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Decision Support System (DSS)
Assuring a safe and secure it (IT) atmosphere for that exchange of business has been a significant problem. The degree related to the task has been increasing annually, as assailants become a little more well-informed, more driven, and more vivid within their endeavours. Based on a lead security professional at International Data Corporation, a worldwide supplier of marketplace data and advisory services to the IT network, "ising brand new assault vectors, more specific activities, conformity, and also the adding of recent technologies around the corporate facilities have been all elements creating a huge effect on the general risk for an organization" (IDC, 2006). Considering that corporate costs have been often a good sign related to the degree of worry about a problem, security has been clearly on top of numerous IT executives' listings. Based on IDC, the worldwide marketplace for companies of information security solutions has…
Alberts, C.J. And Dorofee, A.J. (2002). Managing Information Security Risks: The OCTAVE Approach, Addison Wesley Professional.
Appelbaum, S., Berke, J., Taylor, J., Vazquez, J.A., 2008. The role of leadership during large scale organizational transitions: lessons from six empirical studies. The Journal of American Academy of Business 13 (1), 16 -- 24.
Baker, W.H., Rees, L.P. And Tippett, P.S. (2007). Necessary measures: metric-driven information security risk assessment and decision making, Communications of the ACM 50 (10): 101 -- 106.
Bartels, J and Reinders, M.J. (2010). Consumer innovativeness and its correlates: A propositional inventory for future research. Journal of Business Research.
Decision Support System
Executive Presentation Paper for Decision Support System (DSS)
Communication remains a crucial element for the success of any organization, relationship or industry. The factor that makes it so crucial is the aspect of decision making in the practice. Communication and decision-making are simply inseparable. It is impossible to make a conclusive and quality design that concerns and affects more than one person. This is especially so for the business and corporate organizations in the world those operate in the lines of consultations and collective decision-making. A conclusive and active model and methodology of making a decision in such organization is the use of effective decision-making system. A decision-making system should facilitate proper and intensive analysis of the information available to make a decision for the future.
The decision support systems are a class of the computerized systems of information that support the business and organizational…
Burstein, F., & Holsapple, C.W. (2008). Handbook on decision support systems. Berlin:
Berner, E.S. (2007). Clinical decision support systems: Theory and practice. New York:
Useful DSS will challenge and eventually change decision makers. By contrast, management information systems (MIS) provide output but no real impetus for change in the person receiving it. Interacting with DSS will provide to be new and challenging for most decision makers and will provide new perspective on the decision making process that are attractive and understandable yet innovative. By furnishing a new way to see problems and opportunities DSS eventually change the users decision-making process and, along with it, the user.
Decision Support systems are designed to help support decisions involving complex problems that are formulated as semi-structured. Because such problems remain resistant to complete computerization, a solution per se is not the goal of DSS; instead they support the decision process that leads to a solution.
Decision support systems may be constructed to support one time decisions, those that are frequent or those that occur routinely. The type…
In summary, the decision support system must provide insights into order rates by CD by month, factoring in the relative popularity of artists and its effect on pricing strategies over time. Factoring in seasonality and the specific times of the year where new albums are introduced will further assist in the forecasting process. What the decision support system must also do is provide an upper and lower level forecast by CD to ensure profits are made or at least the store breaks even on each CD. After taking all of these factors into account, the decision support system can be used to create a model that will predict, within a range of values, what the specific inventory carrying positions should be by artist, by actual CD, and also by month given the genre and pricing of the music as well.
Crnkovic, J., Tayi, G., & Ballou, D.. (2008). A…
Crnkovic, J., Tayi, G., & Ballou, D.. (2008). A decision-support framework for exploring supply chain tradeoffs. International Journal of Production Economics, 115(1), 28.
Daniel A Kiely. (1999). Synchronizing supply chain operations with consumer demand using customer data. The Journal of Business Forecasting Methods & Systems, 17(4), 3-9.
ONCOCIN has been used successfully in some contexts, but mainly as a support system and as a source of additional data. No system, especially if analyzed by someone who is less-than-expert (as were the usual users of the first incarnation of the system) can replace human intelligence. Today, clinicians are increasingly are using computerized structured data entry systems to reduce errors in the process of clinical documentation. Guided systems such as ONCOCIN can reduce errors and oversights through a template-guided formula (Fielstein 2006, p.249). But this, once again, is no substitute for professional intelligence reviewing the process and making informed and individualized assessments. ONCOCIN is an aide, not a replacement for trained expertise.
Campbell K.E., D.E. Oliver, & E.H. Shortliffe. (1998, January-February). The Unified Medical
Language System: toward a collaborative approach for solving terminologic problems.
J Am Med Inform Assoc, 5(1):12-6. etrieved June 25, 2010 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9452982
Campbell K.E., D.E. Oliver, & E.H. Shortliffe. (1998, January-February). The Unified Medical
Language System: toward a collaborative approach for solving terminologic problems.
J Am Med Inform Assoc, 5(1):12-6. Retrieved June 25, 2010 at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9452982
CDSS. (2010). Glossary of EMR/EHR technology. Retrieved June 25, 2010 at http://www.emrconsultant.com/glossary
sketch out a threefold process that includes work performed by the stakeholders involved in DSS. I make the case that each stage is crucial and for one stage to succeed it must be preceded and succeeded by the competent completion of the other two stages. In short, the end user must be presented with a list of options that are complete, adequately capturing the essence of the technological construct that the end user wishes to procure. The second stage, which involves the sales agent who interfaces with the customer, does not always involve personal with an expertise allowing him or her to fully anticipate the needs of the end user. Therefore, it is crucial that the third stage -- involving the Excel programmer -- includes as much specificity as possible in the template that the programmer constructs in order to assist the sales agent in the process of obtaining the…
Clinical Decision Support Systems:
Decision support systems were first developed and implemented in the corporate world in order to support business management. In the past few years, these support systems have been integrated into health care organizations to provide a sharpened evaluation capacity to data warehousing and data mining. The refined data analysis ability can result in enhanced patient care and diagnoses through assessment of several symptoms, forecasting of some drug interaction results, and other factors. As decision support systems are increasingly integrated into health care organizations and facilities, they have become important elements of health care systems. Actually, clinical decision support systems have been crucial in helping advanced practice nurses to make informed decisions and provide quality health care.
Definition of these Systems:
Clinical decision support systems can be described as interactive decision support systems computer software that are designed to help physicians and other practitioners in the health…
"Clinical Decision Support System." (n.d.). Search HealthIT. Retrieved January 30, 2014, from http://searchhealthit.techtarget.com/definition/clinical-decision-support-system-CDSS
"Clinical Decision Support." (n.d.). Policymaking, Regulation, & Strategy. Retrieved from Health IT - U.S. Government website: http://www.healthit.gov/policy-researchers-implementers/clinical-decision-support-cds
DeNisco, S.M. & Barker, A.M. (2012). Advanced practice nursing: evolving roles for the transformation of the profession. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Weber, S. (2007). A Qualitative Analysis of How Advanced Practice Nurses Use Clinical
Yet only 5 to 10% of these documents are readily available to managers for them to use in decision making. There is also the problem of documents not being standardized in a uniform pattern or structure. Managers and IT staff need a way to transform these documents into formats that can be compared and processed in order to support decision making. Document-driven DSS is making this concept a real possibility (Document -- Driven DSS Resources, 2009).
Document-driven DSS are support systems designed to convert documents into valuable business data that can be used to make decisions. "hile data-driven DSS rely on data that is already in a standardized format that lends it to database storage and analysis, document-driven DSS makes use of data that cannot easily be standardized and stored" (Decision Support Systems, 2009). There are three primary forms in which data can be used in document driven DSS. These…
What is a Decision Support System? (2009). Retrieved May 3, 2009, from Techfaq Web site:
Decision Support Systems. (n.d.). Retrieved May 3, 2009, from BPC Web site:
Decision Analysis System Modeling
"DATA DECISION ANALYSIS SYSTEM MODELING USING SPEADSHEETS"
"Data Decision Analysis System Modeling Using Spreadsheets."
Spreadsheet is one of the most popular software packages on the planet. Daily, million of business people, students and individuals use spreadsheet program to build models to assist in solving decision problems they face on their work activities. Thus, employers generally look for individuals having experience and skills with spreadsheets. Typically, spreadsheets assist in developing varieties of management techniques in modeling environment. More importantly, spreadsheets assist in developing models and make decision within a business environment.
