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According to Harlan (2004), "Sample retention is problematic not only because of these individuals' innocence, but also because of the resulting availability of sensitive genetic information and the lack of legislative and jurisprudential protections guarding release of the information" (p. 179). This point is also made by Beecher-Monas and Garcia-ill (2006), who caution that modern DNA identification techniques can be used to extrapolate far more than just an individual's identity, but with some profound social consequences involved. These authors write, "DNA identification testing has become commonplace in the courts, transforming the criminal justice system, demonstrating innocence, and identifying perpetrators. Already it is clear that DNA testing will be used as a way of predicting which medical treatments will be effective. With predictive medicine becoming a reality, surely predicting human behavior cannot be far behind" (emphasis added) (Beecher-Monas & Garcia-ill, 2006, p. 301).
1. Fragment sizes. According to Gonzalez and his…
Akram, S.M. (2002). The aftermath of September 11, 2001: The targeting of Arabs and Muslims in America. Arab Studies Quarterly, 61.
Beecher-Monas, E., & Garcia-Rill, E. (2006). Genetic predictions of future dangerousness: Is there a blueprint for violence? Law and Contemporary Problems, 69(1-2), 301.
Butterfield, F. (1996, July 14).U.S. has plan to broaden availability of DNA testing. New York Times.
Carroll, G. (2007). Proven guilty: An examination of the penalty-free world of post-conviction DNA testing. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 97(2), 665.
/11 brought considerable changes to the United States in terms of policy building and immigration laws. It was an even that should have never taken place. During the Clinton administration, U.S. Embassies were bombed by Al Qaeda to which President Clinton responded by cruise missile attacks and the CIA hired assassins to kill Bin Laden. Clinton also pressurized the Taliban to expel Bin Laden but it was of no use. In the year 2000 Clinton tried to get Bin Laden expelled again and efforts were made with the opponents of Taliban, the Northern Alliance to gather intelligence to kill Bin Laden. The CIA proposed the use of the unmanned reconnaissance aircraft to gain better intelligence data on Bin Laden. Towards the end of the year there was an attack on the U.S.S. Cole but there was no hardcore evidence that Bin Laden had given the order. The CIA…
9/11 brought considerable changes to the United States in terms of policy building and immigration laws. It was an even that should have never taken place. During the Clinton administration, U.S. Embassies were bombed by Al Qaeda to which President Clinton responded by cruise missile attacks and the CIA hired assassins to kill Bin Laden. Clinton also pressurized the Taliban to expel Bin Laden but it was of no use. In the year 2000 Clinton tried to get Bin Laden expelled again and efforts were made with the opponents of Taliban, the Northern Alliance to gather intelligence to kill Bin Laden. The CIA proposed the use of the unmanned reconnaissance aircraft to gain better intelligence data on Bin Laden. Towards the end of the year there was an attack on the U.S.S. Cole but there was no hardcore evidence that Bin Laden had given the order. The CIA labeled its findings as preliminary judgment and thus the Clinton administration could not initiate a military attack. CIA's lack of evidence hindered the process and the Clinton administration had to wait till more evidence appeared thus the actions which President Clinton were very limited and constrained to only diplomatic pressure.
Soon President Bush took control of the presidential office but the matter of USS Cole was still pending. He accepted that the attack on the U.S.S. Cole was ordered by Bin Laden and the Bush administration, not wanting to wage military action, started to devise a plan to eliminate Al Qaeda in about three to five years. He was briefed that Al Qaeda is planning more attacks but the report stated that the attacks were to be carried out overseas and not on American soil. As a result security measures were being taken overseas rather than within the United States. Diplomatic steps were being taken and pressure was to be put on the Taliban and on Pakistan to expel Bin Laden from Afghanistan. Moreover information about the use of unmanned reconnaissance aircraft was conveyed and measures were being taken to arm it with a missile so as to kill Bin Laden. Approval from Bush was required and he was to sign the approval on September 11, 2001, the day when the tragedy occurred and millions died.
Lack of intelligence on Bin Laden's location and whereabouts delayed actions that could be taken by the two administrations. Clinton also faced the problem of not enough evidence regarding the U.S.S. Cole otherwise he would have utilized other measures. Bush was planning to eradicate Bin Laden and as the threat was regarding attacks to occur overseas; his plans did not include any direct military action on Bin Laden or the Taliban who had given him shelter. These factors limited the decisions and action that the two administrations took.
Even if we do not trust a specific President, there is no denying that they know things we do not. It must be necessary for them, from time to time, to persuade the nation. The use of a persuasive rhetoric in this instance may be justified. And especially when a President uses rhetoric to invite a response from the audience and critics, as Zarefsky notes, I can appreciate the President's intention.
I am in general very skeptical of any form of government control. I strongly believe that in a democratic state, citizens should have access to free choice and free flow of information. If the citizens can make responsible decisions based on what they themselves figure out, that makes democratic institutions strong. Therefore, I am very skeptical of any attempt by any organization to control or filter the Internet. So, I started reading Timothy Thomas's article "Al Qaeda and the…
9/11 Commission eport -- Prisoner's Dilemma
'Cooperation is usually analyzed in game theory by means of a non-zero-sum game called the 'Prisoner's Dilemma'" (Anonymous). Basically this game has two players who have two options. They can either choose to "defect" or "cooperate." An example is seen where the police takes two suspects into custody for interrogation. If suspect A chooses to defect i.e. he confesses his involvement in the crime and testifies about the involvement of suspect B, then he has a chance to go free. If suspect B. cooperates i.e. he does not testify, whereas suspect A does, then suspect A will go free whereas suspect B. will go to jail. However, if both defect then none of them go free and both serve time but for a comparatively lesser amount of time. If both of them remain silent then minor charges would be put against them and they…
(1) Anonymous - The Prisoners' Dilemma [online website] Available from: http://pespmc1.vub.ac.be/PRISDIL.html [Accessed on: 15/09/2005]
9//11 Commission: Uni, Bi, And Multipower Systems of Power
Unipolar balances of power are international political systems where one major power dominates the globe. They are traditionally seen as more stable than are bipolar systems, where two powerful superpowers are locked in conflict and use weaker states in their mutual power plays. Multipolar systems, as existed in Europe the period before World War I, are seen as the most volatile and unstable balances of power.
owever, unipolar systems are not always more stable -- the United States may be the major superpower of the immediate post-Cold War period, yet small ethnic conflicts were rife after the end of the Cold War. The period between 1945-1990 is often characterized as bipolar, because of the tensions of the Cold War period that divided the 'free' and communist spheres. Other scholars call it unipolar, in the sense that one major conflict dominated the…
However, unipolar systems are not always more stable -- the United States may be the major superpower of the immediate post-Cold War period, yet small ethnic conflicts were rife after the end of the Cold War. The period between 1945-1990 is often characterized as bipolar, because of the tensions of the Cold War period that divided the 'free' and communist spheres. Other scholars call it unipolar, in the sense that one major conflict dominated the globe to all others.
There was a complex dynamic between the two major powers of the United States and the Soviet Union during this period. Not all conflicts in the world were between the superpowers, but the superpowers attempted to become involved in all regional conflicts. For example, the Vietnamese communist forces of Ho Chi Minn saw themselves as nationalist forces, rather than allied with the Soviet Union, yet the U.S. still felt compelled to intervene. China was alienated from the U.S.S.R. But was still a communist power. France disassociated itself from NATO, the primary alliance of the West, and was contemned by the U.S. And the Islamic world was divided between religions rather than politics, although the Soviet Union attempted to support anti-Israeli forces. However, despite these multipolar displays of regional conflict, both superpowers claimed an interest in virtually every world conflict, stretching from Latin America to Asia, and reduced these conflicts to their ideological terms, in their own worldviews.
Thus, the period could be characterized as bipolar because of the two powers involved, or unipolar in terms of the singular focus of its conflict between communist-supported and American-supported powers. Also, despite world fears about nuclear conflict, this period proved to be relatively stable in 'unipolar' terms for the citizens of both nations, even if regional actors suffered in smaller conflagrations, unlike the current period of terrorist fears and threats.
(Committee on House Administration 2003)
The economical damage caused by the violent actions on human lives and infrastructure may be classified into direct and indirect damages. The city of New York was supported with assistance from various organizations from the state, nongovernmental, federal and local front to bring the situation under control. Direct damages included the lives of people, infrastructure, business establishments, appliances and gadgets in offices, telephone, power, travel facilities, airlines and automobiles. There were expenses involved to handle the situation, cleaning the site and the destructed building. Other expenses included emergency health assistance, medical support for health problems, wounds and assistance provided to stabilize the mental condition of the affected people. (Kingsbury 2002)
Indirect damages included returns from employment of a person, gains from business establishments which were terminated for the time being or forever due to the loss of office and equipment, loss incurred by business establishment…
Committee on House Administration. 2003. Hearing on security updates since September 11, 2001: hearing before the... DIANE Publishing
Crockatt, Richard. 2003. America Embattled: September 11, Anti-Americanism, and the Global
Order. Routledge. London.
