Abnormal Behavior Essays (Examples)

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Abnormal Psychology Is a Field in Psychology

Words: 1359 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15792418

Abnormal psychology is a field in psychology that addresses dysfunctions in behavior which are determined abnormally by standards of behavior .These standards have been established by clinical professionals in the field such as medical doctors, psychiatrists and psychologists. Behaviors considered to be abnormal are; schizophrenia, depression, attention deficit disorder, eating disorder, sexual deviance, obsessive compulsive disorder and anti-social disorder (Cherry, 2012). These disordered function outside the normal parameters of the functional behaviors considered to be standard. The paper will look at the origins of abnormal psychology and challenges when it comes to the classification and definition of normal and abnormal behavior. It will also look at how abnormal psychology has evolved into a scientific discipline. It will finally look at the theoretical models that have led to the advancement of understanding psychopathology.

Origins of Abnormal psychology

Abnormal psychology has been undergoing tremendous changes and progress. It is a very controversial…… [Read More]

References

Cherry, K. (2012).What is Abnormal Psychology? Retrieved May 10, 2013 from  http://psychology.about.com /od/abnormalpsychology/f/abnormal-psychology.htm

Crawford, O. (2010). Psychopathology Analysis: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives of Abnormal Behavior and Psychopathology. Retrieved May 10, 2013 from  http://voices.yahoo.com/psychopathology-analysis-6147988.html
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Abnormal Psychology Is Often Misunderstood as a

Words: 1101 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98321108

Abnormal Psychology is often misunderstood as a field of psychology because it deals with behavior that "creates a problem for an individual or society" -- and hence, the question immediately arises as to just what is "abnormal" and what is "normal"? The AP Psychology 7th Edition (Sharpsteen, et al., 2005) text suggests that abnormal behavior is "maladaptive or pathological behavior" and before determining whether a behavior is abnormal or not, the "total environment and impact of a person's behavior" must be taken into consideration. Moreover, abnormal psychology does not attempt to link "normal and abnormal" with the concepts of "good and bad," Kendra Cherry explains. Abnormal psychology deals with "psychopathology and abnormal behavior" covering a wide swath of disorders, including sexual deviation, depression, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, to name a few (Cherry, 2008).

The History and Evolution of Abnormal Psychology into a Scientific Discipline

In 800 B.C., Homer believed that mental illness…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AS Psychology. (2009). Biological and Psychological Models of Abnormality. Retrieved July 9,

2011, from http://as-psychology.pbworks.com.

Bennett, Paul. (2006). Abnormal and Clinical Psychology: An Introductory Textbook. New York: McGraw-Hill International.

Cherry, Kendra. (2008). Psychology / What Is Abnormal Psychology? About.com. Retrieved July 8, 2011, from  http://psychology.about.com .
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Abnormal Psychology pop Culture Abnormal Psychology Pop Culture

Words: 1812 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64137121

Abnormal Psychology:pop Culture

Abnormal Psychology: Pop Culture

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Abnormal Psychology: Pop Culture

In asking the question of what abnormal psychology is really supposed to be, it makes sense that we must first quickly think about the very definition of our word "abnormal . By all rights, is a remarkably puzzling word that is very dependent on what is called "normality . Both terms may justifiably change fundamentally from one era to another and one culture to a different one. How then do we choose upon what is abnormal and what is normal? Of course, this is much more of a philosophical issue than a psychological one. For logical reasons of practicability, it is essential to generate an approximately uniform definition of abnormal psychology that we can more or less decide upon as a cluster of caregivers. This general definition would obviously be typical in its nature, but…… [Read More]

Work Cited

OW, M.G.T., KENARDY, J.A., JOHNSTON, D.W., NEWMAN, M.G., TAYLOR, C.B., & THOMSON, A. (2007). Prognostic indices with brief and standard CBT for panic disorder: I. predictors of outcome. Psychological Medicine, 37(10), 1493-9. doi:10.1017/S0033291707000670

King, S., Waschbusch, D.A., Pelham Jr., W.,E., Frankland, B.W., Andrade, B.F., Jacques, S., & Corkum, P.V. (2009). Social information processing in elementary-school aged children with ADHD: Medication effects and comparisons with typical children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37(4), 579-89. doi:10.1007/s10802-008-9294-9

Mandel, H.P., & Hampson, W. (2000). Abnormal psychology perspectives. Canadian Psychology, 41(4), 282-284.

Medved, M.L. (2008). Essentials of abnormal psychology, first Canadian edition. Canadian Psychology, 49(1), 73-74.
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Abnormal Psychology Theories Issues Diagnosis

Words: 2437 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61912524

The DSM explicitly "strives to be atheoretical, using merely observationally referent terms. The hope with this is to make the manual as acceptable as possible to professionals with different theoretical orientations (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). Specific criteria and systematic descriptions are offered as guidance for making diagnoses. "Essential features, associated features, prevalence rates, sex ratios, family patterns, and differential diagnoses are listed" and it is noted when "alternative or additional diagnoses…should be considered," such as the possibility that a manic episode could mask itself as schizophrenia (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). This might occur if the clinician was unacquainted with the patient and the patient's past history of depression, for example, and/or mood disorders in the patient's family.

Also key to the efficacy of the DSM in approaching the ideologically and theoretically charged world of abnormal psychology is its multiaxial system. The multiaxial system "allows for a more holistic and comprehensive…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abnormal psychology. (2009). a2psychology. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at  http://www.a2zpsychology.com/articles/abnormal.htm 

Gilles-Thomas, David L. (1989). Definitions. Abnormal psychology: Lecture 1. University of Buffalo. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://ccvillage.buffalo.edu/Abpsy/lecture1.html

Gilles-Thomas, David L. (1989). Classifications. Abnormal psychology: Lecture 2. University

of Buffalo. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://ccvillage.buffalo.edu/Abpsy/lecture2.html
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Abnormal Psychology Within Any Society

Words: 612 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42813207

There were two major ideas of the origin of abnormal behaviors. The somatogenic perspective viewed the abnormal behaviors came from biological causes, while the psychogenic perspective believed that psychological factors were more dominant in the existence of abnormal behavior, (Comer 2006). Scientists began to see patters within various types of abnormal behavior, which then helped to facilitate the study of such behaviors and how they might be handled in order to treat individuals; scientists found that there were sets of symptoms which "appeared together regularly enough as having a biological cause, much as a particular medical disease may have an associated set of symptoms ad may be attributed to a biological dysfunction," (ScribD 2005). During the Twentieth Century, people began to see abnormal psychology as its own discipline, with behavioral attributes being caused by both physical abnormalities as well as deep rooted psychological issues (Comer 2006). Today abnormal behavior is…… [Read More]

References

Comer, Ronald J. (2006). Abnormal Psychology. Macmillan Publishing.

Meyer, Robert G.; Chpman, L. Kevin.; & Weaver, Christopher. (2008). Cases in Abnormal Behavior. Ally & Bacon

ScribD. (2005). Abnormal Psychology. ScribD.com. Retrieved October 3, 2009 at  http://www.scribd.com/full/3980388?access_key=key-1ttr6z6sc9ts1uk7rcbb
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Abnormal Person Affects Behaviors Cognitions

Words: 794 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84340766

The family is embarrassed when the subject goes out because of her antics, but gets frustrated remaining in the same house with her. The mother is torn between what she knows is right for her daughter and what will make her daughter happy. As previously mentioned, the two did not get along well in the daughter's childhood years. In addition to the subject, her mother felt the strain of this relationship bitterly. She still deals with the trauma it caused her. This lack of a relationship between the two women, and the presence of a father who, when rarely in the home, took the position of a strict disciplinarian lead to a stunted development for the subject. Although the abnormal behavior did not begin until after the accident, teachers recall mild paranoid behavior and odd actions toward her mother as early as high school's sophomore year.

Typical Day for the…… [Read More]

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Abnormal Psych Each of the

Words: 573 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97253896

Behaviorism focuses almost exclusively on the outward manifestations of mental illnesses. Underlying emotions, childhood memories, and dreams are trivialized in order to focus on bad habits or dysfunctional behaviors. Behavioral therapy employs methods based on classical and operant conditioning including systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning. Talking therapy is not an integral part of behavioral interventions.

