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The Discovery of Titanium
Words: 940 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47470878
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What is Titanium?
The symbol for the metal titanium in the Periodic Table is Ti, which is a direct abbreviation of the metal’s name. The metal was discovered in Great Britain—Cornwall to be exact—by a clergyman and mineralogist named William Gregor in 1791. However, Gregor did not actually get to name the element—at least not as it is commonly recognized today: that honor was taken by Martin Klaproth, a German chemist who had discovered uranium and zirconium two years prior and who would later go on to discover cerium in 1803. Klaproth discovered titanium independently of Gregor in 1793 and, unaware that it was the same substance identified by Gregor, named it titanium after the Greek gods the Titans, because in his view it was “the incarnation of natural strength” (“History of Titanium”). Gregory had named it “gregorite” two years before and needless to say Klaproth’s appellate is what stuck.…

Works Cited
Emsley, John. \\\\"Titanium\\\\". Nature\\\\'s Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press, 2001.
“History of Titanium.” Super Alloys,
Krebs, Robert E. The History and Use of Our Earth\\\\'s Chemical Elements: A Reference Guide (2nd ed.). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2006.
USGS: Titanium Statistics and Information. National Minerals Information Center,

Unaware That Most of Them Deals With
Words: 871 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19021963
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unaware that most of them deals with chemistry. When we cook food or clean things, chemistry is usually involved. The mixing of various spices is a form of chemistry. The cleaning materials such as soap, detergent, and cleaning acids we used in cleaning are all mixtures of chemicals. Chemistry is an important part of our daily habits. Even in some of the professions, chemistry plays an important role. In my job of arson, fire, and explosives' investigation for instance, understanding of chemistry is essential to find evidences for the resolution of these cases.

This paper aims to discuss the importance of chemistry in arson, fire, and explosives' investigation. From time to time, examples of investigation steps will be mentioned to point the use of chemistry in the process.

Forensic Chemistry

Forensic Chemistry is an essential science in the investigation of criminal cases. Often, criminals have different techniques when committing crimes.…


Borer, Keith. Forensic Chemistry.

Keith Borer Consultants Limited. 22 March 2003.

The Role of Forensic Scientist in Detection of Crime. 

BSC Forensic Science.

Laidler Keith James The World
Words: 383 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 33670378
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Surprisingly, many of the great discoveries in chemistry did not arise from a highly disciplined, approach -- Laidler describes Newton's early experiments as almost alchemical in nature, and highly influenced by his religious beliefs, and while some scientists like Linus Pauling were quite methodical, others such as Ronald Norrish were not (Laidler 7-9). The book is also a study of how chemistry and the sciences have been viewed over time. While science was greatly respected during the classical era, the early Church regarded it with great suspicion and for a long time classical learning and the humanities was held superior to the technical and scientific disciplines. Today, often the reverse is the case regarding the relationship between the sciences and liberal arts, but Laidler's book fuses the two -- it is a well-written account of the history of science that is accessible for the layperson as well as the expert…

Avogadro Chemists Use Avogadro's Number
Words: 538 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 80041433
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" (Avogadro)

His most well-known contribution to the field of chemistry was the statement titled; the Avogadro constant or Avogadro number. Avogadro stated that "a mole equals 6.022 x 1023." (American) It also states that equal volumes of gases, at the same temperature and pressure have the same amount of molecules.

Avogadro's number really means the number of molecules in a mole. His number is essential in chemistry because it calculates the amount of pure substances in stoichiometric relationships. It also determines how much heavier a simple molecule of one gas is than that of another. This number is also very large 6.0221367x10^23. However, Avogadro only hypothesized this and he was not responsible for calculating it, Loschmidt was. (Furtsch)

Even though, Avogadro was not fully responsible for the discovery of the mole, he did solve many controversies and gathered enough research for other scientists, like Loschmidt, to calculate. His curiosity…

Works Cited

Determination of the Avogadro Constant. 1974. American Physical Society, Washington D.C. 17 June 1974 

Furtsch, T.A. "Some Notes on Avogadro's Number" Online posting. Tennessee Technological University. 12 January 2007.

