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Without further examination, one can only note the similarities in isolating behavior between Asperger's and OCD patients. In Jake's particular case, the symptoms while he was a child included insistence on sameness, preference for symmetry, and systems of arranging preferred objects (Leckman, 1999)
Etiology: One can surmise that Jake is genetically predisposed to OCD through his mother. In general, OCD and some other genetically-linked psychiatric disorders can move from mother to son to daughter (i.e. change sex with each generation). OCD in the father can be enhanced through the birth of a child, and has been documented in clinical studies (Abramowitz, 2001). This may be in response to the hormonal changes of the mother, or the change in routine (and perceived risk) of the father after the birth of the child. It could also be a heightened response to post-partum depression on the part of the wife.
Abramowitz, J. a. (2001). Acute Onset of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Males. Psychosomatics, 428-431.
Curry, J. (1998). Predicting the Outcome of Treatment. Abnormal Child Psychology, 39-52.
Farrington D, L.R. (1990). Long-term criminal outcomes of hyperactivity-impulsivity-attentional deficit and conduct problems in childhood. In L. a. Robins, Straight and Devious Pathways From Childhood to Adulthood (pp. 62-81). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gillberg, C. (1998). Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism. British Journal of Psychiatry, 200-209.
Abnormal Psychology - the study of mental and emotional disorders or maladaptive behaviors, or of mental phenomena such as dreams, hypnosis, and altered states or levels of consciousness.
Social norms - Group-held beliefs about how members should behave in a given context. Sociologists describe norms as informal understandings that govern society's behaviors,]while psychologists have adopted a more general definition, recognizing smaller group units, like a team or an office, may also endorse norms separate or in addition to cultural or societal expectations. The psychological definition emphasizes social norms' behavioral component, stating norms have two dimensions: how much behavior is exhibited and how much the group approves of that behavior.
Dysfunction - Deviation from the norms of social behavior in a way regarded as bad
Distress - This term refers to the "bad" type of stress (the opposite of Eustress), and occurs when we have excessive adaptive demands placed…
.. seeks to observe, compare, classify, and relate the facts of abnormal conduct, thought, and feeling for the primary purpose of understanding them. It approaches these phenomena in much the same way that the mathematician or the botanist studies his subject matter.
There are other various standpoints and perspectives on abnormal behavior. A different perspective on the subject which in fact adds to the depth of understanding of abnormal psychology is the theory of cultural relativism. Research in the disciplines of Sociology and Anthropology has added to this debate in that they have shown that there is no absolute normative situation. Societal norms are relative to a particular culture: and what is considered abnormal in one social context could be considered normal in another. Cultural relativism adds another layer of complexity to the psychological definition and understanding of the term 'abnormal' in modern society. This aspect is further…
Introduction to Abnormal Psychology. Accessed 6 December, 2004. http://www.sparknotes.com/psychology/abnormal/intro/summary.html
Hollingworth, H.L. Abnormal Psychology; Its Concepts and Theories. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1930.
What is abnormal? Accessed December 4, 2004. http://www.purgatory.net/merits/medical.htm
6. Describe some of research findings that demonstrate the importance of relationships to our psychological well-being.
A group of researchers from the University of Georgia and the University of Kansas have found that attractive people do tend to have more social relationships and therefore an increased sense of psychological well-being. The significance of attractiveness in everyday life is not fixed, or simply a matter of human nature. The force of our attractiveness on our social lives depends on the social environment where we live. Attractiveness does mean something in more socially mobile, urban areas and from a woman's point-of-view actually indicates psychological well-being, but it is far less important in rural areas. In urban areas people experience a high level of social choice, and associating with attractive people is one of those choices. In other words, in urban areas there is a free market of relationships which makes attractiveness more…
Abnormal Psychology. (2010). Retrieved February 27, 2010, from New World Encyclopedia
Web site: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Abnormal_psychology
Cherry, Kendra. (2010). Retrieved February 27, 2010, from About.com Web site:
, 2007). Substance abuse is a serious problem and is linked most often to individuals with personality disorders, which are named in the next section.
Personality Disorders. Personality disorders, as defined in Kring et al., are a "heterogeneous group of disorders defined by long-standing, pervasive and inflexible patterns of behavior and inner experience that deviate from the expectations of a person's culture (Kring et al., 2007, 387). The DSM-IV-T classifies 10 personality disorders, which it groups into 3 major clusters (Kring et al., 2007, 391). Cluster a is the odd / eccentric cluster; cluster B is the Dramatic / Erratic Cluster; and cluster C is the Anxious / Fearful Cluster (Kring et al., 2007).
Cluster a or the odd / eccentric cluster includes the paranoid personality disorder, the schizoid personality disorder and the schizotypal personality disorder (Kring et al., 2007). Individuals with paranoid personality disorder are highly suspicious of others…
Courbasson, C., Rizea, C. & Weiskopf, N. (2008, July). Emotional Eating among Individuals with Concurrent Eating and Substance Use Disorders. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 6(3), 378- 388. Retrieved September 3, 3009, doi:10.1007/s11469-007-9135-z
Kring, a., Davison, G., Neale, J., Johnson, S. (2007). Abnormal Psychology (10th Edition). Chapters 9-10 (pp. 270- 348) & 12-13 (pp. 386-448). USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Sass, H. & Junemann K. (2003, October 2). Affective disorders, personality and personality disorders. Acta Psychiatica Scandinavica, 108, 34. Retrieved September 3, 2009, doi:10.1034/j1600-0447.108.s418.8.x
Conversely, strict application of the biological components of addiction excludes equally strong evidence of the influence of external environment, particularly at critical stages of development. In that regard, there is a "cross-over" effect of food being strongly associated with reward or comfort in childhood and increased tendency to seek comfort from consumption of substances as an adult (Gerrig and Zimbardo 2005).
In general, repeated neurological responses to pleasure establish a reward mechanism in which the neurotransmitter dopamine is prominently featured. Addicts, in particular, exhibit stronger dopaminergic involvement in the reward loop and tend to experience greater corresponding increases in their subsequent need for continued dopaminergic stimulation than non-addicts, even after a single exposure to certain addictive substances (Dennet 1991). At the same time, addiction is also influenced by circumstances and behaviors: for one example, those addicted to nicotine often experience their greatest cravings when triggered by superficial associations between smoking…
Brecher, E. (1991). Licit & Illicit Drugs. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Coleman, J., Butcher, J., and Carson, R. (1994). Abnormal Psychology and Human Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co.
Dennet, D. (1991). Consciousness Explained. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005).
They have small heads, prominent cheek and jaw bones, widely spaced teeth, and poor tooth enamel. However, every state now screens the phenylalanine level of newborns at 3 days of age. If an infant has PKU, dietary sources of the amino acid are lessened or eliminated. High protein foods such as meat, fish, chicken, eggs, cheese, milk, and peas are avoided. Cereals, starches, fruits and vegetables, along with phenylanine-free baby formulas are given instead. If a proper diet is maintained, these individuals can develop normally.
Functional enuresis and encorpresis are elimination disorders. The first is bedwetting, or urination, during the day or night, in one's clothing or in bed. There are three subsets of this disorder. In one, the individual (usually a child) urinates at night. In the second subtype, the individual urinates only while awake. The third subtype occurs both during the day and the night. In some cases,…
Autism is a World," a film by Gerry Wurzburg. Letter from Sue Rubin at http://www.cnn.com/CNN/Programs/presents/index.autism.world.html
Mikklesen, E.J. (2001, Oct.) Enuresis and Encopresis: ten years of progress. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 40(10):1146-1158
Rosario, E. The Journal of Neuroscience, Dec. 20, 2006; vol 26: pp 13384-13389.
