands of years, such as arsenic, sulfur, and other compounds. By the late nineteenth century, many compounds were commonly used on farms and in cities, and inorganic or synthetic pesticides began to develop in the early twentieth century. One of the most famous of those…… [Read More]
What is Titanium?
The symbol for the metal titanium in the Periodic Table is Ti, which is a direct abbreviation of the metal’s name. The metal was discovered in Great Britain—Cornwall to be exact—by a clergyman and mineralogist named William Gregor in 1791. However, Gregor did not actually get to name the element—at least not as it is commonly recognized today: that honor was taken by Martin Klaproth, a German chemist who had discovered uranium and zirconium two years prior and who would later go on to discover cerium in 1803. Klaproth discovered titanium independently of Gregor in 1793 and, unaware that it was the same substance identified by Gregor, named it titanium after the Greek gods the Titans, because in his view it was “the incarnation of natural strength” (“History of Titanium”). Gregory had named it “gregorite” two years before and needless to say Klaproth’s appellate is what stuck.…… [Read More]
Chemistry and Recreational Drugs
The objective of this study is to examine chemistry as it relates to recreational drugs. Toward this end, this study will review literature in this area of inquiry and report on the same.
Recreational drugs refer to drugs such as marijuana, methamphetamine, ecstasy, cocaine, and other such drugs. The chemistry of each of these recreational drugs is unique and each cause specific effects to the individual taking these drugs. The top five recreational drug chemists include: (1) Raphael Mechoulam known as the king of cannaboid research and to have identified delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol as an active ingredient of Cannabis Sativa in 1964; (2) Albert Hofmann -- famous for LSD research; (3) Charles Romley Alder Wright -- lecturer on chemistry at St. Mary's hospital Medical School in London who synthesized heroin in 1875 in his search for a non-addictive alternative to morphine; (4) Anton Kollisch who synthesized MDMA in…… [Read More]
Bioreduction will be most effective in the future if researchers and engineers can develop more effective means of delivering needed nutrients to the microorganism strands used in remediation efforts, as well as tailor site conditions as needed. In the final analysis, it seems most likely that a combination of extractive and immobilization techniques will produce the best results, by each removing aspects of chromium contamination that the other cannot effectively eliminate.
Camargo, F.A.O., Okeke, B.C., Bento, F.M., and Frakenberger, .T. "In Vitro Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by a Cell-Free Extract of Bacillus sp. ES 29 Stimulated by CU2+." Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 62.5/6 (Oct. 2003): 569-573.
Ciura, J., Poniedzialek, M., Jedrszczyk, E., and Sekara, a. "The Possibility of Using Crops as Metal Phytoremediants." Polish Journal of Environmental Studies 14.1 (2005): 17-22.
Kapoor, Anoop, and Viraraghavan, Thiruvenkatachari. "Remediation of Chromium-Containing Soils by Heap Leaching: Column Study." Journal of Environmental…… [Read More]
or, to put it another way, "chemistry carried out with the primary object of investigating the workings of nature is what we now call physical chemistry" (Laidler, 5). This has made the distinction between physics and chemistry at this frontier very difficult to define. This fuzzy distinction is also one of the things that makes the discipline of physical chemistry so interesting -- it cannot deny the complete interweaving of scientific disciplines.
Physics and chemistry lay out the foundation and explain the mechanisms of all other sciences, and the field of physical chemistry is the closest unification of these two sciences. All biological and astronomical processes only occur because of reactions and interactions at the molecular and atomic level, and physical chemistry attempts to explain these underlying principles (Laidler, 9). Though the nature of energy and matter is still not fully understood, physical chemistry is approaching better and better explanations…… [Read More]
Beta particles are identical to electrons according to all measures that have been conducted in this regard, rendered distinct only by the fact that they are emitted from radioactive substances (Bodner, 2011). Other types of radiation also exist, but alpha and beta particles are the primary drivers of basic nuclear reactions (Bodner, 2011; Loveland et al., 2006). adioactive decay -- the result on the source substance of emitting of radioactive particles -- occurs at an exponentially decreasing rate over terms known as the "half life," which is the amount of time it takes for one-half of a quantity of a given radioactive element to transition to a lighter element through its loss of alpha particles (with incidental beta particle emission, as well, though this does not fundamentally change the element) (Carpi, 2003).