Cognitive therapies may, however, combine both talking therapy with behavioral techniques. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a specific subset of cognitive psychology and includes interventions like rational-emotive therapy. The methods used by cognitive-behavioral therapists encourage the client to address and change faulty thoughts, irrational beliefs, and other underlying cognitions. The ultimate goal is to change behavior as well. Cognitive psychologists may focus more exclusively on altering negative thought patterns such as guilt and self-hatred. The therapeutic intervention acknowledges the role that childhood upbringing and repressed anxiety plays in the creation of mental illness. However, cognitive psychologists are…… [Read More]

References

Lazarus, a.A. & Coleman, a.M. (1995). Abnormal Psychology., London and New York: Longman.

"Psychological Therapies." Retrieved May 8, 2010 from http://web.mst.edu/~pfyc212b/Therapy.htm

"Psychology Schools of Thought in the United States" (nd). Psychological Health Care. Retrieved May 8, 2010 from http://atwitsendbook.com/psychological-schools-of-thoughts-in-the-united-states.php
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Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

Words: 1642 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97294962

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and Issues

Reproductive Tract Diseases for human females are typically focused in the upper reproductive tract or the lower reproductive tract. The upper tract includes the fallopian tubes, ovary and uterus, while the lower reproductive tract focuses on the vagina, cervix and vulva. There are three major types of infections: endogenous, iatrogenic and sexually transmitted diseases. Endogenous diseases arise from internal cellular structures and may be bacterial, viral or genetic, usually the most common and arise from an overgrowth of organisms that are already present in the vagina; iatrogenic diseases are the result of medical or surgical treatment, and sexually transmitted diseases occur between humans as a result of sexual behavior. In addition to infections, there are congenital abnormalities, cancers and functional problems. Each infection has its own specific cause and symptoms; caused by bacteria, virus, fungi or other organisms. Indeed, some are easily treatable and cured,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Azim, P., et al. (2011). Evaluation of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Isra Medical Journal, 3(3). Retrieved November 2013, from http://121.52.154.227/Isra%20Medical%20Journal%20Volume-III%20Issue-III.pdf#page=6

Davidson, B., et al. (2012). Abnormal Uterine Bleeding During the Reproductive Years. Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health, 57(3), 248-54.

Fraser, I., et al. (2011). The FIGO Recommendations on Terminologies and Definitions for Normal and Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Seminars in Reproductive Medicine, 29(5), 383-90.

Gray, S. (2013). Menstural Disorders. Pediatrics in Review, 34(1), 6-18.
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Abnormal Psychology Many Women Are Afraid of

Words: 1405 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87866701

Abnormal Psychology

Many women are afraid of getting older and are willing to do right about anything to appear always young. infarct many people perceive it is rude to ask a woman her age since the society has no room to accommodate old women and the changes that their bodies go through. It is not possible for women in the society not to struggle with issues of their appearance .this has resulted to many women trying to change how they look as they age so that they can be accepted in the society. They go to an extent of denying themselves food and applying anti-wrinkle cream so that they maintain their states of their bodies and faces.

Aging is always a taboo subject with women as compared to their male counterparts. Women are afraid of the aging factor due to the perceptions in the society. The society tends to create…… [Read More]

References

American Psychological Association. (2012). Aging and Depression. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/aging-depression.aspx

United Nations. (1999). Gender and ageing: problems, perceptions and policies. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from  http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/aging.htm 

REHAB ASIA. (2011).Gender and substance abuse.Retreieved November 29, 2012 from  http://alcoholrehab.com/alcohol-rehab/gender-and-substance-abuse/ 

CalmClinic. (2012).Destructive Anxiety Habits. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from  http://www.calmclinic.com/anxiety/destructive-habits
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Abnormal Psych in Media Disorganized

Words: 2856 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7654120

This confusion would have been intolerable for him, creating disorganized patterns of thought. Out of this disorganization developed delusion. The boy came to imagine that the father killed the mother.

Another way cognitive (and psychodynamic) approaches explain the genesis of schizophrenia is by reference to childhood trauma. Things such as abuse, divorce, a domineering mother, or witnessing murder are seen as major factors in schizophrenic development (Koehler & Silver, 2009, p. 225). Traumatic events lead to dissociation from parents and from reality. Other related factors are stress, fear, anxiety, and social isolation that lead to schizophrenia. In other words, it is how the person is embedded in extreme and dysfunctional social relations that may shape their development. Here Spider's malady would be discussed in terms of intense family strife. There is evidence for severe marital tension in the film, exemplified by the man's having an affair. Combined with poor family…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: author.

Beck, A.T., Rector, N.A., Stolar, N., & Grant, P. (2009). Schizophrenia: Cognitive theory, research, and therapy. New York: Guilford Press.

Bellack, A.S., Mueser, K.T., Gingerich, S., & Agresta, J. (1997). Social skills training for schizophrenia: A step-by-step guide. New York: Guilford Press.

Chavez, M.G. (2009). Group psychotherapy and schizophrenia. In Psychotherapeutic approaches to schizophrenic psychoses: Past, present and future, eds Y.O. Alanen, M.G. Chavez, A.-L. Silver, & B. Martindale, pp. 251-266. London: Routledge.
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Abnormal and Child Psychology -

Words: 3058 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25227202

(the National Institute of Mental Health, 2008) Though we are able to identify some external factors, like drug use, and development problems in the womb, mainly it is the genes which determine the occurrence of this disease. We may say that it is a biological disorder. The persons suffering by this disease are largely affected by programs on TV, games, bad environments food intake and similar occurrences. It is Genes that have control over the chemicals in the neurotransmitters and the affected child has these chemical output out of balance. The scans conducted reveal that these defects can be noted in the areas of the brain that deals with psycho motor reflexes. This imbalance creates and distorts the functions of the person in changing focus of thought, organization of things and methods, planning out things, memory, and emotion and reasoning and differentiating between the two. They have impairments of speech…… [Read More]

References

Adler, Lenard. (2007) "Scattered Minds: Hope and Help for Adults with Attention Deficit..."

Perigee.

American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. (2008) "Child and Adolescent Mental

Illness and Drug Abuse Statistics" Retrieved 27 February, 2008 at  http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/resources_for_families/child_and_adolescent_mental_illness_statistics
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Abnormal Psych-Lifespan Dev't What Would

Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39873532



Schizophrenia can begin as early as infancy but more often starts during adolescence or early adulthood (Prinel, 2006, 449). It is communicated genetically but is also aggravated by environmental factors, such as stress (Kring, et al., 2006). elatives of patients with schizophrenia are more predisposed to the disorder (Ibid). Further, they may not only have the same genes but may also share the same experiences (Ibid). Studies have shown that while schizophrenia may only affect 1% of the population, the incidence of inheriting this disorder rises to 10% among close biological relatives (i.e., in a parent, a child or a sibling) (Prinel, 2006, 450).

However, the development of schizophrenia is not attributed merely to genetic factors. Even though a person may be predisposed to the disorder, the environment in which he lives in plays a defining role in the activation of the disorder (Prinel, 2006). Family related factors, such as…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Edition). Washington DC: Author

Konstantareas, M., & Hewitt, T. (2001, February). Autistic Disorder and Schizophrenia: Diagnostic Overlaps. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 19-28. Retrieved September 11, 2009, from Education Research Complete database.

Kring, a., Davison, G., Neale, J., Johnson, S. (2007). Abnormal

Psychology (10th Edition). Chapter11 (pp. 349- 385). USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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The Advantages and Disadvantages of Culture S Influence in Human Behavior

Words: 935 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51190326

Appreciating Diverse Views on Abnormal Behavior

Experience and genetic inheritance influence human behavior. The manner in which individuals grow is driven by social circumstances and experiences within the setting of their inherited genetic potential (Walker, 2002). The scientific concern is just how the hereditary potential and experience interact to generate human behavior. The text illustrates that abnormal behavior is that behavior that deviates from the normal or what is expected. Most people avoid what they define for themselves as abnormal behavior. For instance, we will probably opt not to sit next to a person acting in an odd manner or dressed in weird clothes in a train or bus. People hate individuals who smell dirty, and if possible we try to stay away from them. Based on this, the abnormal behavior seems to be that which is outside the parameters of the norm in the society.

Every individual is born…… [Read More]

References

Kleinman, A., & Lin, T.-Y. (2001). Normal and Abnormal Behavior in Chinese Culture. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Plante, T. G. (2006). Mental Disorders of the New Millennium. Westport, Conn: Praeger.