The Avogadro Number. 1996. University of West Indies, Mona Campus, Jamaica, 1 April 2002.

Mixture a Compound Mixture and a Compound
Words: 1399 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7218076
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Mixture a Compound

Mixture and a Compound

Three main terms are usually used in the field of chemistry. These are element, compound and a mixture. These three will be the element of key discussion in the paper.

There is a great difference between a mixture and a compound. A compound is formed from two elements that combine together chemically by sharing electrons. The physical and chemical properties of the constituent elements are different in the beginning in their individual states from the physical and chemical properties of the final compound. Thereby the final chemical as well as physical properties of the compound are determined by the elements. On the other hand, a mixture may have many constituent compounds, or elements that are mixed (Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell, and Farrell, 2008, p. 45). The constituent elements of the compound cannot be separated physically but in the case of mixture, the constituents can…


Bettelheim, A.F., Brown, H.W., Campbell, M.K., Farrell, O.S., and Torres, O. (2012). Introduction to Organic and Biochemistry. Edition 8. Cengage Learning.

Bettelheim, F.A., Brown, W.H., Campbell, K.M., and Farrell, O.S. (2008). Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Available Titles OWL Series. Edition 9. Cengage Learning.

Joesten, M.D., Hogg, J.L., and Castellion, M.E. (2006). The World of Chemistry: Essentials: Available Titles OWL Series. Edition 4. Cengage Learning.

Kotz, J.C., Treichel, P., and Townsend, J.R. (2009). Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity, Volume 2. Edition 7. Cengage Learning.

Proton and Carbon NMR in
Words: 2198 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11539669
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This information is utilized to create new products and substances that are used on a regular basis. For example, chemists could use the COSY process to understand how to create a new kind of raincoat that will be even more water resistant. To determine this, the protons inside the molecules of the raincoat would have to be examined through the COSY process. This will identify the peaks inside the protons and what specific attributes are similar to other compounds. Once this happens, is when scientists can use this as a way to create specific attributes that they are looking for (i.e. A raincoat that is more waterproof). This is significant, because it is showing how the contribution of the COSY methodology allows chemists to create new compounds with specific attributes. ("Thomaston," 2006)

HETCO is useful in understanding the genetic composition of a substance and the compounds that are used to…


Introduction to NRM Spectroscopy. (2003). UWI. Retrieved from: 

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. (2010). MSU. Retrieved from: 

Two Dimensional NMR. (2005). BBK. Retrieved from: 

Bachovchin, W. (2001). Contributions of NRM Spectroscopy. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, 39, (1), 199 -- 213.

Heat Capacity
Words: 1119 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 30355508
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Heat Capacity is defined by obinson and Haas (1983) as the quantity of heat that is required to raise the temperature of a unit quantity of a given substance by one degree Kelvin at a constant pressure.

A brief history of the concept

Prior to the development of the modern theories of thermodynamics, it was widely thought that heat was some form of a fluid called calorific (Cengel, 2007).Different bodies were capable of effectively holding a certain quantity of this fluid and their ability to hold such a fluid was referred to as heat capacity as was initially investigated by one Joseph Black in 1750s (Laider,1993).In this age and time, we discuss the concept of the internal energy system. This comprises of microscopic kinetic as well as potential energy. Heat too is never considered as a fluid but is regarded as a transfer of energy which is disordered at a…


Cengel, Y.A (2007). Introduction To Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer.MacGraw Hill

Laider, K.J. (1993). The World of Physical Chemistry. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-855919-4.

Roninson, G, R and Hass, J.L (1983)Heat capacity, relative enthalpy, and calorimetric entropy of silicate minerals: an empirical method of prediction. American Mineralogist, Volume 68, pages 541-553, 1983

Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Words: 1259 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48760113
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Magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, is based on the fact that atoms contain both positive and negative charges. MRI's use magnetism to use the electrical charges of atoms to create images of materials. he most common use for MRI's is in medical diagnosis. MRI's were available for patients starting in 1984 (Nordenberg, 1999).