In a nuclear reaction such as the harnessed power of Uranium-235's radioactivity, neutrons are used to break apart…… [Read More]
) Hydrochloric acid, formic acid, nitric acid, hexanes, and toluene are all available in ACS grade through Carolina, which, with a bit of imagination, could turn into some spectacular experiments. (Toluene is, of course, a component in the production of TNT -- talk about an exothermic reaction.)
Laboratory equipment is also widely available. A simple search of the popular site Shopwiki.com reveals hundreds of beakers, pipettes, test tubes, alcohol burners, syringes, etc. More advanced items are also available, such as hot plates which automatically stir the contents of a flask placed on them, and a wealth of thermodynamic devices for pressure, temperature, and volume control.
Perhaps the best route for a truly interested young chemist to take is to begin with the CHEM 3000, working through its experiments and gaining insight, then proceed to a regime of self-education using the internet and libraries, and supplementing the capabilities of the CHEM…… [Read More]
The lab will involve testing household products to use as cleaning agents. During the lab students will wear gloves and if necessary masks.
Educational goal: To understand the 12 principles of green chemistry and the scientific method
Student objectives: Students will understand and apply the 12 principles of green chemistry.
Materials: Vinegar, baking soda, bleach, and household cleansers
Time required: Three days of research, brainstorming, and finally a lab day.
National standards met: S1, S2, S6, S7
Green chemistry principles addressed: 1-12
Teacher prep: esearching the dangers of common commercial household cleansers.
In class, students will write out the 12 principles in their own words in simple language. The class will come to a common definition for all 12 principles. Then students on their own will be asked to pick a household cleaning product and research online whether the manufacture upholds these principles.
In class, students will be asked…… [Read More]
Symmetry in Inorganic Chemistry
Molecules are often classified in terms of their symmetry. All molecules that have the same basic shape share a number of common properties. Classification of molecules by symmetry is based upon the presence of symmetry "elements," such as mirror planes and rotational axes, and corresponding symmetry "operations" such as reflection through such a plane and rotation about such an axis, shared by all molecules in a given "point" group. A symmetry operation is a real or imagined change that can be made to the molecule that leaves it in an indistinguishable position from the initial position. For example, if a benzene molecule were rotated by 60, 120, 180, 240 or 300 degrees about it's principle axis of rotation, the molecule will be left in an identical configuration with respect to the initial one. Any molecule said to have C2v symmetry (or to "belong" to the C2v…… [Read More]
healthy Nutrition: A Chemistry View Point
Chemistry is a branch of sciences that deals with the compositions of matter and helps in identifying the substances that form matter. Living as well as non-living bodies are formed with substances. These substances differ in their composition, nature, properties, and reactions with other substances. There is a vital role of chemicals and chemistry in everyday life of human beings. The impacts of chemical substances on living beings can also be divided into direct and indirect categories. The impact of environmental substances is indirect in nature whereas direct impacts are chemical composition of food, nutrition, vitamins, and physical activity.