Walker, S. S. (2002). Ceremonial Spirit Possession in Africa and Afro-America: Forms, Meanings, and Functional Significance for Individuals and Social Groups. Leiden: Brill.
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Psychology Abnormal Psychology Normal Psychology

Words: 344 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3051205

The abnormal psychologist is trained to treat people with social and physical disorders such as schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and delusional disorders. Usually, the disorders have become so aberrant the patients may no longer be able to function in society, or at least function normally. Abnormal psychologists may also study the causes of the abnormalities in some people, and develop research to understand why some people develop these disorders and others do not. They may create behavioral studies, personality tests, case studies, or surveys to help them in their research, and eventually, they may be able to solve the mysteries of what causes much abnormal behavior in the brain.

eferences

Butler, G. And McManus, F. (2000). Psychology: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Smith, D.L. (1999). Approaching psychoanalysis: An introductory course. London: Karnac Books.

Wade, C. And Tavris, Carol. (1999). Invitation to psychology, Third Edition. New…… [Read More]

References

Butler, G. And McManus, F. (2000). Psychology: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Smith, D.L. (1999). Approaching psychoanalysis: An introductory course. London: Karnac Books.

Wade, C. And Tavris, Carol. (1999). Invitation to psychology, Third Edition. New York: Addison-Wesley.
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Abnormal Psyche

Words: 1190 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8843987

ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY: WHAT DO CLINICAL RESEARCHERS DO?

In the past, our most knowledgeable people have gotten some things very wrong. Aristotle called the brain "an organ of minor importance," and in 1984, genetic researches announced that mammals could not be cloned. Clearly we have things left to learn about humans. This is what makes research so important. The example given in the book of the lobotomy is very important: experts believed it worked when it did not, but before this was recognized, surgeons damaged many thousands of people even more, making their situation worse instead of better. This chapter describes many research approaches.

A case study focuses on one individual. The researcher describes the person's history, family, how the person's problems evolved and developed, and usually, the treatment and how well that treatment worked. This was an approach Sigmund Freud used at least sometimes. He did not know the child…… [Read More]

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Behavior Bullying the Merriam-Webster Online

Words: 1924 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34633373



Parents can team up with teachers and schools by asking for school conferences where they can address the issue of bullying, (Barreto). The parents can also keep a record of incidents of harassment and the ways in which the school handled these situations. They should also insist on the putting up of a bullying prevention committee if one is not already in place. In order for the committee to be effective, it needs to have representatives from administration, teachers, school mental health teams and parents.

2. Teachers should be encouraged to involve the students in creating rules for the classroom regarding bullying. They should have a serious talk with the bully and explain the unacceptability of the behavior as well as its negative consequences. Reports of bullying should not be left to deal with bullying on their own in the hope that the experience will make them stronger individuals, bullying…… [Read More]

Works cited

Barreto, Steven. Bullying and Harassment Stop When Parents Help Break the Silence. 2005.

23 May, 2010



Batsche, G.M., & Knoff, H.M. "Bullies and their victims: Understanding a pervasive problem in the schools." School Psychology Review, 22.6 (1994): 165-174.
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Abnormal Psyche

Words: 991 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24053231

Substance-Related Disorders

A "drug" is any substance, other than food, that affects our bodies or minds. Since not all drugs are bad, the book uses "substance" to clarify the issue. Substance abuse can cause temporary or long-term problems for the abuser. Dependence, tolerance or addiction can develop.

Depressants: slow the central nervous system (CNS) down. Alcohol is a CNS depressant.

Alcohol: nearly 6% of the U.S. population are heavy drinkers, some as young as 11. Men outnumber women 3:1. Ethyl alcohol is quickly absorbed in stomach and intestine. First it depresses the areas of the brain that control judgments and curbs on behavior. Next, motor control is affected. Alcohol can also interfere with both vision and hearing. As the liver metabolizes the alcohol, the blood levels drop and function gradually returns. Patterns of alcoholism vary among socio-cultural groups and by age. Alcoholism can destroy family life, sink a career, and…… [Read More]

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Overeating Poor Eating Behavior

Words: 2589 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47278974

Alcoholism researchers developed this model. The model presumes that a consumer is in one phase of change at any given time. This model entails Maintenance, action, maintenance, preparation or pre-contemplation (Patrick 189). The concept is that consumers have to shift from one stage to the next. The stages prepare them to move to the next ones sequentially. This suggests that if consumers hurry through or if they skip stages they are likely to experience setbacks. In addition, different stages apply different strategies. For instance, a person who is addicted to smoking and is at the pre-contemplation stage: this means that the person is not even thinking of quitting the habit. Probably, such a person is always not ready to consider making a list of alternatives (Lucas 920).

This model has been successful in areas such as drug abuse, smoking, and alcohol. However, the model has been applied in changing health…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Biederman, J et al. Are girls with ADHD at risk for eating disorders? Results from a controlled, five-year prospective study. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2007 Aug;28(4):302-7.

Busko, Marlene. Girls With ADHD Are at Increased Risk for Eating Disorders and Depression.

Nov 08, 2007. Medscape News Today. Web.

 http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/565526
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Psychology Criminal Behavior Has Been

Words: 1023 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42256803

As explained by Gelles and Strauss in their works, "With the exception of the police and the military, the family is perhaps the most violent social group, and the home the most violent social setting, in our society. A person is more likely to be hit or killed in his or her home by another family member than anywhere else or by anyone else." (Gelles & Straus, 1985, p. 88). Therefore it is evident from this theory that the social connections and settings can impact upon a person's conduct and emotions and could force them to act violently, proving this theory to be true in explaining the biological connection with criminal behavior.

Another biological theory mentions that the gender differences, especially in cases of men, generate strings of violent reactions to the opposite gender. This theory argues that the natural superiority instincts in men push their brain functions to act…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barkow, J., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1992). The Adapted Mind. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bartol, C.R., & Bartol, a.M. (2007). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach (8th Edition). Prentice Hall.

Dawkins, R. (1986). The Blind Watchmaker. Harlow, UK: Longman.

Gelles, R.J., & Straus, M.A. (1985). In Crime and the Family. Springfield, U.S.: Thomas.
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Theoretical Dimensions Involving Criminal Behavior

Words: 1371 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43899327

Criminal Acts and Offender Behavior

Theoretical Dimensions of Criminal Behavior

Laws exist to maintain order and peace and provide for the safety and well-being of all members of society. Acts that disrupt and threaten this system of order are deemed criminal in nature and are therefore punishable by law. The psychology of criminal behavior addresses the thought processes that result in deviant acts and the motivations that drive them. It is believed that criminal types operate from a self-centered framework that shows little, if any regard, for the safety and well-being of others (Merton, 1968).

There are generally three broad theoretical models of criminal behavior: biological, psychological, and sociological. Most theoretical models overlap in their analysis and point to the genetic predisposition of some individuals toward criminal behavior, as well as environmental influences (Morley & Hall, 2003). Most commonly both play a part in developing a person's tendency to engage…… [Read More]

References

Holmes, S.E., Slaughter, J.R., & Kashani, J. (2001). Risk factors in childhood that lead to the development of conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 31, 183-193.

Merton, Robert K. (1968). Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.

Morley, K., & Hall, W. (2003). Is there a genetic susceptibility to engage in criminal acts? Australian Institute of Criminology: Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 263, 1-6.

Raine, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q Wilson & J. Petrsilia (Eds.) Crime: Public policies for crime control. Oakland: ICS Press.
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Antisocial Behavior in Females With Comorbid Diagnoses of ADHD and Conduct Disorder

Words: 2635 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13071562

Antisocial ehavior in Females with Comorbid Diagnoses of ADHD

Detention centers and residential treatment facilities are replete with male and female youth that have been in and out of the juvenile justice system for many years. Although the majority of the populations in these facilities are male, the number of female juvenile offenders is continually increasing. Many of the children in these facilities have a history of behavioral difficulties that may or may not have been diagnosed during much of their childhood.

Antisocial behaviors are acts that violate social rules and the basic rights of others. They include conduct intended to injure people or damage property, illegal behavior, and defiance of generally accepted rules and authority, such as truancy from school. "These antisocial behaviors exist along a severity continuum (Clark, et al., 2002). When childhood antisocial behaviors exceed certain defined thresholds -- the diagnostic criteria specified in the Diagnostic and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Disgnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Washington DC APA.

