Chemistry Essays (Examples)

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Unaware That Most of Them Deals With

Words: 871 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19021963

unaware that most of them deals with chemistry. When we cook food or clean things, chemistry is usually involved. The mixing of various spices is a form of chemistry. The cleaning materials such as soap, detergent, and cleaning acids we used in cleaning are all mixtures of chemicals. Chemistry is an important part of our daily habits. Even in some of the professions, chemistry plays an important role. In my job of arson, fire, and explosives' investigation for instance, understanding of chemistry is essential to find evidences for the resolution of these cases.

This paper aims to discuss the importance of chemistry in arson, fire, and explosives' investigation. From time to time, examples of investigation steps will be mentioned to point the use of chemistry in the process.

Forensic Chemistry

Forensic Chemistry is an essential science in the investigation of criminal cases. Often, criminals have different techniques when committing crimes.…… [Read More]


Borer, Keith. Forensic Chemistry.

Keith Borer Consultants Limited. 22 March 2003.

The Role of Forensic Scientist in Detection of Crime.

BSC Forensic Science.
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Laidler Keith James The World

Words: 383 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33670378

Surprisingly, many of the great discoveries in chemistry did not arise from a highly disciplined, approach -- Laidler describes Newton's early experiments as almost alchemical in nature, and highly influenced by his religious beliefs, and while some scientists like Linus Pauling were quite methodical, others such as Ronald Norrish were not (Laidler 7-9). The book is also a study of how chemistry and the sciences have been viewed over time. While science was greatly respected during the classical era, the early Church regarded it with great suspicion and for a long time classical learning and the humanities was held superior to the technical and scientific disciplines. Today, often the reverse is the case regarding the relationship between the sciences and liberal arts, but Laidler's book fuses the two -- it is a well-written account of the history of science that is accessible for the layperson as well as the expert…… [Read More]

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Avogadro Chemists Use Avogadro's Number

Words: 538 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80041433

" (Avogadro)

His most well-known contribution to the field of chemistry was the statement titled; the Avogadro constant or Avogadro number. Avogadro stated that "a mole equals 6.022 x 1023." (American) It also states that equal volumes of gases, at the same temperature and pressure have the same amount of molecules.

Avogadro's number really means the number of molecules in a mole. His number is essential in chemistry because it calculates the amount of pure substances in stoichiometric relationships. It also determines how much heavier a simple molecule of one gas is than that of another. This number is also very large 6.0221367x10^23. However, Avogadro only hypothesized this and he was not responsible for calculating it, Loschmidt was. (Furtsch)

Even though, Avogadro was not fully responsible for the discovery of the mole, he did solve many controversies and gathered enough research for other scientists, like Loschmidt, to calculate. His curiosity…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Determination of the Avogadro Constant. 1974. American Physical Society, Washington D.C. 17 June 1974

Furtsch, T.A. "Some Notes on Avogadro's Number" Online posting. Tennessee Technological University. 12 January 2007.

The Avogadro Number. 1996. University of West Indies, Mona Campus, Jamaica, 1 April 2002.
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Mixture a Compound Mixture and a Compound

Words: 1399 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7218076

Mixture a Compound

Mixture and a Compound

Three main terms are usually used in the field of chemistry. These are element, compound and a mixture. These three will be the element of key discussion in the paper.

There is a great difference between a mixture and a compound. A compound is formed from two elements that combine together chemically by sharing electrons. The physical and chemical properties of the constituent elements are different in the beginning in their individual states from the physical and chemical properties of the final compound. Thereby the final chemical as well as physical properties of the compound are determined by the elements. On the other hand, a mixture may have many constituent compounds, or elements that are mixed (Bettelheim, Brown, Campbell, and Farrell, 2008, p. 45). The constituent elements of the compound cannot be separated physically but in the case of mixture, the constituents can…… [Read More]


Bettelheim, A.F., Brown, H.W., Campbell, M.K., Farrell, O.S., and Torres, O. (2012). Introduction to Organic and Biochemistry. Edition 8. Cengage Learning.

Bettelheim, F.A., Brown, W.H., Campbell, K.M., and Farrell, O.S. (2008). Introduction to General, Organic and Biochemistry, Available Titles OWL Series. Edition 9. Cengage Learning.

Joesten, M.D., Hogg, J.L., and Castellion, M.E. (2006). The World of Chemistry: Essentials: Available Titles OWL Series. Edition 4. Cengage Learning.

Kotz, J.C., Treichel, P., and Townsend, J.R. (2009). Chemistry and Chemical Reactivity, Volume 2. Edition 7. Cengage Learning.
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Proton and Carbon NMR in

Words: 2198 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11539669

This information is utilized to create new products and substances that are used on a regular basis. For example, chemists could use the COSY process to understand how to create a new kind of raincoat that will be even more water resistant. To determine this, the protons inside the molecules of the raincoat would have to be examined through the COSY process. This will identify the peaks inside the protons and what specific attributes are similar to other compounds. Once this happens, is when scientists can use this as a way to create specific attributes that they are looking for (i.e. A raincoat that is more waterproof). This is significant, because it is showing how the contribution of the COSY methodology allows chemists to create new compounds with specific attributes. ("Thomaston," 2006)

HETCO is useful in understanding the genetic composition of a substance and the compounds that are used to…… [Read More]


Introduction to NRM Spectroscopy. (2003). UWI. Retrieved from: 

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. (2010). MSU. Retrieved from: 

Two Dimensional NMR. (2005). BBK. Retrieved from: 

Bachovchin, W. (2001). Contributions of NRM Spectroscopy. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry, 39, (1), 199 -- 213.
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Heat Capacity

Words: 1119 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30355508

Heat Capacity is defined by obinson and Haas (1983) as the quantity of heat that is required to raise the temperature of a unit quantity of a given substance by one degree Kelvin at a constant pressure.