Within the present contemporary business environment, many business managers face daunting tasks to make effective decisions. With the fast-paced and dynamic changes within a competitive business environment, business people are often faced with extremely complex business alternatives. Evaluation of the alternatives and choosing the best option from these alternatives has become a daunting task…
Evans, M.H. (2010). Course 3: Capital Budgeting Analysis. Continuing Professional Education
Lin, G.C.I. & Nagalingam, S.V. (2000). CIM justification and optimization. London: Taylor & Francis.
Ragsdale, C.T.(2010). Decision Analysis and Spreadsheet Modeling. A Practical Introduction to Management Science (4th edition). Cengage Learning.
Decision Analysis System
Computers have brought a great change in our lives. A software program called spreadsheet turns the computer screen into a paper sheet one is working on. This program saves time by reducing the errors and repetitions of calculations. It is commonly used in physics labs in order to save time by getting accurate results and accumulating proper data in labs. Spreadsheets have traditionally been used by accountants for the purpose of bookkeeping and budgeting, when actually they can prove to be amazing tools for engineers and scientists as well. Using a spreadsheet, entered raw data could be manipulated and plotted through few easy commands. Furthermore, due to their built-in capability to easily plot data, spreadsheets prove to be especially useful (Karmakar et al., 2007).
Initially introduced in the corporate world in late 1970s and the early 1980s, it proved to be an immediate success. The usefulness, power…
Karmakar, S., C. Lagu, J. Agnew and H. Landry (2007) Integrated decision support system (DSS) for manure management: a review and perspective. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 57, 190 -- 201.
Kong, G., D.L. Xu, X. Liu and J.B. Yang. (2009) Applying a belief rule-base inference methodology to a guideline-based clinical decision support system. Expert Systems, 26, 391 -- 408.
Ragsdale, C.T., K.P. Scheibe and M.A. Trick (2008) Fashioning fair foursomes for the fairway (using a spreadsheet-based DSS as the driver). Decision Support Systems, 45, 997 -- 1006.
eref, Michelle M.H.; Ahuja, Ravindra K.; and Winston, Wayne L. (2007). Developing spreadsheet-based decision support systems: using Excel and VBA. Dynamic Ideas.
Semi-structured decision-making processes involving IT systems allow the decision maker to exercise substantial autonomy but constrain that autonomy within the boundaries of specified outcomes of automatic information and situational synthesis. In principle, semi-structured decision making involving IT systems may simply limit the available choices of the decision maker based on objective data or other situation-dependent information that must be incorporated into the decision in a manner determined by IT processes outside of the ability of the decision maker to control.
The Role of Technology Systems in Structured Decision Making
In structured decision making, the decision maker cannot exercise independent decision-making but must rely exclusively on outcomes determined by IT systems based on the data inputs into the system. Within that process, the human decision maker is merely one component within an automated process that provides no autonomy over decisions or any opportunity to make independent decisions. Typically, the worker simply…
Systems Media Table: Comparison
The main purpose of this program is to construct sentences of the perceived information and manipulate paragraphs to form a word document. The program uses a display format 'what-you-see-is-what-you-get' to enhance the quality of the expected hardcopy.
WordPerfect and Microsoft Word are mostly superseded by both organization and personal computers to perform functions such as word formatting, letter processing and some simple designing. Accordingly, it is the most frequently used program in day-to-day operation.
It is used to type the text, save, and format and print the text.
It is used to insert pictures into the text page.
It is used to spell check the text document.
It is used to prepare letters and other word documents.
This kind of database system is to display a structure that would relieve the presentation of information using parent to child relationship. The…
AJ, W., & al, e. (2007). The role of decision aids in promoting evidence-based patient choice in Edwards A and Elwyn E (eds) Evidence-based patient choice:. O'Connor A and Edwards A.
European Commission DG Health and Consumer. (2012). Guidlines on the Qualification and Classification of Stand-alone Software used in Healthcare withing the Regulatory Framework of Medical Devices. Articles of Directive 93/42/EEC .
Eysenbach, G., Powell, J., Gunter, T.D., & Terry, N.P. (2005). The Emergence of National Electronic Health Record Architectures in the United States and Australia: Models, Costs, and Questions. Journal of Medical Internet Research: The Leading Peer-reviewed Internet Journal.
Fesenko, N. (2007). Compression Technologyes of Graphic Information. International Journal "Information Theories & Applications."
Best of all, any initiative in these areas, priced fairly for the island natives, delivers significant social value, or economic good for the nation and abodes by Mr. Morale's belief that in the long run, economics drives everything needs to be added to that by doing these core processes well, his company is doing good. The social conscience of Mr. Morales is also clear, and the ability to take the company's respected process-centric approach to problem-solving and apply it to the needs of Kava while at the same time earning a profit is a win/win for both the company and the nation. The concentration on healthcare especially and the development of a pediatrics clinic, potentially even underwritten by the local government for the citizens would also be significant in its contribution and revenue potential.
What Alex and Nik need to do is find broken processes in key areas and set…
Alstyne, Marshall van, Erik Brynjolfsson, and Stuart Madnick (1997). "The Matrix of Change: A Tool for Business Process Reengineering." MIT Sloan School Working Papers available on the Internet, accessed on February 5, 2007:
Alstyne, Marshall van, Erik Brynjolfsson, and Stuart Madnick (1995). "Why Not One Big Database? Principles for Data Ownership." Decision Support Systems 15.4 (1995): 267-284.
The Agenda (2003) - Chapter 4: Put Processes First. The Agenda: What Every Business Must Do to Dominate the Decade. Accessed from Michael Hammer and Company website on February 5, 2007:
However, in the most recent theory of evolution which discusses the living world appears as the result of chance and an output of different randomly selected natural mills. This kind of development came to present as a result of the need of more subjects or topics in areas such as cybernetic, general system theory, information theory, theories of games which is needed in most decision making process in line with real applications. In mathematics techniques however, there are a number of general assumption which are insufficient and most of the time very contradict themselves (Laszlo & Krippner, 1982).
Again, Laszlo (1982) outlined that von Bertalanffy considered the idea of organization to be involved at various stages in the expression of natural system. This could be highlighted from his first statement on the system which he made between the years 1925-1926, during the time when similar thinking of organism was being…
Bailey, K.D. (2004). Beyond System Internals: Expanding the Scope of Living Systems Theory. Los Angeles: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bailey, K.D. (2006). Living systems theory and social entropy theory. Systems Research and Behavioral Science, 23, 291-300.
Bertalanffy, L. (1951). General system theory - a new approach to unity of science. (Symposium), Human Biology, 23, 303-361. Dec 1951.
Bertalanffy, L. (1972). General system theory: Foundations, development, applications. London: Allen Lane.
Decision Making Model
Decision making is defined as the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives (Wikipedia, 2004). Effective decision making, however, is contingent on an individual or group's ability to select the course of action, which is most likely to result in goal or task accomplishment. In the business world, this is easier said than done since most decisions involve taking into consideration a myriad number of variables such as environmental factors, competitive activities, customer needs, internal goals and organizational constraints. Therefore, most organizations deem it advisable to use decision making support systems or models, which have been developed specifically to assist in the through analysis and evaluation of various alternative courses of action.
One such model is the Force Field Analysis. It is the objective of this paper to describe how the Force Field Analysis model helps weigh the pros and cons of…
Ashley, W.C., & Morrison, J.L. (1997, September -- October). Anticipatory Management:
Tools for Better Decision Making. The Futurist. Vol. 31:5, p. 47+ Retrieved Nov. 24, 2004: www.questia.com
Bauer, G.J., Baunchalk, M.S., Ingram, T.N., & Laforge, R.W. (1998). Emerging Trends in Sales Thought and Practice. Westport, CT: Quorum Books.