Kingsbury, Nancy R. 2002. Review of studies of the economic impact of the September 11, 2001:
In terms of coming up with affected population estimated, World Trade Center personnel, officials involved with New York City census operations, the police, and fire department will all be useful in estimating the population of the buildings and the surrounding areas.
Type of Studies Needed:
Determining the full extent of the health impacts of this event will require longitudinal studies to be undertaken, however this is clearly not possible in the immediate term. For now, some experimental studies on non-human subjects might need to be conducted to determine short-term exposure effects, studies on levels of inhalation of substances should be conducted on individuals both for their own health benefit and to establish data that will be useful in identifying and treating others, and reviews/meta-analyses of existing research literature regarding the substances involved and the potential outcomes should also be conducted. In essence, only observational and some non-human experimental study designs…
9/11 survivors search for normalcy" by Anemona Hartocollis, survivors of the terrorist attacks of 9/11 still fight psychological and physical demons, long after the rest of the world has attained a state of 'normalcy' and the attacks are no longer a foreground concern in the media. Lauren Manning, a former employee of Cantor Fitzgerald, can no longer lead a normal life and counts herself lucky to be alive after surviving having nearly 80% of her body severely burned. Although the symbolic language of mourning in our society tends to focus upon the fallen, or those who lost love ones, Hartocollis implies that this tends to ignore people whose lives were irrevocably changed through injury.
The focus of the article is to understand the perspective of these injured victims, according to the sociological principle of verstehen (putting one's self in another's shoes in a spirit of understanding and community) and understanding…
Mayblum's language of teamwork is simple and straightforward in its diction. But Robert Stone's essay advances a far more complex issue, as he attempts to deal with the psychological impact of the crisis. Stone's thesis is the unreality of the horror, which was so shocking that it was "experienced" as "something fictive, because the mindset of the suicide bombers is so alien to our culture. "We saw in the shocking elemental collision that our conscious minds denied the violent assault of one narrative system upon another. People deeply enclosed in their sanctified worldview were carrying out what they experienced as a sacred command to annihilate the Other." Stone attempts to not understand the event from the outside, as an American, but to provide some explanation from within the mind of the bomber, for why such events occurred. Stone's central thesis is that if one can understand the mindset, one can…
It is always instructive to read different narrative reflections upon historical events, but seldom does a reader have a chance to read two essays upon an event that will surely pass into history as an occurrence of seismic importance, from his or her lifetime. Moreover, Adam Mayblum's "The Price We Pay" and Robert Stone's "In the Mind's Eye of the Bomber," both offer fresh yet contrasting perspectives upon the tragedies that occurred on September 11th, 2001, before this event has assumed a kind of concrete and fixed status in the collective memory of American history.
The thesis of Adam Mayblum's essay "The Price We Pay," is that September 11th was the result of the profound symbolism America had incurred, as the embodiment of freedom as well around the world. "Today the images that people around the world equate with power and democracy are gone, but "America" is not [just] an image [or a nation], it is a concept. That concept is only strengthened by our pulling together as a team." Mayblum sees the attacks as an assault upon the principles of freedom and democracy, as well as upon American citizens and our collective national security. He uses the figurative language of the 'team' of democratic adherents to stress the simple, eloquent message that this was not just an attack upon America, but upon a particular way of life that many nations, including our own hold dear.
Mayblum's language of teamwork is simple and straightforward in its diction. But Robert Stone's essay advances a far more complex issue, as he attempts to deal with the psychological impact of the crisis. Stone's thesis is the unreality of the horror, which was so shocking that it was "experienced" as "something fictive, because the mindset of the suicide bombers is so alien to our culture. "We saw in the shocking elemental collision that our conscious minds denied the violent assault of one narrative system upon another. People deeply enclosed in their sanctified worldview were carrying out what they experienced as a sacred command to annihilate the Other." Stone attempts to not understand the event from the outside, as an American, but to provide some explanation from within the mind of the bomber, for why such events occurred. Stone's central thesis is that if one can understand the mindset, one can better understand why the event occurred, and even while he 'fails' in this attempt, to find a perfect explanation of the mentality of the bomber, and the metaphors advanced in his essay are less concrete and more difficult for the reader to grasp than Mayblum's idea of a team, Stone's ultimately more ambitious essay provides an important, added dimension to the understanding of September 11th.
Shared Information in Terrorist Attacks
Many press reports, and to some extent the 9/11 Commission eport, referred to the failure to share information as one reason the U.S. was unable to prevent the terrorist attacks of 9/11/01.
Just days after the terrorist attacks in Paris by self-professed operatives of Al-Qaeda in Yemin, this discussion could not be timelier or more pertinent. Once again, the pivotal significance of integrated counterterrorist intelligence -- coupled with the inescapable issue of the scope and magnitude inherent in anti-terrorism -- was made tragically salient.
Cite at least two specifics that point to this being true or why not.
After six months of escalating terrorist chatter, a meeting was held on July 5, 2001, at which "representative from the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), the FAA, the Coast Guard, the Secret Service, Customs, the CIA, and the FBI met with Clarke to discuss the current threat,"…
Mueller, R.S. III. (Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation). Ten years after 9/11 are we safer? Statement Before the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, Washington, D.C. On September 13, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/news/testimony/ten-years-after-9-11-are-we-safer
National Criminal Intelligence Service (NCIS). 2000. The National Intelligence Model.
Retrieved from http://www.intelligenceanalysis.net/National%20Intelligence%20Model.pdf
The National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan, U.S. Department of Justice (2005). National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan.
# 16 The Department of Homeland Security, properly supported by the Congress, should complete, as quickly as possible, a biometric entry-exit screening system, including a single system for speeding qualified travelers. It should be integrated with the system that provides benefits to foreigners seeking to stay in the United States.
This particular recommendation has failed miserably since the time of its suggestion by the 9/11 commission. Immigration into the United States goes largely unchecked, much less checked by any type of biometric screening system. Although this appears to be a failure of massive proportion, it does not seem to be too impactful as history has proven us.
While the borders of the United States are too wide and expansive too have any real deterrent to keep people out, a biometric entry system would not have much good if these entry points were monitored. The development of big data,…
M6A1 Group Project Form.
The National Counterterrorism Center (nd). Viewed 6 April 2014. Retrieved from http://www.nctc.gov/whatwedo.html
9/11 and the ITPA
Under the National Security Act of 1947, the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) was charged with the task of coordinating all national intelligence activities within the U.S. government. One major reason for this change was the failure of coordination and analysis across the intelligence agencies in predicting the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941. Indeed, so glaring were the failures to 'connect the dots' in determining the intentions of the Japanese that they gave rise to at least as many conspiracy theories as the September 11 attacks, such as the idea that Franklin oosevelt knew about the attack in advance and permitted it to happen so the U.S. would enter the Second World War. In practice, the coordination of intelligence activities never really occurred, and many similar failures occurred in the future, such as the CIA's inability to predict the outbreak of the Korean War or…
Best, R.A. And A. Cumming. (2011). "Director of National Intelligence Statutory Authorities: Status and Proposals." Congressional Research Service. 7-7500, January 12, 2011.
Fingar, T. (2008). "Analytic Transformation: Unleashing the Potential of a Community of Analysts." Office of the Director of National Intelligence, September 1, 2008.
Hearing of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. (2007). Progress on Intelligence Reform, January 23, 2007.
Progress on Intelligence Reform. (2007). Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Statement to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, January 23, 2007.
In the wake of the terrorist attacks of 9/11, there were many changes in U.S. domestic and foreign policy. The attacks highlighted the risks posed to Americans both at home and abroad. The Bush government enacted several policies in response to the attacks. Domestically, two stand out as the most significant. The first was the Homeland Security Act of 2002. This act created the Department of Homeland Security, which took a substantial amount of responsibility -- but not total responsibility -- for safeguarding the nation. The DHS began working with other agencies to strengthen border security in particular, and to coordinate anti-terrorism efforts. The department's presence is especially felt in terms of transportation safety, and the myriad new rules and restrictions that govern air travel.
The other significant law that was passed in response to the terrorist attacks was the Patriot Act, which was passed very quickly after…
Cornell Law School. (2014). Fourth Amendment. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved November 6, 2014 from http://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/fourth_amendment
CRF. (2014). The Bush doctrine. Constitutional Rights Foundation. Retrieved November 6, 2014 from http://www.crf-usa.org/war-in-iraq/bush-doctrine.html
Drezner, D. (2011). Does Obama have a grand strategy? Foreign Affairs. Retrieved November 6, 2014 from http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/67919/daniel-w-drezner/does-obama-have-a-grand-strategy
POST-9/11 Management OF U.S. AILINE INDUSTY
Strategic Management of the United States
Airline Industry after the 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks
Strategic Management of the United States
Airline Industry after the 9/11/2001 Terrorist Attacks
Airlines in the United States have a long, complicated history in terms of management strategy that includes alterations due to technological advances, bankruptcies, economic downturns, deregulation and even presidential intervention, but none of these forces had the power to both destroy and restructure the industry like the events of September 11, 2001.