The following sections are focused on detailed review of relevance for chemistry and chemicals on healthy eating habits, nutrition, and vitamins. The significant role of physical activity and exercising is also elaborated in the sections below. There are significant benefits of healthy diet and exercise.…… [Read More]
Philosophy of Chemistry
The work of Scerri (2000) asks the question of what could the connections between chemistry and philosophy possible be "apart from the obvious superficial one of their both representing quests for knowledge?" (p.1) Scerri states that in the view of the chemist "the philosopher -- who conducts no experiments whatsoever -- is not worthy of very high esteem. From the scientific perspective, philosophical views do not seem very dynamic, since they sometime stem from established philosophical doctrines or a priori beliefs about the ways the world should be." (2000, p.1) It is reported as well that philosophers "for their part are proud of their training in rigorous ways of thinking. They freely admit to not engaging in the grubby details of the experimental world because such activities might limit the generalities of their claims and of their attempts to depict reality in its broadest terms." (Scerri, 2000,…… [Read More]
Linear sp Carbon Allotropes in Question
While modern day discoveries and characterizations of allotropes are reported, the definition of allotropy remains ambiguous as the question of what constitutes an allotrope is under debate. Lagow et al. reported the synthesis of a terminally capped linear acetylenic carbon with alternating single and triple binds, claiming it to be a stable sp carbon allotrope (1994), a subject of debate as the classification of acetylenic carbon as an allotrope continues to be determined, and the stability of such a compound is in question. The proposed structure and stability of a linear sp carbon of such a proposed length and with alternating single and triple bonds is disputed by Hirsch et al. Thus, the stability of long-chain carbon allotropes and the characterization of the linear sp carbon synthesized by Lagow et al., given its terminal end design, remains in question as to the…… [Read More]
Aunt Gladys / Chemistry
Yo, Dude! (That's how we would say "Howdy, Aunt Gladys!" here at college.)
Thanks for your letter and the $2.00 you sent with it. Probably this weekend I will go out and buy myself something nice, like you suggested.
I am glad you and Uncle Wilbur are well. Everything is good here at school. I am pretty busy and I am learning a lot. Especially chemistry.
I'm happy to be able to answer your question for you. You asked how come the tin foil melted overnight on your meatloaf. Don't worry, nothing is wrong with your refrigerator and you and Uncle Wilbur will not have to get a new one. And no, it wasn't because you snuck some ground turkey in there because the doctor told Uncle Wilbur he needs to start watching his cholesterol. It's actually because of the ketchup. Now, don't go writing a…… [Read More]
Forensics is a very important part of a crime scene investigation. There used to be a time when murders or crimes were left unsolved due to the lack of evidence. However with the advances in technology and research in forensics, crime solving has become a lot easier. The branch of science, which helps out in finding out important evidence, is known as Forensics Chemistry. Forensics Chemistry employs methods, which help in finding clues, which couldn't be found in any other circumstances. We can simply call it the application of a brand of chemistry at the scene of a crime. This is a science which helps us investigate chemical substances and can help trace the cause of the death of a human being by finding useful evidence. However it's not important that the crime scene may be a site of murder or theft. It could also be due to…… [Read More]
The temperatures on Saturn, which average in the range of -99 F. To -290 F, or -73 C. To -179 C, mean that ethynyl's highly reactive status is necessary to perform the chemical process that results in the creation of triacetylene and the polyynes that serve as ultraviolet radiation shields and appear as haze from a distance (About that, 2009, Scientific Blogging). Saturn is otherwise too cold to have the heat to propel chemical reactions, in the absence of reactive molecules like ethynyl.