Bounds, G.M., & Stahl, M.J. (1991). Competing Globally through Customer Value: The
Decision-making is an important activity for top management in any enterprise. Strategic thinking is required for making useful decisions. For example, business executives plan strategies to access market share, to deal with employees, to react to competition and to decide on career growth. Decision Sciences is a discipline on its own that provides techniques and methods to take decisions in any practical situations. In this paper, a list of journals and websites that provides information on Decision Sciences is provided. This list is expected to be useful to top management. (America's Investment in the Future: Decision Sciences-How the Game Is being played)
Decision Sciences" is a quarterly, professional journal published by Decision Sciences Institute. This journal utilizes the current methods of mathematics and statistics along with computer technology and behavior science. This journal is read by business professionals and teaching professionals. From 2003, Blackwell Publishing is publishing this…
America's Investment in the Future: Decision Sciences-How the Game Is being played" Retrieved at http://www.nsf.gov/about/history/nsf0050/decision/decisionsx2.htm . Accessed on 21 February 2005
Asia Pacific Decision Sciences Institute: Theme - Collaborative Decision Making in the Internet Era" retrieved at http://www.calpoly.edu/~eli/apdsi/apdsi2005/ . Accessed on 22 February 2005
Decision Analysis Society" Retrieved at http://faculty.fuqua.duke.edu/daweb/ . Accessed on 22 February 2005
Decision Line" (October 2004) Volume 35(5) retrieved at http://www.decisionsciences.org/DecisionLine/Vol35/35_5/index.htm . Accessed on 21 February 2005
Trust Between Management and Physicians in Hospitals
Trust: 1 a: assured reliance on the character, ability, strength, or truth of someone or something; b: one in which confidence is placed; 2 a: dependence on something future or contingent - Merriam-Webster Online.
Do families of patients who are hospitalized for injuries or illness "trust" that their loved ones are getting the best possible care? Of course families do, in all cases, have an "assured reliance" (Merriam-Webster) on a doctor's "character, ability, strength [and] truth," when it comes to care-giving of family members. So, there can be no doubt: the element of trust has always been part of the medical community's pivotal responsibilities when it comes to care-giving to injured or ill citizens.
And meantime, if trust is indeed a "key element" in forging strong work relationships between doctors and administrators - with the good health and well-being of patients at risk,…
Jones, Bradley E. Trust, Physicians, and a CEO's Skills. Healthcare Executive, 18, 54.
Succi, Melissa J.; Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; & Alexander, Jeffrey A. Trust Between Managers
And Physicians in Community Hospitals: The Effects of Power Over Hospital
Decisions. Journal of Healthcare Management, 43, 397.
Technology Decision Making
Effect of technology decision making
Technology has been growing over a period of years due to globalization. All individuals, organizations, and even the society as a whole have been affected by the information and communication uprising. This has even changed their lifestyles. The Information is readily available in the computers mostly through internet technology and telecommunications. The Organizations are able to build their information systems in a variety of formats. A System may be defined as a sequence of functional components which are connected by communication links showing or demonstrating purpose and objective directed performance (Kampov 2010). However, it is important to analyze and discuss systems, informatics theories and DIK model. The paper will also discuss the role of expert system in nursing care, use of decision aids and also the decision support systems. There will be discussion on how the effect of technology on decision making…
Bahamonde L., DuMouchel W, Shea S . (2003). A meta-analysis in16 randomized controlled trials for evaluating computer-based clinical reminder systems in preventive care for ambulatory setting. J Am Med Inform Asso. c;3:399-409
Greenes R.A. (2009). Informatics and a health care strategy for the future -- general directions. Studies In Health Technology AndInformatics [Stud Health Technol Inform], Vol. 149, pp. 21-8; PMID: 19745469
Hart J. K, Newton B. W, Boone S.E. (2010).University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences electronic healthrecord and medical informatics training for undergraduatehealth professionals. Journal Of The Medical Library Association: JMLA [J Med Libr AssocVol. 98 (3), pp. 212-6.
Kampov J. (2010). Survey of biomedical and health care informatics programs in the United States. Journal of Medical Library Association.
Marketing Information System
This is a type of management information system that is designed for supporting the process of marketing decision making. This is a system which is planed and entails the collection, processing, storage and dissemination of data in information form required in carrying out management functions.it is also termed as a system made up of people, equipment and procedure which are used in gathering, sorting, analyzing, evaluating and distribution of data to managers according to the required informational needs regularly. There are four main components of marketing information system these are internal records which gives reliable inside information of an organization; marketing intelligence that gives information collected from external sources; marketing research for solving marketing problems in an organization and marketing decision support system comprise of tools that assist managers in data analysis hence better decision making. The marketing decision support system enables marketers to get the information…
Johnson, R. (2011).The 8 different pricing objectives. Retrieved June 26, 2013 from http://vwmarketingsolutions.ca/2012/07/the-8-different-pricing-objectives/
Opdenakker, R. (2006). Forum; Qualitative social research. Advantages and Disadvantages of Four Interview Techniques in Qualitative Research. Volume 7, No. 4, Art. 11. Retrieved June 26, 2013 from http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/article/view/175/391
Price, R. (2010). The Basic Steps of the Marketing Research Process. Retrieved June 26, 2013 from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/basic-steps-marketing-research-process-30942.html
Strategic Information Systems'?
A strategic information system is a system that enables an organisation to alter the structure of its business strategy so that it can achieve a competitive advantage over others. This system also helps organisations in fastening the time it takes to react and adapt to several environmental changes that take place and makes the overall business structure more efficient. Within a strategic information system there exists a decision support system that helps align business goals and strategies with information systems and technologies.
Write down the various business models of internet.
The various business models of the internet include:
Advertising, Blogging, Affiliate, Community, Utility, Subscription, Brokerage, Merchant, Manufacturer.
Question 3: What is 'Network Bandwidth'?
The amount or volume of data which is being transmitted through a particular network at a given point in time is referred to as a network bandwidth. Network bandwidth's can be affected by software…
Role of Information Systems in Marketing
The objective of this study is to examine the role of information systems in marketing in terms of the information that is necessary for decision making. Additionally this work will examine the role of IS for this function within the organization and the benefits of IS for the functional users at the operational level, the use of data at all levels of the organization and how IS has affected processes for this functional perspective.
Decision Making and the Marketing Information System
The work of Ismail (2011) entitled "The Role of Marketing Information System on Decision Making: An Applied Study on Royal Jordanian Air Lines (RJA)" reports a study that has the objective of emphasizing the importance of the utilization of the marketing information system (MKIS) on decision-making through making clear the requirement for decision-making that is both "quick and effective…due to time saving and…
Bahloul, MY (nd) The Role of Marketing Information System Technology in the Decision Making Process Case Study: The Banking Sector in Gaza Strip. Islamic University of Gaza. Retrieved from: http://library.iugaza.edu.ps/thesis/98936.pdf
Chapter 9: Marketing Information Systems (nd) FAO Corporate Document Repository. Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/docrep/w3241e/w3241e0a.htm
Hansen, W, (2000). Internet Marketing, Cincinnati, Ohio: South-Western Publishing.
Harmon, RB (2003) Marketing Information Systems. Retrieved from: http://www.iped-uk.com/marketing_information_system.pdf
Nursing Perspectives on Computerized Management Systems
For a community hospital with one hundred beds spread out over the usual number of departments and staffed by large numbers of individuals working in a variety of disciplines and teams, few things are more important than efficiency. Efficiency does not only mean moving fast, however, or accomplishing tasks in the shortest amount of time and with the fewest resources possible; it also means achieving high levels of accuracy and solid quality performance in all tasks and operations. There are a variety of tools that can help boost overall quality and efficiency in healthcare organizations and medical facilities, and developing technologies continue to provide more and more methods for achieving efficiency. This paper will examine computerized management systems generally and compare two specific alternatives for such systems, concluding with recommendations for adoption.
Potential Increase in Quality of Care
Electronic and computerized healthcare…
Blackwell, G. & Blackwell, G. (2008). The future of IT in healthcare. Informatics for Health and Social Care 33(4): 211-326.
Edsall, R. & Adler, K. (2009). The 2009 EHR User Satisfaction Survey: Responses From 2,012 Family Physicians. Family Practice Management 16(6): 10-16.
O'Malley, A., Grossman, J., Cohen, G., Kemper, N. & Pham, H. (2009). Are Electronic Medical Records Helpful for Care Coordination? Experiences of Physician Practices. Journal of General Internal Medicine 25(3): 177-85.
Sahota, N., Lloyd, R., Ramakrishna, A., Mackay, J…. & Haynes, R. (2011). Computerized clinical decision support systems for acute care management: A decision-maker-researcher partnership systematic review of effects on process of care and patient outcomes. Implementation Science 6:91.
After the completion of the design and development of satellites, the systems are normally subjected to waiting periods that span for several years before the identification of an appropriate launch opportunity.