Abnormal Psychology: Schizophrenia
Schizophrenia is a group of paranoiac disorders depicted by agitation in thinking, cognition, affect, behavior, and communication that last longer than six months. There is five recognized kind of schizophrenia and they are catatonic, paranoid, disorganized, undifferentiated, and residual.
Illusion, hallucinations, catatonic behavior, and irrationality are some of the elementary symptoms. No solitary characteristic is present in all types of schizophrenia. The source of schizophrenia is unascertained. There are numerous theories to elucidate the outgrowth of this disorder. Genetic factors may play a role, relatives of a person with schizophrenia are more prone to acquire the disorder. Psychological and social circumstances may also play a part in evolvement of this disease.
The term "schizophrenia" refers to one of the most debilitating and baffling mental illnesses known. Though it has a specific set of symptoms, this illness varies in its severity from individual to individual, and even within…
Copyright 1988 American Psychiatric Association
Ethical Issues related to Licensed Professional Marriage and Family Therapists
Licensed professional marriage and family therapists have a very important role to play in helping married couples and families solve the relationship problems such as discord between husband and wife, and conflict between parents and children. They help to prevent the family from breaking up by offering professional counseling based on psychological expertise. Since clients confide in them about their very personal family matters, such therapists have to be sensitive to the ethical implications of such a relationship. They should not make unauthorized use of such information. If the information about a patient is to be used to prepare a case study, permission should be sought and the names of the people should be changed. The therapists should also avoid trying to get involved in a romantic or sexual relationship with the client.
Ethical Issues related…
He also said the psychologist told him not to say anything at work unless he was about to be fired. He doesn't think he has any serious problems at work. He works for a landscaping firm and works outdoor a lot, with a lot of physical labor, and he thinks this suits him well. He doesn't have to do a lot of paperwork, and he doesn't think he makes any more mistakes that way than anyone else, and that everyone seems to get along well there.
He has noticed, he says, that everyone seems to have an opinion about AD/HD, and he is finding out that this doesn't always mean they're right, so for now he agrees with the psychologist and isn't saying anything at work, but he's hoping to find emotional support from members in the family. Right now he realizes that it won't come from his parents. They…
Arcus, Doreen, Ph.D. 2001. "Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)." Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology.
Baving. Lioba, Laucht, Manfred, and Schmidt, Martin H. 1999. "Atypical Frontal Brain Activation in ADHD: Preschool and Elementary School Boys and Girls." Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Nov.
Chan, Eugenia, Gardiner, Paula, and Kemper, Kathi J. 2000. "At least it's natural....' Herbs and dietary supplements in ADHD." Contemporary Pediatrics, Sept.
Jensen, Peter S., Kettle, Lori, Roper, Margaret T., Sloan, Michael T., Dulcan, Mina K. Hoven, Christina, Bird, Hector R., Bauermeister, Jose J., and Payne, Jennifer D. 1999. "Are stimulants overprescribed?" Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, July.
oots of Abnormal Psychology
The recognition that mental disorders exist goes all the way back to primitive societies (Hansell and Damour, 2008, p. 26). Ancient skulls with holes drilled into them suggests animistic cultures practiced trephination, which entails drilling holes into the heads of living persons to provide an escape route for unhealthy spirits. Societies that believed in animism, or the existence of a powerful spirit world, would sometimes use trephination to open a way for spirits to leave the body of afflicted persons. Exorcism was practiced for the same purpose.
Ancient Greece also recognized the existence of mental disorders, but the approach towards treatment was a bit less barbaric (Hansell and Damour, 2008, p. 28-29). The famous Greek physician Hippocrates, who lived between 460 and 377 B.C.E., believed that all diseases came from an imbalance between four humours: blood, phlegm, and black and yellow bile. An imbalance…
Hansell, James and Damour, Lisa. (2008). Abnormal Psychology, 2nd Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Evolution of Abnormal Psychology From the 1800's To The Present
The study and treatment of psychological dysfunction has evolved from early history until the present day. Prior to the 1800's, society believed deviant or abnormal behaviors were caused by supernatural forces or biological factors. Treatments for psychological problems prior to the 18th century included exorcisms and bloodletting. Early beliefs about the origins of emotional disturbances influenced public perceptions of mental illness and theories of abnormal psychology in the 19th century. Advances in medical science, and the use of scientific method influenced the research of theorists like Freud, and Pavlov and improved theoretical knowledge and treatments of mentally ill populations. Despite current mental health treatments and increased awareness of the etiology of psychological disturbance, people with mental disorders continue to experience difficulties including social stigma, hospitalization, homelessness, suicide, and incarceration (Barlow and Durand). A historical overview of the development of abnormal…
AmericanPsychiatricAssociation DiagnisticandStatisticalManualofMentalDisorders 2000 American Psychiatric Association. Diagnistic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Rev. ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 2000. Print.
BarkerP MentalHealthEthics:TheHumanContext 2011 Barker, P., ed. Mental Health Ethics: The Human Context. New York: Routledge, 2011. Print.
BarlowDHandMVDurand AbnormalPsychology:AnIntegrativeApproach 2002 Barlow, DH and M.V. Durand. Abnormal Psychology: An Integrative Approach. 3rd ed. Belmont: Wadsworth Group, 2002. Print.
FrankRGandSGlied BetterbutNotWell:MentalHealthPolicyintheUnitedStatesSince1950 2006 Frank, R.G. And S. Glied. Better but Not Well: Mental Health Policy in the United States Since 1950. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006. Print.
Drisko and Zayas provide significant details on the evidence-based practice (EBP) and how it can defined and applied in the daily practice of the nursing profession. In particular, Drisko strives to show how this concept of EBP can be distinguished from other relate terms like the empirically supported treatments. however, Drisko J., (2013) discusses some challenges that come with the implementation of the EBP and that need to be worked on for eventual effectiveness of the program where it is used. The first is that the EBP implementation has become so successful to a point that both the lay person and the processionals are confused o the definition and application of the same in practice. The social workers seem not conversant with the EBP decision making model hence the mode has been jumbled up with so many 'best practices' that are based on varying standards. Secondly, the EBP…
Drisko J., (2013). Research evidence and social work practice: The place of evidence-based practice.
Ray W. J., (2015). Abnormal psychology: Abnormal Psychology. Sage publications. https://edge.sagepub.com/ray/student-resources/neuroscience-approaches-to-understanding-psychopathology/sage-journal-articles
Zayas L.Het et.al, (2011).Overrating or dismissing the value of evidence-based practice: Consequences for clinical practice.
Efficacy of Personality Disorder Treatments
The paper reviews literature regarding the nature of personality disorders and known treatments. The paper argues that there is no definitive cure-all for personality disorders. The paper also advocates for increased attention and research in the area of personality disorders regarding treatments and variation of treatment strategies. The paper explains the causes of personality disorders, the treatments available, the perceptions of personality disorders in the medical and general communities, and proposes methods personality disorders may be freshly perceived and treated.