One of the MRI's greatest advantages is its relative safety compared to some other imaging techniques. he first method for imaging the body, x-rays, which use radiation to create its images. Another advantage is that MRI's can image less dense tissues than x-rays can (Nordenberg, 1999). But where the MRI has a tremendous advantage over x-rays is in its ability to create 3-dimensional images. It also does a better job of showing contrast between dense parts of the body, such as bones, and softer tissue, than other imaging techniques (Nordenberg, 1999).

How hey Work

In medical…

Tro, Nivaldo J. Introductory Chemistry Essentials, Sec. Ed. Upper Saddle Creek, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall: 2006.

Wendling, Patrice. 2005. "Stand-up MRI can make pathology stand out: applications range from the musculoskeletal to the cardiovascular, but interpreting images is tough." Internal Medicine News, February.

Wikipedia. 2005. "Magnetic resonance imaging." Wikipedia Online Encyclopedia. Accessed via the Internet 10/11/05.

Entropy in Our Lives
Words: 1123 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33185338
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Indeed, entropy governs life. One can view entropy from two different perspectives. One, that it is essentially dispersive in nature. The second is that it is constructive in nature. Entropy is the measure of the spontaneous dispersal of energy within a system or between systems. Chemically, entropy is represented by the symbol, S.

The term entropy has often been misused. It has been misidentified solely as the measure of disorder or chaos. For example, a disorganized room or a pack of cards randomly arranged in a disordered manner is said to have higher entropy. ut since there is no change in energy in those systems (through dispersal) it cannot be considered as entropy. (Lambert, 2003)

Entropy can be more explained using the basic laws of thermodynamics from physical chemistry and physics. Indeed, it is these laws that govern nature. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that the energy of…


Atkins, P.W., and Julio De Paula. Physical Chemistry. 7th ed. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2002.

Clymer, Jeffrey. Arrhenius Calculation. 2002. Available: July 1, 2004.

EntropyLaw. The Law of Maximum Entropy Production or Why the World Is in the Order Production Business. 2004. 2004. Available:

Measurement and Density Determination Measurement
Words: 1315 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Lab Report Paper #: 27019507
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Protecting children from the effects of second-hand smoke and the extent by which the government can mandate repulsive images on the cigarette boxes are two cases which are causing controversy. The "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released data claiming that one in five middle and high school students are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke while in cars." (Yahanda, 2012, p. 1) Thus there are many proponents of banning smoking while in the car and children are present. This type of law is difficult because to many it impinges on individual freedom in a private location. Secondly, a U.S. District judge blocked the government mandate that required cigarette companies to place specific graphic images of the effects of cigarette smoking on cigarette boxes. This case also deals with the government authority to require corporations to compel private business to include images on their product.


1. Two pieces of…

Lithium Transition Metal Oxides as
Words: 7179 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Article Review Paper #: 32701294
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The energy it stores (?180 Wh kg?1) at an average voltage of 3.8 V is only a factor of 5 higher than that stored by the much older lead -- acid batteries. This may seem poor in the light of Moore's law in electronics (according to which memory capacity doubles every 18 months), but it still took a revolution in materials science to achieve it. Billions of lithium-ion cells are produced for portable electronics, but this is not sustainable as cobalt must be obtained from natural resources (it makes up 20 parts per million of Earth's crust). (Armand & Tarascon, 2008, p. 653).