A brief history of the concept

Prior to the development of the modern theories of thermodynamics, it was widely thought that heat was some form of a fluid called calorific (Cengel, 2007).Different bodies were capable of effectively holding a certain quantity of this fluid and their ability to hold such a fluid was referred to as heat capacity as was initially investigated by one Joseph Black in 1750s (Laider,1993).In this age and time, we discuss the concept of the internal energy system. This comprises of microscopic kinetic as well as potential energy. Heat too is never considered as a fluid but is regarded as a transfer of energy which is disordered at a…… [Read More]


Cengel, Y.A (2007). Introduction To Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer.MacGraw Hill

Laider, K.J. (1993). The World of Physical Chemistry. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-855919-4.

Roninson, G, R and Hass, J.L (1983)Heat capacity, relative enthalpy, and calorimetric entropy of silicate minerals: an empirical method of prediction. American Mineralogist, Volume 68, pages 541-553, 1983
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Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Words: 1259 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48760113


Magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, is based on the fact that atoms contain both positive and negative charges. MRI's use magnetism to use the electrical charges of atoms to create images of materials. he most common use for MRI's is in medical diagnosis. MRI's were available for patients starting in 1984 (Nordenberg, 1999).

One of the MRI's greatest advantages is its relative safety compared to some other imaging techniques. he first method for imaging the body, x-rays, which use radiation to create its images. Another advantage is that MRI's can image less dense tissues than x-rays can (Nordenberg, 1999). But where the MRI has a tremendous advantage over x-rays is in its ability to create 3-dimensional images. It also does a better job of showing contrast between dense parts of the body, such as bones, and softer tissue, than other imaging techniques (Nordenberg, 1999).

How hey Work

In medical…… [Read More]

Tro, Nivaldo J. Introductory Chemistry Essentials, Sec. Ed. Upper Saddle Creek, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall: 2006.

Wendling, Patrice. 2005. "Stand-up MRI can make pathology stand out: applications range from the musculoskeletal to the cardiovascular, but interpreting images is tough." Internal Medicine News, February.

Wikipedia. 2005. "Magnetic resonance imaging." Wikipedia Online Encyclopedia. Accessed via the Internet 10/11/05.
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Entropy in Our Lives

Words: 1123 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33185338


Indeed, entropy governs life. One can view entropy from two different perspectives. One, that it is essentially dispersive in nature. The second is that it is constructive in nature. Entropy is the measure of the spontaneous dispersal of energy within a system or between systems. Chemically, entropy is represented by the symbol, S.

The term entropy has often been misused. It has been misidentified solely as the measure of disorder or chaos. For example, a disorganized room or a pack of cards randomly arranged in a disordered manner is said to have higher entropy. ut since there is no change in energy in those systems (through dispersal) it cannot be considered as entropy. (Lambert, 2003)

Entropy can be more explained using the basic laws of thermodynamics from physical chemistry and physics. Indeed, it is these laws that govern nature. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that the energy of…… [Read More]


Atkins, P.W., and Julio De Paula. Physical Chemistry. 7th ed. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2002.

Clymer, Jeffrey. Arrhenius Calculation. 2002. Available: July 1, 2004.

EntropyLaw. The Law of Maximum Entropy Production or Why the World Is in the Order Production Business. 2004. 2004. Available:
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Measurement and Density Determination Measurement

Words: 1315 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27019507

Protecting children from the effects of second-hand smoke and the extent by which the government can mandate repulsive images on the cigarette boxes are two cases which are causing controversy. The "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released data claiming that one in five middle and high school students are regularly exposed to secondhand smoke while in cars." (Yahanda, 2012, p. 1) Thus there are many proponents of banning smoking while in the car and children are present. This type of law is difficult because to many it impinges on individual freedom in a private location. Secondly, a U.S. District judge blocked the government mandate that required cigarette companies to place specific graphic images of the effects of cigarette smoking on cigarette boxes. This case also deals with the government authority to require corporations to compel private business to include images on their product.


1. Two pieces of…… [Read More]

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Lithium Transition Metal Oxides as

Words: 7179 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32701294

The energy it stores (?180 Wh kg?1) at an average voltage of 3.8 V is only a factor of 5 higher than that stored by the much older lead -- acid batteries. This may seem poor in the light of Moore's law in electronics (according to which memory capacity doubles every 18 months), but it still took a revolution in materials science to achieve it. Billions of lithium-ion cells are produced for portable electronics, but this is not sustainable as cobalt must be obtained from natural resources (it makes up 20 parts per million of Earth's crust). (Armand & Tarascon, 2008, p. 653).