Determining the Efficacy of Personality Disorder Treatments
Personalities are the consistent behavior and mental characteristics and patterns that each individual has. Personality disorders are disorders that describe prevalent ways in which people's experiences and behaviors are not aligned with relative cultural norms or expectations. Areas that personality disorders affect patients are impulse control, emotional expression and comprehension, and cognition. Personality disorders refer to…
Clarkin, PhD, J.F., Foelsch, PhD, P.A, Levy, PhD, K.N., Hull, PhD., J.W., Delaney, J.C., & Kornberg, MD, O.F. (2001) The Development of a Psychodynamic Treatment for Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder: A Preliminary Study of Behavioral Change. Journal of Personality Disorders, 15(6), 487 -- 495.
Giesen-Bloo, J., van Duck, MD, PhD, R., Spinhoven, PhD, P., van Tilburg, MD, PhD, W., Dirksen, PhD, C., van Asselt, T., Kremers, PhD, I., Nadort, M., & Rants, PhD, A. (2006) Outpatient Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 63, 649 -- 658.
Lieb, K., Zanarini, M.C., Schmaltz, C., Linehan, M.M., & Bohus, M. (2004) Borderline personality disorder. Lancet, 364, 453 -- 461.
Svrakic, D.M., Dramatic, S., Hill, K., Bayon, C., Przybeck, T.R., & Cloning, C.R. (2002) Act Psychiatry Scandinavia, 106, 189 -- 195.
Cluster Personality Disorder
In this article some of the latest research regarding the Cluster personality disorders has been given along with their etiology, diagnosis and treatment. Further some research related to the causes, preventive measures and treatments of such disorders has been discussed here as well. The article also presents biblical and cultural points-of-views regarding the disorder. Lastly, various viewpoints associated with the counter transference related to the treatment of the patients with these personality disorders have been addressed as well (Kraus & Reynolds, 2001).
According to the definition of personality disorder it is 'a continuing pattern of behavior and inner experience which is a lot different from the culture that an individual lives in, this sort of behavior or experience is inflexible and pervasive, starts either during the initial years of childhood or adolescence and although it is generally stable but can become stressful over the years. It has…
Alarcon, R., & Foulks, E. (1995). Personality Disorders and Culture: Contemporary Clinical Views. Cultural Diversity and Mental Health, 79-91.
Angstman, K., & Rasmussen, N. (2011, December). Retrieved from American Family Physician: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1201/p1253.html
Capps, D. (2008). God Diagnosed with Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Princeton: Springer .
Charland, L.2006. Moral nature of the DSM-IV Cluster Personality disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders20, no. 2:116-25.
Abnormal psychology is a field in psychology that addresses dysfunctions in behavior which are determined abnormally by standards of behavior .These standards have been established by clinical professionals in the field such as medical doctors, psychiatrists and psychologists. Behaviors considered to be abnormal are; schizophrenia, depression, attention deficit disorder, eating disorder, sexual deviance, obsessive compulsive disorder and anti-social disorder (Cherry, 2012). These disordered function outside the normal parameters of the functional behaviors considered to be standard. The paper will look at the origins of abnormal psychology and challenges when it comes to the classification and definition of normal and abnormal behavior. It will also look at how abnormal psychology has evolved into a scientific discipline. It will finally look at the theoretical models that have led to the advancement of understanding psychopathology.
Origins of Abnormal psychology
Abnormal psychology has been undergoing tremendous changes and progress. It is a very controversial…
Cherry, K. (2012).What is Abnormal Psychology? Retrieved May 10, 2013 from http://psychology.about.com /od/abnormalpsychology/f/abnormal-psychology.htm
Crawford, O. (2010). Psychopathology Analysis: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives of Abnormal Behavior and Psychopathology. Retrieved May 10, 2013 from http://voices.yahoo.com/psychopathology-analysis-6147988.html
Abnormal Psychology is often misunderstood as a field of psychology because it deals with behavior that "creates a problem for an individual or society" -- and hence, the question immediately arises as to just what is "abnormal" and what is "normal"? The AP Psychology 7th Edition (Sharpsteen, et al., 2005) text suggests that abnormal behavior is "maladaptive or pathological behavior" and before determining whether a behavior is abnormal or not, the "total environment and impact of a person's behavior" must be taken into consideration. Moreover, abnormal psychology does not attempt to link "normal and abnormal" with the concepts of "good and bad," Kendra Cherry explains. Abnormal psychology deals with "psychopathology and abnormal behavior" covering a wide swath of disorders, including sexual deviation, depression, obsessive-compulsive behaviors, to name a few (Cherry, 2008).
The History and Evolution of Abnormal Psychology into a Scientific Discipline
In 800 B.C., Homer believed that mental illness…
AS Psychology. (2009). Biological and Psychological Models of Abnormality. Retrieved July 9,
2011, from http://as-psychology.pbworks.com.
Bennett, Paul. (2006). Abnormal and Clinical Psychology: An Introductory Textbook. New York: McGraw-Hill International.
Cherry, Kendra. (2008). Psychology / What Is Abnormal Psychology? About.com. Retrieved July 8, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com .
Abnormal Psychology:pop Culture
Abnormal Psychology: Pop Culture
Abnormal Psychology: Pop Culture
In asking the question of what abnormal psychology is really supposed to be, it makes sense that we must first quickly think about the very definition of our word "abnormal . By all rights, is a remarkably puzzling word that is very dependent on what is called "normality . Both terms may justifiably change fundamentally from one era to another and one culture to a different one. How then do we choose upon what is abnormal and what is normal? Of course, this is much more of a philosophical issue than a psychological one. For logical reasons of practicability, it is essential to generate an approximately uniform definition of abnormal psychology that we can more or less decide upon as a cluster of caregivers. This general definition would obviously be typical in its nature, but…
OW, M.G.T., KENARDY, J.A., JOHNSTON, D.W., NEWMAN, M.G., TAYLOR, C.B., & THOMSON, A. (2007). Prognostic indices with brief and standard CBT for panic disorder: I. predictors of outcome. Psychological Medicine, 37(10), 1493-9. doi:10.1017/S0033291707000670
King, S., Waschbusch, D.A., Pelham Jr., W.,E., Frankland, B.W., Andrade, B.F., Jacques, S., & Corkum, P.V. (2009). Social information processing in elementary-school aged children with ADHD: Medication effects and comparisons with typical children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37(4), 579-89. doi:10.1007/s10802-008-9294-9
Mandel, H.P., & Hampson, W. (2000). Abnormal psychology perspectives. Canadian Psychology, 41(4), 282-284.
Medved, M.L. (2008). Essentials of abnormal psychology, first Canadian edition. Canadian Psychology, 49(1), 73-74.
There were two major ideas of the origin of abnormal behaviors. The somatogenic perspective viewed the abnormal behaviors came from biological causes, while the psychogenic perspective believed that psychological factors were more dominant in the existence of abnormal behavior, (Comer 2006). Scientists began to see patters within various types of abnormal behavior, which then helped to facilitate the study of such behaviors and how they might be handled in order to treat individuals; scientists found that there were sets of symptoms which "appeared together regularly enough as having a biological cause, much as a particular medical disease may have an associated set of symptoms ad may be attributed to a biological dysfunction," (ScribD 2005). During the Twentieth Century, people began to see abnormal psychology as its own discipline, with behavioral attributes being caused by both physical abnormalities as well as deep rooted psychological issues (Comer 2006). Today abnormal behavior is…
Comer, Ronald J. (2006). Abnormal Psychology. Macmillan Publishing.