Design and Implementation Cost:
The third major problem in the development and implementation of satellite communication is the software development costs. This includes money spent on all bus systems, ground support equipment, systems engineering, communication payloads, program management, and integration and test. In most cases, the development and implementation costs are difficult to estimate since there are recurring and non-recurring cost drivers in the process. The non-recurring cost drivers include heritage, number of prototypes and engineering models, and technology readiness while the recurring cost-drivers are complexity, project scope, and quantity of production.
The production quantity refers to the number of flight units developed, combined, and tested on similar contract to the development initiatives. hile the development and production initiatives…
Burgess, Erik, and Nathan Menton. "Satellite-Subsystem Development Costs." The Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Cost Analysis Improvement Group, Feb. 2008. Web. 29 Apr. 2012. .
Dawoud, M.M. "Communications Satellite Sub-systems." KFUPM Open Courseware. KFUPM. Web. 29 Apr. 2012. .
Lappas, V., G. Prassinos, a. Baker, and R. Magnuss. "Wireless Sensor Motes for Small Satellite Applications." IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 48.5 (2006): 175-79. Web. 29 Apr. 2012. .
Marz, Justin D. "The Design and Implementation of Various Subsystems for Pico-Satellites." University of Kansas. University of Kansas, 12 Dec. 2004. Web. 29 Apr. 2012. .
Knowing in advance the terrain, the vegetation, and the water sources prepares the mission teams with the knowledge to confront the elements associated with the geographical conditions of the site. Analysis provides information for determining in advance the best sites to set up base camps, where the terrain is less vulnerable to hostile advances. t demonstrates in advance how supplies will most efficiently and expeditiously be delivered to the site. The GS can indicate to military coordinators how many helicopters, ground armored vehicles, and other military transport vehicles the use of which is dependent upon conditions of terrain. Whether or not supplies can be delivered via ground or air is an important consideration in planning and supplying a military exercise or event. GS is a valuable tool for military logistical purposes.
f we look at the layered data GS is capable of delivering, we find that the information is essential…
Intoccia, Greogry F., and Moore, Joe Wesey, Communications, Technology, Warfare, and the Law: Is the Network a Weapon System?, Houston Journal of International Law, vol 28, 2006, p. 467.
GAO, 2003, op cit.
Sznaider, 2005, p. 5.
MIS stands for "Management Information System." It is one of the computer-based tools to manage organizational operations efficiently. It consists of software that managers' use in making decision, for data storage, in project management applications, for records and procedures for making customers relations etc. Nowadays most of the organizations have separate MIS department which is basically responsible for computer systems. MIS is also called "Information System" or "Information Technology." The combination of people, software, hardware, communications network and data resource that collect, transform and distribute information in an organization is called an information system (O'Brien, 1999).
Working of the information system depends on the different activists. The first activity is input of data resources. It involves the data entry. Data can be of any time like transactions data etc. Then information system analyzes and processes that data to form information. Now this information is transferred to end users…
O'Brien, J (1999). Management Information Systems -- Managing Information Technology in the Internetworked Enterprise. Boston: Irwin McGraw-Hill.
ISACA (2006). CISA Review Manual 2006. Information Systems Audit and Control Association.
ISACA. 2008. "Segregation of Duties Control matrix." Retrieved May 25, 2011, from
Kiountouzis, E.A. And Kokolakis, S.A. (1996). Information systems security: facing the information society of the 21st century London: Chapman & Hall
These dealers have high levels of credibility with their customers due to their backgrounds, yet do not have the experience or interest in learning the depths of a quoting system. Cincom has created an quoting, pricing and product configuration system that allows for uploading of images directly from smartphones as a result.
Another factor is the optimization of pricing (Bilek, 2010) and the use of the Cincom Acquire suite of applications for creating more effective customer loyalty programs within dealer channels. There are several manufacturers now using the Acquire platform to complete pricing loyalty programs as well. In conjunction with all of these factors is the streamlining of the product configuration system within Acquire, to allow for constraint-based optimization of product models, a dominant factor in the growth of lean manufacturing today (Banaszak, Zaremba, & Muszy-ski, 2009). The pricing optimization, product configuration and constraint-based modeling aspects of Cincom Acquire have…
Ahmed, D., Sundaram, D., & Piramuthu, S. (2010). Knowledge-based scenario management - Process and support. Decision Support Systems, 49(4), 507.
Banaszak, Z., Zaremba, M., & Muszy-ski, W.. (2009). Constraint programming for project-driven manufacturing. International Journal of Production Economics, 120(2), 463.
Bilek, G.. (2010). The Value of Information Sharing in a Build-to-Order Supply Chain. The Business Review, Cambridge, 15(1), 131-136.
EP systems are designed to provide this level of integration to enable process-centric workflows throughout companies (Kamhawi, 2008). In terms of data, EP systems deal with a multitude of different types, from supplier- and product-specific data to pricing and customer-based data in terms of orders and the status of shipments to customers. The most fundamental aspect of an EP system is its contribution in streamlining the distributed order management process (Walker, 2008). In terms of the network, EP systems often sit in the middle of company-wide internal networks that seek to integrate all legacy and 3rd party systems together and create a single system of record (Walker, 2008) for the company. The network topology is often in the form of a series of smaller clusters or "islands" of data and systems that the EP system is meant to integrate to and unify.
Section 3 - Write a summary to show…
Shih-Wei Chou, Yu-Chieh Chang. (2008). The implementation factors that influence the ERP (enterprise resource planning) benefits. Decision Support Systems, 46(1), 149. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1603626971).
Emad M. Kamhawi. (2008). System Characteristics, Perceived Benefits, Individual Differences and Use Intentions: a Survey of Decision Support Tools of ERP Systems. Information Resources Management Journal, 21(4), 66-83. Retrieved February 27, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1570039261).
Kenton B. Walker. (2008). SOX, ERP, and BPM: A Trifecta That Can Make Your Business Run Better. Strategic Finance, 90(6), 47-53. Retrieved March 1, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1607404201).
Future Development Trends
The pervasiveness of the Internet and the increasing availability of development tools for creating analytics applications are together serving as the catalyst for the development of an entirely new set of predictive analytic and modeling applications where the performance of specific strategies can be simulated and planned for (Gounaris, Panigyrakis, Chatzipanagiotou, pp. 615, 616). Second, the development of collaborative platforms based on the Internet is also making the data collection function of Marketing Information Systems much more streamlined that has been the case in the past.
Marketing Information Systems are transforming the accuracy and speed that companies' marketing, sales and senior management can react to market conditions effectively. The growth of these systems is in direct proportion to the increasing speed and uncertainty new markets and market conditions influence company's plans and results.
Kristof Coussement, Dirk Van den Poel. "Integrating the voice of customers through…
Kristof Coussement, Dirk Van den Poel. "Integrating the voice of customers through call center emails into a decision support system for churn prediction. " Information & Management 45.3 (2008) 164. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 29 Apr. 2008. www.proquest.com
Elizabeth Daniel, Hugh Wilson, Malcolm McDonald. "Towards a map of marketing information systems: An inductive study. " European Journal of Marketing 37.5/6 (2003): 821-847. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 29 Apr. 2008 www.proquest.com.
Spiros P. Gounaris, George G. Panigyrakis, Kalliopi C. Chatzipanagiotou. "Measuring the effectiveness of marketing information systems:an empirically validated instrument. " Marketing Intelligence & Planning 25.6 (2007): 612-631. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 29 Apr. 2008. www.proquest.com
Ronald L. Hess, Ronald S. Rubin, Lawrence a West Jr. "Geographic information systems as a marketing information system technology. " Decision Support Systems 38.2 (2004): 197-212. ABI/INFORM Global. ProQuest. 27 Apr. 2008. www.proquest.com
It was then important to see the degree at which technology and training played a role in combating each fire.
1.2.4.ationale of the Study
What is that can be gained from this study? The reasoning behind such a study is born out of a need to provide better training for fire fighters so that fire management systems will improve and reduce the amount of loss due to the fire. By studying such a topic, one can gain the knowledge of how to better train fire fighters and how to make his or her job safer in the process. This in turn, results in reduced losses due to the fire. This also results in higher service ratings for the fire department and an increase in morale for the community.
1.3.Definition of Terms
The Underlying Causes of Fire.
