466+ documents containing “abnormal psychology”.
Without further examination, one can only note the similarities in isolating behavior between Asperger's and OCD patients. In Jake's particular case, the symptoms while he was a child included insistence on sameness, preference for symmetry, and systems of arranging preferred objects (Leckman, 1999)
Etiology: One can surmise that Jake is genetically predisposed to OCD through his mother. In general, OCD and some other genetically-linked psychiatric disorders can move from mother to son to daughter (i.e. change sex with each generation). OCD in the father can be enhanced through the birth of a child, and has been documented in clinical studies (Abramowitz, 2001). This may be in response to the hormonal changes of the mother, or the change in routine (and perceived risk) of the father after the birth of the child. It could also be a heightened response to post-partum depression on the part of the wife.
Jake's OCD appears….
Abramowitz, J. a. (2001). Acute Onset of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Males. Psychosomatics, 428-431.
Curry, J. (1998). Predicting the Outcome of Treatment. Abnormal Child Psychology, 39-52.
Farrington D, L.R. (1990). Long-term criminal outcomes of hyperactivity-impulsivity-attentional deficit and conduct problems in childhood. In L. a. Robins, Straight and Devious Pathways From Childhood to Adulthood (pp. 62-81). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gillberg, C. (1998). Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism. British Journal of Psychiatry, 200-209.
Abnormal Psychology - the study of mental and emotional disorders or maladaptive behaviors, or of mental phenomena such as dreams, hypnosis, and altered states or levels of consciousness.
Social norms - Group-held beliefs about how members should behave in a given context. Sociologists describe norms as informal understandings that govern society's behaviors,]while psychologists have adopted a more general definition, recognizing smaller group units, like a team or an office, may also endorse norms separate or in addition to cultural or societal expectations. The psychological definition emphasizes social norms' behavioral component, stating norms have two dimensions: how much behavior is exhibited and how much the group approves of that behavior.
Dysfunction - Deviation from the norms of social behavior in a way regarded as bad
Distress - This term refers to the "bad" type of stress (the opposite of Eustress), and occurs when we have excessive adaptive demands placed upon us. This occurs….
.. seeks to observe, compare, classify, and relate the facts of abnormal conduct, thought, and feeling for the primary purpose of understanding them. It approaches these phenomena in much the same way that the mathematician or the botanist studies his subject matter.
There are other various standpoints and perspectives on abnormal behavior. A different perspective on the subject which in fact adds to the depth of understanding of abnormal psychology is the theory of cultural relativism. Research in the disciplines of Sociology and Anthropology has added to this debate in that they have shown that there is no absolute normative situation. Societal norms are relative to a particular culture: and what is considered abnormal in one social context could be considered normal in another. Cultural relativism adds another layer of complexity to the psychological definition and understanding of the term 'abnormal' in modern society. This aspect is further problematized as….
Introduction to Abnormal Psychology. Accessed 6 December, 2004. http://www.sparknotes.com/psychology/abnormal/intro/summary.html
Hollingworth, H.L. Abnormal Psychology; Its Concepts and Theories. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1930.
What is abnormal? Accessed December 4, 2004. http://www.purgatory.net/merits/medical.htm
6. Describe some of research findings that demonstrate the importance of relationships to our psychological well-being.
A group of researchers from the University of Georgia and the University of Kansas have found that attractive people do tend to have more social relationships and therefore an increased sense of psychological well-being. The significance of attractiveness in everyday life is not fixed, or simply a matter of human nature. The force of our attractiveness on our social lives depends on the social environment where we live. Attractiveness does mean something in more socially mobile, urban areas and from a woman's point-of-view actually indicates psychological well-being, but it is far less important in rural areas. In urban areas people experience a high level of social choice, and associating with attractive people is one of those choices. In other words, in urban areas there is a free market of relationships which makes attractiveness more important….
Abnormal Psychology. (2010). Retrieved February 27, 2010, from New World Encyclopedia
Web site: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Abnormal_psychology
Cherry, Kendra. (2010). Retrieved February 27, 2010, from About.com Web site:
, 2007). Substance abuse is a serious problem and is linked most often to individuals with personality disorders, which are named in the next section.