The 9/11/01 attacks on the United States fundamentally altered the way the U.S. airline industry operated both publically and internally. One area that suffered significantly from these attacks, and brought about the need for major overhaul within the industry itself was strategic management strategies and practices within the airline industry in its entirety. The 9/11 attacks on America brought about the need for immediate change in…
Allvine, F., Dixit, A, Sheth, J., and Uslay. (2007). Deregulation and competition: lessons learned from the airline industry. Print. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
Alvesson, S. And Karreman, D. (2009). Critical performativity: the unfinished business of critical management studies. Human Relations, 62.4. pp. 537-560. Web. Retrieved from: ProQuest Database.
Belobaba, P. (2002). The airline industry since 9/11: overview of recovery and challenges ahead. MIT Global Airline Industry Quarterly. March 2002:1. pp. 1-11. Web. Retrieved from: EBSCOhost Database.
Besant, C. (2002 September 1). Chaos followed 9/11 in the aviation industry. Turnaround Management Association Journal of Corporate Renewal, 12:1. pp. 1-3. Web. Retrieved from: LexisNexis Database.
Communication is among the highest critical success factors in the event of an emergency. Some forms of communication are more effective than others in certain scenarios. Furthermore, technology plays a vital role in the ability to communicate with stakeholders. Some technologies are adequate to serve as the framework for communication between individuals, agencies, and the public while others are not as functional. After the events of September 11th, 2001, there were significant communication challenges that hindered the effectiveness of the first responders.
As volume of different communications increased drastically with people trying to reach out to loved ones and acquire relevant news of the events. However, this acted to overwhelm the system and max out its capacity. There were even come response teams that had to send messengers to other in order to communicate between various groups. This paper will analyze some of the communication failures that were…
AP. (2007, December 5). Communication Breakdown on 9/11. Retrieved from CBS News: http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-224_162-618272.html
Harwood, M. (2011, August 17). Former DHS Chief Calls Interoperable Communications Failure "a National Disgrace." Retrieved from Security Management: http://www.securitymanagement.com/news/former-dhs-chief-calls-interoperable-communications-failure-a-national-disgrace-008904
Margolin, J. (2011, March 7). Radio problems from 9/11 not fixed, could strike again. Retrieved from NY Post: http://nypost.com/2011/03/07/radio-problems-from-911-not-fixed-could-strike-again/
Mittelsadt, M. (2004, May 19). Panel: Communication problems hampered 9/11 response. Retrieved from The Battalion: http://www.thebatt.com/2.8485/panel-communication-problems-hampered-9-11-response-1.1205160#.UkXELYZvPCk
Countermeasures After 911
Without a doubt, September 11th changed a tremendous amount about how we live and about how safe (and unsafe) we feel. These attacks caused enormous changes and countermeasures regarding the way we travel and the way we interact with one another and the way in which we use technology. However, ever since the ten-year anniversary of 9/11 has come and gone, it begs to determine just how much we've changed in the way that we live, examining specific areas of technology, commerce and communication. Consider the following: "In spite of a doubling of the intelligence budget since 2001 to $80 billion, the creation or reorganizing of some 263 government organizations, and the formation of the $50 billion Department of Homeland Security, the government has largely fallen short, the new report notes. The report states that while some progress has been made, 'some major September 11 Commission…
Aclu.org. (2003, August 25). The Five Problems With CAPPS II. Retrieved from Aclu.org: https://www.aclu.org/national-security/five-problems-capps-ii
Alpha.org. (2011, Fall). Aviation Security. Retrieved from alpa.org: http://www.alpa.org/portals/alpa/pressroom/inthecockpit/ALPAIssueAnalysis_10YearsAfter9-11Attacks.pdf
Browne, D. (2009). Flying without Fear: Effective Strategies to Get You Where You Need to Go. New York: New Harbinger Publications.
Elias, B. (2009). Airport and Aviation Security: U.S. Policy and Strategy in the Age of Global. New York: CRC Press.
modernity, the idea of culture and groups has become complex and morphed into an amalgamation of definitions surrounding the idea of just what it is that defines a community. The idea of "community" as a political or sociological concept, has taken on new meaning in the 21st century era of globalization. First, however, it is important to understand the basic idea of community, as well as the political, social and cultural changes that result in a need for a different definition of what community means and how it influences the individual's life.
In general, the idea of community conveys two rather distinct messages. It is often used to refer to a social unit of varying size that shares common values, or a national or international community in which the individuals have something unique or a set of principles and beliefs that are common to most of the group. In science,…
"9-11: The Basics." 2012. Septterror.tripod.com. March 2014. .
Anderson, B. Imqagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso, 2006. Print.
CNN Network. "Stars and Stripes and Security Lines." September 2013. 9-11 The Ripple Effect. Web. February 2014. .
Effland, R. "The Cultural Evolution of Civilizations." 1998. Mesa Community College. February 2014. .
Globalization and Cultural Conflict
The authors (Gardner, et al., 2008, Author House, 82-83) explain that several IT and business professionals have been hired to transfer a business from an existing system to a completely automated system. This project was launched prior to the terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001. The key question comes down to a leadership scenario: hat leadership approach should be taken when two out of a dozen talented contractors that have been hired happen to be Islamic, and those two individuals ask for an hour off every Friday for religious purposes? This paper delves into that subject using narrative from the available literature, and from two books: Corporate Leadership Selection: Impact on American Business, Employees, and Society; and Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership Strategies for Cross-Cultural Business Success.
Gardner, et al., on Leadership
As an introduction to what Reginald J. Gardner writes about leadership in…
Akram, S.M. "The Aftermath of September 11, 2001: The Targeting of Arabs and Muslims
in America." Arab Studies Quarterly, 24(2&3), 61-119.
Ali, Y. "Shariah and Citizenship -- How Islamophobia Is Creating a Second-Class Citizenry
In America." California Law Review, 100(4), 1027-1068.
This fact alone reflects a change in the sample's demographics, wherein the middle- to higher-class income respondents had more likely answered the said poll, and is, in effect, not representative of American society in general.
Responses given for the poll, as discussed earlier, were not clearly stated. The responses provided do not reflect absolutism and definitiveness. In fact, the use of "better" and "worse" in the responses show that they are not located at the opposite ends of the improvement spectrum, but rather, in the middle.
Assuming that the question was clearly understood as asking of U.S. In general or on the overall, the responses are to be interpreted as follows: "81% of CNN online pollers reported that the country has worsened since 9/11." Note that the sample is specifically stated and limited to CNN online pollers, in addition to the observation that the term "worsened" was not stated in…
The author of this report is asked to pick out a military or terrorist attack that has occurred since the World War II era and assess it from a case study and analytical standpoint. Specifically, there will be a focus on the failures and issues that occurred before and during the event. For the purposes of this report, the author has chosen the proverbial elephant in the room and that would be the 9/11 attacks on September 11th, 2001. The author of this report will conduct this study in four major sections, those being an overview of what happened, the pre-event and event actions that occurred, the missed indicators and the lessons learned. As with any scholarly research, any sources used for this report will be cited and given credit. While preventing terrorist attacks in general is exceedingly hard, 9/11 was entirely preventable and is a sterling example of…
Bradner, E. (2015). TSA screeners failed tests to detect explosives, weapons
CNNPolitics.com. CNN. Retrieved 28 June 2015, from http://www.cnn.com/2015/06/01/politics/tsa-failed-undercover-airport-screening-tests/
CBS,. (2015). Boston Bombings - News, Pictures & Videos - CBS News. Cbsnews.com.
Retrieved 28 June 2015, from http://www.cbsnews.com/boston-bombings/
hile most see these and other similar reforms as necessary, serving merely as a legal upgrade for law enforcement, one provision of the act's section regarding wireless communication has created much controversy. This section allows foreign intelligence agencies to wiretap citizen's phones and computers without a court order. Bringing the country back to the short-lived standard of 1928, when a fraction of the technology that is used on a regular basis today was even invented, this portion of the act leaves room for the undocumented surveillance of United States citizens (Podesta). Similarly, President George . Bush announced that in the days and months following the September 11th terrorist attacks he ordered the wiretapping of several United States residents without approval from congress, admitting and defending his expansion of the role of executive. Thus, while both public and private wiretapping have a long history of use in the United States, the…
Americans see 9/11 as most important event of their lives." Breitbart.com. 10
September 2007. Breitbart.com. 7 August 2008. http://www.breitbart.com/article.php?id=070910151708.55q95fzq&show_article=1 .