The modeling techniques used by the scientists to reproduce this process involved crossed molecular beam machines to "collide supersonic gaseous beams of ethynyl and diacetylene molecules," and a mass spectrometer measurement of the reaction (About that, 2009, Scientific Blogging). Analysis confirmed that the results of the collision yielded triacetylene, plus a single hydrogen atom. Later computations also confirmed the spectrometer's analysis of the distribution of electrons in…… [Read More]
New Vocabulary Terms to review: ethanol, corn stover, hydrolysis, cellulose, hemicellulose, carbohydrates, polysaccharide, starch, saccharide, glucose, enzyme, salivary amylase, cellulose, colorimeter, cuvette, concentration, absorbance, wavelength, nanometer, fermentation, renewable resource, non-renewable resource
National Standards Met:
Science Content Standards: 8-12
CONTENT STANAR A: Science as Inquiry As a result of activities in grades 8-12, all students should develop: 1) Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry, 2) Understandings about scientific inquiry
CONTENT STANAR B: Physical Science As a result of their activities in grades 8-12, all students should develop an understanding of: 1) Structure of atoms, 2) Structures and of properties in matter, 3) Chemical reactions
CONTENT STANAR C: Life Science- 1) understanding of the cell
CONTENT STANAR E: Science and Technology -As a result of their activities in grades 8-12, all students should develop: 1) Abilities of technological design, 2) Understandings about science and technology
CONTENT STANAR F: Science in Personal and…… [Read More]
Forensic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that applies the techniques and concepts of chemistry to provide evidence and testify in court. Some federal agencies such as FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and National Institute of Justice use forensic chemistry experts to investigate the crimes committed against the society, which include environmental pollution, food adulteration, and distribution of unsafe chemical substances. In the United States, cocaine and other illegal drugs can put society at risks. Thus, experts in forensic chemistry uses different processes to perform a laboratory test to identify the presence of substances. A chemical analysis carried out in the laboratory can help to detect illegal drugs, which will assist the police or other law enforcement agents to prosecute offenders in the law courts. (Drug Enforcement Administration 1).
Moreover, the forensic chemistry analyzes non-biological materials to detect a trace of evidence from the crime scenes to found unknown material…… [Read More]
Norepinephrine is usually quickly removed from the synapse and pumped back into the cell that released it in order to turn off and reset the system. By blocking the removal of norepinephrine, tricyclics appear to prolong or intensify norepinephrine's message to the post-synaptic cells.
However, the fundamental biochemical effect of antidepressants on the brain that is responsible for their benefit remains a mystery. It is thought that the change in neuroamine signaling at the synapse caused by anti-depressants "may set off a cascade of events involving second messenger systems that eventually results in the improvement of the symptoms of depression" (Enna, 1991, 187). Unfortunately, how these medications truly operate remains largely unknown.
Another group of anti-depressants is called selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, first introduced in 1988. Unlike the tricyclics, these new anti-depressants have little direct effect on norepinephrine in the brain; instead, they block the re-uptake of serotonin which gives…… [Read More]
AppliChem is a chemistry laboratory that originated in Germany with the target to assemble of suggested materials for ecological investigation the position for biochemical, chemical, and synthesis services that also includes shades, dimension, safeguarding, and absolute to explanations to supplies for chemicals and much more (2011). However, this company is faced with the difficult problem because distributing to its customers the capacity of developed plants that are located around the world and the differentiation in the machinery used in the plants and in local unrefined substances and employment expenses generate noteworthy dissimilarities in the price to manufacture elease-ease in assorted geographic locations. Further limitations incorporate administrative uncertainty to amplify competence at the plants, along with the mixed expenditures of transporting goods around the globe. As a result, oftentimes, profit suffers as a consequence of meager supervision of Applichem's general business.
The cost that is being allocated within the…… [Read More]
abundant elements that occur in living organisms are as follows: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorous. These and all elements are made up of atoms, which are the primary units of matter. Molecules are groups of atoms that are covalently bonded. Covalent bonds occur when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. This is different from ionic bonds, which arise when an electrical attraction between two oppositely charged ions takes place. Elements are substances that cannot be chemically dissected into simpler kinds of matter. Compounds, however, are atoms of two or more elements that are united by chemical bonds.
The parts of an atom include protons, neutrons, and electrons. These are all called subatomic particles. Protons, which are part of the nucleus of an atom, have positive electrical charges. Neutrons, which are also part of the nucleus of an atom, and as the name indicates, are neutral…… [Read More]
Life is so varied and unwieldy, it possibly will surprise some to learn that it can actually be broken it down into four basic groups of molecules. The four basic categories of molecules for building life are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Carbohydrates serve numerous purposes, which goes from energy to the structure and passes on to chemical communication, as polymers or monomers. Many have encountered carbohydrates once or twice. Experts refer to them nonchalantly as "sugars," particles made of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen. A sugar molecule also has a carbon backbone, typically five or six carbons. The sugar molecules are able to link together in chains or in pairs or branching "trees," either for energy or structure storage.