Personality Disorders. Personality disorders, as defined in Kring et al., are a "heterogeneous group of disorders defined by long-standing, pervasive and inflexible patterns of behavior and inner experience that deviate from the expectations of a person's culture (Kring et al., 2007, 387). The DSM-IV-T classifies 10 personality disorders, which it groups into 3 major clusters (Kring et al., 2007, 391). Cluster a is the odd / eccentric cluster; cluster B is the Dramatic / Erratic Cluster; and cluster C is the Anxious / Fearful Cluster (Kring et al., 2007).
Cluster a or the odd / eccentric cluster includes the paranoid personality disorder, the schizoid personality disorder and the schizotypal personality disorder (Kring et al., 2007). Individuals with paranoid personality disorder are highly suspicious of others and expect….
Courbasson, C., Rizea, C. & Weiskopf, N. (2008, July). Emotional Eating among Individuals with Concurrent Eating and Substance Use Disorders. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 6(3), 378- 388. Retrieved September 3, 3009, doi:10.1007/s11469-007-9135-z
Kring, a., Davison, G., Neale, J., Johnson, S. (2007). Abnormal Psychology (10th Edition). Chapters 9-10 (pp. 270- 348) & 12-13 (pp. 386-448). USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Sass, H. & Junemann K. (2003, October 2). Affective disorders, personality and personality disorders. Acta Psychiatica Scandinavica, 108, 34. Retrieved September 3, 2009, doi:10.1034/j1600-0447.108.s418.8.x
Conversely, strict application of the biological components of addiction excludes equally strong evidence of the influence of external environment, particularly at critical stages of development. In that regard, there is a "cross-over" effect of food being strongly associated with reward or comfort in childhood and increased tendency to seek comfort from consumption of substances as an adult (Gerrig and Zimbardo 2005).
In general, repeated neurological responses to pleasure establish a reward mechanism in which the neurotransmitter dopamine is prominently featured. Addicts, in particular, exhibit stronger dopaminergic involvement in the reward loop and tend to experience greater corresponding increases in their subsequent need for continued dopaminergic stimulation than non-addicts, even after a single exposure to certain addictive substances (Dennet 1991). At the same time, addiction is also influenced by circumstances and behaviors: for one example, those addicted to nicotine often experience their greatest cravings when triggered by superficial associations between smoking….
Brecher, E. (1991). Licit & Illicit Drugs. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Coleman, J., Butcher, J., and Carson, R. (1994). Abnormal Psychology and Human Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co.
Dennet, D. (1991). Consciousness Explained. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005).
They have small heads, prominent cheek and jaw bones, widely spaced teeth, and poor tooth enamel. However, every state now screens the phenylalanine level of newborns at 3 days of age. If an infant has PKU, dietary sources of the amino acid are lessened or eliminated. High protein foods such as meat, fish, chicken, eggs, cheese, milk, and peas are avoided. Cereals, starches, fruits and vegetables, along with phenylanine-free baby formulas are given instead. If a proper diet is maintained, these individuals can develop normally.
Functional enuresis and encorpresis are elimination disorders. The first is bedwetting, or urination, during the day or night, in one's clothing or in bed. There are three subsets of this disorder. In one, the individual (usually a child) urinates at night. In the second subtype, the individual urinates only while awake. The third subtype occurs both during the day and the night. In some cases,….
Autism is a World," a film by Gerry Wurzburg. Letter from Sue Rubin at http://www.cnn.com/CNN/Programs/presents/index.autism.world.html
Mikklesen, E.J. (2001, Oct.) Enuresis and Encopresis: ten years of progress. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 40(10):1146-1158
Rosario, E. The Journal of Neuroscience, Dec. 20, 2006; vol 26: pp 13384-13389.
Abnormal Psychology: Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a group of paranoiac disorders depicted by agitation in thinking, cognition, affect, behavior, and communication that last longer than six months. There is five recognized kind of schizophrenia and they are catatonic, paranoid, disorganized, undifferentiated, and residual.