It has already become a general knowledge that the majority of forest and…
Allan, C. (2003). A Ponderosa Natural Area Reveals its Secrets. USGS. Retrieved July 11, 2005 from the World Web Wide: http://biology.usgs.gov/s+t/SNT/noframe/sw153.htm4/10/03 .
Anderson, H.E. (1983). Predicting Wind-Driven Wild Land Fire Size and Shape. Research Paper INT-305. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, pp. 1-26.
Beer, T. (1990). The Australian National Bushfire Model Project. Mathematical and Computer Modeling, 13, 12, 49-56.
Calabri, G. (1982). Recent evolution and prospects for the Mediterranean region, Forest Fire prevention and control. Proceedings of an International seminar.
Strategy & Decision Making
Wal-Mart has become a global corporation. The company's primary vision focuses on a more global presence and promotion of the organization's ethical culture across global stakeholders. The company's concept of a vision statement focusing on a culture of ethics is vital in globalization. The company has embraced diversity and culture in their global operations thus leading to a competitive advantage and good reputation. By promoting a culture of ethics, Sam Walton has assisted stakeholders and customers to make informed decisions thus doing the right thing (Griffin, 2012).
Wal-Mart's mission statement focuses on quality customer service, striving for excellence and respect for individuals. Therefore, based on their core beliefs and values, the mission of the company emphasizes on the provision of daily low prices and exceptional services to customers. The company has managed to uphold their business for long because the top executives and managers work…
Griffin, R.W. (2012). Fundamentals of management. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage
Hitt, M.A., Ireland, R.D., & Hoskisson, R.E. (2009). Strategic management: Competitiveness and globalization. Mason, OH: South-Western
Husted, B., & Allen, D.B. (2011). Corporate social strategy: Stakeholder engagement and competitive advantage. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
Innovation at Baystate Health
Informatics and Technology Innovations at Baystate Health
Baystate Health is among the largest health systems in New England and the largest employer in Western Massachusetts ("About Baystate Health," 2014). The crown jewel is the Baystate Medical Center (BMC), which represents the only level 1 trauma center for the region and the western campus for Tufts University School of Medicine. Each year, close to 2,000 residents, fellows, medical students, and nursing students call BMC home, so it should come as no surprise that BMC and Baystate Health are among the top healthcare innovators for the region and nationally.
In 2013, the health informatics software company InterSystems announced Baystate Health will adopt Intersystems' HealthShare platform to provide region-wide health information sharing capabilities. This health information exchange (HIE) will be called the Pioneer Valley Health Information Exchange (PVIX). PVIX will be designed to allow any provider within the Baystate…
About Baystate Health. (2014). Retrieved from http://baystatehealth.org/Baystate/Main+Nav/About+Us .
Baystate Health. (2014). Patients & visitors: Frequently asked questions. Retrieved from http://www.baystatehealth.org/Baystate/Main+Nav/Patients+%26+Visitors/Medical+Records/FAQs .
InterSystems. (2013). Who we are: Baycare Health Partners and Baystate Health select InterSystems HealthShare as strategic informatics platform for coordinating community engagement. Retrieved from http://www.intersystems.com/who-we-are/newsroom/news-item/baycare-health-partners-and-baystate-health-select-intersystems-healthshare-as-strategic-informatics-platform-for-coordinating-community-engagement/ .
Kudler, N.R. & Pantanowitz, L. (2010). Overview of laboratory data tools available in a single electronic medical record. Journal of Pathology Informatics, 1, 3.
Ge, L., & Voss, S.. (2009). ERP application in China: An overview. International Journal of Production Economics, 122(1), 501.
Of the many challenges of planning, implementing and using ERP systems in China, the two greatest unmet needs of these systems on a consistent basis is business intelligence and data analytics. This analysis evaluates these two unmet needs from the standpoint of their use in supply chains. Included in the analysis is an overview of value chain management and the costs associated with implementing ERP business intelligence and analytics throughout an organization.
The article also discusses how ERP implementations are being successfully completed with case studies with examples. Each of the case studies highlights how China, for the most part, lacks enterprise-wide system integration to generate real-time supply chain metrics yet does have an excellent series of reporting processes in place for managing their supply chains. The study concludes with best…
Kouki, R., Poulin, D., & Pellerin, R.. (2010). The Impact of Contextual Factors on ERP Assimilation: Exploratory Findings from a Developed and a Developing Country. Journal of Global Information Technology Management, 13(1), 28-55.
The most common factor in the failure of ERP systems is lack of adoption by users. Resistance to change dooms ERP systems more than any other. The researchers who wrote this article concentrated on this factor and looking into why users resisted ERP systems when they were involved in the design, implementation and launch of it. Defining a research methodology that stratified their sample across small, medium and large businesses, the researchers also defined the type of ERP implementation being done to evaluate if that was a contributing factor. Finally the role of the CEO in enabling change by actively promoting it was also captured through attitudinal and psychographic data.
The results showed that the assimilation of an ERP implementation was most common right after the launch of the system. The change necessary
Network and IT Technologies and Programs to Improve Small-Firm Efficiency and Staff Satisfaction
The networking needs of a small organization are just as vital to that firm's operational success, and in many instances are even more essential to their efficiency and degree of employee satisfaction. At Knobs Us, a lack of common technologies and basic network interfaces is creating an unnecessarily slow workflow, with inefficiencies that both limit the competitiveness of the organization and limit worker satisfaction amongst the staff in the performance of their duties. The implementation of an organization-wide network and consistent technologies and IT practices throughout the various locations and departments of Knobs Us staff and operations will allow for greater efficiency and worker satisfaction at minimal cost and risk to the firm, placing it at a better competitive advantage.
Access to technology and networking interfaces vary considerably from department to department and even individual…
Apple. (2010). www.apple.com
Chiang, C.; Jang, S.; Canter, D. & Price, B. (2008). "An Expectancy Theory Model for Hotel Employee Motivation: Examining the Moderating Role of Communication Satisfaction." International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 9(4), pp. 327-51.
Hoogeweegen, M.; Van Liere, D.; Vervest, P.; Meljden, L. & de Lepper, I. (2006). "Strategizing for mass customization by playing the business networking game." Decision Support Systems 42(3), pp.1402-412.
Kind, T.; Learny, T.; Leary, J. & Fiehn, O. (2009). "Software platform virtualization in chemistry research and university teaching." Journal of cheminformatics pp. 1-18.
ole-based EP systems are critical for the siloed, highly inefficient architectures of legacy EP systems to be made more relevant, contribute greater financial performance, and lead to higher levels of overall customer satisfaction.
c. Purpose of the study
The purpose the study is evaluate how enterprises who adopt role-based EP system implementations are able to attain higher levels of financial and operations-based performance vs. those that rely on silo-based, more functionally defined EP structures. ole-based EP systems have been proven to lead to greater order accuracy, velocity and customer satisfaction as a result. The ability to gain greater visibility throughout supply chains, better manage pricing, discounts, implement and maintain contract management systems, and also deliver consistently high customer service have all been attributed to role-based EP systems. Conversely siloed EP systems that are managed strictly to functional areas have been shown to severely limit the ability of enterprises to be…
Aberdeen Research (2005) -- New Product Development: Profiting from Innovation. Aberdeen Research. Boston, MA. December 2005
Abrams and Andrews 2005, Management Update: Client Issues for Service-Oriented Business Applications, 2005. Gartner Group. 20 July 2005.
Aimi, G. (2005).- AMR Research (2005, October 25). Retailers Save Money by Controlling in-Bound Logistics. (Alert). Boston, MA
Akkermans, H., & van Helden, K. 2002. Vicious and virtuous cycles in ERP
This is so important because the current business environment is full of competitions and therefore firms that don't focus on external value creation eventually lose their competitive advantage (Spulber,2009). The current business scene is very competitive meaning that each form must have an edge so as to win over more customers. The process requires that the internal and the external business processes be fine tuned using all tools available. The adopted tools should be able to react to the changes in the corporate environment such as new business models. New technologies such as management information system strategy are important in order to remain competitive through enhance internal and external functions (Chaffey, 2002).
Johnson plc should invest in Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) technology that would allow it to exchange valuable information such as order updates, product prices and transaction schedules to their suppliers and customers. This should be rolled on a…
Bartoo, J, Elliot, T, and Naik-lyer, V.(2000) Increased Competitive Advantage the Combination
of E-business and Business Intelligence Tools. San Jose, CA: Business Objects, 2000.