Lipids, which are hydrophobic, likewise have unlike reasons, in addition to energy storage, structure and signaling. Starch formulates for good, available fuel, something that we directly criticize chemically…… [Read More]
unaware that most of them deals with chemistry. When we cook food or clean things, chemistry is usually involved. The mixing of various spices is a form of chemistry. The cleaning materials such as soap, detergent, and cleaning acids we used in cleaning are all mixtures of chemicals. Chemistry is an important part of our daily habits. Even in some of the professions, chemistry plays an important role. In my job of arson, fire, and explosives' investigation for instance, understanding of chemistry is essential to find evidences for the resolution of these cases.
This paper aims to discuss the importance of chemistry in arson, fire, and explosives' investigation. From time to time, examples of investigation steps will be mentioned to point the use of chemistry in the process.
Forensic Chemistry is an essential science in the investigation of criminal cases. Often, criminals have different techniques when committing crimes.…… [Read More]
Surprisingly, many of the great discoveries in chemistry did not arise from a highly disciplined, approach -- Laidler describes Newton's early experiments as almost alchemical in nature, and highly influenced by his religious beliefs, and while some scientists like Linus Pauling were quite methodical, others such as Ronald Norrish were not (Laidler 7-9). The book is also a study of how chemistry and the sciences have been viewed over time. While science was greatly respected during the classical era, the early Church regarded it with great suspicion and for a long time classical learning and the humanities was held superior to the technical and scientific disciplines. Today, often the reverse is the case regarding the relationship between the sciences and liberal arts, but Laidler's book fuses the two -- it is a well-written account of the history of science that is accessible for the layperson as well as the expert…… [Read More]
His most well-known contribution to the field of chemistry was the statement titled; the Avogadro constant or Avogadro number. Avogadro stated that "a mole equals 6.022 x 1023." (American) It also states that equal volumes of gases, at the same temperature and pressure have the same amount of molecules.
Avogadro's number really means the number of molecules in a mole. His number is essential in chemistry because it calculates the amount of pure substances in stoichiometric relationships. It also determines how much heavier a simple molecule of one gas is than that of another. This number is also very large 6.0221367x10^23. However, Avogadro only hypothesized this and he was not responsible for calculating it, Loschmidt was. (Furtsch)
Even though, Avogadro was not fully responsible for the discovery of the mole, he did solve many controversies and gathered enough research for other scientists, like Loschmidt, to calculate. His curiosity…… [Read More]
Mixture a Compound
Mixture and a Compound
Three main terms are usually used in the field of chemistry. These are element, compound and a mixture. These three will be the element of key discussion in the paper.
There is a great difference between a mixture and a compound. A compound is formed from two elements that combine together chemically by sharing electrons. The physical and chemical properties of the constituent elements are different in the beginning in their individual states from the physical and chemical properties of the final compound. Thereby the final chemical as well as physical properties of the compound are determined by the elements. On the other hand, a mixture may have many constituent compounds, or elements that are mixed (Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell, and Farrell, 2008, p. 45). The constituent elements of the compound cannot be separated physically but in the case of mixture, the constituents can…… [Read More]
This information is utilized to create new products and substances that are used on a regular basis. For example, chemists could use the COSY process to understand how to create a new kind of raincoat that will be even more water resistant. To determine this, the protons inside the molecules of the raincoat would have to be examined through the COSY process. This will identify the peaks inside the protons and what specific attributes are similar to other compounds. Once this happens, is when scientists can use this as a way to create specific attributes that they are looking for (i.e. A raincoat that is more waterproof). This is significant, because it is showing how the contribution of the COSY methodology allows chemists to create new compounds with specific attributes. ("Thomaston," 2006)
HETCO is useful in understanding the genetic composition of a substance and the compounds that are used to…… [Read More]
Heat Capacity is defined by obinson and Haas (1983) as the quantity of heat that is required to raise the temperature of a unit quantity of a given substance by one degree Kelvin at a constant pressure.