Illusion, hallucinations, catatonic behavior, and irrationality are some of the elementary symptoms. No solitary characteristic is present in all types of schizophrenia. The source of schizophrenia is unascertained. There are numerous theories to elucidate the outgrowth of this disorder. Genetic factors may play a role, relatives of a person with schizophrenia are more prone to acquire the disorder. Psychological and social circumstances may also play a part in evolvement of this disease.
The term "schizophrenia" refers to one of the most debilitating and baffling mental illnesses known. Though it has a specific set of symptoms, this illness varies in its severity from individual to individual, and even within any one afflicted….
Ethical Issues related to Licensed Professional Marriage and Family Therapists
Licensed professional marriage and family therapists have a very important role to play in helping married couples and families solve the relationship problems such as discord between husband and wife, and conflict between parents and children. They help to prevent the family from breaking up by offering professional counseling based on psychological expertise. Since clients confide in them about their very personal family matters, such therapists have to be sensitive to the ethical implications of such a relationship. They should not make unauthorized use of such information. If the information about a patient is to be used to prepare a case study, permission should be sought and the names of the people should be changed. The therapists should also avoid trying to get involved in a romantic or sexual relationship with the client.
Ethical Issues related to Unlicensed Professional Marriage….
He also said the psychologist told him not to say anything at work unless he was about to be fired. He doesn't think he has any serious problems at work. He works for a landscaping firm and works outdoor a lot, with a lot of physical labor, and he thinks this suits him well. He doesn't have to do a lot of paperwork, and he doesn't think he makes any more mistakes that way than anyone else, and that everyone seems to get along well there.
He has noticed, he says, that everyone seems to have an opinion about AD/HD, and he is finding out that this doesn't always mean they're right, so for now he agrees with the psychologist and isn't saying anything at work, but he's hoping to find emotional support from members in the family. Right now he realizes that it won't come from his parents. They….
Arcus, Doreen, Ph.D. 2001. "Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)." Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology.
Baving. Lioba, Laucht, Manfred, and Schmidt, Martin H. 1999. "Atypical Frontal Brain Activation in ADHD: Preschool and Elementary School Boys and Girls." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Nov.
Chan, Eugenia, Gardiner, Paula, and Kemper, Kathi J. 2000. "At least it's natural....' Herbs and dietary supplements in ADHD." Contemporary Pediatrics, Sept.
Jensen, Peter S., Kettle, Lori, Roper, Margaret T., Sloan, Michael T., Dulcan, Mina K. Hoven, Christina, Bird, Hector R., Bauermeister, Jose J., and Payne, Jennifer D. 1999. "Are stimulants overprescribed?" Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, July.
oots of Abnormal Psychology
The recognition that mental disorders exist goes all the way back to primitive societies (Hansell and Damour, 2008, p. 26). Ancient skulls with holes drilled into them suggests animistic cultures practiced trephination, which entails drilling holes into the heads of living persons to provide an escape route for unhealthy spirits. Societies that believed in animism, or the existence of a powerful spirit world, would sometimes use trephination to open a way for spirits to leave the body of afflicted persons. Exorcism was practiced for the same purpose.
Ancient Greece also recognized the existence of mental disorders, but the approach towards treatment was a bit less barbaric (Hansell and Damour, 2008, p. 28-29). The famous Greek physician Hippocrates, who lived between 460 and 377 B.C.E., believed that all diseases came from an imbalance between four humours: blood, phlegm, and black and yellow bile. An imbalance in these humours….
Evolution of Abnormal Psychology From the 1800's To The Present
The study and treatment of psychological dysfunction has evolved from early history until the present day. Prior to the 1800's, society believed deviant or abnormal behaviors were caused by supernatural forces or biological factors. Treatments for psychological problems prior to the 18th century included exorcisms and bloodletting. Early beliefs about the origins of emotional disturbances influenced public perceptions of mental illness and theories of abnormal psychology in the 19th century. Advances in medical science, and the use of scientific method influenced the research of theorists like Freud, and Pavlov and improved theoretical knowledge and treatments of mentally ill populations. Despite current mental health treatments and increased awareness of the etiology of psychological disturbance, people with mental disorders continue to experience difficulties including social stigma, hospitalization, homelessness, suicide, and incarceration (Barlow and Durand). A historical overview of the development of abnormal psychology….