Meyer, Robert G.; Chpman, L. Kevin.; & Weaver, Christopher. (2008). Cases in Abnormal Behavior. Ally & Bacon
ScribD. (2005). Abnormal Psychology. ScribD.com. Retrieved October 3, 2009 at http://www.scribd.com/full/3980388?access_key=key-1ttr6z6sc9ts1uk7rcbb
The DSM explicitly "strives to be atheoretical, using merely observationally referent terms. The hope with this is to make the manual as acceptable as possible to professionals with different theoretical orientations (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). Specific criteria and systematic descriptions are offered as guidance for making diagnoses. "Essential features, associated features, prevalence rates, sex ratios, family patterns, and differential diagnoses are listed" and it is noted when "alternative or additional diagnoses…should be considered," such as the possibility that a manic episode could mask itself as schizophrenia (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). This might occur if the clinician was unacquainted with the patient and the patient's past history of depression, for example, and/or mood disorders in the patient's family.
Also key to the efficacy of the DSM in approaching the ideologically and theoretically charged world of abnormal psychology is its multiaxial system. The multiaxial system "allows for a more holistic and comprehensive…
Abnormal psychology. (2009). a2psychology. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://www.a2zpsychology.com/articles/abnormal.htm
Gilles-Thomas, David L. (1989). Definitions. Abnormal psychology: Lecture 1. University of Buffalo. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://ccvillage.buffalo.edu/Abpsy/lecture1.html
Gilles-Thomas, David L. (1989). Classifications. Abnormal psychology: Lecture 2. University
of Buffalo. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://ccvillage.buffalo.edu/Abpsy/lecture2.html
The abnormal psychologist is trained to treat people with social and physical disorders such as schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and delusional disorders. Usually, the disorders have become so aberrant the patients may no longer be able to function in society, or at least function normally. Abnormal psychologists may also study the causes of the abnormalities in some people, and develop research to understand why some people develop these disorders and others do not. They may create behavioral studies, personality tests, case studies, or surveys to help them in their research, and eventually, they may be able to solve the mysteries of what causes much abnormal behavior in the brain.
Butler, G. And McManus, F. (2000). Psychology: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Smith, D.L. (1999). Approaching psychoanalysis: An introductory course. London: Karnac Books.
Wade, C. And Tavris, Carol. (1999). Invitation to psychology, Third Edition. New…
Butler, G. And McManus, F. (2000). Psychology: A very short introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Smith, D.L. (1999). Approaching psychoanalysis: An introductory course. London: Karnac Books.
Wade, C. And Tavris, Carol. (1999). Invitation to psychology, Third Edition. New York: Addison-Wesley.
Many women are afraid of getting older and are willing to do right about anything to appear always young. infarct many people perceive it is rude to ask a woman her age since the society has no room to accommodate old women and the changes that their bodies go through. It is not possible for women in the society not to struggle with issues of their appearance .this has resulted to many women trying to change how they look as they age so that they can be accepted in the society. They go to an extent of denying themselves food and applying anti-wrinkle cream so that they maintain their states of their bodies and faces.
Aging is always a taboo subject with women as compared to their male counterparts. Women are afraid of the aging factor due to the perceptions in the society. The society tends to create…
American Psychological Association. (2012). Aging and Depression. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.apa.org/helpcenter/aging-depression.aspx
United Nations. (1999). Gender and ageing: problems, perceptions and policies. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/aging.htm
REHAB ASIA. (2011).Gender and substance abuse.Retreieved November 29, 2012 from http://alcoholrehab.com/alcohol-rehab/gender-and-substance-abuse/
CalmClinic. (2012).Destructive Anxiety Habits. Retrieved November 29, 2012 from http://www.calmclinic.com/anxiety/destructive-habits
Behaviorism focuses almost exclusively on the outward manifestations of mental illnesses. Underlying emotions, childhood memories, and dreams are trivialized in order to focus on bad habits or dysfunctional behaviors. Behavioral therapy employs methods based on classical and operant conditioning including systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning. Talking therapy is not an integral part of behavioral interventions.
Cognitive therapies may, however, combine both talking therapy with behavioral techniques. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a specific subset of cognitive psychology and includes interventions like rational-emotive therapy. The methods used by cognitive-behavioral therapists encourage the client to address and change faulty thoughts, irrational beliefs, and other underlying cognitions. The ultimate goal is to change behavior as well. Cognitive psychologists may focus more exclusively on altering negative thought patterns such as guilt and self-hatred. The therapeutic intervention acknowledges the role that childhood upbringing and repressed anxiety plays in the creation of mental illness. However, cognitive psychologists are…
Lazarus, a.A. & Coleman, a.M. (1995). Abnormal Psychology., London and New York: Longman.
"Psychological Therapies." Retrieved May 8, 2010 from http://web.mst.edu/~pfyc212b/Therapy.htm
"Psychology Schools of Thought in the United States" (nd). Psychological Health Care. Retrieved May 8, 2010 from http://atwitsendbook.com/psychological-schools-of-thoughts-in-the-united-states.php
The subject promises to
approach issues of theology, sociology, ethicality and behavior with
sychology: rofessional Ethics and Legal Issues (523), though an elective,
seems to be an absolutely indispensable channeling of study time. The
examination of issues of ethical and legal centrality to the research or
practice of psychology should arm future professionals with the underlying
information and philosophical orientation needed to approach this complex
field with sensitivity, objectivity and integrity.
Teaching Introduction to sychology (GIDS 524) is an elective which should
serve to further the knowledge and information obtained in Advanced
Educational sychology (GIDS 521), continuing to refine the ideas and
theories instructed through my larger course of study into a set of tools
for the demonstration of this knowledge. Here, I anticipate sharpening the
skills which I already possess to serve in the instructional capacity on
the interdisciplinary relevance of psychology.
This first phase…
Psychology: Professional Ethics and Legal Issues (523)
Advanced Educational Psychology (521)
Teaching Introduction to Psychology (GIDS 524)
Whereas the behaviorist and psychodynamic models contradict each other in their fundamental assumptions and focus, humanistic perspective does not necessarily contradict behaviorism or the psychodynamic approach, except that it considers both of those views as explanations of only portions of human behavior rather than all human behavior.
The Cognitive Perspective:
The Cognitive perspective broadens the study of human psychology even further than the humanistic perspective. In addition to considering all of the influential elements within the behaviorist, psychodynamic, and humanistic views, cognitive psychology also studies the combined contributions of knowledge, memory, previous experience, subconscious desires, external factors, and volitional thought on external behavior (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).
Cognitive psychology accepts many of the fundamental concepts of other schools of psychological thought, and much like the humanistic point-of-view, merely considers them incomplete explanations of human behavior rather than oppositional theories.
According to cognitive psychologists, even the most inclusive theories like humanistic…
REFERENCES Coleman, J.C., Butcher, J.N., Carson, R.C. (1984) Abnormal Psychology and Human Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co. Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Schizophrenia can begin as early as infancy but more often starts during adolescence or early adulthood (Prinel, 2006, 449). It is communicated genetically but is also aggravated by environmental factors, such as stress (Kring, et al., 2006). elatives of patients with schizophrenia are more predisposed to the disorder (Ibid). Further, they may not only have the same genes but may also share the same experiences (Ibid). Studies have shown that while schizophrenia may only affect 1% of the population, the incidence of inheriting this disorder rises to 10% among close biological relatives (i.e., in a parent, a child or a sibling) (Prinel, 2006, 450).