Fu investigated the lithium-ion conductivities of glasses and glass-ceramics in the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 system. Fu's samples revealed high conductivity, albeit when Abrahams and Hadzifejzovic similarly investigated the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 glass and glass-ceramic systems, their findings revealed "a maximum room temperature conductivity of 3.98 x 10-6 S/cm in their crystallized…


Armand, M & Tarascon, J.M. (2008). Building better batteries. Nature. Volume 451. Retrieved

April 17, 2010 from 


Battery power. (2010). Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC). Retrieved April 17. 2010 from

Underground Directed by Emir Kusturica
Words: 2241 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77356803
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All of the chapters in the book relate to various events in Levi's life, as well as to his passion for chemistry. Surprisingly (when considering the suffering he went through in Auschwitz) Levi only associates a small chapter in the book with his experiences in the death camp. The story is nonetheless sad, and can be regarded as being the most impressive account in the book. All in all, "The Periodic Table" is more of an autobiography than a nonfiction account involving the Holocaust.

In "Vanadium," Levi shortly depicts a series of occurrences speaking about Auschwitz. The author apparently wants to go over the topic as fast as possible, only to return to the beautiful world of chemistry. He does not succeed in doing that however, since the subject slowly but surely grabs hold of him and forces him to go deeper and depict one of the most influential chapters…

Works cited:

1. Levi, Primo. The Periodic Table. Michael Joseph Ltd., 1985.

Collision Model
Words: 1178 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 65327499
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Collision Model: Explanation and Application

The Collision Model is the theory that chemical reactions are the result of collisions between molecules. These molecular collisions must be strong enough to break bonds in the reacting substances. Breaking the bonds result in a rearrangement of the original configuration of atoms and a new product or products is formed ("Collision Model," Answer Corporation, 2006). Not every collision between molecules will create new products. In fact, the vast majority of collisions do not because they are not strong enough to break the existing bonds, which are often quite strong between molecules. For the collision to be successful, the molecules have to be oriented in such a way that the activation energy is sufficient to generate a reaction in the substance in question. Temperature, the presence of catalysts, the concentration of the substance, and other factors affect activation energy. Also, the molecules within molecular bonds…

Works Cited

Akeson, Wayne H. "Application of the Arrhenius Equation to rat tail tendon collagen."

Nature. 199, 185-186. 13 July 1963. 1 Oct 2008. 

The Arrhenius Equation." IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology. 2nd Edition. 1997.

Oct 2008.

Robert Boyle First Chemist to Perform Quantitative Experiments
Words: 1425 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 73045370
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due to his work on the scientific method, quantitative methodology and hypothesis clarification, obert Boyle of the 17th century has been more firmly recognized as the father of modern chemistry. This report provides an overview of Boyle's life and contributions to the scientific field.

A number of individuals in literature and sciences during the 17th century are being rediscovered. Present scholars are recognizing their worth and major contributions to the world of knowledge. One of these leading figures was obert Boyle whose expertise was in natural philosophy and is regarded as the father of modern chemistry. However, as noted by today's scientists such as Levere (75), Boyle "was not just a chemist, alchemist, or chemist. He published extensively on topics relating to religion and irreligion, and he was one of the most thoughtful commentators on and contributors to the emerging methods of experimental philosophy." His ideas set the course of…

References Cited

Boyle, Robert. "Some Specimens" in Certain Physiological Essays (cit. n. 33), Works 1:355-6. Quotation from "The Preface," 1661.

Boyle, Robert. Some Considerations touching the Usefulness of Experimental Natural Philosophy, bk. II, Pt. 2 Works 3:471. Quotation from the section entitled "Of Men's Great Ignorance in the Uses of Natural Things," (1671).

Boyle, Robert." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online

" 6 July 2005 .

Difference in Ionic Crystal Compounds
Words: 725 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 52628850
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Ionic Crystals

In these two labs, I investigated table salt crystals and Epsom salt crystals and found that these two different types of salt produced two different types of crystals. These labs were conducted by following the procedures recommended by the websites related to chemistry and ionic crystals. For table salt crystals, I used the website and for growing Epsom salt crystals

Materials used in the two labs were similar. For the table salt lab, I used table salt (or sodium chloride), boiling water, a glass jar, and a seed crystal. For the Epsom salt lab, I used a small bowl, Epsom salt and hot water from the tap (not boiling).