Clark, Duncan. Vanyukov, Michael. Cornelius, Jack. (November, 2002). Childhood Antisocial Behavior and Adolescent Alcohol Use Disorders. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism: 66, 136-138.

Crawford, Nicole. (February, 2003). ADHD: a women's issue. Monitor on Psychology, APA: Volume 34, No. 2, p. 28.

Hinshaw, S.P. (2003). Preadolescent girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: I. Background characteristics, comorbidity, cognitive and social functioning, and parenting practices. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.
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Activities to Reduce Inappropriate Behaviors Displayed by

Words: 10021 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93835103

Activities to Reduce Inappopiate Behavios Displayed by Childen With Autism and Othe Developmental Disabilities

The pupose of this dissetation study is to test the effectiveness of an eveyday activities-based potocol (Holm, Santangelo, Fomuth, Bown & Walte, 2000) fo managing challenging and disuptive behavios of 13- to 23-yea-old esidential students (male and female) with Autism who live at Melmak Homes, Inc., of southeasten Pennsylvania, and attend school o adult day pogams. Applied behavio analysis and a focus on eveyday occupations (activities) will be combined duing the intevention phase. Reinfocement will be fo subtask completion and duation of paticipation, NOT fo absence of taget maladaptive o disuptive behavios. Behavio analysts, howeve, will document the fequency/duation of the taget behavios duing each condition. Inteventions will occu daily, Monday though Fiday. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, acoss-subjects design with nine subjects will be used to evaluate change in behavios unde altenating conditions. Data will be analyzed…… [Read More]

references, and favorites)

Child and Family Assets

(Abilities, strengths, skills, accomplishments, and capabilities)

Functional and Meaningful Interactions

(Purposeful interactions; ways interests and assets are used in everyday life)
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Psychology Chapter 5 Of the Abnormal Child

Words: 562 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85306710

Psychology

Chapter 5 of the Abnormal Child Psychology textbook is about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity (ADHD). The chapter provides a brief description and history of the disorder. Then, core characteristics of ADHD are listed, such as inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. This information is helpful for understanding how ADHD is diagnosed. The authors also give information on the DSM criteria, which are critical for an actual diagnosis of the disorder. A section on associated characteristics refers to cognitive deficits, speech and language impairments, tic disorders, and medical concerns associated with ADHD.

The authors also talk about accompanying or related psychological disorders such as conduct disorder, anxiety disorders, and mood disorders. Prevalence, course, and outcomes of ADHD are discussed along with social variables including gender. There is a section outlining various theories as to why ADHD exists, such as genetics, diet, and family influences. Finally, treatment options are listed including medications, parent management training,…… [Read More]

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Delinquent Behavior

Words: 470 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19807755

Delinquent Beavior

Cildren are te future of uman civilization, and to tat extent, it is vital tat all communities, societies and governments pay attention to te growing problem of juvenile delinquency. Indeed, if society fails in its efforts to address te issue of juvenile delinquency, it will lead to a world of caos and disorder, placing in jeopardy millions of years of effort to work towards a civilization were individual citizens can be assured of a sense of socio-economic, psycological and emotional well-being. Bearing te importance of te issue in mind, it is te objective of tis researc paper, troug a review of selected literature, to examine: te nature and extent of te problem of juvenile delinquent beavior; te possible consequences to society if te problem is not redressed effectively; te range of underlying biological, psycological and social causative factors of juvenile delinquency; and suggested solutions and metods of reducing,…… [Read More]

http://www.ncjrs.org/html/ojjdp/nationalreport99/chapter3.pdf 

Tappan, Paul W. Juvenile Delinquency. 1st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1949.

Vedder, C.B. (1954). The Juvenile Offender: Perspective and Readings. New York: Random House.
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Atypical Sexual Behavior

Words: 1881 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62911121

Atypical Sexual Behavior (paraphilias): Signs of a Changing Culture

New York Times article recently reported that clinical psychologists are seeing an increasing number of patients reporting that they engage in abnormal sexual behavior (Goleman, 1991). Kinsey noted that in the years 1948 and 1953 as many as half of the Americans surveyed participated in sexual activities that could be considered masochistic or sadistic (such as biting or spanking) (Kinsey, et. al, 1948: Kinsey, et. Al., 1953). This trend seems to have slightly increased in prevalence, however, still remains close to the 61% mark (Donelly and Straus, 1994).

This issue raises several questions. The first is whether society has "done something" to create this phenomenon. In other words, is there an environmental factor that is making otherwise normal people engage in deviancy? Does it mean that our definitions of "normal" are changing and that these behaviors have always been a part…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. Washington: American Psychiatric Association.

DeMause, Lloyd (1991). "The Universality of Incest." Journal of Psychohistory, 19, 123-164.

Donnelly, D., & Straus, M. (1994). "The fusion of sex and violence." In M.A. Straus, Beating the devil out of them: Corporal punishment in American families. Boston: Lexington/MacMillan.

Freud, Sigmund (1905). Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie. Vienna: Franz Deuticke (English translation)
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Development of Canine Behavior Genetics vs Environment

Words: 4662 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91836586

Canine Behavior: Genetics vs. Environment

The debate over nature vs. nurture as it applies to learning dates back over a hundred years. Certainly, during much of the 20th century, the distinction between learned and inherited behavior appeared much clearer than it does today. The concept that any type of behavior was either learned or merely developed without learning seemed a rationale and straightforward belief. esearch based on these expectations caused some scientists to conclude that rat-killing behavior among cats, for example, is a learned behavior rather than an instinctive one, that human fears are all acquired, or that intelligence is completely the result of experience. Learning theorists were arguing at this point that most behavior is learned and that biological factors are of little or no importance. The behaviorist position that human behavior could be explained entirely in terms of reflexes, stimulus-response associations, and the effects of reinforcers upon them…… [Read More]

References

Ader, R., Baum, A., & Weiner, H. (1988). Experimental foundations of behavioral medicines: Conditioning approaches. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Black, A.H., Solomon, R.L., & Whiting, J.W.M. (1954, April). Resistance to temptation as a function of antecedent dependency relationships in puppies. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association meeting, New York. In American Psychologist, 9, 579.

Brush, F.R., Overmier, J.B., & Solomon, R.L. (1985). Affect, conditioning, and cognition: Essays on the determinants of behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Dogs and People: The History and Psychology of a Relationship. (1996). Journal of Business Administration and Policy Analysis, 24-26, 54.
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Gender-Specific Behaviour Is Imposed on

Words: 2735 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7536368

" This temporary lesson actually applies on a wider scale to life. Clothing, in our society, is closely integrated with sexuality and gender definition. Men often determine who they will have a sexual interest in based on the clothing of the person in question. A woman in a housecoat is not generally seen as a sexual target in the same way that a woman in a leather miniskirt is. ecause women are seen as weaker than men and as belonging to them sexually based on the gender roles of our society, men tend to think they have power over people wearing women's clothes, whether that person be a boy or a girl. This is a power they would not assume that they have over boys, and it is the association with femininity and the stereotypes that are perpetrated about females in general that causes this.

A reflection of how gender…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kortenhaus, Carole. "Gender Role Stereotyping in Children's Literature: An Update." Sex Roles a Journal of Research. February, 1993.  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_n3-4_v28/ai_13810759 

Peters, John. "Gender Socialization of Adolescents in the Home: Research and Discussion." Adolescence. Winter, 1994.  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2248/is_n116_v29/ai_16477249 

Witt, Susan. "Parental Influence on Children's Socialization to Gender Roles." Adolescence. Summer, 1997.  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2248/is_n126_v32/ai_19619406
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Human or Animal Behavior You

Words: 2750 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72589205

Also, the different moral patterns of between the genders, as analyzed by Gillian, remains controversial, as the inherently 'separate' moral system of men and women (to say nothing of psychologist's ability to define what constitutes adult morality at all) is part of the raging debate on how to create truly fair, gender-neutral tests and classroom environments. In terms of usefulness on a personal level, the different ways of dealing with life traumas, like near death experiences, moral dilemmas, and grief are the most salient parts of the chapter, and provide real, concrete advice for the reader.