However, the development of schizophrenia is not attributed merely to genetic factors. Even though a person may be predisposed to the disorder, the environment in which he lives in plays a defining role in the activation of the disorder (Prinel, 2006). Family related factors, such as…
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Edition). Washington DC: Author
Konstantareas, M., & Hewitt, T. (2001, February). Autistic Disorder and Schizophrenia: Diagnostic Overlaps. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 19-28. Retrieved September 11, 2009, from Education Research Complete database.
Kring, a., Davison, G., Neale, J., Johnson, S. (2007). Abnormal
Psychology (10th Edition). Chapter11 (pp. 349- 385). USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Psychology of Gender
In psychological circles there is a case made famous by a psychologist by the name of John Money, who dedicated his life to the study of sexuality. This case is so well-known, that undergraduate psychology students are as familiar with it as they are with the Stanford Prison experiment. efore the year 2000, it was simply known as the "twin's case" or the "John/Joan case." Nowadays, the psychological community uses the name of the little boy who was anonymously famous, written about, and studied extensively for almost 20 years: David Reimer. In a deeply heartbreaking and shocking work of nonfiction, John Colapinto retraces the steps that David Reimer took as a baby boy, to a sex-assigned girl, and back to manhood.
Although David Reimer was born a healthy and anatomically correct boy, an accident during babyhood put him in a special category with other numerous cases that…
Berenbaum, S.A. (2006). Psychological Outcome in Children With Disorders of Sex Development: Implications for Treatment and Understanding Typical Development. Annual Review of Sex Research, 171. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Colapinto, J. (2000). As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl. New York, NY: HarperCollins.
Crooks, R., & Baur, K. (2008). Our Sexuality 10th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.
Oltmanns, T.F., & Emery, R.E. (2010). Abnormal Psychology 6th ed. International. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Among other choices, those related to eating, drinking alcohol, sexuality, and peer group selection are some of the most important. In some respects, those decisions have a lot to do with the way that adolescent brains perceive, process, and react to external circumstances and experiences. The development of eating disorders is one example (Leon, Fulkerson, Perry, & Cudeck, 1993). Specifically, there is empirical cross-sectional data illustrating that specific teenage perception and interpretations of self-image (especially body-image) correspond to eating disorders. That valuable information provides a good strategy for identifying teens at greatest risk of developing eating disorders without knowing anything about their actual eating habits (Leon, Fulkerson, Perry, & Cudeck, 1993).
Adolescents value their peer group associations more than the approval of society more generally. They are also much less receptive to absolutes such as firm "all-or-none" rules prohibiting them from drinking any alcohol or requiring absolute sexual abstinence. Generally,…
Gloria R. Leon, Jayne a. Fulkerson, Cheryl L. Perry, and Robert Cudeck. "Personality
and Behavioral Vulnerabilities Associated With Risk Status for Eating Disorders in Adolescent Girls." Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Volume 102, Issue 3; (1993): 438-444.
ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY: WHAT DO CLINICAL RESEARCHERS DO?
In the past, our most knowledgeable people have gotten some things very wrong. Aristotle called the brain "an organ of minor importance," and in 1984, genetic researches announced that mammals could not be cloned. Clearly we have things left to learn about humans. This is what makes research so important. The example given in the book of the lobotomy is very important: experts believed it worked when it did not, but before this was recognized, surgeons damaged many thousands of people even more, making their situation worse instead of better. This chapter describes many research approaches.
A case study focuses on one individual. The researcher describes the person's history, family, how the person's problems evolved and developed, and usually, the treatment and how well that treatment worked. This was an approach Sigmund Freud used at least sometimes. He did not know the child…
Psychology Dual Diagnosis: Substance elated Disorders and Co-Occurring Disorders
The abuse of substances and the dependence on it are considered to be two separate types of disorders. This is according to the DSM-V use of the terms. The DSM-V is a manual that is made use of by professionals in the field of medicine and mental health. They specifically refer to this manual when they are diagnosing disorders related to the mental health of a patient and the use of substances. Through the use of this manual, there is a standard way of diagnosing disorders (ockville, 2005). Substance use disorders are often found to exist with co-occurring disorders. This report highlights the assessment and treatment of substance related disorders and the co-morbid disorders.
The abuse of substances and the dependence on it are considered to be two separate types of disorders. This is according to the DSM-V use of…
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Substance-related and addictive disorders. Retrieved from http://www.dsm5.org/documents/substance%20use%20disorder%20fact%20sheet.pdf
Bierut, L., Dinwiddie, S., Begleiter, H., Crowe, R., Hesselbrock, V., Nurnberger, J.,. . ., & Reich, T. (1998). Familial transmission of substance dependence: alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and habitual smoking: a report from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Archives of General Psychiatry. 55(11), 982-8. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9819066
Brunette, M. F., Mueser, K. T., & Drake R. E. (2004). A review of research on residential programs for people with severe mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders. Drug Alcohol Rev, 23,471-481.
Collins, R. L. Blane, H. T., & Leonard, K. A. (1999). In OttP. J., Tarter, R. E., Ammerman, R. T. Sourcebook on substance abuse: Etiology, epidemiology, assessment, and treatment. Boston: Allyn and bacon, pp.153-165.
I believe I have learned many things in class that will help make me more effective and successful in my personal life. Perhaps the most evident thing I have learned is how to determine my own conscious motivators and recognize how my unconscious beliefs and morals may impact my attitudes, beliefs and behaviors. This falls more into the realm of social psychology. I have learned exactly how critical environment can be to ones success or distress.
With regard to my profession, I believe that I can use psychology in many ways. Psychology is an important tool for employees and managers alike. When used correctly it can help foster a collaborative and open work environment that encourages individual thinking, behavior, and goal setting. It can also be used to mitigate and problem solve. Psychology can also be used to address more difficult aspects of the workplace environment.
A learned for example…
Know the predominant features of each personality disorder = Such knowledge will help the therapist to identify assistance strategies ahead of time, which can be modified as necessary.
Know about the link between borderline personality disorder and suicide attempts = an awareness of this link will help the therapist to identify warning signs and provide assistance in a timely way.
Know that group therapy is useful for treatment of avoidant personality disorder = Knowing this avoids the intuitive tendency to reinforce the patient's avoidance.
Patients with which disorder are most likely to seek treatment on their own? Depression sufferers are most likely to seek treatment for their condition.
Problems in using the DSM-IV-TR to diagnose personality disorders = the main concern is that some guidelines are very specific. Some personality disorders may overlap or display atypical symptoms.
Are boys or girls more likely to have a diagnosable psychological…
Chapter 5 of the Abnormal Child Psychology textbook is about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity (ADHD). The chapter provides a brief description and history of the disorder. Then, core characteristics of ADHD are listed, such as inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. This information is helpful for understanding how ADHD is diagnosed. The authors also give information on the DSM criteria, which are critical for an actual diagnosis of the disorder. A section on associated characteristics refers to cognitive deficits, speech and language impairments, tic disorders, and medical concerns associated with ADHD.