A brief history of the concept
Prior to the development of the modern theories of thermodynamics, it was widely thought that heat was some form of a fluid called calorific (Cengel, 2007).Different bodies were capable of effectively holding a certain quantity of this fluid and their ability to hold such a fluid was referred to as heat capacity as was initially investigated by one Joseph Black in 1750s (Laider,1993).In this age and time, we discuss the concept of the internal energy system. This comprises of microscopic kinetic as well as potential energy. Heat too is never considered as a fluid but is regarded as a transfer of energy which is disordered at a…… [Read More]
Magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, is based on the fact that atoms contain both positive and negative charges. MRI's use magnetism to use the electrical charges of atoms to create images of materials. he most common use for MRI's is in medical diagnosis. MRI's were available for patients starting in 1984 (Nordenberg, 1999).
One of the MRI's greatest advantages is its relative safety compared to some other imaging techniques. he first method for imaging the body, x-rays, which use radiation to create its images. Another advantage is that MRI's can image less dense tissues than x-rays can (Nordenberg, 1999). But where the MRI has a tremendous advantage over x-rays is in its ability to create 3-dimensional images. It also does a better job of showing contrast between dense parts of the body, such as bones, and softer tissue, than other imaging techniques (Nordenberg, 1999).
How hey Work
In medical…… [Read More]
Indeed, entropy governs life. One can view entropy from two different perspectives. One, that it is essentially dispersive in nature. The second is that it is constructive in nature. Entropy is the measure of the spontaneous dispersal of energy within a system or between systems. Chemically, entropy is represented by the symbol, S.
The term entropy has often been misused. It has been misidentified solely as the measure of disorder or chaos. For example, a disorganized room or a pack of cards randomly arranged in a disordered manner is said to have higher entropy. ut since there is no change in energy in those systems (through dispersal) it cannot be considered as entropy. (Lambert, 2003)
Entropy can be more explained using the basic laws of thermodynamics from physical chemistry and physics. Indeed, it is these laws that govern nature. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that the energy of…… [Read More]
Protecting children from the effects of second-hand smoke and the extent by which the government can mandate repulsive images on the cigarette boxes are two cases which are causing controversy. The "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released data claiming that one in five middle and high school students are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke while in cars." (Yahanda, 2012, p. 1) Thus there are many proponents of banning smoking while in the car and children are present. This type of law is difficult because to many it impinges on individual freedom in a private location. Secondly, a U.S. District judge blocked the government mandate that required cigarette companies to place specific graphic images of the effects of cigarette smoking on cigarette boxes. This case also deals with the government authority to require corporations to compel private business to include images on their product.
1. Two pieces of…… [Read More]
The energy it stores (?180 Wh kg?1) at an average voltage of 3.8 V is only a factor of 5 higher than that stored by the much older lead -- acid batteries. This may seem poor in the light of Moore's law in electronics (according to which memory capacity doubles every 18 months), but it still took a revolution in materials science to achieve it. Billions of lithium-ion cells are produced for portable electronics, but this is not sustainable as cobalt must be obtained from natural resources (it makes up 20 parts per million of Earth's crust). (Armand & Tarascon, 2008, p. 653).
Fu investigated the lithium-ion conductivities of glasses and glass-ceramics in the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 system. Fu's samples revealed high conductivity, albeit when Abrahams and Hadzifejzovic similarly investigated the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 glass and glass-ceramic systems, their findings revealed "a maximum room temperature conductivity of 3.98 x 10-6 S/cm in their crystallized…… [Read More]
All of the chapters in the book relate to various events in Levi's life, as well as to his passion for chemistry. Surprisingly (when considering the suffering he went through in Auschwitz) Levi only associates a small chapter in the book with his experiences in the death camp. The story is nonetheless sad, and can be regarded as being the most impressive account in the book. All in all, "The Periodic Table" is more of an autobiography than a nonfiction account involving the Holocaust.