Fu investigated the lithium-ion conductivities of glasses and glass-ceramics in the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 system. Fu's samples revealed high conductivity, albeit when Abrahams and Hadzifejzovic similarly investigated the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 glass and glass-ceramic systems, their findings revealed "a maximum room temperature conductivity of 3.98 x 10-6 S/cm in their crystallized…… [Read More]


Armand, M & Tarascon, J.M. (2008). Building better batteries. Nature. Volume 451. Retrieved

April 17, 2010 from


Battery power. (2010). Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC). Retrieved April 17. 2010 from
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Underground Directed by Emir Kusturica

Words: 2241 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77356803

All of the chapters in the book relate to various events in Levi's life, as well as to his passion for chemistry. Surprisingly (when considering the suffering he went through in Auschwitz) Levi only associates a small chapter in the book with his experiences in the death camp. The story is nonetheless sad, and can be regarded as being the most impressive account in the book. All in all, "The Periodic Table" is more of an autobiography than a nonfiction account involving the Holocaust.

In "Vanadium," Levi shortly depicts a series of occurrences speaking about Auschwitz. The author apparently wants to go over the topic as fast as possible, only to return to the beautiful world of chemistry. He does not succeed in doing that however, since the subject slowly but surely grabs hold of him and forces him to go deeper and depict one of the most influential chapters…… [Read More]

Works cited:

1. Levi, Primo. The Periodic Table. Michael Joseph Ltd., 1985.
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Collision Model

Words: 1178 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65327499

Collision Model: Explanation and Application

The Collision Model is the theory that chemical reactions are the result of collisions between molecules. These molecular collisions must be strong enough to break bonds in the reacting substances. Breaking the bonds result in a rearrangement of the original configuration of atoms and a new product or products is formed ("Collision Model," Answer Corporation, 2006). Not every collision between molecules will create new products. In fact, the vast majority of collisions do not because they are not strong enough to break the existing bonds, which are often quite strong between molecules. For the collision to be successful, the molecules have to be oriented in such a way that the activation energy is sufficient to generate a reaction in the substance in question. Temperature, the presence of catalysts, the concentration of the substance, and other factors affect activation energy. Also, the molecules within molecular bonds…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Akeson, Wayne H. "Application of the Arrhenius Equation to rat tail tendon collagen."

Nature. 199, 185-186. 13 July 1963. 1 Oct 2008. 

The Arrhenius Equation." IUPAC Compendium of Chemical Terminology. 2nd Edition. 1997.

Oct 2008.
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Robert Boyle First Chemist to Perform Quantitative Experiments

Words: 1425 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73045370

due to his work on the scientific method, quantitative methodology and hypothesis clarification, obert Boyle of the 17th century has been more firmly recognized as the father of modern chemistry. This report provides an overview of Boyle's life and contributions to the scientific field.

A number of individuals in literature and sciences during the 17th century are being rediscovered. Present scholars are recognizing their worth and major contributions to the world of knowledge. One of these leading figures was obert Boyle whose expertise was in natural philosophy and is regarded as the father of modern chemistry. However, as noted by today's scientists such as Levere (75), Boyle "was not just a chemist, alchemist, or chemist. He published extensively on topics relating to religion and irreligion, and he was one of the most thoughtful commentators on and contributors to the emerging methods of experimental philosophy." His ideas set the course of…… [Read More]

References Cited

Boyle, Robert. "Some Specimens" in Certain Physiological Essays (cit. n. 33), Works 1:355-6. Quotation from "The Preface," 1661.

Boyle, Robert. Some Considerations touching the Usefulness of Experimental Natural Philosophy, bk. II, Pt. 2 Works 3:471. Quotation from the section entitled "Of Men's Great Ignorance in the Uses of Natural Things," (1671).

Boyle, Robert." Encyclopaedia Britannica. 2005. Encyclopaedia Britannica Online

" 6 July 2005 .
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Difference in Ionic Crystal Compounds

Words: 725 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52628850

Ionic Crystals

In these two labs, I investigated table salt crystals and Epsom salt crystals and found that these two different types of salt produced two different types of crystals. These labs were conducted by following the procedures recommended by the websites related to chemistry and ionic crystals. For table salt crystals, I used the website and for growing Epsom salt crystals

Materials used in the two labs were similar. For the table salt lab, I used table salt (or sodium chloride), boiling water, a glass jar, and a seed crystal. For the Epsom salt lab, I used a small bowl, Epsom salt and hot water from the tap (not boiling).

Because different salts and different crystals were being formed, the procedures were, naturally, a bit different. For the table salt crystals, I first boiled a pot of water, and then I poured some of it into…… [Read More]


Helmenstine, A.M. (n.d.). How to Grow a Cup of Quick Crystal Needles.

Retrieved from

Helmenstine, A.M. (n.d.). How to Grow Table Salt or Sodium Chloride Crystals. Retrieved from
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Ionic and Covalent Bonds Chemical

Words: 819 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50991094

Crystalline solids with high melting points are formed through ionic bonding. These crystalline solids can be dissolved in water or other polar solvents. Ionic compounds are solid and good conductors of electricity (Ophardt, 2003).

Additionally, ionic bonds are formed when a metallic element gives up one or more electrons thus forming a positive ion. A positive ion is also known as a cation and has a stable electron configuration. Cations enter non-metallic elements and cause it to become a negative electron. These negative electrons are also known as anions and also have a stable electron configurations. Electrostatic forces attract cations and anions to each other. Examples of ionic compounds include calcium chloride, CaCl2, and potassium oxide, K2O (Clark, 2000).

