The Windows operating system architecture also allows for single sign-on and also relies on user name and password verification. The authentication process for a Windows operating system at the server level can also be configured to validate the identity of the person logging in at the Windows domain and Microsoft Active Directory Service levels as well. Certificates can be assigned to specific applications, databases and processes within a Windows sever-based architecture and operating system configuration (Vellalacheruvu, Kumar, 2011).
Another significant difference between UNIX and Windows security is the definition of the security model itself. UNIX defines permissions to the file level using user name and password, and can also assign security levels of a given process as well (Takeuchi, Nakayama, 2006). In many UNIX operating system versions a UID and GID-based session will be started when a user logs in and attempts a specific application or system-level process. It is possible to add on additional security layers to these UID and GID sessions using Kerberos login authentication technologies and processes, in addition to investing in secured file system architectures as well (Takeuchi, Nakayama, 2006). All of these functional improvements to UNIX however come at a high price and tend to increase the low Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) this operating system provides. The UNIX security model is not as adept at managing security on objects, complex, multi-threaded processes and interlinked...
Like the many variations of UNIX, the Windows operating system architecture is continually going through a series of modifications and enhancements to become more secure. The Windows Active Directory architecture is designed to eliminate the need for inter-domain trust controllers and the complexities of security on the previous generation Windows NT and 95 architectures (Son, Lee, Jeon, Chung, Lee, Lee, 2011). Instead the Active Directory uses authentication layering technologies and Kerberos algorithm to increase security resiliency, making the operating system more difficult to hack into.
Both UNIX and Windows operating system architectures are multiprocessing, multi-threaded in that both support multiple processes or threads at the same time. Both are also designed to support multitasking, multiuser commands and environments, and multithreading of applications. The Windows architecture continues to promote Win32 and Win64 multithreading of applications for greater performance.
Configuring process management within each operating system is often done with utilities and on occasion with shell scripting. In Windows the majority of these functions are driven by graphical user interfaces (GUI). In UNIX however process management is often handled through shell scripts. As the UNIX architecture in general is not as flexible as the Microsoft one at integration, it is common to find shell scripts that are used for File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and TELNET sessions from one system to another. A shell script is shown below for transferring file.txt to a computer center via FTP command. These types of shell scripts are so pervasive enterprise software vendors use them for moving files from one location to another on UNIX-based servers their software runs on (Iyer, Lee, Venkatramen, Vesset, 2007).
Shell script for transferring a file to a computer center
FILE='file.txt' ftp -n $HOST
Configuration of Microsoft Windows in more complex networking environments required an extensive amount of add-in software and programming to ensure all systems could work. Finally the levels of security inherent in the Microsoft Windows operating system continue to be problematic (Bradley, 2009). The Linux and UNIX operating systems are comparable in terms of kernel and memory architectures (MacKinnon, 1999)(Predd, Cass, 2005). There are variations in the pricing models used for
In addition the cost makes it expensive to own the hardware required to support these systems as personal computers. The university has also indicated its preference for the PC and the Windows operating system. All training and skill acquisition is also generally offered for the windows system in the college. Standardization and uniformity of the design platform of Microsoft has greatly enhanced the applicability in the workplace. Standard packages
operating system can be simply defined as a "program that manages a computer's resources, especially the allocation of those resources among other programs" ("operating system (OS) (computing) -- Encyclopedia Britannica"). There is no definitive answer to the question that which is the best operating system that has been produced till date. Windows and MAC OS X are two of the renowned operating systems that are used all over the
Windows 7 Operating System Guide to Operating Systems The role of operating systems continues to be critical to the overall performance of enterprise information systems globally. In the majority of enterprises today there is a wide variation in the type of operating systems used, as the information needs vary significantly across organizations. The intent of this analysis is to evaluate the Microsoft Windows XP, Windows 7 and Linux operating systems. The architectures,
Without the consent of the user, the program will never be elevated to administrator privilege. The MIC or integrity levels is again a new security concept with Vista OS. This feature is controlled by the Access control entry (ACE) in the System Access control List (SACL) of a file, process or a registry key. By associating every process with an integrity level, the OS limits privilege escalation attacks. [Matthew
Storage management, creating and maintaining a file system, and integrating them into networks also share a common set of functions that allow for programmer flexibility in terms of their use and sequencing through an application. These functions are specifically called as part of the kernel of the Linux operating system, and as a result they can be selectively updated very quickly. A full recompile of the entire operating system