Assignment 4: Erikson's Stages of Development.

According to Erik Erikson, every child passes through eight stages of 'man' or development. Erikson attempted to introduce a theory of development that incorporated other human needs and elements of culture into a human being's socialization process, unlike Freud who focused only on the family romance, of family…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Dement, William. (Sept 1997). "What All Undergraduates Should Know About How Their Sleeping Lives Affect Their Waking Lives." Stanford University Center of Excellence for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Sleep Disorders. Retrieved 24 May 2007  http://www.stanford.edu/~dement/sleepless.html
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Deviant Behavior Why Is Deviance

Words: 330 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98036231

On the other hand, this exposure to many different systems of morality can also be confusing, and can make any kind of deviant behavior seem acceptable in a relativistic fashion. hy obey the drug laws of the United States when in Amsterdam, there are no such regulations?

Setting standards of deviance and normalcy is a negotiation between the rights of the individual and the needs of the community. Sometimes, the rights of the individual will win out, other times the community's need for harmony will supersede these individual rights. This negotiation will vary from nation to nation, time to time, and place to place.

orks Cited

Simon, David R. (2006). Elite Deviance.

7th Ed.

Thio, Alex & Thomas C. Calhoun. (2006). Readings in Deviant…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Simon, David R. (2006). Elite Deviance.

7th Ed.

Thio, Alex & Thomas C. Calhoun. (2006). Readings in Deviant Behavior. 3rd Ed.
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Market Efficient Respect Set Information Impossible Makes Abnormal Profits

Words: 2918 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63233798

Market Efficient espect Set Information Impossible Makes Abnormal Profits

Market Efficient

In his work, Fama argued that given the massive use of resources by the brokerage firm to conduct studies on trends in the industry, the effects of changes in interest rates on corporate balance sheets and expectations of managers and/or political analysts of the companies should be able to systematically beat a generic portfolio with the same risk characteristics.

Since, according to Fama, professional in every situation, the analyst has a fifty percent chance of beating the market; although its specific capabilities did not exist he would beat a lot of the market. The analyst did "help" the market to be efficient if all the investors, in fact, would hold portfolios composed of stock indices, would open up significant opportunities for professional traders to take advantage of the situation. But the movement of traders to that "new market" would…… [Read More]

References

Arrow, K.J., 1959. 'Toward a theory of price adjustment', in M. Abramovitz (ed.), The Allocation of Economic Resources, and Stanford: Stanford University Press, pp. 41 -- 51.

Aumann, R.J., 1964. "Markets with a Continuum of Traders," Econometrica, Vol. 32, No. 1/2, Jan. - Apr., pp. 39 -- 50.

Clifton, J.A., 1977. "Competition and the evolution of the capitalist mode of production," Cambridge Journal of Economics, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 137 -- 151.

Frank, R., 2008. Microeconomics and Behavior 7th ed. (McGraw-Hill) ISBN 978-007-126349-8.
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Eating Disorder Is Characterized by Abnormal Eating

Words: 3326 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38191377

Eating disorder is characterized by abnormal eating habits involving excessive or insufficient intake of food which is detrimental to the individual's physical and mental well-being. There are two common types of eating disorders although there are other types of eating disorders. The first is bulimia nervosa which is excessive eating coupled with frequent vomiting. The second type is anorexia nervosa which is immoderate restriction of food which leads to irrational weight gaining. The other types of eating disorders include eating disorders not otherwise specified which are essentially where a person has anorexic and bulimic behaviors, binge eating disorder which is compulsive overeating without any kind of compensatory behavior, and pica which is craving for certain non-food items such as glue, plaster, paper. It is estimated that roughly 10-15% of cases of eating disorders occur in males and statistics show that women are at a higher risk of developing eating disorders…… [Read More]

References

Doll, H.A., Petersen, S.E., & Stewart-Brown, S.L. (2005). Eating Disorders and Emotional and Physical Well-Being: Associations between Student Self-Reports of Eating Disorders and Quality of Life as Measured by the SF-36. Quality of Life Research, 14(3), 705-717. doi: 10.2307/4038820

Kime, N. (2008). Children's Eating Behaviours: The Importance of the Family Setting. Area, 40(3), 315-322. doi: 10.2307/40346135

Krauth, C., Buser, K., & Vogel, H. (2002). How High Are the Costs of Eating Disorders - Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - for German Society? The European Journal of Health Economics, 3(4), 244-250. doi: 10.2307/3570016

Martin, A.R., Nieto, J.M.M., Jimenez, M.A.R., Ruiz, J.P.N., Vazquez, M.C.D., Fernandez, Y.C., . . . Fernandez, C.C. (1999). Unhealthy Eating Behaviour in Adolescents. European Journal of Epidemiology, 15(7), 643-648. doi: 10.2307/3582136
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Hormones and Heredity Human Behavior

Words: 876 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20422781

Unfortunately, hormone effects and interactions can be so complex that even the best known hormones are not completely understood." (MacDougall) Hormones are most often discussed in connection with sexual behavior. But they are responsible for almost every reaction and action. When a person takes on too much stress, stress hormones are to blame and these hormones cause the behavior from that. Similarly during a phase of depression when a person is undergoing acute pessimism, the production of endorphins stopped or is lowered which is the really cause of depression. For this reasons, medication is given which balances chemical reactions in the body to normalize behavior. Human behavior is thus a sum total of different influences including heredity, hormones, environment and psychology. Dr. Leary has explained this in an apt manner when he said:

The science of human behavior in the largest sense of the word behavior, the sense which includes…… [Read More]

References

Leary, Daniel B., Modern Psychology: Normal and Abnormal, Philadelphia and London, J.B. Lippincott Co., I928

Peter MacDougall, UBC archives. Accessed online 10th Jan, 2006 from,  http://www.library.ubc.ca/archives/pdfs/432/THE432_1988_02_10.pdf
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Anti-Social Behavior in Adolescents Current Essay Is

Words: 2434 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80181311

Anti-Social Behavior in Adolescents

Current essay is a discussion of the antisocial behavior disorder amongst adolescents. The author critically reviewed studies on the topic. The literature suggests that neighborhood and peer holds a great influence as regards antisocial behavior amongst adolescents. Previous research has confirmed socialization experiences outside of the family shape what goes on inside of the family. Also there is possibility that peer and neighborhood characteristics are related to parenting and family relationships. Presence of violence in neighborhood may cause stress among parents resulting in poor parenthood quality.

Neighborhood Influences

Peer Influences

Mediating Effects of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

Conclusions

eferences

Anti-Social Behavior in Adolescents

Introduction

The importance of socialization contexts outside of the family has been well documented. In particular, neighborhood (e.g., violence, collective efficacy) and peer relationship (e.g., relationship quality, peer deviancy) factors both have been linked to a number of adolescent outcomes, such as self-esteem, academic…… [Read More]

References

Barnes, J., Belsky, J., Broomfield, K.A., Melhuish, E., & the National Evaluation of Sure Start Research Team (2006). Neighborhood deprivation, school disorder and academic achievement in primary schools in deprived communities in England. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30, 127-136.

Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Capaldi, D., DeGarmo, D., Patterson, G.R., & Forgatch, M. (2002). Contextual risk across the early life span and association with antisocial behavior. In J.B. Reid, G.R. Patterson, & J. Snyder (Eds.), Antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: A developmental analysis and model for intervention (p.123-145). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Chapple, C.L. (2005). Self-control, peer relations, and delinquency. Justice Quarterly,22, 89-106.
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Predicting Criminal Behavior Is There a Genetic Link

Words: 3480 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5060457

Crime

Understanding why crime occurs requires an appreciation for the complexity of human behavior. Behavior is not determined by one factor, but rather influenced by a host of interrelated factors. Modern biological theories in criminology differ from previous theories in that they examine the entire range of biological characteristics, including those that result from genetic defects (those that are inherited) and those that are environmentally induced. In addition, theories developed since the 1980s do not suggest that biological characteristics directly cause crime. Instead, researchers argue that certain biological conditions increase the likelihood that an individual will engage in some antisocial behavior that can be defined as criminal (Fishbein, 1990). Modern theories increasingly focus on the interaction between biological characteristics and the social environment, rather than looking solely at the effects of biology.

his paper explores the research regarding genetic causes or pre-dispositions to criminal behavior and examines the evidence which…… [Read More]

Thornberry (1987) incorporates social learning theory, social bonding, cognitive theory, and social structure theories of criminal behavior to explain delinquency. Thornberry sees delinquency activities as changing over time. As youths enter adolescence, their bonds to their parents and social institutions are said to weaken. Peer groups become more important to them.