Balz, Dan and Deane, Claudia. "Differing Views on Terrorism." The Washington Post.
11 January 2006.
Critical Thinking for Homeland Security
The capacity of a government to protect its citizens pivots on the ability of its leaders and high-placed specialists to think critically. Few times in history point so clearly to this principle than the 9/11 disaster. In 1941, the same year that the attack on Pearl Harbor occurred, Edward M. Glaser published a book titled, An Experiment in the Development of Critical Thinking. Glaser's practice of psychiatry was remarkable in that he dispensed with the Freudian deep dive into past events, pushing his patients to deal with problem solving in the present -- a critical thinking practice he called reality therapy. Many of Glaser's tenets were adopted by other disciplines because of their universal utility and association with positive results. Glaser defined critical thinking as, "A persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the evidence that supports…
Albert Einstein. Brainy Quotes. Retrieved from http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/a/albert_einstein.html
Chow, D. (2011, January 25). Space Shuttle Challenger disaster FAQ: What went wrong? www.SPACE.com. Retrieved from http://www.space.com/10677-challenger-tragedy-overview.html
Eichorn, R. (2012). Developing thinking skills: Critical thinking at the Army Management Staff College. Fort Belvoir, VA: Strategic Systems Department. [Webpage, last modified: 4 2012 January.] Retreived from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/army/critical/roy.htm
Glaser, E.M. (1941). An experiment in the development of critical thinking. New York, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University.
ethnic and minority group relations and how it was affected by the events of 9-11. The writer's former perspective is presented as well as the way that perspective changed when the attacks occurred. In addition the writer provides ideas to strengthen future relations. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
The day it happened changed my perspective forever. I turned on the television and saw what looked like a movie set exploding buildings. It took several seconds for me to register that it was live and it was real and it was us. The attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001 changed America forever (Giuliani, 2001). Gone are the carefree thoughts when we see a low flying plane, and in their place are fears it is being driven into the ground. Gone is the belief that we are invincible and in its place is the…
Raghunathan, Abhi (2002). Day-Care Agency Senses Sting of 9/11 Ethnic Bias; Muslim Staff Unnerves Some Prospective Clients., The Washington Post, pp B01.
Media Campaign Encourages Tolerance in Response to American Tragedy: "Hate is Our Enemy"(accessed, 11-26-2002). http://www.aaiusa.org/pr/release10-01-01.htm
Giuliani, Rudolph W. One Nation: America Remembers September 11, 2001
Little Brown & Company
Crippling law debt is one of the reasons that many students have ambiguous feelings about law school or who are unwilling to even apply. However, Centonzio states: "The GI Bill reduced the amount of debt that I have to pay back after my education is complete. I am happy to see the new GI Bill in place to address the cost of living expenses and the cost of books. If I had that available to me, my debt would be close to zero" ("Javier Centonzio," Today's GI Bill, 2011).
Because of the emotional traumas of combat, many returning veterans still struggle, regardless of their level of education. However, education can provide a structure for veterans and a way of building a positive outlook about the future. Education offers a new form of discipline to veterans, and gives them greater assurance of living a productive life. Said Laurie Reiprich, a returning…
"Benefits comparison chart." GI Bill. [November 8, 2011]
Dakduk, Michael. "Is the new GI Bill a success?" Veteran Journal. September 16, 2011.
[November 8, 2011]http://www.veteranjournal.com/the-new-gi-bill/
Loose Change: An American Coup and Its Critics
Loose Change: An American Coup is a documentary film directed by Dylan Avery that challenges the official version of what happened on September 11, 2001. The film alleges that the official explanation provided by the government is untenable and full of contradictions. The film describes 9/11 as a false flag operation, an inside job disguised as an act carried out by foreign terrorists. The film also alleges that the Twin Towers in New York could not have collapsed because of an airplane explosion and thus must have been brought down by a controlled demolition and that the Pentagon was hit by a cruise missile rather than an airplane. The film claims that 9/11 was a conspiracy used by the Bush Administration to justify imperial goals in the Middle East.
Many journalists have criticized Loose Change, including George Monbiot who was also critical…
Avery, Dylan. Loose Change: An American Coup (2009).
Monbiot, George. "A 9/11 Conspiracy Virus is Sweeping the World, But it has No Basis in Fact." The Guardian, 5 Feb. 2007. Web. 10 Oct. 2011.
Smith, Patrick. "Ask the Pilot." Salon, 19 May 2006, Web. 10 Oct. 2011.
EOGANIZATION OF THE U.S. INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY
The eorganization, Challenges, and Problems of the U.S. Intelligence Community 9/11 Attacks
The proposal to restructure the intelligence community through the creation of DNI was floated for long before 9/11. The Commission's recommended for National Counterterrorism Center that represented virtual approaches of bridging executive branch departments and implementing interagency coordination. Later, Congress enacted a bill, and the president signed Intelligence eform and Terrorism Prevention Act that led to the implementation of the recommendations. This study analyzes the rationale behind and legal provisions concerning the reorganization. The associated problems and challenges are also identified.
First, the reforms aimed at equipping the U.S. intelligence community with strategies to prevent Intelligence failures. The debate within the abilities of the DNI to induce preventative intelligence failures that focus on powers awarded and denied to such official capacities. Psychological failures happen as analysts cope with inherent uncertainties of evidence…
Katherine, M.B., Darmer, R.M., & Rosenbaum, S.E. (2004). Civil Liberties vs. National Security in a Post9/11 World. Amherst NY: Prometheus Books.
Nacos, B.L. (2012). Terrorism and Counterterrorism. New York: Longman/Pearson
911 as Justification to Invade Iraq
The war in Iraq may or may not have been justified for humanitarian or ideological reasons, depending on one's perspective. American leaders who favored war with Iraq used the frightened public mood, after 9/11, to maneuver opinion toward favoring the war, supposedly for America's safety. According to "Clarke's Take on Terror"
In the aftermath of Sept. 11, President Bush ordered his then top anti-terrorism adviser to look for a link between Iraq and the attacks, despite being told there didn't seem to be one . . . The
charge comes from the adviser, Richard Clarke . . . Clarke says that as early as the day after the attacks, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld was pushing for retaliatory strikes on Iraq,
even though al Qaeda was based in Afghanistan . . . Clarke suggests the idea took him so aback, he initally [sic] thought…
Bamford, James. A Pretext for War: 9/11, Iraq, and the Abuse of America's Intelligence
Agencies. New York: Doubleday, 2004. Back Flap.
"Clarke's Take on Terror." 60 Minutes [online]. March 21, 2004. Retrieved May 2, 2005,
global terrorism since September 2011 needs to be based on hard facts and, unfortunately, September11 was so recent and so raw that much of our perspective on global terrorism as a result is skewed by pain and suspicion.
Firstly, the essay, therefore, has to be based on facts as opposed to feelings.
Secondly, one has to conceptualize 'terrorism' since it is a vague term and can refer to a myriad of instances (Green et al., 2001). Terrorism, for instance, exists on both an intra and inter-national scale. On an intra-national scale, you have countries, such as Britain where terrorism flourishes from within the country for both economic and political reasons or on an international scale where terrorism exists for reasons ranging from seeking to assert their militaristic prowess, to gaining independence, or for alleged religious explanations. Some instances of terrorism may even be seen in hind perspective to be legitimate…
Conetta, C. (2006) War & Consequence: Global terrorism has increased since 9/11 attacks. Project on Defense Alternatives Briefing Memo #38
Green, D.P., McFalls, LH & Smith, JK (2001). Hate Crime: An
Emergent Research Agenda, Annual Review of Sociology. 27:479-504.
DOJ Policy Changes
The plethora of commentary regarding the terrorist attacks that occurred on 9/11 has created much confusion. The overwhelming quality of the circumstances altered the collective psyche of America in deep and profound ways. In many cases these changes have provided solutions, problems and more questions.