Covalent bonds, on the other hand, do not give up, gain, or transfer electrons, but rather share electrons equally. Covalent bonds form between atoms in a compound when atoms have a…… [Read More]


Clark, J. (2000). "Ionic (Electrovalent) Bonding." Chemguide: Helping You Understand

Chemistry. Retrieved from

Decelles, P. (2001). "Chemical Bonds." The Entangled Bank, Dr. Paul's Virtually Biology

Show. Web. Retrieved from
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Electrolytic and Voltaic Cells an

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6711859

This means that their operation is totally opposite in direction, in fact a rechargeable battery can act as both a voltaic cell and an electrolytic cell depending on whether it is discharging or being charged. It is also practical to use the same type of metal as electrodes in an electrolytic cell while in voltaic cells the electrodes must be of different metals.

Since sodium is too reactive to freely occur naturally it exists in the earth's crust in a number of varied compounds such as halite. It can also be found in the form of sodium chloride and brine which are plentiful sea water. These compounds can be obtained by trapping the sea water or brine, or by mining rock salt. In order to obtain pure sodium metal, electrolysis of molten sodium chloride is done. This is achieved by using the molten sodium chloride as the electrolyte in an…… [Read More]


Asato, Robert. (2009). "Internet Chemistry." Electrochemical cells. Kapiolani Community

College. Retrieved on March 4, 2010 from

Bodner Research Web (2009). Electrolytic cells. Retrieved on March 4, 2010 from 

Sodium. (2006). World of chemistry. Retrieved on March 4, 2010 from
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Mixture Compounds Covalent and Ionic Bonds Describe

Words: 1112 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11353535

Mixture, Compounds, Covalent and Ionic Bonds

Describe difference a mixture a compound Suppose a pure substance. How a compound element? What difference ionic a covalent bond? Explain ionic compounds formed a metal left side periodic table reacts a nonmetal side.

Mixtures are composition of two or more substances which are not chemically combined and do not exist in fixed proportions to each other. For instance when you take two components, an iron and Sulphur powder, the two when mixed together can be separated by physical means since they are not chemically combined i.e. with the use, of a magnet. Mixtures have the following characteristics which differentiates it from compounds. They include; mixtures can be disintegrated by the use of a physical method, the substance which form the mixture normally retain their properties, mixtures do not have a sharp melting point, they also have no fixed composition, and lastly a mixture…… [Read More]


Myers, R.L. (2007). The 100 Most Important Chemical Compounds: A Reference Guide: Greenwood Press.

Pauling, L. (1988). General Chemistry: Dover Publications.

Zumdahl, S.S. (2007). Introductory Chemistry: Houghton Mifflin.

Zumdahl, S.S., & DeCoste, D.J. (2010). Introductory Chemistry: A Foundation: Brooks/Cole, CENGAGE Learning.
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NMR Spectra

Words: 2276 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21263914

NM Spectra

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NM) spectroscopy is one of the most powerful and versatile techniques available to determine the arrangement of atoms in the structure of a molecule. Organic molecules composed principally of hydrogen and carbon atoms can be analyzed using techniques of proton (1H) and carbon-13 (13C) NM spectroscopy. The basic interpretation of the NM spectra for a molecule observes several properties including the strength and intensity of the magnetic field used to produce a peak, the interaction of the atom with atoms around it and the effects of neighboring atoms on spectra themselves. Analysis of the relative location of a peak in an NM spectrum (called the chemical shift) and the splitting of that peak can provide significant information about the structure of a molecule. More detailed information about molecular structure can be determined through 2-dimensional techniques where the NM pulses producing a magnetic field are combined…… [Read More]


Carey, F.A., & Giuliano, R.M. (2008). Organic Chemistry. New York: McGraw Hill.

Pauli, W. (1940) . The connection between spin and statistics. Physical Review B. 15, 716-730.

Roberts, R.M.; Glibert, J.C.; Rodewald, L.B.; Wingrove, A.S.(1982) Modern Experimental Organic Chemistry (pp. 239). New York, NY: CBS College Publishing.

Silverstein, R.M.; Bassler, G.C.; Morrill, T.C. (1974) Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds, 3rd Ed. (p. 24). New York, NY: Wiley.
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Chemical Bonds Ionic and Covalent

Words: 776 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61215256

When one atom gives up or loses an electron, the atom will reduce in size. When an atom gains or receives an electron, the atom will grow in size. Ionic bonds lead to the formation of crystalline solids with high melting points and can be dissolved in water and other polar solvents. The ionic compounds formed through bonding are always solid and are good conductors of electricity.

Ionic bonds are formed when a metallic element on the Periodic Table donates one or more electrons and forms a positive ion, or cation, and has a stable electron configuration. These positive ions enter a non-metallic element causing it to form a negative electron, or anion that has a stable electron configuration. Electrostatic forces attract cations and anions to each other. Ionic compounds include NaCl, or sodium chloride commonly known as table salt, and MgO, also known as magnesium oxide.

Covalent bonds do…… [Read More]

Reference List:

Decelles, P. 2001. "Chemical Bonds." The Entangled Bank, Dr. Paul's Virtually Biology Show.

Web. Retrieved from
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Redox Reduction-Oxidation Redox Reactions and

Words: 1511 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81258286

al., 1993; Forman & Dickinson, 2003). Though nitric oxide is not involved in as many individual processes as hydrogen peroxide, or at least a lower number of processes have been identified in current research, its presence in too great an abundance can disrupt proper signaling and trigger alternative signaling pathways other than those normally utilized in redox signaling (Forman & Dickinson, 2003). These redox signaling pathways have the potential to promote the continued production of reactive oxygen species rather than contributing to the continued progression of the optimal redox signaling cascade, in which the production of O, H2O2, and other reactive oxygen species would be signaled to cease and normal intercellular environments would resume (Forman & Dickinson, 2003).