If these young people reside in socially disorganized environments, they are at high risk to have weak social bonds and peers who engage in deviance. Adolescents who are from more stable environments may engage in deviancy (they are, after all, adolescents), but their actions are better controlled by stronger social bonds and associations with peers who engage in more conventional behaviors.

Thornberry sees delinquent behaviors as influenced by age. As young people enter their late teens, the influence of peers gives way to perceptions of their roles in society. Thornberry
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Consumer Behavior Toward E-Banking Applied

Words: 5831 Length: 21 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27766882

" (Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu, 2010)

With a focus on Saudi Arabia it is reported that there is "no reliable local production in the fields of software or the hardware. The increased demand for ICTs is met by acquiring overseas technologies.

The trend towards increased reliance on ICTs by the Saudi people, in particular computers and internet services, is one of the highest when compared with other developing countries; however it is still far below the ownership rate in developed countries. Table 1 illustrates the ownership rate of equipment such as fixed-line telephones, cellular phone and personal computers. The ownership rate was calculated per 1000 persons in variant countries over the world." (Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu, 2010) the goal of the study reported in the work of Al-Ghaith, Sanzogni, and Sandhu (2010) is to enhancing the understanding of factors that influence adoption and usage of online services in Saudi Arabia.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Molina, Alfonsa, Ben-Jadeed, Mohammed (2004) the Emergence and Evolution of e-Banking in Saudi Arabia: The Case of Samba Financial Group. Frontiers of E-Business Research 2004

Jasimuddin, Sajjad, M. (nd) Saudi Arabian Banks on the Web. Online available at: http://www.arraydev.com/commerce/JIBC/0103_02.htm

Agarwal, R. And Prasad, J. (1998), "The antecedents and consequents of user perceptions in information technology adoptions," Decisions Support System, Vol. 22, pp. 15-29.

Ahmed, a.M., Zairi, M. And Alwabel, S.A. (2006). Global benchmarking for internet and e-commerce applications, Benchmarking: An International Journal 13(1/2), 68-80.
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Science of Behavior Change NIH Common Fund

Words: 703 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32292421

Science of Behavior Change

NIH Common Fund Programs: The science of behavior change

The science of behavior change is a critical area of NIH research because of the degree to which lifestyle changes can improve human health. Chronic diseases such as heart disease, type II diabetes, and stroke have all been linked to negative health behaviors like smoking and drinking. Only if scientists can understand how to motivate people to change their behaviors can a more effective prescription for remedying these ailments be constructed for our nation. Two NIH studies currently being undertaken are one which investigates how "environmental and biological factors associated with poverty and stress that underlie abnormal impulsivity that accompanies addiction to substances and unhealthy behaviors" and one which assesses environmental factors that influence the propensity for adolescents to exercise " to identify individual differences in voluntary exercise behavior and inform new ways to change exercise behavior…… [Read More]

References

Common Fund Makes New FY2010 Awards to Advance the Science of Behavior Change.

(2011). NIH: Science of behavior change. Retrieved November 20, 2011 at http://commonfund.nih.gov/behaviorchange/overview.aspx

Cuddihy, T. (et al. 2006). Exploring the relationship between daily steps, body mass index and physical self-esteem in female Australian adolescents. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, 4 (1): 25-35.

Heyworth, Kelly. (2006). Girl Power. Fitness. Retrieved November 20, 2011 at  http://www.fitnessmagazine.com/health/family/fitness/girl-power-how-teens-are-changing-the-face-of-fitness/
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Incidence of Psychopathy and Criminal Behavior

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6714501

Psychopathology of Criminal Behavior -- Part II

Psychopathology of Criminal Behavior

Each question must be 300 words long.

Look carefully and honestly at some of your own age, gender, ethnic, cultural beliefs, and/or attitudes and discuss how such factors may impact your functioning in the work of responding to psychopathy.

I feel fortunate to have taken classes in college that have allowed me to meet and mix with people who are quite different from me in terms of age, ethnicity, cultural beliefs, and mindset. In addition, I participate in community activities that bring me in contact with people who come from different socio-economic and religious groups. My own family has experienced quite a few change-ups from what my parents' and my grandparents' generation experienced. Academically, I have studied about variables that contribute to the development of psychopathy in vulnerable people, and I believe I have a robust understanding of mental…… [Read More]

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Self-Injurious Behavior

Words: 5019 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41574937

Deliberate self-harm (DSH) or self-injurious behavior (SI) involves intentional self-poisoning or injury, irrespective of the apparent purpose of the act. (Vela, Harris and Wright, 1983) Self-mutilation is also used interchangeably with self-mutilation, though self-mutilation is one aspect of DSH. Approximately 1% of the United States population uses physical self-injury as a way of dealing with overwhelming feelings or situations, often using it to speak when no words will come. There are different ways in which DSH is manifested: cutting, burning, and abusing drugs, alcohol or other substances. This occurs at times of extreme anger, distress and low self-esteem, in order to either create a physical manifestation of the negative feelings which can then be dealt with, or alternatively to punish yourself. Extremely emotional distress can also cause DSH -- this is sometimes linked with hearing voices, particularly as a way of stopping the voices.

DSH is also often called parasuicide,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Vela, J., Harris, J., and Wright, J.K. "Self-Mutilation." Journal of Trauma 23 (1983): 165-67.

Favazza, A.R. "What Do We Know About Affective Disorders?" Am J. Psychiatry 143.10 (1986): 1328.

Why Patients Mutilate Themselves." Hospital Community Psychiatry 40 (1989): 137-45.

Pies, R.W., and Popli, A.P. "Self-Injurious Behavior: Pathophysiology and Implications for Treatment." J. Clin Psychiatry 56.12 (1995): 580-8.
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Free Will and Deviant Behavior

Words: 2246 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68664026

The novel vividly illustrates this event, stated as follows:

The scorching blade slashed at my eyelashes and stabbed at my stinging eyes. That's when everything began to reel. The sea carried up a thick, fiery breath. It seemed to me as if the sky split open from one end to the other to rain down fire. My whole being tensed and I squeezed my hand around the revolver. The trigger gave; I felt the smooth underside of the butt; and there, in that noise, sharp and deafening at the same time, is where I tall started. I shook off the sweat and sun. I knew that I had shattered the harmony of the day, the exceptional silence of a beach where I'd been happy. Then I fired four more times at the motionless body where the bullets lodged without leaving a trace. And it was like knocking four quick times…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bree, B. (Ed.). (1972). Camus. NJ: Rutgers UP.

Booker, (1993). Literature and domination: sex, knowledge, and power in modern fiction. Gainsville: Florida UP.

Camus, a. (1988). The Stranger. NY: Alfred a. Knopf, Inc.

Dupee, F.W. (1957). In Nabokov: a critical heritage. N. Page (Ed.). NY: Routledge.
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What Is Development

Words: 1243 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29428979

Developmental Processes Across the Life Span With Diverse Sociocultural Contexts

The objective of this study is to identify development processes across the life span with diverse sociocultural contexts and to demonstrate theoretical comprehension and application in psychotherapy in order to identify theoretical strengths and weaknesses based on the setting and/or client population specific to child behavior. Finally, this work will demonstrate basic knowledge of the range of normal an abnormal behaviors and child developmental processes. The work of Havighurst (1971) entitled 'Characteristics of Development Task' reports that living is a process beginning with birth and ending with death, which is, comprised of people "working their way through from stage of development to another, by solving their problems in each stage.") When the individual does not complete a task, which results in unhappiness as well as "disapproval by society and problems in later tasks." (1971, p.1) Six primary stages of the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Havighurst, R.J., (1971) Developmental Tasks and Education, Third Edition. New York. Longman.

Lam, WSE (nd) Re-envisioning Language, Literacy and the Immigrant Subject in New Mediascapes. Northwestern University / Evanston, IL.

Castel, AD, et al. (2011) The Development of Memory Efficiency and Value-Directed Remembering Across the Life Span: A Cross-Sectional Study of Memory and Selectivity. Developmental Psychology © 2011 American Psychological Association. 2011, Vol. 47, No. 6, 1553 -- 1564.