The purpose of this essay is to discuss how 9/11 changed criminal justice policies in the United States. The essay will argue that although there have been many worthwhile and successful alterations, a small portion of the policies have provided more questions than answers. To help illuminate this hypothesis, this essay will analyze many of these changes that have been implemented and evaluate them from a new perspective.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is essentially responsible for enforcing and promoting the ideas of justice, fairness and retribution. In a ten-year retrospective of their own accomplishments and principles regarding…
Baginski, M. (2005). Testimony to Congress Subcommittee on Crime Terrorism and Homeland Security, Washington DC, 19 April 2005. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov/news/testimony/importance-of-usa-patriot-act-to-fbi-information-sharing
Blumenthal, R. (2013). FISA Court Secrecy Must End. Politico, 14 July 2013. Retrieved from http://www.politico.com/story/2013/07/fisa-court-process-must-be-unveiled-94127.html
Davis, L. et al. (2010). Long-Term Effects of Law Enforcement's Post 9/11 Focus on Counterterrorism and Homeland Security. Prepared for the National Institute of Justice by Rand Corporation, 2010. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/232791.pdf
Liu, E. (2013). Reauthorization of the FISA Amendments Act. Congressional Research Service, 8 April, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/intel/R42725.pdf
Has airport security improved since 9/11/2001
There are certain historical moments which change everything: 9/11 is one of them. In addition to the seismic policy and personal effects of the tragedy, airport security and attitudes towards airport security have undergone substantial reforms. New screening methods of passengers in airports cost about $4 billion per year and security is now handled by the government in the form of the Transportation Security Administration (TSA), within the Department of Homeland Security, versus the private entities which used to handle security previously for the major carriers (McClure 2005). Security has clearly grown more visible and tighter but the question arises: is it truly safer to fly in the post 9/11 world? "Before 9/11, airport security consisted of a ticket agent asking if you packed your bag yourself, if it had been in your continuous custody since you packed it, and whether you…
Johnston, W. (2007). Not safe enough: Fixing transportation security. Issues in Science and Technology. Retrieved from: http://issues.org/23-2/johnstone/
McClure, G. (2005). Has Airport Security Improved Since 9/11? Today's Engineer.
Retrieved from: http://www.todaysengineer.org/2005/jun/security.asp
Secure Flight Program. (2014). TSA. Retrieved from:
It is often said that there is no 'typical' terrorist: terrorism can spring from a multitude of psychological and political causes. Some terrorist groups are mainly political in their aims; others, as was the case with the 9/11 hijackers are primarily religious in terms of how they articulate their ideology. However, the 9/11 terrorists still exhibited a political dimension in their actions, given that they were instrumental in attacking major sites of American power, symbolic of their desire to end American influence in the Islamic world and to curtail the overall influence of America worldwide.
Terrorists can and do come from a wide array of social classes but are not necessarily poor; rather "the frustration-aggression hypothesis" of terrorism is based on "a gap between rising expectations and need satisfaction" (Hudson 1999). In other words, when economic and personal opportunities do not keep pace with the reality experienced by the…
M6D2: Warning signs of 9/11
For many, the fact that there had already been an attack on the Twin Towers is the most potent symbol of the failure of U.S. intelligence before their destruction on 9/11. Al-Qaida had clearly shown its determination to end the existence of these symbols of American power and dominance. The fact that the authorities were not on high alert to the possibility of another attack seems surprising in the extreme. Al-Qaida was clearly determined to finish what it had started.
The Bush Administration received warnings that another attack was likely. "The direct warnings to Mr. Bush about the possibility of a Qaeda attack began in the spring of 2001. By May 1, the Central Intelligence Agency told the White House of a report that 'a group presently in the United States' was planning a terrorist operation. Weeks later, on June 22, the daily brief reported that Qaeda strikes could be 'imminent'" (Eichenwald 2012). As another brief in August was being issued to the Administration, "a Saudi believed to have been assigned a role in the 9/11 attacks, was stopped at an airport in Orlando, Fla., by a suspicious customs agent and sent back overseas on Aug. 4. Two weeks later, another co-conspirator, Zacarias Moussaoui, was arrested on immigration
1. Some operational contingencies are considered core because the operation could not function without it. A core operational contingency is one that must remain functioning. This is important for contingency planning, so that when you plan for the more common risks that the operation faces, you ensure that the core ones are taken care of, and will continue to run. If you run an e-commerce site, for example, you would consider the ability to keep your website running and continue taking orders as a core contingency. Everything else can suffer from some downtime if necessary, but keeping the revenue coming in is a core competency.
The non-core competencies are the ones that can be disrupted without entirely disrupting the business. This does not mean that the operation can continue indefinitely without these competencies, just that they can be interrupted without completely interrupting the operation. A classic example is…
And it does this by conducting investigations and enforcing laws that deal with public health, order, and decency.
"Morals" and "decency" are not words one would expect to see in the core values of a secular institution like a police department, but they are definitely in line with the stated core beliefs of SLU. As stated previously, SLU has it basis in a strong Catholic ideology, which is permeated with morality and decency. Catholic teachings, which are at the center of the core values of SLU, teach a person to be a moral individual who acts with decency. While maintaining the core values of maintaining excellence, respecting the law, protecting communities, and acting with integrity, the Lubbock Police Department does not forget to maintain a code of moral conduct that also expects society to act within the norms of decency.
One of the causes of the failure of the United…
Casteel, Philip. (2011, Feb. 24). "Mayor Reacts to Terrorist Arrest in Lubbock." KCBD
Webpage. Retrieved from http://www.kcbd.com/story/14136417/mayor-reactas-to-terrorist-arest-in-lubbock?redirected=true
"Core Values." (n.d.) St. Leo University Webpage. Retrieved from http://www.saintleo.edu/About-SLU/Florida-Catholic-University
"Lubbock Police Department swears in 13 New Officers." (2011, Sept. 9). Lubbock
Ronald Regan is considered by many as one of the most influential American presidents in the last four decades. However, Carter was instrumental in how Regan ran his administration. n politics they both sought to exploit the aftermath of the civil right movement that led to "white backlash" and many white Southerners and Northerners to defect from the popular Democrats in order to support George Wallace, a former populist candidate. When his began his general election, he went to Neshoba County in 1980 and declared he believed in states' rights after white supremacists bombed a black church. Jimmy Carter spoke in a similar fashion, trying to fish votes from the "white ethnics" who did not want black people to move into their neighborhoods. n April 1976, Carter made a statement saying he saw nothing wrong with maintaining ethnic purity. From this kind of language, both presidents gained many supporters from…
It began with the bombings in Afghanistan in 2001 and then progressed into the Bush Administration accusing Iraq for concealing WMDs or weapons of mass destruction. United States government officials accused Saddam Hussein not only of the WMDs, but also the supporting and harboring of al-Qaeda. This unfounded suspicion came at the heels of the growing weariness of Afghanistan and Iraq in relation to potential terrorist threats. While nothing was found and the United States eventually left Iraq 2011, the continual attacks led to great instability and mismanagement of power of Hussein's death in the Iraq as well as Afghanistan.
In present times, the United States has very little influence in Iraq. The country is now Shia-dominated with a mistreated and alienated Sunni minority. There is no control of the Kurdish north and rampant violence everywhere. In Afghanistan, the Muslim world grew to distrust the United States with some 4,486 American service personnel murdered.
With ISIS growing each day, some attribute the demise of Hussein and the chaos that followed as fueling the formation of the terrorist group today. Regardless of the reasons for sending troops to Afghanistan and Iraq, the Iraq War and the war on terror were seen as a blunder in the Bush Administration that cost Americans money as debt grew, and growth in foreign policy declined. Whether or not Bush handled the situation well surrounding the 9/11 attacks, it shaped and molded the events of today and provided years of economic turmoil and suffering. The United States now more than ever is hesitant to deploy ground troops to a foreign country again.
9-11 and Mass Commumications
Three years after the tragedy of 9-11, the city of new York has cleared the rubbish our of the footprint of the two towers, but they are still a long way from clearing the wreckage out of their collective, and individual hearts. Never before has the nation been struck in an act of war as was seen on national television on 9-11-2001. Even when the Japanese planes swarmed into Pearl Harbor, American's saw only the pictures which were released in print, and the events of the day had time to settle before the images of war were digested. ut even the attack on Pearl Harbor was fundamentally different than what occurred in New York. Military forces struck a military target. This does not reduce the shock of the event, but it was easier to digest as the nation ramped up for war in the European theater…
Aron, Raymond. The Imperial Republic. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. 1974
Baktiari, B, and Al-Sayyid, M.Kk. The impact of 9/11 on the Middle East. Middle East Policy. 12/1/2002
Cohen, David. Out of a clear blue sky; 9.11 Where were you? The Evening Standard (London, England); 9/11/2002.
Herert, Chantal. How 9/11 affected our parties The Toronto Star; 9/12/2003.
Lead Federal Agencies
hen it comes to lead agencies in the U.S. government -- designed to respond to an emergency, a disaster, or an attack on the U.S. -- there is one that stands out as having the greatest responsibilities, and that is the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Prior to September 11, 2001, there was no homeland security department, but FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency), the military, and other agencies were responsible for security in the event of disaster or other emergency.