The authors also talk about accompanying or related psychological disorders such as conduct disorder, anxiety disorders, and mood disorders. Prevalence, course, and outcomes of ADHD are discussed along with social variables including gender. There is a section outlining various theories as to why ADHD exists, such as genetics, diet, and family influences. Finally, treatment options are listed including medications, parent management training,…
As explained by Gelles and Strauss in their works, "With the exception of the police and the military, the family is perhaps the most violent social group, and the home the most violent social setting, in our society. A person is more likely to be hit or killed in his or her home by another family member than anywhere else or by anyone else." (Gelles & Straus, 1985, p. 88). Therefore it is evident from this theory that the social connections and settings can impact upon a person's conduct and emotions and could force them to act violently, proving this theory to be true in explaining the biological connection with criminal behavior.
Another biological theory mentions that the gender differences, especially in cases of men, generate strings of violent reactions to the opposite gender. This theory argues that the natural superiority instincts in men push their brain functions to act…
Barkow, J., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1992). The Adapted Mind. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bartol, C.R., & Bartol, a.M. (2007). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach (8th Edition). Prentice Hall.
Dawkins, R. (1986). The Blind Watchmaker. Harlow, UK: Longman.
Gelles, R.J., & Straus, M.A. (1985). In Crime and the Family. Springfield, U.S.: Thomas.
This confusion would have been intolerable for him, creating disorganized patterns of thought. Out of this disorganization developed delusion. The boy came to imagine that the father killed the mother.
Another way cognitive (and psychodynamic) approaches explain the genesis of schizophrenia is by reference to childhood trauma. Things such as abuse, divorce, a domineering mother, or witnessing murder are seen as major factors in schizophrenic development (Koehler & Silver, 2009, p. 225). Traumatic events lead to dissociation from parents and from reality. Other related factors are stress, fear, anxiety, and social isolation that lead to schizophrenia. In other words, it is how the person is embedded in extreme and dysfunctional social relations that may shape their development. Here Spider's malady would be discussed in terms of intense family strife. There is evidence for severe marital tension in the film, exemplified by the man's having an affair. Combined with poor family…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: author.
Beck, A.T., Rector, N.A., Stolar, N., & Grant, P. (2009). Schizophrenia: Cognitive theory, research, and therapy. New York: Guilford Press.
Bellack, A.S., Mueser, K.T., Gingerich, S., & Agresta, J. (1997). Social skills training for schizophrenia: A step-by-step guide. New York: Guilford Press.
Chavez, M.G. (2009). Group psychotherapy and schizophrenia. In Psychotherapeutic approaches to schizophrenic psychoses: Past, present and future, eds Y.O. Alanen, M.G. Chavez, A.-L. Silver, & B. Martindale, pp. 251-266. London: Routledge.
This occurs when people experience feelings of terror and helplessness during a trauma and then has recurrent flashbacks, nightmares, impaired concentration and emotional numbing afterwards. Some victims of this disorder turn to alcohol or other drugs which do nothing accept compound the problem. It is thought that approximately 10% of Americans have had or will have this disorder at some point in their lifetime (Carpenter and Huffman, 2008).
Since it seems evident that we can't escape stress, we need to learn how to effectively cope with it. There is not one single thing that must be done but a process that allows us to deal with various stressors. A person's level of stress depends on both their interpretation of and their reaction to stressors. Elimination of drug use and no more than moderate alcohol use are important in the successful management of stress. It is known that people, when stressed,…
Carpenter, Siri and Huffman, Karen. (2008).Visualizing Psychology. New Jersey: Wiley.
Stress. (2009). Retrieved July 31, 2009, from MedicineNet Web site:
(the National Institute of Mental Health, 2008) Though we are able to identify some external factors, like drug use, and development problems in the womb, mainly it is the genes which determine the occurrence of this disease. We may say that it is a biological disorder. The persons suffering by this disease are largely affected by programs on TV, games, bad environments food intake and similar occurrences. It is Genes that have control over the chemicals in the neurotransmitters and the affected child has these chemical output out of balance. The scans conducted reveal that these defects can be noted in the areas of the brain that deals with psycho motor reflexes. This imbalance creates and distorts the functions of the person in changing focus of thought, organization of things and methods, planning out things, memory, and emotion and reasoning and differentiating between the two. They have impairments of speech…
Adler, Lenard. (2007) "Scattered Minds: Hope and Help for Adults with Attention Deficit..."
American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. (2008) "Child and Adolescent Mental
Illness and Drug Abuse Statistics" Retrieved 27 February, 2008 at http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/resources_for_families/child_and_adolescent_mental_illness_statistics
All of the information I was gaining about a topic I had not previously understood was intriguing to me, and made me excited and ready to learn more. General Psychology I and Abnormal Psychology were my two favorite classes at Bergen, and I wanted to pursue additional psychology classes.
I transferred to Fairleigh Dickinson and enrolled in General Psychology II with the expectation that I would learn even more about psychology. I did not have an expectation as far as what topics would be covered in the course, but I did expect the material to be harder and more complex; I was right. I did not expect to study the biology and physiology of the brain, and I struggled with understanding and memorizing the material. Memorizing and understanding the parts of the brain and their function, such as the thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem, etc. did not appeal to me and…
The ideal self is the person, someone feels they should be and will model their behavior, based upon this image. The real self is the side of your personality that friends and family know well. This creates a conflict in the individual called self-actualization, as the person will attempt to live up to the image of their ideal self. Where, these perceptions will affect the self-image of the individual throughout their life. (Gentile, 2008)
Evelyn Hooker conducted the first scientific experiment on male homosexuality. Where, she would survey both heterosexuals and homosexuals, to determine if homosexuals have trouble adjusting to various social circumstances. The effects of the survey were: homosexuals have no difference in adjusting to social situations in comparison with heterosexuals. As a result, this information would help to provide a research methodology that would be used in the future, to understand homosexual behavior. (Gentile, 2008)
Gentile, B. (2008). Foundation of Psychological Thought. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.
More specifically, children whose
transition through the Oedipal or Electra Complex and those whose parents neglected to fulfill their other crucial emotional needs during their developmental years retain long-
lasting negative psychological attachments to those areas in which their needs where unfulfilled. Alternatively, they may retain a fundamental psychological orientation that
corresponds to the precise stage of development (i.e. oral or anal phase, etc.) where their essential needs where unfulfilled within their family of origin (McWilliams, 2004).
Most significantly, whereas most children experience the psychological "loss" of the parent through this process, the manner in which parents interact with their children and the specific experiences of the child during that stage determines many aspects of the psychological issues that develop within the individual in connection with subsequent romantic urges and relationships (McWilliams, 2004). Similarly, Freud proposed that the other stages of infancy such as the oral phase and anal phase…
Coleman, J.C., Butcher, J.N., and Carson, R.C. (2004). Abnormal Psychology and Human Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co.
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
McWilliams, N. (2004). Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy: A Practitioner's Guide. New York: Guilford.
Mitchell, S., and Black, M. (1995). Freud And Beyond: A History Of Modern
Psychology: Alcohol & Drug Abuse
The over-all focus of this paper is to show how alcohol, drug addictions and abuse is fundamentally a disease of the brain. It will focus on various psychological aspects of addiction, such as some theories as to why people get addicted to drugs or alcohol in the first place, and some theories for treatments of those addictions; some psychological processes of how certain drugs work; how those drugs shape addiction through their processes; and finally analyzing the understanding of addiction within the brain.
Some major theories for why people begin to use substance such as drugs (legal or not), and alcohol are the reward and reinforcement theory, recreational use, and the stress-reduction theory. Some theories for treatments include using combinations of cognitive/social support rehabilitation, or using some form of rehabilitation with medications as well. The types of drugs and their effects that will be discussed…
Anton, R. "Substance abuse is a disease of the human brain: focus on alcohol." Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics Winter 2010: 735+. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 21 Apr. 2011.