Chaffey, D., (2002), E-business and E-Commerce Management, Pearson Education Limited
Earl, M. (1998) "An organizational approach to IS strategy making." In M. Earl (eds)
decision-makers and managers in health care with efficient course of action that give them opportunity to advance the quality in health cares by involving in designing and implementation. The analysis centers on certain people who have a strategic duty for quality based on capacity building tool in health care quality. This approach is adapted is because of the perceptive that there is an enormous amount of willingness and action for quality improvement locally in many countries but this move is carried out in an insufficient policy and strategic environment in many occasion. The practice suggested here gives opportunity to decision makers and managers to only focus on the component of quality they decide on. There could be further influence for quality in restructuring the care delivery in transversely settings in some countries, not like others which prefers to begin with the activities of patient safety. Objective for that reason has…
Committee on Quality of Health Care) in America, Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC, USA (2001) Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century National Academies Press;
Kelley E, Hurst J. (2006) Health care quality indicators project. Paris, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, (OECD Health Working Papers, No. 23). This OECD project uses the same multidimensional framework for quality that is used in this document.
Leatherman S, Sutherland K., (2004) Quality of care in the NHS of England. British Medical Journal, 328:E288 -- E290.
World Development Report. (2004) Making services work for the poor. Washington, DC, World Bank,
Because, clearly, we committed acts of terrorism in dropping the bombs on Japan. The intent was to create a massive destruction to horrific that the victims could not help but surrender without further fight - which is, of course, what happened. Our new brand of terrorism is, truly, the only effective manner that certain people have of waging a war. When you do not have the technology or the resources of the largest nations in the world, but you do know how to make and plant a bomb that is likely to kill civilians and military targets as well - do you simply roll over and surrender because you might kill innocent people? If that was the case, then the United States would have never been able to wage war with anyone using bombs and missiles and rockets - the war could have only been waged by spies and snipers.…
Alperovitz, Gar. The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb. New York: Vintage, 1996.
Project Objectives and Justification
Company X is a consulting firm whose business and services involve hiring and deployment of IT professionals to clients. asically, company X assists clients to find applicants who may fit their employment needs.
The current operational procedures of Company X involve traditional methods of data access and storage, in that most of the essential information they need are basically paper-based. ecause we are already in the age of information, automated by technological developments, this paper finds it essential that Company X should improve its operational methods and processes.
The objective of this paper is to provide a proposal for automation of Company X's information access and storage. The application is to be called as Applicant MIS/DSS. y studying Company X's current operational flow, specifically in phases that involve access and storage of information, this paper aims to provide the company with a solution that,…
The dominant, goal-oriented person can focus on the ultimate objective, the influence-based person can examine the interpersonal dynamics of the decisions that must be made, the steady person can foster harmony and a positive atmosphere, and the conscientious person can stay on task in a reliable fashion. hile clashing personalities can thwart reaching positive and goal-directed solutions, they can create a better solution and check the excesses of one another, like the selfishness and refusal to consider the human element in the dominant personality, the disorganization of the influence-based person, the risk-adverse views of the steady person, and the rule-bound contentious type. Communication can be facilitated through email and other constant types of technological contact on a daily basis -- this can create better group bonding, although there is always a risk that the brevity and informality of the format can create rather than break down barriers.
Modern decision-making theory,…
DISC: Explanations and preferences. (2005). Changing minds. Retrieved August 20, 2009.
The implementation stage of the iordan project may prove to be the most challenging yet, but one that is worth all the effort. It would take a team of experts in various fields to successfully see this stage successfully through to completion, it cannot be a one-man show. Several departments within the organization have to be given priority when it comes to rolling out the new human resource management system. Since this system is automated and rests on an Information Technology platform, the first two departments to consider would be the human resource management and Information Technology departments. All the teams of professionals within these departments would have to be part and parcel of the entire system design and development process. The other departments to consider would be those of finance and operations management as they too are a fundamental part of the organization's decision making framework.
 George, F.J., Valacich, B.J.S., & Hoffer, J.A. (2003). Object-Oriented Systems Analysis and Design. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
 Satzinger, J.W., Jackson, R.B., & Burd, S.D. (2008). Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World. London, UK: Cengage Learning EMEA.
 Marciniak, J.J. (2002). Encyclopedia of Software Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley.
Systems Design Project
Change is integral to the survival of any commercial enterprise in today's globalized, technologically advanced business environment. This requires stakeholders to have personal and organizational transition skills to attain the desired change for future success (Hughes, 2006). Strategizing drives organizational change giving it direction through activities (Thornhill, Lewis, Millmore and Saunders, 2000). Internal and external environmental considerations are both relevant; along with change management required to align with strategic change. Singular change is integral to organizational modification; a concept that bears adopting as a precursor to internalizing change across the organization.
The change agent is responsible for comprehending the concept of strategic change which encompasses an understanding of change models, approaches and tools for proper implementation. Furthermore they must possess an aptness for analytical assessment of contexts, critical thinking adeptness - both of which will be applied along the change continuum within the organization through use of…
Balogun, J., and Hailey, V.H. (2008), Exploring Strategic Change, Pearson Education Limited, England
Burnes, B. (2004), 'Emergent change and planned change - competitors or allies?: The case of XYZ construction', International Journal of Operation & Production Management, Vol. 24 No. 9, pp. 886-902
Change Management Learning Center (2009), 'Five tips for: Succeeding in change management', Change Management Learning Center, available at: http://www.change-management.com/tutorial-5-tips-cm-success.htm (accessed 19 November 2009)
Chris, R. (2009), 'Working with Emergent Change in Organisations', available at: http://www.oikos-uk.com/docs_influences/Emergent%20Change%20print.pdf (accessed 20 November 2009)
Decisions by School Superintendents
Improper Attitude and Unprofessional Conduct of Teachers
To educate a person in mind and not in morals is to educate a menace to society - President Theodore oosevelt.
That teaching is at one and the same time an intellectual as well as a moral endeavor, is an idea that is well entrenched in the minds of men since centuries past. The sayings of great teachers of ancient times bear ample testimony to this premise, which continues to hold sway across nations and vastly differing civilizations over the years.
In the sense that it takes care of the general well being of young students entrusted to the care of an educational institution and ensures that they are treated fairly and accorded the respect they are due as persons, teaching is most certainly a moral activity. It is concerned with building and maintaining relationships of trust with pupils…
Anderson, D.S., & Biddle, B.J. (Eds.) (1991). Knowledge for Policy: Improving Education through Research. New York: The Falmer Press.
Ave, M. (2002, April 24). Jesuit High teacher fired amid misconduct claim. Retrieved December 19, 2002 at http://www.sptimes.com/2002/04/24/TampaBay/Jesuit_High_teacher_f.shtml .
Barth, R.S. (1990). Improving schools from within. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Benson, P. (1997). All Kids Are Our Kids: What Communities Must Do To Raise Caring and Responsible Children and Adolescents. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
The decision making process of each decision maker must be supervised by his superior. Also, certain decisions and actions cannot be delegated to subordinates. In addition to this, the ethical role and ethical responsibilities of each employee, middle manager, and top manager must be identified before decision making.
Furthermore, this leads to identifying and analyzing objectives for each employee, in order to benefit from a well established and efficient decision making process. Although there are categories of employees that do not have a direct decisional role within the organization, they play a very important role in the decision making process.
This is because they can provide useful information to decision makers that should help them select the best alternative for the situation in case. Employees must be aware of the role they play in the decision making process and the importance of their activity in relation to that of the…
1. National Association of Child Care Professionals Code of Ethics (2009). The National Association of Child Care Professionals. Retrieved November 16, 2009.
2. Problem Solving Techniques (2009). Mind Tools. Retrieved November 16, 2009 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_TMC.htm .
The model consists of five phases:
1. Perception of the ethical problem
2. Description the situation and objective definition of the ethical issue
3. Identification of alternatives
4. Selection of an alternative
5. esolution (Cooper, 2006).
This model has been implemented successfully in both the public and private sectors. The goals of the model are to create a management team consisting of responsible individuals that promote high standards, ethical decision-making practices on behalf of their code of ethics, transparency and accountability (Cooper, 2006). Ultimately, according to Cooper's model, ethical decision making is the process of identifying a problem, generating alternatives, and choosing among them so that the alternatives selected maximize the most important ethical values while also achieving the intended goal.