But following the September 11 attacks, the U.S. Congress authorized the creation of the DHS, and a total of 22 different federal departments and agencies were brought under one umbrella. The DHS helps citizens and communities where there is a flood -- which is the most common disaster situation in America -- or a terrible tornado or hurricane, or an explosion in a factory or sudden, unpredictable…
Arkin, W. (2005). Not Just a Last Resort? The Washington Post. Retrieved March 26, 2014,
Priest, D., and Arkin, W.M. (2010). A hidden world, growing beyond control. The Washington
Post. Retrieved March 26, 2014, from http://projects.washingtonpost.com .
advertising strategy and the branding strategy are all integrated with the larger concept of marketing strategy and, on the highest levels, with the company's overall business strategy. The way that a certain brand is advertised depends on what the company decided for that brand, namely what the strategy for it is. It also depends on a variety of marketing-related elements, such as product positioning on the market or the targeted group of consumers. For example, a brand that is #2 on the market and aims to be #1 may have an advertising campaign that targets the leader.
In correlating the advertising strategy with the branding strategy, our company needs to consider several elements. First, this is a new company, as well as a niche company. The first objective of a successful advertising strategy is to relate to the characteristics of the brand and understand how to reach the targeted group…
1. Gustafson, Tara, Chabot, Brian, (2007). Brand Awareness. Cornell Maple Bulletin
2. Lewis, Randall, Rao, Justin, (2013). On the Near Impossibility of Measuring the Returns to Advertising. On the Internet at http://www.justinmrao.com/lewis_rao_nearimpossibility.pdf . Last retrieved on November 27, 2013
3. Brassington, F, Pettitt, S. (2000). Principles of Marketing, 2nd Edition. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited
4. Meidan, A, (1996). Marketing Financial Services. Hampshire and London: Macmillan Press Ltd.
In her article, "Aftermath of Aftermath- Unanswered Questions from 9-11 -from an organizer's point-of-view" the military could have done more. In particular the author asserts that General Myers who controlled such military operations, couls have done more to prevent the attacks (Brouillet). Instead the general was awarded one of the highest military honors for his inaction prior to 9/11 (Brouillet). The author also explain that she organized rallies and showecd people a film entitled "The Great Deception" which was the first televised show that contradicted the claims that were being made by the mainstream media in the aftermath of 9/11.
Mark Dunlea is one of the most outspoken voices on the events of September 11 and the lack of cooperation from the Bush administration in reference to a bipartisan review of the terrorist attacks. Dunlea is a member of the Green Party of New York city. In fact, Mark Dunlea…
Brouillet, Carol Aftermath of Aftermath- Unanswered Questions from 9-11
from an organizer's point-of-view. Retrieved January 2, 2005 from;
Dunlea, Mark. Madame President: The Unauthorized Biography of the First Green Party President. Big Toad Books: New York.
The September 11 terrorist attacks had a tremendous impact on foreign and domestic policy. One of the industries most directly affected by the terrorist attacks was the aviation industry. Shocked by the methods used in the terrorist attacks and forced to immediately address core managerial weaknesses, the aeronautical industry has risen to the occasion admirably. eclaiming the Sky: 9/11 and the Untold Story of the Men and Women who Kept America Flying is about people -- the people that comprise the American aeronautical industry who understood how to cope with extreme crisis. The anecdotes in Tom Murphy's compilation highlight key areas in which the aeronautical industry succeeded by meeting the challenges it faced after the terrorist attacks. Focusing on the positive aspects of how the various levels of management and employees dealt with the crisis provides a framework for the future of the industry.
eclaiming the Sky: 9/11 and…
Blake, A. & Sinclair, M.T. (2003). Tourism crisis management: U.S. response to Septmeber 11. Annals of Tourism Research 30(4): 813-832.
Campbell, R.D., & Bagshaw, M. (2008). Human performance and limitations in aviation. Blackwell. Retrieved online: http://tocs.ulb.tu-darmstadt.de/105044474.pdf
Jensen, R.S. (1997). The Boundaries of Aviation Psychology, Human Factors, Aeronautical Decision Making, Situation Awareness, and Crew Resource Management. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology 7(4): 259-267.
Murphy, T. (2006). Reclaiming the Sky. AMACOM.
Immigration and the Muslim Population
9/11 changed the world -- especially in the U.S. in terms of Muslim-American relations and the way the word "terror" and "terrorist" is used to identify or refer to a group of people.[footnoteRef:1] The issue of Islamaphobia became more pronounced and anti-Muslim immigration policies began to be discussed as a matter of national security.[footnoteRef:2] As -- has shown, the media has been complicit in both demonizing the Muslim community in America and promoting a view of American immigration policy that is anti-Muslim.[footnoteRef:3] This paper will show that the changes in U.S. immigration policy post 9-11 have negatively affected American Muslims in several ways as a result of inherently racist legislation specifically targeting all Muslims regardless of whether they are U.S. citizens or not. [1: Jigyasu, R. "Defining the Definition for Addressing the 'Reality'," in What is a Disaster?: New Answers to Old Questions, Ed. Ronald…
Of course, not all of the counterterrorism methods will work, and there will certainly be changes, alterations, and even the disbanding of some of the things the government has done to help prevent further attacks.
Clearly, the nation has learned quite a bit from the terrorist attacks of 9/11. The people learned the country was vulnerable to attacks never before imagined. They learned that thousands of people could die in a few minutes at the hands of terrorists, and that the borders, the cities, and even the rural areas were susceptible to attack. They learned that weapons such as biochemical agents and other poisons could enter the water and food supplies and could kill thousands, or even millions. They learned that the country has to be increasingly vigilant to protect the citizens and their way of life. They also learned that Americans could stand together with pride in the face…
Chomsky, N. (2001). September 11. Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin.
Cordesman, A.H. (2002). Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Defending the U.S. Homeland. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Klinger, D.A., & Grossman, D. (2002). Who Should Deal with Foreign Terrorists on U.S. Soil? Socio-Legal Consequences of September 11 and the Ongoing Threat of Terrorist Attacks in America. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 25(2), 815+.
Posner, Gerald. (2003). Why America Slept: The Failure to Prevent 9/11. New York: Random House.
September 11 Attacks Affected the Lives of American Muslims
For a long time, American Muslims have been part and parcel of the American society. It is however important to note that after the September 11 terror attacks, the status of American Muslims in the wider American society seems to have undergone a major review. Unlike was the case a couple of years ago, most American non-Muslims seem to have developed negative stereotypes of American Muslims.
The September 11 Attacks
One of the darkest moments in American history, September 11, 2001 is a day that will remain engraved in the minds of most Americans for many years to come. This is the day that 19 Muslim men executed a plan that left thousands of Americans dead and others badly injured. In a well planned (and executed) undertaking, the terrorists involved in this atrocity chose to used several planes as deadly weapons…
Almasri, Nasir. "The Impact on American Muslims, 11 Years After 9/11." Council on American-Islamic Relations -- Chicago. CAIR -- Chicago, 13 Sept. 2012. Web. 2 May 2013.
Cohen, Jon and Kyle Dropp. "Most Americans Object to Planned Islamic Center Near Ground Zero, Poll Finds." The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company, 9 Sept. 2010. Web. 3 May 2013.
Khan, Mussarat and Kathryn Ecklund. "Attitudes Toward Muslim Americans Post-9/11." Journal of Muslim Mental Health. 7.1 (2012): n. pag. Web. 1 May 2013.
Lean, Nathan. "Sept. 11: Eleven Years Later, American Muslims are Victims." The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company, 9 Sept. 2012. Web. 1 May 2013.
Changes in U.S. Business Ethics Practices
Changes in U.S. Business Ethics Practices Since Sep 11, 2001
The incident of 9/11 made the world pass though many sad and undesirable changes. One of such changes is declining rate of ethical considerations in U.S. based commercial organization. The subject is important to explore as it is likely to affect the image of U.S. business organizations. Furthermore, it is also expected that U.S. literature upon management and business administration may fail to appeal the world as the practices are not aligned with it.
The paper explains the changes in lieu of unfortunate incident of 9/11 in USA and casts light upon the implication of ethical consideration presently enforced in U.S. based organizations.
Changes in U.S. Business Ethics Practices Since Sep 11, 2001
The incident of 9/11 was an unfortunate event for many nations of the worlds including Americans. The incident changed…
Angle, C. (2008). Defining Ethics Good & Evil. New York: Philosophy Publishing.
Bacher, C. (2007). Corporate Social Responsibility. Germany: GRIN Verlag.
Bergen, P. (2011). The Longest War America and Al-Qaeda since 9/11. New York: Free Press.
Carroll, A. And Buchholtz, A. (2011). Business & Society. USA: Cengage Learning.