In "Vanadium," Levi shortly depicts a series of occurrences speaking about Auschwitz. The author apparently wants to go over the topic as fast as possible, only to return to the beautiful world of chemistry. He does not succeed in doing that however, since the subject slowly but surely grabs hold of him and forces him to go deeper and depict one of the most influential chapters…… [Read More]
Collision Model: Explanation and Application
The Collision Model is the theory that chemical reactions are the result of collisions between molecules. These molecular collisions must be strong enough to break bonds in the reacting substances. Breaking the bonds result in a rearrangement of the original configuration of atoms and a new product or products is formed ("Collision Model," Answer Corporation, 2006). Not every collision between molecules will create new products. In fact, the vast majority of collisions do not because they are not strong enough to break the existing bonds, which are often quite strong between molecules. For the collision to be successful, the molecules have to be oriented in such a way that the activation energy is sufficient to generate a reaction in the substance in question. Temperature, the presence of catalysts, the concentration of the substance, and other factors affect activation energy. Also, the molecules within molecular bonds…… [Read More]
due to his work on the scientific method, quantitative methodology and hypothesis clarification, obert Boyle of the 17th century has been more firmly recognized as the father of modern chemistry. This report provides an overview of Boyle's life and contributions to the scientific field.
A number of individuals in literature and sciences during the 17th century are being rediscovered. Present scholars are recognizing their worth and major contributions to the world of knowledge. One of these leading figures was obert Boyle whose expertise was in natural philosophy and is regarded as the father of modern chemistry. However, as noted by today's scientists such as Levere (75), Boyle "was not just a chemist, alchemist, or chemist. He published extensively on topics relating to religion and irreligion, and he was one of the most thoughtful commentators on and contributors to the emerging methods of experimental philosophy." His ideas set the course of…… [Read More]
In these two labs, I investigated table salt crystals and Epsom salt crystals and found that these two different types of salt produced two different types of crystals. These labs were conducted by following the procedures recommended by the About.com websites related to chemistry and ionic crystals. For table salt crystals, I used the website http://chemistry.about.com/od/growingcrystals/ht/saltcrystals.htm and for growing Epsom salt crystals http://chemistry.about.com/od/crystalrecipes/ht/cupofcrystals.htm.
Materials used in the two labs were similar. For the table salt lab, I used table salt (or sodium chloride), boiling water, a glass jar, and a seed crystal. For the Epsom salt lab, I used a small bowl, Epsom salt and hot water from the tap (not boiling).
Because different salts and different crystals were being formed, the procedures were, naturally, a bit different. For the table salt crystals, I first boiled a pot of water, and then I poured some of it into…… [Read More]
This means that their operation is totally opposite in direction, in fact a rechargeable battery can act as both a voltaic cell and an electrolytic cell depending on whether it is discharging or being charged. It is also practical to use the same type of metal as electrodes in an electrolytic cell while in voltaic cells the electrodes must be of different metals.
Since sodium is too reactive to freely occur naturally it exists in the earth's crust in a number of varied compounds such as halite. It can also be found in the form of sodium chloride and brine which are plentiful sea water. These compounds can be obtained by trapping the sea water or brine, or by mining rock salt. In order to obtain pure sodium metal, electrolysis of molten sodium chloride is done. This is achieved by using the molten sodium chloride as the electrolyte in an…… [Read More]
Mixture, Compounds, Covalent and Ionic Bonds
Describe difference a mixture a compound Suppose a pure substance. How a compound element? What difference ionic a covalent bond? Explain ionic compounds formed a metal left side periodic table reacts a nonmetal side.