Waszak, F. et al. (2010) The Development of Attentional Networks: Cross-Sectional Findings From a Life Span Sample. Developmental Psychology © 2010 American Psychological Association 2010, Vol. 46, No. 2, 337 -- 349
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Abnormality Personal View Personal View

Words: 1334 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46952821

Rock climbing is dangerous and statistically few people engage in this behavior. Yet few would consider it socially unacceptable in individualistic cultures (even if they assess it as unusual and dangerous). What would be abnormal, however, is a person who rock climbs naked, since in that case they are going against even the accepted "norms" of the rock climbing community (provided they are not part of a nudist rock climbing group where such behavior could be deemed appropriate).

To take another example: depression and anxiety disorders are common in U.S. society. They are not dominant, but they are frequent enough to question whether they are abnormal from a statistical perspective. If one decides statistically that depressive behavior is not abnormal, one is left to search other criteria. Is depression familiar or unfamiliar? Is depression socially acceptable or socially maladaptive? Does it place the person in conflict with their surroundings with…… [Read More]

Bibliography

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th Ed. Washington, DC: Author.
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Psycho Path Reflections of Mental

Words: 1368 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42526056



The individuals with the condition often face a series of exclusions and rejections (Widiger 2011). There are many scenarios that have been denied basic needs such as housing on the basis of their mental status. People are denied loans, job opportunities and health insurances on the basis of mental health. The stigmatization cases are so prevalent that many people affected or who suspect they have the condition fear to seek professional assistance.

Stigmatization causes the person to have low self-esteem the strong social, religious and cultural beliefs have greatly distorted views of people on mental illness. Media portrays most of the characters with aggressive behavior and other negative traits as suffering from mental illness. This has created the impression that mental sickness is a sign of inferior character.

The basics of mental health include examination of theories of psychology, sociology, health psychology and transitions of life in relation to mental…… [Read More]

References

Jensen-doss, a., & Hawley, K.M. (2011). Understanding clinicians' diagnostic practices:

Attitudes toward the utility of diagnosis and standardized diagnostic tools. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 38(6), 476-85. doi:

 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10488-011-0334-3 

Widiger, T.A. (2011). Integrating normal and abnormal personality structure: A proposal for DSM-V. Journal of Personality Disorders, 25(3), 338-63. doi:
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Reign Over Me

Words: 1437 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92368103

Charlie Fineman who is played by actor Adam Sandler in the 2007 movie Reign Over Me, is a man who, following the 9/11 attacks, has lost his wife and daughters. Unable to confront the trauma consciously, he develops an unusual behavior, choosing to cut himself off from the life he used to know before the tragic events occurred. He becomes withdrawn and non-communicative, his behavior reflecting a vegetative state. He feels unable to let go of the past and develops an obsessive, non-dangerous attachment that determines him to remodel his kitchen regularly. Because of the last words he had said to his wife, remodeling the kitchen became Fineman's response to the guilt he was feeling. He thus developed a survivor's guilt to which he responded. He also cannot respond positively to social interactions because he has implanted himself with the belief that people would only remind him of the loss…… [Read More]

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Traumatic Brain Injuries

Words: 1419 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90509481

patients diagnosed with TBI cope better with counseling and outreach programs when dealing with new or abnormal behaviors?

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in social and emotional defects (such as delayed word recall) that result in frustrating and embarrassing moments for the victim. Of all counseling and intervention programs, rehabilitation therapy (CT) is the one that is commonly used and, therefore, this literature review will conduct a meta-analytic search (focusing on quantitative studies within the last five years) in order to assess the efficacy of CT in helping TBI individuals with their social and emotional skills and perceptions.

The essay identified and reviewed seven randomized trials of language, emotional and social communication cognitive rehabilitation. Inclusion terms were that participants had to possess sufficient cognitive capacity to be included in a group and impairment in emotional and social skills was evidenced either by a questionnaire or by the clinician's reference.…… [Read More]

Reference

Bell, K et al. (2011) Scheduled Telephone Intervention for Traumatic Brain Injury: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92, 1552 -- 1560

Bornhofen, C., and S. McDonald. 2008a. Treating deficits in emotion perception following traumatic brain injury. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation 18(1): 22-44.

-- -- . 2008b. Comparing strategies for treating emotion perception deficits in traumatic brain injury. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 23(2): 103-115.

Chard, K et al. (2011) Exploring the efficacy of a residential treatment program incorporating cognitive processing therapy-cognitive for veterans with PTSD and traumatic brain injury, Journal of Traumatic Stress, 24, 347 -- 351,
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Medical Model and Learned Helplessness

Words: 1083 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78154146

Lobotomy is a popular medical procedure introduced in curing mentally ill individuals, which requires the removal of the prefrontal lobes of the cortex of the brain, the part of the brain wherein aggressive and violent behavior is triggered. However, in the movie, lobotomy is shown to have disastrous results: McMurphy's violent behavior is indeed abated, but as illustrated in the movie, the lobotomy had turned him into a 'vegetable' neither responding to his ward mates' call for attention nor displaying his usual rowdy, obnoxious, McMurphy self.

This instance in the movie is considered as patterned after the medical model of abnormal psychology, wherein "mental disorders are described as medical diseases with a biological origin" (450). ecause this is the prevalent thinking in medical science during the time the movie (and novel) was made, Nurse Ratched decided, in order to "treat" McMurphy, to let him undergo lobotomy. Subsistence to the medical…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Santorck, J. (2001). Psychology. NY: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
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Counseling Psychotherapy Why Counseling Life Can Be

Words: 1958 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4347584

Counseling Psychotherapy

Why Counseling?

Life can be shattering. Deception, lies, and tremendous heartache can derail the most prodigious, honest, and sincere individual. Devastation can acquiescent a beautiful and wonderful spirit into a horrendous downward spiral to where there appears to be no hope. When our 'bubble' of a world is popped, we often become disoriented, unable to ascertain the fact from fiction, and can then start having negative and harmful thoughts.

Given the circumstances to which I have had to overcome, a tremendous amount of resolve was required, which enabled me to persevere through my darkest moments. Betrayal and heartache can ruin one's perception of what life is about. Indeed, there are many who never enjoy the love or reach a pinnacle of happiness that I've enjoyed. To these individuals, I feel my empathy given my triumphs and set backs will undoubtedly enable a clear perspective, rich with insight to…… [Read More]

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Realm of Psychological Disorder Through the Use

Words: 2202 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14333578

realm of psychological disorder through the use of a character assessment. The character in question is fictional and the data used to evaluate the psychological profile derives from a movie. Melvin Udall, the main character in the movie "As Good as It Gets" serves as the character used in this assessment. Ultimately, I find and explore specific links to Melvin's condition in the movie to that of one suffering from Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD).

In order to discuss the relationships previously mentioned, I needed to perform several steps in order to logically conclude that Melvin represents someone suffering from OCD symptoms. In order to accomplish this task, I first watched the film and examined many of the traits that Melvin demonstrated. Next, I used a set of ten questions which provided a baseline assessment formula. These questions are each answered separately within the body of this essay. This character assessment…… [Read More]

References

Atkins, L. (2009). A radical treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder patients. The Guardian, 14 Dec 2009. Retrieved from  http://www.guardian.co.uk/lifeandstyle/2009/dec/15/obsessive-complusive-disorder - gamma-knife

Brooks, J.L. (1998) As Good As It Gets. Jack Nicholson, Helen Hunt, Greg Kinnear. Tristar Pictures.