September 11, 2001, terrorists staged an attack on the United States. There were several areas affected, but the Twin Towers in New York City were - and still remain - the most notable. They are what everyone thinks of, when 9/11 is mentioned. On that day many lives were lost. Among them were 37 officers and one K-9 officer from the Port Authority Police Department (PAPD) (Damico & Quay, 2010). That department works jointly for New York and New Jersey, and was housed in the World Trade Center complex. The quick thinking of the PAPD, along with other law enforcement agencies, reduced the loss of life. While still tragic, the 9/11 events could have been significantly more devastating if it were not for the quick thinking of a number of police officers, firefighters, and other individuals. One of the reasons the PAPD performed so well on 9/11, however, likely came…
Bolton, M.K. (2006). U.S. National Security and Foreign Policymaking After 9/11: Present at the Re-creation. New York: Rowman & Littlefield
Caraley, D. (2002). September 11, terrorist attacks, and U.S. foreign policy. New York: Academy of Political Science
Chernick, H. (2005). Resilient city: the economic impact of 9/11. New York: Russell Sage Foundation
Damico, A.M., & Quay, S.E. (2010). September 11 in Popular Culture: A Guide. New York: Greenwood
Another trend that makes the American economy seem weak after September 11th is a change in spending habits. Many economists attribute a change in retail spending to the aftermath of September 11th when really it mostly reflects an evolution in the retail industry. Over time the American consumer's needs have changed and so have the demographics. For instance, "women are the driving force behind retail purchases" (Six Months, 2002) as more of them are head household now. According to BIGresearch, "consumers say they have changed and become more practical and realistic when making a purchase and 52.2% of them say this change is long-term" (Six Months, 2002). In this respect, September 11th did have a direct influence on the American consumer in that their retail spending tastes changed. Because of the attacks and fear, Americans spent more time with their families in the months after the attacks. This resulted in…
Delong, Bradford. "Wal-Mart dumps cold water on U.S. economic bulls. Strange Third Quarter News From Wal-Mart." Forbes.com 13 Nov 2003. 27 May 2005 ht tp:/ / www.j-bradford-delong.net/movable_type/2003_archives/002718.html. Accessed 2005 Jan 7.
Hubbard, Glen, R. "Huh? A Surprising Success! First Came the Bursting of the Clinton Bubble,
Then 9/11 the Accounting Scandals and All the Other Shocks to the System. Who Would
Have Predicted Such a Vigorous U.S. Recovery?" The International Economy 18, 2 (2004):
It was seen that the Russian security interests were undermined by the Taliban regime. The Taliban regime was also the one that recognized the importance of the Chechen government. It was understood by the Russians that the relationships with the Americans was the main way to enhance security in Russia. Since September 11, it has been seen that there has been a great increase in the international prestige of Russia. Before the events of September 11, the American leaders thought of Russia as a lost cause. Russia was one of the most important allies of the U.S. since the September 11 attacks. After Russia became an ally, it was seen that the domestic political situation of the Russians improved as centralized system was being adopted. Since the partnership in the global war on terror, there has been an improvement in the relationships of the two countries (Peter 48).
Briefel, Aviva., and Miller, J. Sam. Horror After 9/11: World of Fear, Cinema of Terror. University of Texas Press, 2011.
Kellner, Douglas. From 9/11 to Terror War: The Dangers of the Bush Legacy, Politics: Current events. Rowman & Littlefield, 2003.
Lyon, David. Surveillance After September 11 Volume 11 of Themes for the 21st Century Series. Polity, 2003.
Peter, Dale, Scott. The Road to 9/11: Wealth, Empire, and the Future of America. University of California Press, 2008.
terrorist attacks of September 11th 2001 as well as several previous acts of domestic and international terrorism sparked responses from nearly every civic agency in the United States. Each and every agency across the nation was called to action both immediately with temporary changes and in the long-term with fundamental legal and policy actions that are believed to aid in the future response to disasters of both the man-made kind and natural (Glendening, 2002, p. 21). Maryland is poised in a position where challenges are inherent due in part to its close proximity to Washington DC, with Maryland surrounding two thirds of Washington DC, and because of some of the fundamentally high risk target sites within it, such as a nuclear facility and its own World Trade Center in Baltimore, long and sparsely controlled coastlines, just to name a few (21). "Maryland is home to many important federal installations, including…
Glendening, P.N. (Sep. 11, 2002) Governing after September 11th: A new normalcy. Public Administration Review 62 Special Issue: Democratic Governance in the Aftermath of September 11, 2001 (Sep., 2002), pp. 21-23 http://0-www.jstor.org.library.pcc.edu/stable/3110166
This again stresses that God's love has nothing to do with Israel's attractiveness and everything to do with God's grace.
"Kept the oath" (v. 8). God's love is faithful. We should not be surprised that God chose Israel in its weakness. This is exactly what God did in Genesis 12:1-3. The promise of children and a land made to an old, childless couple seemed impossible. Yet they conceived, and the promise of land is about to be fulfilled for Israel now, on the verge of the Jordan, attesting to God's faithfulness.
"Covenant loyalty" (v. 9) is an excellent rendering of the hendiadys "the covenant and the loyalty." (Hendiadys consists of two nouns joined by "and," expressing a single idea.) The word for "loyalty" (hesed) is of the essence in covenantal situations, since it refers to the mutual commitments pledged by each of the parties. On the human side, it becomes…
"Aseret Hadiberot," Cited in:
Berrigan, D. No Gods But One: Deuteronomy. Eerdmans, 2009.
Bevan, D. Literature and the Bible. Rodopi Press, 2006.
September 11, 2001 have had a significant impact on the way people view security. A recent study has indicated that there are two major tendencies that people experience after a major traumatic event like the terrorist attacks on the Twin Towers and Pentagon: "a long-term lasting search for security…and a medium-term risk avoiding behavior in the loss domain." (Sacco, 2003, p. 1113) In other words, terrorist attacks can alter the way people view security as well as the way people behave afterwards. And it is not only the people directly involved in the incident that are affected, but it has been demonstrated that the emotional and psychological effects of terrorism are have spread across the nation as whole. (Silver, 2004, p. 47) Therefore it is important to study the effects on 9/11 on the decision making of local emergency responders in response to the attacks and see what changes were…
"Arlington County After-Action Report on the Response to the September 11, 2001
Terrorist Attack on the Pentagon." Arlington County Homepage. Retrieved from https://www.arlingtonva.us/departments/Fire/Documents/after_report.pdf
"Arlington County (ARCO) Conference Report: Local Response to Terrorism" Arlington
County Homepage. Retrieved from https://www.arlingtonva.us/departments/EmergencyManagement/pdf/ARCO_
September 11th and Transportation Law
On the morning of September 11th, 2011, the United States of America felt the full fury of an enemy which had been lying in wait for decades, planning an attack of spectacularly tragic proportions that would shake the nation to its core. The weapons of choice for Osama bin Laden and his Al-Qaeda terrorist network were not bullets or bombs, but airplanes which were ruthlessly hijacked and flown as missiles into New York's World Trade Center, the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., and fatefully, an empty field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania. With the collapse of both of the Twin Towers and the immediate loss of over 3,000 lives, the American aviation industry was suddenly transformed from a once proud symbol of our national strength into a scapegoat for society's shattered complacency. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, with images of smoldering rubble streaming live on television…
H.R. 3110 -- 107th Congress: Transportation Security Enhancement Act of 2001. (2001). In GovTrack.us (database of federal legislation). Retrieved June 25, 2012, from http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/107/hr3110
107th United States Congress, (2001). Public law 107 -- 71 -- nov. 19, 2001: The aviation and transportation security act. Retrieved June 25 from U.S. Government Printing Office website: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-107publ71/pdf/PLAW-107publ71.pdf
American National Interest after September 11?
What is the 'national interest' of the United States in the post-September 11th world community? It is not simply difficult to determine the correct, concrete policy to achieve this goal in an international community filled with the fear of terrorism and political uncertainty. It is also difficult to simply define what constitutes 'a national interest,' where there are so many competing theories regarding how to define a nation's national interest in theories of international politics. For example, a realist perspective of international politics would suggest that after the attacks on the World Trade Center, the United States as a nation should rationally determine that its enemy, Al Qaeda must be eliminated, and go about seeking out the organization in Afghanistan in a highly systematized fashion, given that the terrorist cell possessed less armament capacity than the United States. If only the United States' intelligence-gather…
Since September 11, 2001, the United States has made a significant progress guiding against terrorist attacks using terrorism preparedness to forestall further terrorism attacks in the United States. Terrorism preparedness exercise is a broad range of response and preparedness program to support communities that might be affected by the terrorist attack. (National Commission on Terrorist Attacks, 2004).
Typically, the U.S. government has implemented a range of program for terrorism preparedness and one of the policies employed is the use of wide range of intelligence to investigate the imminent terrorism that might have occurred in the United States. Typically, the U.S. intelligence has collaborated with other intelligences globally to prevent act of terrorism in the United States. For example, the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) has collaborated with Pakistan intelligence to locate the hideout of Ben Laden and killed him.
Moreover, the United States has implemented various military exercises for…
National Commission on Terrorist Attacks. (2004). 9-11 Commission Report. USA.