Most work-related decisions have an ethical component. With few exceptions, problems that involve people also involve ethical issues. Decisions that affect people's jobs and careers have an ethical…
Business Dictionary (2009) "Conflict of Interest" http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/conflict-of-interest.html
Cooper, T. (2006). The responsible administrator: An approach to ethics for the administrative role (5th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Jossey-Bass.
Olsen, a. (2009). Authoring a code of ethics: Observations on process and organization. Center for the study of ethics in the professions. Illinois Institute of Technology. http://ethics.iit.edu/index1.php/Programs/Codes%20of%20Ethics/Authoring%20a%20Code%20of%20Ethics.html
Schnebel, E., & Bienert, M.A. (2004). Implementing ethics in business organizations. Journal of Business Ethics, 53, 203-211.
They must never become complacent and assume that they have considered all factors and can now relax, or they can slip into the "boiling frog" phenomenon: circumstances may turn so gradually negative that they do not notice the changes until they have large problems instead of small ones to solve (Beckford, 2002).
Just as the example of the soldiers at the bridge faced with a battle situation for which they had no previous experience, business leaders must expect the unexpected. If they create a culture of lifelong learning within their businesses, their staff and employees will always be open to looking at old facts in new ways, ready to find forward-thinking solutions. uch a company philosophy and structure can keep even the oldest company packed with fresh ideas and innovative solutions to the new problems they face.
Barker, Randolph T., and Camarata, Martin R. 1998. "The Role…
Swanson and Torrco discuss how the Human Resources Department must not only support but play an active part in a company's overall business strategy. Because of this they must be an integral part in any kind of systems thinking. The authors give multiple examples, such as the type of traning given to employees as well as their efforts to maintain the quality of employees' work. How such HR goals are achieved will have a profound effect on company culture and must be part of the company's overall plan.
Vogelsang-Coombs, Vera. 1997. "Governance Education: Helping City Councils Learn." Public Administration Review, Vol. 57.
This article tightly focuses on how one group can become dysfunctional -- city councils. The authors suggest ways city councils can learn to function more effectively. While it remains to be seen if city councils, as a group, would put in the time and effort to use systems thinking to improve their functioning, and whether dynamics within the group would or would not thwart such attempts, the article has a good discussion on "groupthink," a group phenomenon that blinds the group to lurking risks and dangers.
System Design: Oahu Base Area Network
The aim of this paper is to examine and discuss the Navy's decision to build the largest local area network (LAN) connecting the U.S. Pacific Fleet using information-gathering techniques and design methods. The system has the capacity to connect sailors and marines within the 102-million square miles of the Pacific Fleet's command coverage. Moreover it will provide the indispensable access for supplying and training the U.S. Navy. The Oahu Base Area Network (OBAN) will be the largest LAN in the world when all the phases are complete. It was started way back in 1998. It is the supporting network for the six naval commands in the Pearl Harbor, Hawaii area. Phase one has been completed. Other phases have begun in San Diego, the Pacific Northwest and the Pacific Far East, following the original business model (Kaylor, 2000). The uniqueness of this system is in…
Prenatal care is critical for these families. Third, there are significant needs of banking services to enable Kava citizens to create their own businesses as well, including the development of a micro-payment bank that offers low-cost or no-cost micro-payment loans so they can start their own businesses. In attracting joint venture partners in each of these service areas, Nik and his team also need to consider the underlying utilities of the island and work to make sure there is a sustainable electricity, Internet, water, and natural gas for the businesses to run reliably.
Strategic Plan Is Essential Defining Phases of Development
Alex, Nik and Chris will also need to create a strategic plan to define the sequences of businesses and their specific partnership and joint venture needs as well. The ability to attract and retain educational foundations as partners to initially fund the development of a learning network that needs…
Gunther Rehme (2007). Education, Economic Growth and Measured Income Inequality. Economica, 74(295), 493. Retrieved April 19, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1302568111
David Cruise Malloy, James Agarwal. (2003). Factors influencing ethical climate in a nonprofit organisation: An empirical investigation. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 8(3), 224-250. Retrieved April 18, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 420619041).
46). Likewise, Gillispie suggests that an incremental approach can be used to "test the waters" for even very small companies seeking to project an internationalized presence. In this regard, Gillespie recommends that companies, "Craft a scaleable master design that represents the major aspects of your business worldwide and anticipates the degree of localization that will be required in each market. The degree of localization can have a real impact on budgets and timelines" (2008, p. 45). These are important factors for companies in general where limited resources and a lack of experience may preclude more aggressive internationalization initiatives, and these issues are directly related to a company's internal resources as discussed further below.
The company has a wide range of specialized internal resources which are described in Table 2 below.
Internal resources of BG Limited
BG's Specialist Cleaning division offers a…
Angola. 2011 CIA World Factbook. [online] available: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications / the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html.
Black's Law Dictionary. 1999 St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Carthew, A. 2006, September/October 'Spreading the Word.' Communication World, vol. 23,
no. 5, pp. 30-32.
Decisions of ehnquist & Warren
The field of constitutional law, at least in the area of criminal procedure, has been an interesting study for the past fifty years. Unlike other areas of the law, the study of criminal procedure has undergone major transformations as a result of the decisions of the last three courts, the Warren, Burger and ehnquist courts. These three courts have changed the legal landscape in the cases involving criminal procedure and, in the process; have created a great deal of controversy (Bloom, 2010).
The application of the Bill or ights to the states has been an acrimonious issue in the U.S. Supreme Court for a number of years. It all began when the Warren Court began applying the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Amendments directly against the states, under a doctrine that became to be known as selective incorporation. The Warren Court used the selective incorporation method…
Arizona v. Evans, 514 U.S. 1 (U.S. Supreme Court March 1, 1995).
Atwater v. City of Lago Vista, 532 U.S. 318 (U.S. Supreme Court April 24, 2001).
Bloom, R.M. (2010). Cases on Criminal Procedure. Riverwoods, IL: CCH .
California v. Minjares, 443 U.S. 916 (U.S. Supreme Court August 22, 1979).
The partnership strategy will bring capital investment to the island in the form of clinics while at the same time creating jobs for graduates. The same model needs to be applied to the banking industry as well. Creating an alliance strategy that will attract banking partners to Kava to create micro-lending programs and open branches will in turn create jobs for the Kava Educational Network. It will also serve as a source of funding to pay for vocational school tuitions as well. Throughout the strategic planning process, the potential to both enrich the island from a socio-economic basis through CS programs (Estes, 2008) while also building out key industries to ensure their profitable growth (ehme, 2007) is key. The strategic plan will need to balance the defining of the educational business as the foundation and the definition of healthcare and banking as the immediate industries of interest.
Evaluating the Ethical…
Estes, P. (2008, September). Value Add for the Community. Mergers and Acquisitions, 43(9), 77.
David Cruise Malloy, James Agarwal. (2003). Factors influencing ethical climate in a nonprofit organisation: An empirical investigation. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 8(3), 224-250.
Gunther Rehme (2007). Education, Economic Growth and Measured Income Inequality. Economica, 74(295), 493.
Decisions are an important part of everyday life, organizations, and particular of leadership goals and behaviors. We know that managers and leaders are not the same, and true leadership roles are often expressed by the mastery of being able to overcome some of the basic issues of poor decision making.
Failing to remember goals -- The old maxim of measure for success fits with the idea of goal setting. If one sets goals, keeps monitoring those goals, and then reassesses the goals, one will have an easier chance of success. Goals should always be in place and everyone in the organization should, in theory, have combined tactical goals that fit the organization's strategic goals.
Overconfidence -- There is a fine line between overconfidence and being confident. Overconfidence often implies a degree of arrogance that causes one to be egotistical and self-centered and not listen to others or see the reality…
Howell, J. And Costley, D. (2000). Understanding Behaviors for Effective Leadership.
New York: Prentice Hall.
Knapp, J. (2007). Leaders on Ethics: Real-World Perspectives on Today's Business
Challenges. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Systems Structures Presentation
Electronic health records are common in the modern era of globalization and high technology. Electronic health records can be defined as a collection of health information, in digitized form, of individuals as well as populations. The objective of having health records in digital form is to make them accessible across different health care settings. This enables the patients as well as physicians to obtain health information from their relevant health care facility by simply requesting it to be sent over from the electronic health records that were held at the previous health care facility where the patient had been checked up. The health care facilities today are connected through a variety of network-connected enterprise-wide information systems. These can easily transfer information regarding any patient from one health care facility to another, given that they are connected via the network.