Because different salts and different crystals were being formed, the procedures were, naturally, a bit different. For the table salt crystals, I first boiled a pot of water, and then I poured some of it into…


Helmenstine, A.M. (n.d.). How to Grow a Cup of Quick Crystal Needles.

Retrieved from 

Helmenstine, A.M. (n.d.). How to Grow Table Salt or Sodium Chloride Crystals. Retrieved from

Electrolytic and Voltaic Cells an
Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 6711859
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This means that their operation is totally opposite in direction, in fact a rechargeable battery can act as both a voltaic cell and an electrolytic cell depending on whether it is discharging or being charged. It is also practical to use the same type of metal as electrodes in an electrolytic cell while in voltaic cells the electrodes must be of different metals.

Since sodium is too reactive to freely occur naturally it exists in the earth's crust in a number of varied compounds such as halite. It can also be found in the form of sodium chloride and brine which are plentiful sea water. These compounds can be obtained by trapping the sea water or brine, or by mining rock salt. In order to obtain pure sodium metal, electrolysis of molten sodium chloride is done. This is achieved by using the molten sodium chloride as the electrolyte in an…


Asato, Robert. (2009). "Internet Chemistry." Electrochemical cells. Kapiolani Community

College. Retrieved on March 4, 2010 from

Bodner Research Web (2009). Electrolytic cells. Retrieved on March 4, 2010 from 

Sodium. (2006). World of chemistry. Retrieved on March 4, 2010 from

Mixture Compounds Covalent and Ionic Bonds Describe
Words: 1112 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11353535
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Mixture, Compounds, Covalent and Ionic Bonds

Describe difference a mixture a compound Suppose a pure substance. How a compound element? What difference ionic a covalent bond? Explain ionic compounds formed a metal left side periodic table reacts a nonmetal side.

Mixtures are composition of two or more substances which are not chemically combined and do not exist in fixed proportions to each other. For instance when you take two components, an iron and Sulphur powder, the two when mixed together can be separated by physical means since they are not chemically combined i.e. with the use, of a magnet. Mixtures have the following characteristics which differentiates it from compounds. They include; mixtures can be disintegrated by the use of a physical method, the substance which form the mixture normally retain their properties, mixtures do not have a sharp melting point, they also have no fixed composition, and lastly a mixture…


Myers, R.L. (2007). The 100 Most Important Chemical Compounds: A Reference Guide: Greenwood Press.

Pauling, L. (1988). General Chemistry: Dover Publications.

Zumdahl, S.S. (2007). Introductory Chemistry: Houghton Mifflin.

Zumdahl, S.S., & DeCoste, D.J. (2010). Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation: Brooks/Cole, CENGAGE Learning.

NMR Spectra
Words: 2276 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 21263914
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NM Spectra

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NM) spectroscopy is one of the most powerful and versatile techniques available to determine the arrangement of atoms in the structure of a molecule. Organic molecules composed principally of hydrogen and carbon atoms can be analyzed using techniques of proton (1H) and carbon-13 (13C) NM spectroscopy. The basic interpretation of the NM spectra for a molecule observes several properties including the strength and intensity of the magnetic field used to produce a peak, the interaction of the atom with atoms around it and the effects of neighboring atoms on spectra themselves. Analysis of the relative location of a peak in an NM spectrum (called the chemical shift) and the splitting of that peak can provide significant information about the structure of a molecule. More detailed information about molecular structure can be determined through 2-dimensional techniques where the NM pulses producing a magnetic field are combined…


Carey, F.A., & Giuliano, R.M. (2008). Organic Chemistry. New York: McGraw Hill.

Pauli, W. (1940) . The connection between spin and statistics. Physical Review B. 15, 716-730.

Roberts, R.M.; Glibert, J.C.; Rodewald, L.B.; Wingrove, A.S.(1982) Modern Experimental Organic Chemistry (pp. 239). New York, NY: CBS College Publishing.