Feldman, R.S. (2009). Understanding psychology (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Mcgraw-Hill.
Drummond, D. (2001). Theories of drug craving, ancient and modern. Addiction, 96(1), 33-46. doi:10.1080/09652140020016941
Oltmanns, T.F., Emery, R.E. (2010). Abnormal psychology (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Soul: Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice "True Psychology"
Today, there are more than one hundred thousand licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. These mental health professionals are in a unique position to provide individuals, groups, and American society with valuable counseling services for a wide range of mental health issues and mental disorders. This study uses a triangulated research approach to demonstrate that true psychology can be done only by Christians since only Christians have the resources that are needed to understand and transform the soul in healing ways. The first leg of the research approach consists of a review of the relevant literature, the second leg consists of a custom survey of 25 practicing American psychologists, and the final leg of the triangulated research approach consists of an exegetical analysis of relevant biblical verses concerning the human soul and its relevance for mental health professionals. Finally, a…
American people and society. (2015). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html.
Bassett, R.L. (2013, Winter). An empirical consideration of grace and legalism within Christian experience. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 32(1), 43-49.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Bobgan, M. & Bobgan, D. (1987). PsychoHeresy: The psychological seduction of Christianity.
In fact, during the study, the guards became more sadistic when they thought no one was watching them. Zimbardo notes, "Their boredom had driven them to ever more pornographic and degrading abuse of the prisoners" (Zimbardo). This may be the same reason guards at Abu Ghraib tortured and humiliated their charges, and the study seems to indicate this could happen in just about any prison anywhere, if the guards have enough power. The world should pay more attention to this study and its implications. As another writer notes, "The young men who played prisoners and guards revealed how much circumstances can distort individual personalities -- and how anyone, when given complete control over others, can act like a monster" (Alexander). This is what happened at Abu Ghraib, and chances are it is happening all around the world as well. In an interview about Abu Ghraib, Zimbardo notes the prison environment…
Alexander, Meredith. "Thirty Years Later, Stanford Prison Experiment Lives On." Prisonexp.org. 22 Aug. 2001. 9 Jan. 2007. http://www.prisonexp.org/30years.htm
Bronstein, Phyllis A., and Kathryn Quina, eds. Teaching a Psychology of People: Resources for Gender and Sociocultural Awareness. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1988.
Giles, David. Media Psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003.
O'Toole, Kathleen. "The Stanford Prison Experiment: Still Powerful After All These Years." Stanford University. 8 Jan. 1997. 9 Jan. 2007. http://www.stanford.edu/dept/news/pr/97/970108prisonexp.html
juvenile justice requires evidence-based interventions and corresponding policy. This intervention analysis research is rooted in antisocial potential theory, a subset of cognitive theories of criminality and social behavior. Antisocial potential theory suggests that at-risk populations, in this case youth, exhibit antisocial tendencies and that those tendencies can be mitigated via evidence-based interventions. The following annotated bibliography draws primarily from the disciplines of psychology and sociology, with a goal of informing evidence-based intervention policies and strategies. However, the research also includes empirical criminal justice research studies illustrating the relationship between juvenile psycho-social development and offender outcomes.
Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012
This article approaches juvenile justice and intervention from a criminal justice perspective. Prior research has clearly shown that adverse childhood experiences and…
Focusing exclusively on sex offences, this article shows that victim empathy approaches are popular but that their efficacy has not been thoroughly proven in the literature. Although my research does not focus only on sex offences, this research will be instrumental in showing how treatment programs can and should be evaluated critically and on a continual basis, to ensure cost-effectiveness as well as overall efficacy. Moreover, the concept of victim empathy is one that can have some effects on certain populations, and could be shown to help juveniles who are at risk of developing antisocial behaviors.
10. Morin, S., Cruise, K., Hinz, H., Holloway, E., & Chapman, J. (2015). Content, Structure, and Usefulness of Juvenile Predisposition Psychological Evaluations. Child & Youth Care Forum, 44(6), 893-917. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10566-015-9312-3
Because of my emphasis on the ways at-risk youth may be prone to antisocial behavior, this research will be critical to show support for my hypothesis. Also offering a dispositional point-of-view, this research shows that psychological evaluations taken at intake can influence outcomes and also influence recommendations offered by juvenile probation officers. To improve the overall quality of services delivered by the justice system, it is important to perform psychological evaluations that are evidence-based and interpret the results of those evaluations accordingly.
Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Individual Behavior by Understanding Group Dynamics
Social psychology is, as its name suggests, a science that blends the fields of psychology, which is the study of the individual, and sociology, which is the study of groups. Social psychology examines how the individual is influenced by the group. It looks at the influence of group or cultural norms on individual behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. However, because group norms are believed to change behavior, social psychology can be very difficult to document; the presence of the observer is believed to change behavior. As a result, social psychologists have developed a number of different studies aimed at investigating the interaction between group expectations and individual behavior. These studies offer insight into human social behavior, particularly into those social behaviors that seem to defy expectations and well-established social norms.
While there have been numerous social psychology studies since the…
Abrams, D. & Hogg, M. (1988). Comments on the motivational status of self-esteem in social identity and intergroup discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 317-334.
Bond, R., & Smith, P. (1996). Culture and conformity: A meta-analysis of studies using Asch's
(1952b, 1956) line judgment task. Psychological Bulletin, 119(1), 111-137.
Darley, J. & Latane, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8(4), 377-383.
Looking at a problem from several different angles and viewpoints is the ultimate goal of group work and group decision-making. Having people who are different from one another helps to avoid 'groupthink' and contributes to in-depth discussions and better ideas than could be found in a group where the participants were basically all alike (Chartrand, van aaren, & argh, 2006). How a person reacts to others and to the situation, though, can seriously affect the outcome of the group. Society is made up of many different kinds of people, so a good group will be comprised of the same. This will help to ensure the success of whatever decision that the group comes to, since there will be a greater suggestion that the public will be receptive to it, as based on the opinions of the various group members.
oth internal and external information must be tracked in order to…
Chartrand, TL, van Baaren, RB, & Bargh, JA. (2006). Linking automatic evaluation to mood and information processing style: Consequences for experienced affect, impression formation, and stereotyping. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 135(1), 70-77.
Livingston, BA & Judge, TA (2008). Emotional responses to work-family conflict: An examination of gender role orientation among working men and women. Journal of Applied Psychology. 93(1), 207-216.
Molden, DC & Dweck, CS. (2006). Finding "meaning" in psychology: A lay theories approach to self-regulation, social perception, and social development. American Psychologist. 61(3), 192-203.
The main link between the brain and the mind is through the nervous system. It processes information from various regions in the body and transmits it via electrical and chemical signals. The study of the relationship that the brain has on the mind, consciousness and behavior is called behavioral psychology. Decades ago, scientists would use electrodes to stimulate various regions of the brain to understand how it affected the body. Today psychologists use modern radiological techniques to understand mental processes and behaviorism in diseases ranging from Huntington to Epilepsy. (Nobus, 2000)
Although many interesting stories and interpretations have led to the evolution of biological psychology, a great contribution to this field was made by the famous psychologist, Signmund Freud.
Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 and spent most of his life in Vienna. From early on in life, Freud had a strong inclination towards human concerns, and even…
Ablon JS., & Jones EE. (1999). Psychotherapy process in the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. J Consult Clin Psychol, 67:64 -- 75.