Electronic health records consist of not only technology…
In the United States of America, as a ruling in the form of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the implementation of electronic health records in clinical settings was made compulsory with around $27 billion were allocated to the cause. This was a part of new health care reforms whose aim was that by 2015, there would be "meaningful use" of the technology made available to improve the quality of patient care available. The federal incentives being offered to hospitals and clinics in order to update to the electronic health record structures have all the physicians and nurses on their toes.
Nurses, as a result, are closely monitoring the effects and consequences of the use of the electronic health record structure systems on their ability to improve patient care. There have been admittedly some benefits. The availability of extensive up-to-date information on the patient and his medical condition and history, allows for measureable improvements from the treatment and care given to patients with chronic diseases as well as those patients which are on preventative medicine. It has been proved via a study conducted by the University of Pennsylvania that nurses that work in hospitals and other clinical set-ups with the electronic health care structures in place tend to report a greater deal of improvement in their patients than the nurses working in hospitals that are devoid of such technology. However, there is the task of the nurses learning to use and manage the electronic health record structures. Unless the nurses have had training or been provided transition time from the implementation of the electronic health record structure, they cannot get any meaningful use out of it. For the electronic health record structure to be effective, the user of the technology should be aware of how to mine for the data, the treatment plan to be followed and how to retrieve the meaningful data from the abundance of information available on the individual. Currently, there are also problems with the present infrastructure at hospitals for the proper implementation of the electronic health record structure.
In the future, if the administrators as well as the implementers of the health reforms seek to extract meaningful use from the electronic health record structures technology, they need to gear up and tackle a few issues beforehand. Step must be taken to ensure that the structure works according to the purpose it is meant for. The clinical integration across clinic-settings and hospitals should be made tighter and stronger. The nursing administration must prepare their staff for the upcoming implementation of electronic health record structures in terms of training, and also be prepared for the resistance that would come from the nursing staff during the implementation of new technology. There should also be preparation for the slowing down of the productivity when the system is first implemented. The main goal here is to measure the impact on the patient care and whether improvements in the quality of patient care is present or not.
In most occasions however, the consent of the Congress is rather difficult to acquire and this often leads to frictions in the relations between the two parties. So tense are these relationships that the President perceives his meeting with the Congress as the most demanding and largest milestone in his path. "The President often sees Congress as an obstacle to be overcome, and always has to calculate how his proposals will play out with Congress. He cannot dictate to Congress what he wants, and faces a huge task in communicating with Congress because of its size and diversity" (Hamilton, 2004).
The frictions which occur between Congress and President have had a historical positive side in the meaning that they forced Presidents to forward flawless action plans, based on real facts, resource estimations and expected outcomes. Today however, the general perception is that these tensions are a means of stalling and…
Hamilton, L., 2004, Congress and the President, Center on Congress, http://www.centeroncongress.org/radio_commentaries/congress_president.php last accessed on August 12, 2009
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For example, GM lobbied the state of California 1998 to overturn an emissions-reduction mandate that would have prohibited many of GM's passenger vehicles from being sold in the large, car-hungry state. When it was successful in the short run, GM discontinued its work on its prototype of a battery-powered car, the EV1 that ran 100 miles on a single charge. Toyota, in contrast, continued to work on its hybrid line, and the resulting Prius shows the fruitfulness of the Toyota approach (Lifton 2008). Discontinuing research on battery-powered technology was not simply bad business sense on GM's part, but also showed how one part of the company (management) could thwart the efforts of another part of the company (&D). The focus of systems theory is synergy rather than such discordant behavior. Systems theory stresses that "the system's overall behavior depends on its entire structure (not the sum of its various parts)"…
Bunkley, Nick & Bill Vlasic. (2009, October 1). G.M. To close Saturn after deal fails. The New
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The religious organization has other-worldly goals, but must adapt to the demands of this world in order to survive. There are generally two kinds of responses to this problem -- the church response and the sect response. The church response is to adapt at the expense of the goals and the sect response is value-rational-to maximize goal commitment at the expense of adaptation (Satow, 1975).
EXAMPLE NATUAL -- Management NEED in Business OGANIZATION
Theories and research concerned with individual performance, employee satisfaction, and reduction of tension between individual and organizational goals deal only with internal aspects of events, relationships, and structures that make up the total organizational system. However, if an organization is seen as an open-energy system, it is apparent that it is dependent for survival and growth upon a variety of energy transfers within the organization and also between the organization and its external environment. It is sure,…
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Systems Management Problem:
Cincom Company operates in a flexible business environment that allows participating business enterprises and customers to be flexible. This flexibility translates into the ability of these businesses to choose the best software option from available options like Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), cloud option, and one or on-premise enterprise software. Generally, the availability of this software options and the flexibility of the business environment implies that Cincom Company can choose the type of software to implement based on its specific needs. However, the company is faced with numerous challenges including difficulty in implementing change, customer lock-in strategy, and lack of flexibility due to its particular organizational structure and culture. Actually, the major challenge for Cincom is the difficulty to adapt to and implement change that will reflect the new business environment it is operating in. This challenge is characterized with the CEO's approval of all products, pricing, sales, and services…
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Furthermore, Marnie was a good student whose grades depended on her being able to concentrate fully in class. She would not be able to maintain her grades if she were sidetracked by carrying a child. Dropping out was not an option for Marnie, who had strong ambitions to succeed in the working world. Marnie also had a busy schedule at school. If she were to carry the child to term would have no time for the wealth of volunteer work she performed for the school. She would also lose many of her friends because of her suddenly being thrust into motherhood. Finally, Marnie's decision to have an abortion came as a relief to her. Marnie knew that staying dedicated to schoolwork meant that she would some day have a solid career and a stable home life that would allow her to raise a family in peace. Marnie made a decision…
" To that end, the Treasury Department would limit executive compensation for institutions receiving "exceptional assistance" (Geithner and Summers, 2009).
Troubles continued in the financial sector -- both Citigroup and the Bank of America needed second rounds of capital infusions, and federal guarantees against losses totaling tens of billions more -- while Ben S. Bernanke, the Federal Reserve chairman, warned that more capital injections might be needed to further stabilize the financial system. On Jan. 16, the Senate voted 52-42 to release the second round of funds (Gerth, 2009).
THE GEITHNER PLANS -on Feb. 10, Mr. Geither presented the rough outlines of the Obama administration's plan. A central piece of the proposal would create one or more so-called bad banks that would rely on taxpayer and private money to purchase and hold banks' bad assets. Another centerpiece of the plan would stretch the last $350 billion that the Treasury has…
The key constructs of systems thinking were constituted in the first half of the 20th century in fields such as psychology, ecology, organismal biology, and cybernetics (Capra 1997). They include: sub-systems/parts/wholes, environment/system/boundary, process/structure, emerging properties, hierarchy of organizations, negative and positive feedback, data and control, open systems, holism, and the observer. The practical application of these constructs in many fields was discovered by von Bertalanffy (1950). He referred to these concepts as general systems theory (GST). These concepts were adapted in Organizational research and Management science (O/MS) and were referred to as management cybernetics (Beer 1967), systems engineering (Hall 1962), system four dynamics (Forrester 1968), and finally, in what we might refer to as the systems approach (Churchman 1968; Klir 1969; Weinberg 1975) (Mingers & White, 2009).
The systems thinking/systems approach, has been closely linked to the growth of organizational research and management science. At the start it…
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These are stated to be the reason that these systems "lend themselves to investigation using simulation methodology." (ienstock, 1996) Simulation is stated to offer an alternative "for understanding these systems, since experimenting with the actual systems would be too costly." (ienstock, 1996) Furthermore, simulation is stated to facilitate the "examination of dynamic processes or systems over time by allowing the compression of real time." (ienstock, 1996) ienstock states that the methods for adjusting the sample size 'n' in simulation studies are as follows:
(1) simulation runs for each experimental condition (each cell) may be replicated 'n' times;
(2) observation of 'n' subintervals of the simulation of an experimental condition may be increased by decreasing the length of the subintervals; or (3) the simulation of an experimental condition may be continued for a longer period of time, thereby increasing the number of subintervals (i.e. The sample size). (ienstock, 1996)…
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