Silverstein, R.M.; Bassler, G.C.; Morrill, T.C. (1974) Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds, 3rd Ed. (p. 24). New York, NY: Wiley.

Redox Reduction-Oxidation Redox Reactions and
Words: 1511 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 81258286
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al., 1993; Forman & Dickinson, 2003). Though nitric oxide is not involved in as many individual processes as hydrogen peroxide, or at least a lower number of processes have been identified in current research, its presence in too great an abundance can disrupt proper signaling and trigger alternative signaling pathways other than those normally utilized in redox signaling (Forman & Dickinson, 2003). These redox signaling pathways have the potential to promote the continued production of reactive oxygen species rather than contributing to the continued progression of the optimal redox signaling cascade, in which the production of O, H2O2, and other reactive oxygen species would be signaled to cease and normal intercellular environments would resume (Forman & Dickinson, 2003).


Research into the complexities of redox signaling in wound response and its implications for the healing process remains ongoing, and many current findings are still the product of a great deal…

Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in redox signaling in ways somewhat similar to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); both are purposefully produced toxic elements used to cleanse wound areas of infectious agents and used to signal other healing processes to start, while at the same time becoming dangerous in and of themselves if not properly regulated (Nunoshiba et. al., 1993; Forman & Dickinson, 2003). Though nitric oxide is not involved in as many individual processes as hydrogen peroxide, or at least a lower number of processes have been identified in current research, its presence in too great an abundance can disrupt proper signaling and trigger alternative signaling pathways other than those normally utilized in redox signaling (Forman & Dickinson, 2003). These redox signaling pathways have the potential to promote the continued production of reactive oxygen species rather than contributing to the continued progression of the optimal redox signaling cascade, in which the production of NO, H2O2, and other reactive oxygen species would be signaled to cease and normal intercellular environments would resume (Forman & Dickinson, 2003).


Research into the complexities of redox signaling in wound response and its implications for the healing process remains ongoing, and many current findings are still the product of a great deal of conjecture. Still, enormous advancements have been made in this area of biochemical knowledge. As redox signaling and other aspects of wound healing are better understood, more effective methods for dealing with infections and slow healing times can be developed, and many in the world will truly experience better living through chemistry in a very direct way.

Biology Genetics and Evolution UCLA
Words: 338 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51575055
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This discovery could lead to cleaner energy, including the technology that could be used by factories and cars to capture carbon dioxide before it reaches the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is polluting the Earth's atmosphere along with damaging coral reefs and marine life and has impacts that are irreversible. Scientists believe that this will be important for potentially getting to a viable carbon dioxide-capture material with ultra-high selectivity. They are optimistic that is within their reach. Potentially, they think that they could create a material that could convert carbon dioxide into a fuel, or a material that can separate carbon dioxide with greater efficiency (Chemists Create Synthetic 'Gene-Like' Crystals for Carbon Dioxide Capture, 2010).


Chemists Create Synthetic 'Gene-Like' Crystals for Carbon Dioxide Capture. (2010). etrieved

February 16, 2010, from Science Daily Web site:


Chemists Create Synthetic 'Gene-Like' Crystals for Carbon Dioxide Capture. (2010). Retrieved

February 16, 2010, from Science Daily Web site:


Origin of Life There Are
Words: 383 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61358225
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A more controversial theory regarding the origins of life is that it began deep under the ocean near thermal vents. These vents, first discovered in 1979, release extremely hot gases from below the Earth's crust into water that is near freezing (Duke). The mixture of the gas and the temperatures creates a gradient around the vents that is ideal for the formation of organic molecules. There is a flourishing ecosystem around these vents, which is the evidence that first led scientists to postulate that these vents were the sites of the origin of life, but others contend that the extreme temperature of the gas released by the vents would destroy any organic molecules created long before they had time to organize into more complex, let alone living, compounds (Duke). There are many other theories in addition to these two, and though some might be disproved, it is unlikely that we…

Works Cited

Duke University Chemistry Website. "Possible Sites for the Origin of Life." Accessed 4 December 2008.