Mixtures are composition of two or more substances which are not chemically combined and do not exist in fixed proportions to each other. For instance when you take two components, an iron and Sulphur powder, the two when mixed together can be separated by physical means since they are not chemically combined i.e. with the use, of a magnet. Mixtures have the following characteristics which differentiates it from compounds. They include; mixtures can be disintegrated by the use of a physical method, the substance which form the mixture normally retain their properties, mixtures do not have a sharp melting point, they also have no fixed composition, and lastly a mixture…… [Read More]
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NM) spectroscopy is one of the most powerful and versatile techniques available to determine the arrangement of atoms in the structure of a molecule. Organic molecules composed principally of hydrogen and carbon atoms can be analyzed using techniques of proton (1H) and carbon-13 (13C) NM spectroscopy. The basic interpretation of the NM spectra for a molecule observes several properties including the strength and intensity of the magnetic field used to produce a peak, the interaction of the atom with atoms around it and the effects of neighboring atoms on spectra themselves. Analysis of the relative location of a peak in an NM spectrum (called the chemical shift) and the splitting of that peak can provide significant information about the structure of a molecule. More detailed information about molecular structure can be determined through 2-dimensional techniques where the NM pulses producing a magnetic field are combined…… [Read More]
al., 1993; Forman & Dickinson, 2003). Though nitric oxide is not involved in as many individual processes as hydrogen peroxide, or at least a lower number of processes have been identified in current research, its presence in too great an abundance can disrupt proper signaling and trigger alternative signaling pathways other than those normally utilized in redox signaling (Forman & Dickinson, 2003). These redox signaling pathways have the potential to promote the continued production of reactive oxygen species rather than contributing to the continued progression of the optimal redox signaling cascade, in which the production of O, H2O2, and other reactive oxygen species would be signaled to cease and normal intercellular environments would resume (Forman & Dickinson, 2003).
Research into the complexities of redox signaling in wound response and its implications for the healing process remains ongoing, and many current findings are still the product of a great deal…… [Read More]
This discovery could lead to cleaner energy, including the technology that could be used by factories and cars to capture carbon dioxide before it reaches the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is polluting the Earth's atmosphere along with damaging coral reefs and marine life and has impacts that are irreversible. Scientists believe that this will be important for potentially getting to a viable carbon dioxide-capture material with ultra-high selectivity. They are optimistic that is within their reach. Potentially, they think that they could create a material that could convert carbon dioxide into a fuel, or a material that can separate carbon dioxide with greater efficiency (Chemists Create Synthetic 'Gene-Like' Crystals for Carbon Dioxide Capture, 2010).
Chemists Create Synthetic 'Gene-Like' Crystals for Carbon Dioxide Capture. (2010). etrieved
February 16, 2010, from Science Daily Web site:
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/02/100211141144.htm… [Read More]
A more controversial theory regarding the origins of life is that it began deep under the ocean near thermal vents. These vents, first discovered in 1979, release extremely hot gases from below the Earth's crust into water that is near freezing (Duke). The mixture of the gas and the temperatures creates a gradient around the vents that is ideal for the formation of organic molecules. There is a flourishing ecosystem around these vents, which is the evidence that first led scientists to postulate that these vents were the sites of the origin of life, but others contend that the extreme temperature of the gas released by the vents would destroy any organic molecules created long before they had time to organize into more complex, let alone living, compounds (Duke). There are many other theories in addition to these two, and though some might be disproved, it is unlikely that we…… [Read More]
One common example is a biosensor that measures glucose at the point of analysis. The science behind surface plasmon resonance advanced sharply in 1983 when physical methods for label-free real-time detection of biomolecules started to become possible .
Since then, more than two dozen countries have begun to use SP technology en masse but it is impossible to reliably and accurately track all of the developments realized by those companies. The technology initially was more of a novelty with little to no real-world application but that has changed greatly over the years. One major update to its applications was the Evanescent Wave, which has become an integral and essential concept when discussing SP sensing .
Two of the main types of SP in place nowadays, those being bulk SP and localized SP. Bulk SP is used to describe SP that is used with planar surfaces and localized SP…… [Read More]