Research into the complexities of redox signaling in wound response and its implications for the healing process remains ongoing, and many current findings are still the product of a great deal…… [Read More]

Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in redox signaling in ways somewhat similar to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); both are purposefully produced toxic elements used to cleanse wound areas of infectious agents and used to signal other healing processes to start, while at the same time becoming dangerous in and of themselves if not properly regulated (Nunoshiba et. al., 1993; Forman & Dickinson, 2003). Though nitric oxide is not involved in as many individual processes as hydrogen peroxide, or at least a lower number of processes have been identified in current research, its presence in too great an abundance can disrupt proper signaling and trigger alternative signaling pathways other than those normally utilized in redox signaling (Forman & Dickinson, 2003). These redox signaling pathways have the potential to promote the continued production of reactive oxygen species rather than contributing to the continued progression of the optimal redox signaling cascade, in which the production of NO, H2O2, and other reactive oxygen species would be signaled to cease and normal intercellular environments would resume (Forman & Dickinson, 2003).


Research into the complexities of redox signaling in wound response and its implications for the healing process remains ongoing, and many current findings are still the product of a great deal of conjecture. Still, enormous advancements have been made in this area of biochemical knowledge. As redox signaling and other aspects of wound healing are better understood, more effective methods for dealing with infections and slow healing times can be developed, and many in the world will truly experience better living through chemistry in a very direct way.
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Biology Genetics and Evolution UCLA

Words: 338 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51575055

This discovery could lead to cleaner energy, including the technology that could be used by factories and cars to capture carbon dioxide before it reaches the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide is polluting the Earth's atmosphere along with damaging coral reefs and marine life and has impacts that are irreversible. Scientists believe that this will be important for potentially getting to a viable carbon dioxide-capture material with ultra-high selectivity. They are optimistic that is within their reach. Potentially, they think that they could create a material that could convert carbon dioxide into a fuel, or a material that can separate carbon dioxide with greater efficiency (Chemists Create Synthetic 'Gene-Like' Crystals for Carbon Dioxide Capture, 2010).


Chemists Create Synthetic 'Gene-Like' Crystals for Carbon Dioxide Capture. (2010). etrieved

February 16, 2010, from Science Daily Web site:… [Read More]


Chemists Create Synthetic 'Gene-Like' Crystals for Carbon Dioxide Capture. (2010). Retrieved

February 16, 2010, from Science Daily Web site:
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Origin of Life There Are

Words: 383 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61358225

A more controversial theory regarding the origins of life is that it began deep under the ocean near thermal vents. These vents, first discovered in 1979, release extremely hot gases from below the Earth's crust into water that is near freezing (Duke). The mixture of the gas and the temperatures creates a gradient around the vents that is ideal for the formation of organic molecules. There is a flourishing ecosystem around these vents, which is the evidence that first led scientists to postulate that these vents were the sites of the origin of life, but others contend that the extreme temperature of the gas released by the vents would destroy any organic molecules created long before they had time to organize into more complex, let alone living, compounds (Duke). There are many other theories in addition to these two, and though some might be disproved, it is unlikely that we…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Duke University Chemistry Website. "Possible Sites for the Origin of Life." Accessed 4 December 2008.
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Plasmon Resonance-Based Sensors Surface Plasmon

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99753812

One common example is a biosensor that measures glucose at the point of analysis. The science behind surface plasmon resonance advanced sharply in 1983 when physical methods for label-free real-time detection of biomolecules started to become possible [1].

Since then, more than two dozen countries have begun to use SP technology en masse but it is impossible to reliably and accurately track all of the developments realized by those companies. The technology initially was more of a novelty with little to no real-world application but that has changed greatly over the years. One major update to its applications was the Evanescent Wave, which has become an integral and essential concept when discussing SP sensing [1].

SP Types

Two of the main types of SP in place nowadays, those being bulk SP and localized SP. Bulk SP is used to describe SP that is used with planar surfaces and localized SP…… [Read More]


[2] Schasfoort, R.B., & Tudos, a.J. (2008). Handbook of surface plasmon resonance. [Book] Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.

[2] Guo, X. (2012). Surface Plasmon Resonance-Based Biosensor Technique: A

Review. Journal of Biophotonics, [Online Journal] 5(7), 483-501.
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Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete Structures

Words: 3216 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83828077

" (U.S. Department of Transportation, 2000 P. 3). In the United States, the average bridge deck in a snow-belt state generally shows the spalling shortly after 7 to 10 years of construction, and requires rehabilitation after 20 years of construction. Typically, the repair of the damaged caused by corrosion is invariably expensive. A crack is one of the major damage caused by corrosion. Although structural cracks could be attributed to pure tension, torsion, pure bending, bond failure, and concentrated load, however, non-structural crack is attributed to the chemical process that occurs within the concrete or steel structure, and the damage include shrinkage, expansion process, and thermal movement.

Mackechnie & Alexande, (2001) argue that corrosion could lead to a distress in a concrete capable of causing spanning and cracking to the surrounding concrete. The expansion associated to hydrated oxides is that the steel may swell ten times of its original position…… [Read More]


Arya, C. & Wood, L.A. (1997). Relevance of Cracking in Concrete to Corrosion of Reinforcement. The Concrete Society. Technical Report, No 44.

Atkins, C. Brueckner, R. & MacDonald, M. (2013).Corrosion Monitoring. Technical Note No: 14. Corrosion Prevention Association.