Bouchard, C. Rheaume, J. Landouceru, R. (1998). Responsibility and perfectionism in OCD. Behavior Research Therapy 37 (1999). 239-248. Retrieved from  http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/Homepage/Class/Psy394Q/Research%20Design%20Clas  s/Assigned%20Readings/Experimental%20Psychopathology/Bouchard99.pdf

Eddy, M.F., & Walbroehl, G.S. (1998, April 1). Recognition and treatment of obsessive- compulsive disorder. American Family Physician, p. 1623-1632.  http://www.aafp.org/afp/1998/0401/p1623.html
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Setting the Story

Words: 1722 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82198268

Yellow allpaper and Paul's Case: Emancipation of Mental Captivity

The two texts, Charlotte Perkins Gilman's The Yellow allpaper and illa Cather's Paul's Case, portray the main characters with hysteria. Both cases are reactions to the pressures put on them by their families as well as the society. They seem to build mental barriers that cannot be brought down, so called safe heavens, escape from harsh realities and this puts them on a self-destruction course. The narrator in The Yellow allpaper is the main character, an upper middle class woman confined to domesticity and "women's role. The text reveals her inner struggles and from her eye, the reader is able to see her plight. Similarly in Paul's Case, the main character has personal issues that are products of the society he lives in. He is motherless, thin pale and dreamy adolescent who rebels from his conventional surroundings in Pittsburgh. The major…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cather, Willa. Paul's Case . 1905.

Gilman, CP. The Yellow Wallpaper and Other Stories. New York: Dover Publications, 1892.
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Violent Political Action and Selective Incentives Violent

Words: 2205 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92078882

Violent Political Action and Selective Incentives

Violent Political Action

Everybody who has the family wants to worry only about personal and family life and to have a peaceful society. These people will never like to indulge in war with others and to sacrifice their peace. Unless there is a big threat to their survival, people tend to be peaceful. The question arises why would someone sacri-ce self-interest to take part in violent group actions. In business also, people might involve in violent behavior when they feel threat to their job or career. Often some employees are deprived of facilities, opportunities and fair performance appraisals thus they can become more violent.

Standard models of decision making

The decision making models in business may be rational, adaptive, planned, collective participation, intuitive, and/or emergent. All these models use facts and some procedures to come to a conclusion. No decision making model offers complete…… [Read More]

References

Decision-making & Managing Conflict, (n.d.), Retrieved from:

http://toolkit.smallbiz.nsw.gov.au/part/8/42/200

Ginges, J, and Atran, S., (2009), "What motivates participation in violent political action:

selective incentives or parochial altruism?" Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 115-123
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Diagnostic Assessment

Words: 5224 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64538441

real problems faced by real people in the world, it might seem foolish to analyze a fictitious character. But sometimes it is easier to understand human nature when we look to art or fiction, in part because art provides us with some needed distance at times and in part because fictitious characters are often relatively pure distillations of character types. This is the case with the character of Grace from the television show "Grace Under Pressure." This paper provides an analysis of this character using first the Adlerian therapy model, then analyzing her through a behavior model and then finally suggesting a treatment plan for a person with the profile of Grace.

Grace's character - to begin with a thumbnail of her - is presented in the series as a no-nonsense, take-no-guff survivor of a bad marriage that was often abusive (at least in psychological terms). After eight years of…… [Read More]

References

Amen, D. (2000). Change your brain, change your life. New York: Times Books.

Corsini, R. & Wedding, D. (2000). Current Psychotherapies. New York: FE

Fernandez, E. (2002). Anxiety, depression, and anger in pain: research findings and clinical options. New York: Advanced Psychological Resources.

Foster, R.P., Moskowtiz, M. & Javier R.A. (Eds.) (1996). Reaching across boundaries of culture and class: Widening the scope of psychotherapy. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
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Paraphila the Ancient Philosopher Plato Claimed That

Words: 1412 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16482628

Paraphila

The ancient philosopher Plato claimed that all immoral behavior was the result of some disorder in the soul (Gert and Culver, 2009, p. 489). Although very few people now hold this view, deviant sexual behavior is often considered symptomatic of a mental disorder. However, not all deviant behaviors fit the clinical definition. For example, if a heterosexual man becomes aroused by dressing in women's clothing, it is considered by most people to be abnormal behavior. However, his behavior may be ego-syntonic, meaning that the man is not troubled by either the impulses or by acting them out. Such an individual would not seek treatment. He is not a danger to himself or to anyone else and unless there were objections on the part of his wife or significant other, there is no compelling reason, in the man's mind, to manage his impulses or behavior. As Bhugra and McMullen (2010,…… [Read More]

References

Bhugra, D., Popelyuk, D., and McMullen, I. (2010). Paraphilas across cultures: Contexts and controversies. Journal of Sex Research 47(2-3), pp. 242-256.

Gert, B., and Culver, C.M. (2009). Sex, immorality, and mental disorders. Journal of Medicine & Philosophy 34(5), pp. 487-495.

Gordon, H. (2008). The treatment of paraphilias: An historical perspective. Criminal Behaviour & Mental Health 18(2), pp. 79-87.

Hall, Ryan C.W., and Hall, Richard C.W. (2007). A profile of pedophilia: Definition, characteristics of offenders, recidivism, treatment outcomes and forensic issues.
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Fresco Et Al 2007 Self

Words: 918 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25058593

The CFA was performed on the first sample and did not achieve an overall good fit based on the proposed two factors. The researchers performed an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and subsequent CFA on their second sample of students and found that a unifactorial construct of decentering fit the data. This single factor loaded on 11 of the 16 items of the EQ. The researchers hypothesized that the EQ measures a single decentering construct that is made up of several different aspects of decentering (Fresco et al., 2007).

Next, Fresco et al. (2007) examined the discriminate validity and concurrent validity of the EQ. The researchers examined the EQ in relation to depressive rumination, experiential avoidance, cognitive reappraisal, and emotion suppression. According to Fresco et al. A measure of the decentering should positively correlated with measures of cognitive appraisal and negatively correlated with measures of depressive rumination, depression, avoidance, and emotional…… [Read More]

References

Fresco, D.M., Moore, M.T., van Dulmen, M.H.M., Segal, Z.V., Ma, S.H., Teasdale, J.D., & Williams, J.M.G. (2007). Initial properties of the experiences questionnaire: Validation of a self-report measure of decentering. Behavior Therapy, 38, 234-236.
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Diagnose or Not to Diagnose

Words: 2826 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19828979



Discuss the criteria used to define abnormality (abnormal behavior / mood disorders)

There are no established criteria to define what is abnormal. On the other hand, every individual trait can be said as abnormal on some social plane. (Oracle think quest, 2010) Some of the preferred ideas to define abnormality are as given below:

Statistical Norms Deviation: Certain population facts such as height, weight and intelligence are measured and recorded. Most of people come in the middle range of intelligence. Those who fail in general terms and falls below the so-called intelligence scale are termed as abnormal. But then, the people with extra intelligence also become abnormal. Furthermore, intelligence is a subjective issue. (Oracle think quest, 2010)

Social Norms Deviation: People going again social norms and trying to make their idiosyncratic identity are also termed as abnormal. Galileo was abnormal and he was brutally punished for his abnormality, he suggested…… [Read More]

References

Baker, B.L., Blacher, J., & Pfeiffer, S. (1993). "Family involvement in residential treatment of children with psychiatric disorder and mental retardation" Hospital and Community Psychiatry, vol. 44, no. 6, pp: 561-566.

Chan, Jeffery; Hudson, Colin. (2002) "Individuals with Intellectual Disability and Mental Illness:

A Literature Review," Australian Journal of Social Issues, vol. 37, no. 1, pp: 31-40.

Davidson, P.W., Cain, N.N., Sloane-Reeves, J., Giesow, V.E Quijano, L.E., Van Heyningen, J., & Sholam, I. (1995). "Crisis intervention for community-based individuals with developmental disabilities and behavioral and psychiatric disorders" Mental Retardation, vol. 33, no. 1, pp: 21-30.
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Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice True Psychology

Words: 19429 Length: 71 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78576075

Soul: Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice "True Psychology"

Today, there are more than one hundred thousand licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. These mental health professionals are in a unique position to provide individuals, groups, and American society with valuable counseling services for a wide range of mental health issues and mental disorders. This study uses a triangulated research approach to demonstrate that true psychology can be done only by Christians since only Christians have the resources that are needed to understand and transform the soul in healing ways. The first leg of the research approach consists of a review of the relevant literature, the second leg consists of a custom survey of 25 practicing American psychologists, and the final leg of the triangulated research approach consists of an exegetical analysis of relevant biblical verses concerning the human soul and its relevance for mental health professionals. Finally, a…… [Read More]

References

American people and society. (2015). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html.

Bassett, R.L. (2013, Winter). An empirical consideration of grace and legalism within Christian experience. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 32(1), 43-49.

Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Bobgan, M. & Bobgan, D. (1987). PsychoHeresy: The psychological seduction of Christianity.