AmericanPsychiatricAssociation DiagnisticandStatisticalManualofMentalDisorders 2000 American Psychiatric Association. Diagnistic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Rev. ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000. Print.
BarkerP MentalHealthEthics:TheHumanContext 2011 Barker, P., ed. Mental Health Ethics: The Human Context. New York: Routledge, 2011. Print.
BarlowDHandMVDurand AbnormalPsychology:AnIntegrativeApproach 2002 Barlow, DH and M.V. Durand. Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach. 3rd ed. Belmont: Wadsworth Group, 2002. Print.
FrankRGandSGlied BetterbutNotWell:MentalHealthPolicyintheUnitedStatesSince1950 2006 Frank, R.G. And S. Glied. Better but Not Well: Mental Health Policy in the United States Since 1950. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006. Print.
Drisko and Zayas provide significant details on the evidence-based practice (EBP) and how it can defined and applied in the daily practice of the nursing profession. In particular, Drisko strives to show how this concept of EBP can be distinguished from other relate terms like the empirically supported treatments. however, Drisko J., (2013) discusses some challenges that come with the implementation of the EBP and that need to be worked on for eventual effectiveness of the program where it is used. The first is that the EBP implementation has become so successful to a point that both the lay person and the processionals are confused o the definition and application of the same in practice. The social workers seem not conversant with the EBP decision making model hence the mode has been jumbled up with so many 'best practices' that are based on varying standards. Secondly, the EBP is….
Drisko J., (2013). Research evidence and social work practice: The place of evidence-based practice.
Ray W. J., (2015). Abnormal psychology: Abnormal Psychology. Sage publications. https://edge.sagepub.com/ray/student-resources/neuroscience-approaches-to-understanding-psychopathology/sage-journal-articles
Zayas L.Het et.al, (2011).Overrating or dismissing the value of evidence-based practice: Consequences for clinical practice.
Efficacy of Personality Disorder Treatments
The paper reviews literature regarding the nature of personality disorders and known treatments. The paper argues that there is no definitive cure-all for personality disorders. The paper also advocates for increased attention and research in the area of personality disorders regarding treatments and variation of treatment strategies. The paper explains the causes of personality disorders, the treatments available, the perceptions of personality disorders in the medical and general communities, and proposes methods personality disorders may be freshly perceived and treated.
Determining the Efficacy of Personality Disorder Treatments
Personalities are the consistent behavior and mental characteristics and patterns that each individual has. Personality disorders are disorders that describe prevalent ways in which people's experiences and behaviors are not aligned with relative cultural norms or expectations. Areas that personality disorders affect patients are impulse control, emotional expression and comprehension, and cognition. Personality disorders refer to patterns that substantially….
Clarkin, PhD, J.F., Foelsch, PhD, P.A, Levy, PhD, K.N., Hull, PhD., J.W., Delaney, J.C., & Kornberg, MD, O.F. (2001) The Development of a Psychodynamic Treatment for Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary Study of Behavioral Change. Journal of Personality Disorders, 15(6), 487 -- 495.
Giesen-Bloo, J., van Duck, MD, PhD, R., Spinhoven, PhD, P., van Tilburg, MD, PhD, W., Dirksen, PhD, C., van Asselt, T., Kremers, PhD, I., Nadort, M., & Rants, PhD, A. (2006) Outpatient Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 63, 649 -- 658.
Lieb, K., Zanarini, M.C., Schmaltz, C., Linehan, M.M., & Bohus, M. (2004) Borderline personality disorder. Lancet, 364, 453 -- 461.