Koch, G. H, Brongers, M.P.H. Thompson, N.G. et al. (2001). Corrosion Costs and Preventive Strategies in the United States. FHWA-RD-01-156. 2001. Springfield, VA, National Technical Information Service.

Lambert, P. & MacDonald, M (2013). Reinforced Concrete-History, Properties, & Durability. Technical Notes No: 1. Corrosion Prevention Association.
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Disffusion and Osmosis

Words: 1375 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14174240

Size and Temperature on Diffusion

In this experiment is expected that after 30 minutes, the diameter of the diffused dye ring will increase in size when placed at 37°C.

Time (minutes)

Distance (cm)

Janus Green at room temperature

Janus Green at 37°C

Potassium Permanganate at room temperature

Potassium Permanganate at 37°C

Measurement of diffusion of Janus Green and Potassium Permanganate at different temperatures.

Consistent with the expectations, potassium permanganate molecules spread further, 1.0 cm at room temperature and 1.1 at 37°C. This was longer compared to those of Janus Green that spread 0.3 cm at room temperature and 0.5cm at 37°C. It is evident that both molecules spread further at 37°C than at room temperature.

Effect of solute concentration on osmosis

Bag Contents (10ml)

Beaker Contents (200ml)



Total Mass Change


10% sucrose dH2O



10% sucrose



10% sucrose

10% sucrose




Figure…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Stoker, Stephen. General, Organic, And Biological Chemistry. Belmont: Cengage Learning, 2010.
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Polymers Kevlar

Words: 3282 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48994649

Polymer Analysis (Kevlar)

Brief History of Kevlar Development

In response to innovations in military armaments, the search for improved body armor for military and law enforcement personnel has been the focus of intense research for several decades. One of the resulting products of this research, Kevlar, is the closest humans have come to matching the tensile strength of spider silk is five times stronger per weight than steel and is best known for its use in bulletproof vests (Ehrenfeld, 2000). Kevlar shares something in common with matches, COBOL, antifungal antibiotics, pulsars, vitamin A, Cepheid variable stars, radium, and mobile genes, in that all of these were discovered or invented by women (Brownlow, Jacobi & ogers, 2000). Kevlar was developed at DuPont by a team comprised of Stephanie Kwolek, Herbert Blades, and Paul W. Morgan. In 1978, Kwolek also produced from aramids the first polymeric liquid crystals (Stevens & Kauffman, 2004).…… [Read More]


Aftalion, F. (1991). A history of the international chemical industry. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Brandenburg, D.L., Merlo, J.L., Wickens, C.D. & Yeh, M. (2003). Head up vs. head down: The costs of imprecision, unreliability, and visual clutter on cue effectiveness for display signaling. Human Factors, 45(3), 390.

Brownlow, S., Jacobi, T. & Rogers, M. (2000). Science anxiety as a function of gender and experience. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 119.

Challenges and Emerging Issues. (2001, October). Occupational Hazards, 63(10), 27.
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Using Observations to Explain Common Phenomena

Words: 462 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26348415

Lab #1 What Difference Does Milk Fat Make?


aluminum pie pan wooden splint toothpick liquid dish detergent whole milk food coloring (4 different colors)

I gathered the materials and then poured whole milk into a shallow aluminum pan. The milk came to a depth of about 1 cm. I then added a few drops of water-soluble food colorings in the outer edge of the pan. The drops of different colors were placed at these hour positions on a clock: 3, 6, 9. And 12 (Bodine, 2014).

Next, I dipped a toothpick into detergent and just touched the surface of the milk right in the center of the container, but I held the toothpick still in that place for a while. Soon, the food coloring on the surface of whole milk seemed to sort of dance and move around (Bodine, 2014)..

The fat globules in the whole milk holds tight…… [Read More]


Bodine, A. (2104, May 23). Color Changing Milk Experiment. Retrieved from

Helmenstine, A.M. (2015). How do detergents clean? Retreived from

Convert inches to sentimeter. Retrieved from
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Home Interiors to Driving to

Words: 1274 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19208510

But licorice is not just something sweet. Instead, it has long been praised for its healing properties, being used to help snackers with a variety of ills feel better. hile this has been the case with a variety of common household foods turned home remedies, such as baking soda and 7-Up, the consequences of licorice's healing properties might be more serious -- interfering with certain medications.

On March 24, 2009, the American Chemical Society heard evidence that the active ingredient in licorice, the same ingredient that has allowed it to be "used as a good treatment for plenty of ills" (Ehrenberg), can interfere with other medications. That ingredient is called Glycyrrhxin, and it is a natural compound found in plants that are related to the pea. For quite some time, this compound has been used to treat ailments in Europe and Asia, although its history as an ingredient for flavoring…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ehrenberg, Rachel. "Licorice May Interfere With Certain Drugs." Science News. 25

March 2009. 3 May 2009.
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Drugs in the Context of Brain Chemicals

Words: 789 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97348426

Dugs Affect the Brain Chemistry

Antipsychotic medication plays an important role in controlling the way mood disorders and schizophrenia affect individuals. These drugs are generally believed to be effective because of the way they manipulate the way that certain chemicals in the brain affect the person. Antipsychotics are typically used with the purpose of either treating mental disorders or removing their symptoms altogether. A specialist psychiatrist is normally in charge of prescribing such medication, as the fact that it can alter chemicals in the brain makes it particularly dangerous if used incorrectly.

