(Committee on House Administration 2003)
The economical damage caused by the violent actions on human lives and infrastructure may be classified into direct and indirect damages. The city of New York was supported with assistance from various organizations from the state, nongovernmental, federal and local front to bring the situation under control. Direct damages included the lives of people, infrastructure, business establishments, appliances and gadgets in offices, telephone, power, travel facilities, airlines and automobiles. There were expenses involved to handle the situation, cleaning the site and the destructed building. Other expenses included emergency health assistance, medical support for health problems, wounds and assistance provided to stabilize the mental condition of the affected people. (Kingsbury 2002)
Indirect damages included returns from employment of a person, gains from business establishments which were terminated for the time being or forever due to the loss of office and equipment, loss incurred by business establishment which depended on business located in the twin towers, decrease in the expenditure of companies which wound up, financial reductions in terms of less income from tax and the excess time spend by workers to reach offices and homes due to the loss of proper transportation. The effect of low tax payment is accounted in the damage caused to total gain since tax is paid by people out of their wages to the government. Direct damages can be leveled out of funds from insurance companies, charitable trusts and from the assistance programs of the government. The damages caused to economy by the attacks will last for sometime and slowdown the economy. Such losses can be accounted later and written off by consider the value of money at both times. There are certain other damages which cannot be recovered due to its nature. These are with respect to uninsured workers and people who did not have insurance for themselves, uninsured enterprises and those wound up enterprises who were entitled to make payments. However, the total amount of damages could not be calculated due to various criteria assessments of each category which incurred loss. (Kingsbury 2002)
The September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States resulted in the amendment of IRS norms that enabled the distribution of relief to the needy. Some charitable institutions gave prime importance to provide aid to the firefighters and defense personnel who lost their lives during rescue work. The IRS norms were also amended for people who lived through the attacks. This was done by taking into account the situation that led several people into pain. The norms were amended to assist the charitable institution to work freely without much legal barriers. Such assistance was accounted on the basis of requirement of the person, in good faith and reasonable criteria. Financial assistance was provided to the victim's families under ad hoc basis which also brought some charitable trust under pressure to mobilize and distribute funds to the needy quickly. This rule was not prevalent before the September 11, 2001 attacks. Besides the relaxation on IRS rules to provide assistance, there were question related to the mode of payment of money and the person to whom the fund should be credited. (United States General Accounting Office 2002)
Other related questions were the provision of long-term assistance in terms of jobs in the place of money which cannot meet the requirement of a person in the long run. Families of some victims were given financial assistance soon after the loss of lives, while...
The financial aid set up by the Red Cross of America alone was estimated at $133 million which was proposed to be used to treat mental state of affected person and provide assistance to uninsured person to meet health related expenses. The fund created specially to meet the disaster of September 11, 2001 was allocated to treat mental depressions, counseling, health assistance, legal and financial and employment assistance. The Survivors Fund was formed to cater to the needs of people who escaped the attacks on Pentagon. This was mainly used to meet the requirement of these people in the long run. (United States General Accounting Office 2002)
The maximum amount of aid was collected by the Red Cross of America. It was under vigilance by various organizations to check on the utilization of the collected money. The total amount of money collected by the Red Cross amounted to $543 million by the mid of November 2001. Red Cross had set up a fund called Liberty Fund to assist all those who met with trauma and its psychological and physical effects and also to meet further such disasters in the United States. The collection of funds by the Red Cross received much opposition since it did not stick to the basic intention of the donors to meet the immediate requirement of the families of victims, survivors and relief workers. (United States General Accounting Office 2002)
The efforts of charitable trusts were further hindered when some organization requested support in an unclear manner, where donors were unable to know the actual implementation and utilization of the money which they would donate. Another reason which led to the misinterpretation of fund requirement was the brief details give about the requirement of the victims and people who survived the attacks. Some institutions gave little details on the requirement of injured and the families of victims. Besides the direct victims, there were several people who did not have job, housing and were left with mental depression due to the lack of money and the effect of the attack in their minds. Charitable institution which declared that the donated amount would be devoid of processing charge expense invoked doubt among donors about the distribution of money to the needy. Charitable institutions had to work the most to find out the kin of victims and survivors who required support since the collapse of the building gave no clue about the address or mode of communication to the people. (United States General Accounting Office 2002)
Post September 11, 2001, the transformation of America is evident in the change in the attitude of the public towards United States international agenda. Though people did interfere much in military actions on foreign countries after the Vietnam War, American citizens seemed to be interested in fighting in opposition of terrorists like Al Qaeda and other nations that encourage terrorism. Unlike any other research on American public that did not agree to war, Americans preferred the use of war to fight terrorism. Air strikes and ground attacks in Afghanistan damaged both Al Qaeda as well as Taliban troops. The ambition of America post 9/11 was to imprison and try Osama bin Laden. There was an urge among American citizens to see him either caught or dead. American public viewed that they could find victory over terrorism only on culminating its leaders and sponsors. The initiative of American defense was to capture Osama bin Laden from any country since he was on the move and broadcasted warnings from hideouts. (Pobst 2002)
Committee on House Administration. 2003. Hearing on security updates since September 11, 2001: hearing before the... DIANE Publishing
Crockatt, Richard. 2003. America Embattled: September 11, Anti-Americanism, and the Global
Order. Routledge. London.
Kingsbury, Nancy R. 2002. Review of studies of the economic impact of the September 11, 2001:
Terrorist Attacks on the World Trade Center. DIANE Publishing.
N.A. "The 9/11 Commission Report - Final Report of the National Commission…
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