Stenner, R.D. Kirk, J.L. Stanton, J.R. (2006).National Incident Management System (NIMS) Standards Review Panel Workshop Summary Report. U.S. Department of Energy.
Department of Homeland Security. (2012).National Response Plan. USA.
Terrorist Attacks on New York City
Consumer ehavior and Risk
Terrorism and Consumerism in the Melting Pot
How has September 11 Impacted Americans
Economic Impact of terrorism
Outlook for the New York Economy
Examination of the Effects on usiness
Regaining Consumer Confidence
Recommendations for Further Studies
Survey of Consumer Patterns After The September 11 attacks on the World Trade Towers
Survey Results presented Graphically
Store Owner Interviews
The Impact of the Terrorist Attacks on New York City: One Year Later Chapter 1
The attacks on the World Trade Towers on September 11, 2001 threatened the American People's sense of security in a way that had not been felt since the attack on Pearl Harbor. To say that the attacks changed the lives of many people would be an understatement. The attacks literally brought the country to a halt for nearly three days. It can…
American Bankers Association. 2001. "Post Sept. 11 Survey Shows Nation's Bankers Are Optimistic." ABA Press Release, December 3, 2001.
Atkinson, J.W. 1957. Motivational determinants of risk-taking behavior. Psychological Review,
Barone, Ronald; M. Rigby, Peter;Schwartz, Bruce; Simonson; Arthur F; Chew; William H;
Eiseman, Barbara A, and Shipman, Todd A. 2002. Consequences of Sept. 11 Attacks Put
economy in the United States and the catastrophic terrorist attacks of September 11th is often discussed, for many reasons. The events were so integral to the United States as a historically devastating occurrence that emotionally, socially and psychologically changed the face of the nation and with that nation is the integral issue of economy. This work will analyze the difference between the economic after effects of the September 11th attacks, in the Stock Market particularly, and the effects of another crucial historical event of the last century, the assassination of John F. Kennedy. The correlation between events and the stock exchange is often difficult to find information on in that a comprehensive history of the exchange has not been done, but perhaps the best time for such a work to be written would be now, as we discover just how well the nation and the world recover from the September…
Burk, James. Values in the Marketplace: The American Stock Market under Federal Securities Law. New York: Aldine De Gruyter, 1992.
"Correspondence." The American Prospect 18 June 2001: 6. Questia. 4 Dec. 2004 .
Dingle, Derek, and Sakina P. Spruell. "Bouncing Back: In the Aftermath of the Terrorist Attacks, Black-Owned Business Learn the True Meaning of Crisis Management as They Turn Losses into Gains." Black Enterprise Dec. 2001: 77+. Questia. 4 Dec. 2004 .
"Economy Still Strong after 9/11." The Washington Times 13 Sept. 2002: F32. Questia. 4 Dec. 2004 .
American Foreign Policy
Since September 11, 2001
Over its history, American foreign policy has proven remarkably flexible. Indeed, critics have said it has been too flexible -- "too naive, too calculating, too openhanded, too violent, too isolationist, too unilateral, too multilateral, too moralistic, too immoral" (Mead, 2002). All of these criticisms have been true of U.S. foreign policy at certain points, but its flexibility has made it possible for the nation to grow and thrive in a swiftly changing world. It is often said that the events of September 11, 2001 changed the world. The scale and source of the terrorist attacks on U.S. soil were certainly different from those experienced by any other nation before that time. However, assertions that 9/11 changed U.S. foreign policy permanently are, I believe, based on a shortsighted view of national orientations towards guerilla warfare, preventive attacks, and alliance-building. Below, I will discuss the…
Mead, W.D. (2002) Special providence: American foreign policy and how it changed the world. New York: Routledge.
Barber, B.R. (1995). Jihad vs. McWorld. New York: Times Publishing.
September 11, 2001, most Americans went on with their daily activities without fear of invasion of their own country. They read about the bombings and wars in other countries, but did not believe that similar events could happen in the United States. Those men and women who lived through World War II naturally recalled exactly what they were doing when they heard about Pearl Harbor. Yet, since that event happened so many years ago, even these individuals assumed that their land was now protected. After September 11, 2001, these peaceful thoughts were shattered, but for how long? Are Americans going back to their complacency? Do they now once again believe that the country is once again invincible?
Many people who were watching television at 8:45 AM, Eastern Daylight Time, on September 11, 2001 thought they were watching a commercial for a movie when they saw an explosion of the north…
Attack aftermath Images. InfoPlease. Website retrieved July 30, 2005.
Bloomberg.com Iraq Suicide Bombings Kill 33 in North; U.S. Helicopter Crashes
Website retrieved July 30, 2005. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=10000087& ; sid=ao5ejG5OMBR0& refer=top_world_news
alarm woke me up. Crawling from bed to bathroom and back to bed, I lay there wishing I didn't have to go to school or work. I crept to the desk and turned on my computer before even thinking about getting dressed, eyes still half shut and glazed from a lack of sleep. Internet Explorer launched, automatically loading the Yahoo! Portal, where I half-heartedly read a handful of top news headlines, a brief local weather report, and checked e-mail, as I liked to do first thing in the morning. I thought nothing much of the odd yet typically newsworthy photo of a plane hitting the first World Trade Center tower. Must be an accident, I thought. Some small private jet veered off-course, its pilot perhaps drunk. "Plane hits building,' the headline read. "Terrorism suspected." Nothing surprising there; terrorism was a household word far before September of 2001. Terrorists bomb boats…
The Emergency Volunteer Action Network (EVAN) has been a longtime advocate a Good Samaritan Entity Liability Protection for all public and private healthcare agencies as well as a Uniform Emergency Volunteer Health Practitioners Act (UEVHPA) which would allow out-of-state medical professionals to cross state lines in declared emergencies (EVAN, 2010, UNC). However, these laws tend only to provide for coverage at the immediate scene of the emergency, rather than for the type of sustained medical care demanded during major disasters.
On a gut level, it is hard to imagine me, personally, refusing to provide aid to individuals in dire need, regardless of what the law said. However, for organizations that must make immediate decisions about getting involved in helping victims of a disaster, being legally liable could have serious repercussions for the entity's future, especially if it may be called upon to give aid to large numbers of people for…
Emergency Volunteer Action Network (EVAN). (2010). UNC: Gillings School of Global Public
Health. Retrieved http://nciph.sph.unc.edu/law/evan/index.htm
Ready or not? Protecting the public's health from diseases, disasters and bioterrorism. (2009).
Stress Management centers (CISM: Everly & Mitchell, 1999) are integrated and comprehensive crisis intervention approaches to catastrophic critical events. CISM approaches consist of a continuum of services from pre-crisis preparedness to post-crisis-intervention procedures that can deal with the both the physical and psychological consequences of critical incidents. The care services during catastrophic events often include individual, group, and family interventions.
The use of the traditional model of a Family Assistance Center (FAC) is an example of macro-level CISM service planning and delivery service center. FACs as used during the 911 catastrophe assisted families in times of the crisis. A FAC is a secure facility which was set up at a centralized location with the function of supplying information about missing persons who were possible victims of the disaster. During the 911 crisis FAC's functioned as gathering points where information was exchanged in order to either facilitate the body identification process…
Donahue, A.K. & Robert V.T. (2006). Homeland Security Affairs. In Lessons we don't learn: A study of the lessons of disasters, why we repeat them, and how we can learn them. Retrieved August 28, 2011, from http://www.hsaj.org .
Everly, G.S., Jr. & Mitchell, J.T. (1999). Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM): A new era and standard of care in crisis intervention, (2nd Ed.). Ellicott City, MD: Chevron.
Williams, S (2008) Rethinking the nature of disaster: From failed instruments of learning to a post-social understanding. Social Forces, 87 (2), 1115-1138.
Post- Traumatic Stress as a Psychological Effect of the 9/11 ombings to Americans
On September 11, 2001, America and the whole world witnessed the most recent terrorist attack of a free, democratic country, wherein the World Trade Center Towers in New York City collapsed after two planes had crashed towards the two towers. The said incident was a terrorist attack by Osama bin Laden and his terrorist group Al Qaeda in Afghanistan, and the said terrorist attack resulted to thousands of deaths, which are mostly composed of people inside the building and within its perimeters. In addition to the numerous deaths and physical injuries that the attack had caused, great damage also resulted with the destruction of the World Trade Center Towers. Indeed, the terrorist attack in America had resulted to considerable material and human damage, and these dangerous results as caused by the attack had prompted that U.S. government…
Cowley, Geoffrey. "After the Trauma." 1 October 2001. Newsweek Magazine. p. 52-52B.
Gibbs, Nancy. "The Argument for Arguing." 15 October 2001. TIME Magazine. p. 72.
Willens, Kathy. "Warning Signs and Ways to Help." 1 October 2001. Newsweek Magazine. p. 52B.