Chemicals in the brain have the power to change the way a person feels and behaves. Controlling the way that chemicals affect an individual can make it possible for the respective person to experience little to no episodes involving things like hallucinations, delusions, or mood swings. It is important for chemicals in the brain to be balanced, as…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Nairne, J.S. Psychology. Cengage Learning.

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2012). What is Psychology? Essentials. Cengage Learning.
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Rennet on Cheese Production and Ripening Rennet

Words: 840 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58052889

Rennet on Cheese Production and Ripening

Rennet was supposedly accidentally discovered centuries ago. Since that time, humans have used rennet to create a "version" of milk that is more easily preserved in many varieties, flavors and textures. Though natural rennet was chiefly used throughout History, vegetable rennet was also prepared and used for centuries. More recently, due to the steadily increasing popularity of cheese and the inability of natural rennet production to meet that popularity, science has also created microbial rennet and genetically engineered rennet. Through refinement of genetically engineered rennet, in particular, the modern cheese industry is able to produce cheese that works like natural rennet and produces a natural flavor and texture.

Types of Commonly Used Rennet Preparations

The type of rennet concentration, along with pH, temperature, cutting time and curd washing, are all factors affecting curd formation (Janhoj & Qvist, n.d., pp. 20-22). The effects of different…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Agboola, S., Chen, S., & Zhao, J. (2004). Formation of bitter peptides during ripening of ovine milk cheese made with different coagulants. EDP Sciences, 84(6), 567-578.

Ardo, Y., & Waagner, E. (2011). Processes in Cheese. Frederiksberg, Denmark: University of Copenhagen.

Bowen, R. (1996, April 10). Chymosin (Rennin) and the Coagulation of Milk. Retrieved January 23, 2012 from Web site: 

Fankhauser, D.B. (2002, March 12). Rennet for making cheese. Retrieved January 23, 2012 from
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Sugar Sucrose C12H22O11

Words: 1977 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22464744

Chemical Compound: Sucrose

Sugar (Sucrose) -- C12H22O11

The compound chosen for discussion in the paper is- sucrose. The reason behind choosing this compound is that it is a substance of everyday use, consumed worldwide. Its commonness has led people to consider sucrose as an ingredient whose solitary purpose is what it is commonly used for- as sugar- and not in the form of a chemical compound. Therefore, sucrose is chosen for study out of curiosity regarding it.

This paper will look into a chemical and physical description of sucrose, its economic significance, its relation to prior class studies, as well as its change of state. Employing various concepts like 'international system of measurements (SI)' units, the properties of the compound will be elucidated.

Compound Description

Physical description

Pure sucrose, often, takes the form of an odorless, colorless, fine crystalline powder having a sweet, pleasant taste. It can be prepared in…… [Read More]


Blauch, D.N. (2001). Le Chatelier's Principle: Effect of a Change in Temperature. Retrieved july 22, 2015, from

Cameo Chemicals. (n.d.). Sucrose. Retrieved July 22, 2015, from

edinformatics. (n.d.). Sucrose. Retrieved July 22, 2015, from

Fairtrade Foundation. (2013). Fairtrade and Sugar. Fairtrade Foundation.
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Creating Layers in Multiple Density Solutions for Demonstration Purposes

Words: 569 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87312250

Density in Solutions


ainbow in a Glass


Assemble the following materials:

Tablespoon for measuring

Measuring cup (1/4 or 1 full cup with 1/4 markings)

different colors of food coloring (4 colors)

tall clear glasses, clear glass jars, or clear plastic cups ae cup (180 g) of granulated sugar

cup (240 ml) water

I lined up all the clear glass jars, and placed one tablespoon of sugar in the first glass, two tablespoons of sugar in the second glass, three tablespoons of sugar in the third glass, and four tablespoons of sugar in the fourth glass. I then added three tablespoons of water to each glass jar and stirred until I could see that the sugar had dissolved. I had to add more water (one additional tablespoon) to the third and fourth glass jars in order to get the sugar to completely dissolve, so I also added the same…… [Read More]


Home Experiments. Layered liquids. Retrieved from (do the layered liquids part or the rainbow in a glass part)

Helmenstine, A.M. (2015). Mass of liquids from density. Retrieved from

Density of Solutions. Retrieved from
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Milk by Products and There Effects on Growth in Poultry

Words: 3810 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60683277


Milk from the cow is one of the most versatile and important substances in the human diet as well as in the diets of many animals and in particular in the diet of poultry that are being raised as layers, broilers or for other purposes. The fact that this milk can be processed into many different forms adds to its versatility and provides a wide array of by-products from which specialized uses can be determined. Understanding the basic array of materials that can be obtained from processing milk is the first step in understanding how those products can be used in the diets of poultry. The next step of understanding the relationship between dairy by-products and the benefits they can provide to poultry comes through examining the nutritional content of those by-products for the feeding and development of poultry. As these two explanations are provided it becomes evident in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Attfield, Harlan H.D. Raising Chickens and Ducks. Arlington, Virginia: Volunteers in Technical

Assistance, 1990.

Bailey, JS, Roberts, T, Harvey, RB, Anderson, RC, et al. "Food Safety: Alternatives to Antibiotic Use." Poultry Science (2004).