Svrakic, D.M., Dramatic, S., Hill, K., Bayon, C., Przybeck, T.R., & Cloning, C.R. (2002) Act Psychiatry Scandinavia, 106, 189 -- 195.
Cluster Personality Disorder
In this article some of the latest research regarding the Cluster personality disorders has been given along with their etiology, diagnosis and treatment. Further some research related to the causes, preventive measures and treatments of such disorders has been discussed here as well. The article also presents biblical and cultural points-of-views regarding the disorder. Lastly, various viewpoints associated with the counter transference related to the treatment of the patients with these personality disorders have been addressed as well (Kraus & Reynolds, 2001).
According to the definition of personality disorder it is 'a continuing pattern of behavior and inner experience which is a lot different from the culture that an individual lives in, this sort of behavior or experience is inflexible and pervasive, starts either during the initial years of childhood or adolescence and although it is generally stable but can become stressful over the years. It has….
Alarcon, R., & Foulks, E. (1995). Personality Disorders and Culture: Contemporary Clinical Views. Cultural Diversity and Mental Health, 79-91.
Angstman, K., & Rasmussen, N. (2011, December). Retrieved from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1201/p1253.html
Capps, D. (2008). God Diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Princeton: Springer .
Charland, L.2006. Moral nature of the DSM-IV Cluster Personality disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders20, no. 2:116-25.
Without further examination, one can only note the similarities in isolating behavior between Asperger's and OCD patients. In Jake's particular case, the symptoms while he was a child…Read Full Paper ❯
Psychology Definitions Abnormal Psychology - the study of mental and emotional disorders or maladaptive behaviors, or of mental phenomena such as dreams, hypnosis, and altered states or levels of consciousness. Social…Read Full Paper ❯
.. seeks to observe, compare, classify, and relate the facts of abnormal conduct, thought, and feeling for the primary purpose of understanding them. It approaches these phenomena in much…Read Full Paper ❯
6. Describe some of research findings that demonstrate the importance of relationships to our psychological well-being. A group of researchers from the University of Georgia and the University of Kansas…Read Full Paper ❯
, 2007). Substance abuse is a serious problem and is linked most often to individuals with personality disorders, which are named in the next section. Personality Disorders. Personality disorders, as…Read Full Paper ❯
Conversely, strict application of the biological components of addiction excludes equally strong evidence of the influence of external environment, particularly at critical stages of development. In that regard,…Read Full Paper ❯
They have small heads, prominent cheek and jaw bones, widely spaced teeth, and poor tooth enamel. However, every state now screens the phenylalanine level of newborns at 3…Read Full Paper ❯
Abnormal Psychology: Schizophrenia Schizophrenia is a group of paranoiac disorders depicted by agitation in thinking, cognition, affect, behavior, and communication that last longer than six months. There is five recognized…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
Abnormal Psychology Ethical Issues Ethical Issues related to Licensed Professional Marriage and Family Therapists Licensed professional marriage and family therapists have a very important role to play in helping married couples and…Read Full Paper ❯
He also said the psychologist told him not to say anything at work unless he was about to be fired. He doesn't think he has any serious problems…Read Full Paper ❯
oots of Abnormal Psychology Abnormal Psychology The recognition that mental disorders exist goes all the way back to primitive societies (Hansell and Damour, 2008, p. 26). Ancient skulls with holes drilled…Read Full Paper ❯
Evolution of Abnormal Psychology From the 1800's To The Present The study and treatment of psychological dysfunction has evolved from early history until the present day. Prior to the 1800's,…Read Full Paper ❯
Evidence-Based Practice Drisko and Zayas provide significant details on the evidence-based practice (EBP) and how it can defined and applied in the daily practice of the nursing profession. In particular,…Read Full Paper ❯
Efficacy of Personality Disorder Treatments Abnormal Psychology The paper reviews literature regarding the nature of personality disorders and known treatments. The paper argues that there is no definitive cure-all for…Read Full Paper ❯
Cluster Personality Disorder In this article some of the latest research regarding the Cluster personality disorders has been given along with their etiology, diagnosis and treatment. Further some…Read Full Paper ❯