CKD - Design A recent study determined that the study needed to "adopt, adapt, or construct an assessment instrument and testing protocol that could generate reliable and valid score data" (Schmitz, Chipman, Yoshida, Vogel, Sainfort, Beilman, Clinton, Copper, Reihsen, Sweet, 2014, p. 42).
Designing a study that evaluates an intervention must take several items into consideration in order to be determined as both reliable and valid; even if the study is in reality a health promotion goal, it is still necessary to treat it the same way a study would be treated. Determining what is reliable and what is valid therefore is an important step in both including those two objectives in a study, and achieving them as well. Study reliability is determined when the researcher can expect the same results time and time again by replicating research procedures. If a study is set up to determine results, and those results can be replicated, then the researcher can determine that the results are reliable. When the researcher is attempting to show reliability, the researcher wants an independent observer to be capable of replicating results of the study using the same methodologies implemented by the researcher. If this is accomplished then the researcher has achieved reliability.
Validity is different than reliability; validity is the determination of if a study is actually reflecting the concept that the researcher is trying to measure. The question can be asked therefore, did the study measure what it set out to measure?
This study seeks to accomplish similar objectives and therefore needs to ascertain whether a certain set of interventions can actually lower the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). According to Schmitz et al., "we created decision rules for item inclusion, exclusion, and construction that promoted consistency throughout the instrument" (p. 43) This study attempts to follow the same course of action that Schmitz et al. took; using rules and guidelines in order to guide the researcher on how to act and determine what can be included and what will be excluded during the researcher's attempt to achieve the health promotion goal.
Additionally, the formative and summative approach to this health promotion goal must be addressed as well. A formative approach suggests that the research take an approach that allows the researcher to gain valuable knowledge during the time that the health promotion goal is being sought. Using a formative approach suggests that the researcher incorporates into the program (or study) the ability to change course as the…
A recent study determined that the study needed to "adopt, adapt, or construct an assessment instrument and testing protocol that could generate reliable and valid score data" (Schmitz, Chipman, Yoshida, Vogel, Sainfort, Beilman, Clinton, Copper, Reihsen, Sweet, 2014, p. 42).
Counseling Approach used: Existential perspective Issue in Counseling: Helping clients deal with anxiety Many individuals experience anxiety today. With the help of therapeutic counselors, clients learn how to cope with their anxiety-related issues, in turn allowing them to live a healthy and manageable life. Many counselors choose to use the existential method in counseling clients with anxiety. The existential approach to counseling is an approach to helping clients of all cultures find meaning and harmony
According to Ken Blanchard 'four leadership styles stems out of combinations of supportive and directive behaviors and that include directing, coaching, supporting and delegating styles' (Erven 2001). Leading gives emphasis on the supervision of control over the subordinate, coaching gives importance in providing information on the work requirements and solicits suggestions while still assuming control over the situation, supporting indicates support on the follower or employee rather than taking control
Social Networking: Using Social Media and Networking to Address Productivity Issues Using Social Media and Networking to Address Productivity Issues: Social Networking Walmart is the world's largest retailer, and the world's largest company by revenues. Its success over the years draws largely from its mission of providing everyday low prices to enable consumer live better. Despite its inherent success, however, Walmart faces serious problems in regard to unfair labor practices and customer
Forecasting Techniques Using Moving Average, Exponential Smoothing, and Weighted Moving Average Forecasting is an attempt to predict the future using either quantitative or qualitative technique. Forecasting is an integral part of human activity, however, businesses are increasingly using the forecasting technique to predict sales, demand planning, cost projection, inventory control, corporate planning, advertising planning, production planning and investment cash flow. (Lucey, 2002). While there are different strategies that can be used
Accounting Approach to Valuation by GAAP and IFRS: Key Differences When it comes to valuation by U.S. GAAP and IFRS, there exists a number of differences in terms of the approaches used. To begin with, in regard to inventory valuation, both FIFO and LIFO are permitted in the case of U.S. GAAP. On the other hand, IFRS do not permit the usage of LIFO. However, in the latter case, FIFO is permitted
Counselling Techniques Comparison of Humanistic Counselling Techniques of Cognitive (behavioral) and Neo-Psychoanalytic Approaches Counselling and Its Roles Counselling Techniques Humanistic Counselling Cognitive / Behavioural Counselling Neo-Psychoanalytic Counselling Comparison of Humanistic Counselling Techniques to Cognitive (Behavioural) and Neo-Psychoanalytic Approaches Similarities ofofumanistic Cobehavioralechniques to Cognitive (Behavioural) and Neo-Psychoanalytic Approaches Differences between Humanisticbehavioralg Techniques to Cognitive (Behavioural) and Neo-Psychoanalytic Approaches Counselling is a broad subject and as such, constitutes different areas of study application and practice. Additionally it is classified using a variety