Burrington, David. "Can-do' proteins - enzymes - Ingredient Technology." Dairy Foods, April,
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Child Obesity and Its Affects on Their Self-Esteem Learning and Development

Words: 7029 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71624181

Childhood Obesity and Its Affects on Self-Esteem, Learning and Development

Childhood obesity has reached alarming proportions in developed nations of the world and its prevalence is continuously rising from 1971. In the Scandinavian countries, childhood obesity is less than compared to the Mediterranean countries; yet, the amount of obese children is increasing in both cases. Even though the highest rates of childhood obesity have been seen in developed countries, and at the same time, obesity is increasing in developing countries as well. Childhood obesity is at increased levels in the Middle East and Central and Eastern Europe as well. As an example, in 1998, The World Health Organization project assessing of cardiovascular diseases had showed that Iran was one among the seven countries, which had the highest rates of childhood obesity. (Dehghan; Akhtar-Danesh; Merchant, 2005, p. 1485)

In UK, observations state that there has been a noticeable enhancement in obesity…… [Read More]


Abell, Steven C; Richards, Maryse H. 1996. The relationship between body shape satisfaction and self-esteem: an investigation of gender and class differences. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Vol: 25; No: 1; pp: 61-64

Boyles, Salynn; Smith, Michael. 2003. Mental Illness Common in Childhood Obesity; Defiance, Depression Cited in Study. April, 7. WebMD Medical News. Retrieved October 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web:

Bullying and Overweight and Obese Children. Retrieved October 18, 2005, from the World Wide Web:
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Low Carb Food Craze &

Words: 1468 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98294966

In fact, Dr. Atkins himself died suddenly some years ago, and while his public relations machine attributed his death to brain damage from a fall, the rumor has it that he had a massive heart attack, likely brought on by his own diet program (Miller, et al., 2000).

Scientific Understanding elevant to the Issue

Approaching an exploration of the scientific knowledge that could be relevant to the low carb issue immediately opens up a heated debate, with low carb advocates pitted against those who feel that the alternative to low carb is more harmful than an few extra pounds from eating carbohydrates themselves. This being said, there are some areas of scientific knowledge which could help in the issue.

Admittedly easier said than done, the ability to understand once and for all if high protein diets, beyond the weight loss, are in fact safe would be very useful in enabling…… [Read More]


Cetron, M.J., & Davies, O. (2005, March/April). Trends Now Shaping the Future: Economic, Societal, and Environmental Trends. The Futurist, 39, 27

Gabel, K.A., & Lund, R.J. (2002). Weight Loss at a Cost: Implications of High-Protein, Low-Carbohydrate Diets. JOPERD -- the Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 73(2), 18+.

The Low-Carb Craze. (2004, October). Ebony, 59, 74+.

Miller, H.I., & Longtin, D. (2000). Death by Dietary Supplement. 15.
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Tea as an Antioxidant

Words: 1465 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3658590

Tea as an Antioxidant

Tea is an aromatic drink that is usually prepared by soaking or pouring water over plant products, typically the tea plant, but also may be infused with other dried herbs, roots, or extracts. After plain water, tea is consumed more than any other drink globally, including soft drinks. It has a slightly bitter, astringent flavor, sometimes floral, sometimes metallic, that people find enjoyable and often relaxing or, in some cases, medicinal (Martin, 2007). The consumption of tea is said to have a number of beneficial health effects based on the properties it has including antioxidants, flavinols, flavonoids, polyphenols, and catechins. The catechins, particularly, are known for anti-inflammatory and cellular detoxicity. In addition, these catechins have proven neuroprotective activities that can bond with cannabinoid receptors and suppress pain and nausea and provide a relaxing effect (Korte, G.,, 2010). Medical studies have also shown that green tea…… [Read More]


AAICAD. (2010, July 12). Large-Scale, Long-Term Studies Support Roles of Physical Activity and Diet in Dementia and Cognitive Decline. Retrieved from Medical News Today: 

Biotech Week. (2011, January 19). Protective Properties of Green Tea Uncovered. Retrieved from High Beam Research:

Feruzzi, M. (2010). The influence of beverage composition on delivery of phenolic compounds from coffee and tea. Physiological Behavior, 100(1), 33-41.

Fontaine, K. (2010). Complementary & Alternative Therapies for Nursing Practice. New York: Prentice Hall.
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Cocoa the Cacao Tree Theobroma Cacao What

Words: 10319 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61772106





State of the At of Cocoa

Is Cocoa good fo you?

Buden of Poof





Chocolate Caving

F. Migaine

G. Toxicity

H. Immune Function


J. Othe Disodes

K. Behavio

L. Antioxidants

M. Caffeine

N. Dental Caies

O. Migaines

P. Obesity

Seum Cholesteol

K. Heat Health

Pacemakes and vitamin pills ae just among a few of millions of health poducts that ae sold daily aound the wold. But one of the most easily accessible of all is ight beneath ou noses: chocolate. Cocoa, the plant fom which chocolate is deived, has had a positive effect on today's society because of its active ole in daily health. The development and distibution of cocoa has had a positive effect on today's…… [Read More]

references for fats in foods: relationships to diet and body composition. Am J. Clin Nutr. 1991; 53:908-915.

Green SM, Delargy HJ, Joanes D. And Blundell JE A satiety quotient: a formulation to assess the satiating effect of food. Appetite. 1997; 29:291-304.

Seligson FH, Krummel DA and Apgar JR. Patterns of chocolate consumption. Am J. Clin Nutr. 1994;60:S1060-S1067.

Report of the Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. National Institutes of Health; 1989. NIH Publication No. 89-2925.

Kritchevsky D. Effects of Triglyceride Structure on Lipid Metabolism. Nutrition Reviews. 1988;46:177-181.