Cameron, P. (1967). Confirmation of the freudian psychosexual stages utilizing sexual symbolism.Psychological Reports, 21(1), 33-39. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1918.104.22.168
Sigmund, F. (1925). An autobiographical study . Retrieved from http://www2.winchester.ac.uk/edstudies/courses/level two sem two/freudautopdf.pdf
Westen, D., & Gabbard, G. (2002). Developments in cognitive neuroscience: I. conflict, compromise, and connectionism. J Am Psychoanal Assoc, 50(1), 53-98.
History Of Social Psychology: Past and Future Directions
The fields of psychology and social psychology owe their existence to the earlier philosophical thinkers including Aristotle, Plato, Descartes, Locke, Hume and Kant. However, the recognized founder of the field (by most historians) is the German scientist Wilhelm Wundt (Farr, 2003). In 1862 Wundt proposed that there psychology should consist of two branches: a social branch and a physiological branch of psychology (Farr, 2003). From Wundt's view psychology was more concerned with studying immediate conscious experience as opposed to studying overt behavior. However, in 1890 Wundt published the first volume of a classic 10-volume set of social psychology which described and analyzed a wide variety of social thought and social behaviors. Although Wundt's ideas and writings carried significant influence in Europe, his writings were not translated into English until sometime later. The behaviorist view became the more influential paradigm in the United…
Adorno, T.W., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D.J., & Sanford, R.N. (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: Harper and Row.
Allport, F. (1924). Social Psychology. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Allport, G.W. (1985). The historical background of social psychology. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The Handbook of Social Psychology. New York: McGraw Hill.
Allport, G.W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
Goals of Psychology
Psychologists in various areas of specialty put emphasis on different behavioral aspects though often with similar goals, that of getting acquainted to the human behavior. The paper will look at these four goals of psychology as well as an example of a study created that would help elaborate on each of these four goals of psychology. These four goals of psychology are to describe behavior, to explain behavior, to predict behavior and to control behavior.
This involves the naming and classification of a behavior that is displayed by an individual or a group of people. A description is normally based on careful, systematic procedure carried out which is a contrast to the haphazard description that may be put forth without backing of well researched data. Description is important as it clarifies the phenomenon under study and it is only after a description of the phenomena…
Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2013). What is psychology ? essentials. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
The discipline or disciplines of various schools of psychology are continually evolving, and contrary to the idea that psychology looks to find excuses for behavior, psychology seeks to find ways to make life, and behaviors better. New therapies like Dialectical-Behavior Therapy (DBT), which stresses the replacement of negative coping mechanisms with positive coping mechanisms demands not extensive excavation of the past, one of the critiques of therapy, but aims to decrease patient behaviors that destroy the quality of their life such as self-harm. It helps the patient not focus on the past and live in the "present moment," with an almost Zen Buddhist like orientation of mindfulness (Sanderson, 1997). But it is also focused on setting practical life goals, and the therapy often has a fixed duration, in contrast to the assumption that psychotherapy is only available to the wealthy who have a great deal of free time. DBT offers…
Goldberg, Carl. (2000). "A Humanistic Psychology for the New Millennium."
Journal of Psychology. 134 (6). 677-682.
Marano, Hana. (2002). "Wrestling with bipolar disorder." Psychology Today.
Last reviewed Jun 2002. Revised 2005. Retrieved 16 Mar 2007 at http://psychologytoday.com/articles/index.php?term=pto-20&page=2
Gordon Willard Allport, one of the most influential of American psychologists in the 1900s, was the youngest of four brothers. He was born in Montezuma, Indiana in 1897. One of his elder brothers, Floyd Henry Allport, was also an influential psychologist, and it is said inspired him (Hall & Lindzey). Allport, who graduated from Harvard with a Ph.D. In 1922, was a long time member of the faculty at Harvard University from 1930 until his death in 1967. He produced a number of influential books and professional works over his career such as the influential book The Nature of Prejudice. Allport was initially exposed to Freudian notions of behavior as a graduate student, but he rejected the notions of Freudian psychology and later notions of behaviorism (in fact there is the famous story of his meeting with Freud that often used to explain the development of his own theories). Allport…
Allport, G.W. (1937a). Personality: A psychological interpretation. New York: Holt and Company.
Allport, G.W. (1937b). The functional autonomy of motives. American Journal of Psychology, 50, 141-156.
Allport, G.W. (1955). Becoming: Basic considerations for a psychology of personality. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Allport, G.W. (1961). Pattern and growth in personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
Sigmund Freud and Jean Martin Charcot
Psychology refers to the applied and academic discipline that includes the scientific study of behaviors and mental functions. Anyone who has studied psychology has the immediate understanding groups and individuals through the general principles establish by renowned professionals in this field. Psychologists attempt to understand the role played by mental functions in social behaviors and individuals whilst exploring the biological and psychological process that underlie behaviors and cognitive functions. This study endeavors to explain the important contributions made by two psychologists namely Sigmund Feud and Jean Martin Charcot, and the similarities and contrasts of their contributions.
Sigmund Freud and his contributions
He was a neurologist based in Australia and lived between 1856 and 1939. He was the founder of psychoanalysis. He graduated from the University of Vienna as a qualified doctor and carried out extensive research into aphasia, cerebral palsy and microscopic neuroanatomical. He…
Freud, S., & Strachey, J. (2001). The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud: early psycho-analytic publications. Vol. 7, 1901-1905, A case of hysteria, three essays on sexuality and other works. London: Vintage.
Huberman, G., & Charcot, J.M. (2003). Invention of hysteria: Charcot and the photographic iconography of the Salpe-trie-re. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Psychopathology Criminal Behavior Part
What might be some of the implications for the forensic field of the differences between the "low-fear hypothesis" and the "high-impulsive" subtypes of psychopathy? In other words, how might the differences in the models help inform us about best practices for such activities as police work on the streets, interrogation methods, trial and sentencing practices, providing treatment, or evaluating recidivism risks?
In retrospect, theorists view Lykken's conceptual framework as a first step toward distinguishing between primary and secondary psychopathy (Baskins-Sommers, 2010). As theory building continues in this decade, the typology is supported by the notion of trait-like sensitivities and trait-like cognitive capacities that suggest the following implications for criminal justice procedures. Primary psychopathy is characterized by disinhibition, which is an inability to abort a dominant response, integrate socialization, or adopt alternative objectives. An individual who is considered to have primary psychopathy will fail to consider emotional…
Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Wallace, J.F., MacCoon, D.G., Curtin, J.J., and Newman, J.P. (2010, October 1). Clarifying the Factors that Undermine Behavioral Inhibition System Functioning in Psychopathy. Personal Disorders, 1(4), 203 -- 217. doi: 10.1037/a0018950. PMCID: PMC2992384. NIHMSID: NIHMS211679. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2992384/#!po=74.5614
Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Curtin, J.J. And Newman, J.P. (2013, May). Emotion-modulated startle in psychopathy: clarifying familiar effects. Journal of Abnormal Pychology, 122(2), 458-468. 10.1037/a0030958. Epub 2013 Jan 28. Retrieved http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23356218
Blonigen, D.M., Hicks, B.M., Krueger, R.F., Patrick, C.J. & Iacono, W.G. (2005, May). Psychopathic personality traits: heritability and genetic overlap with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Psychological Medicine, 35(5): 637 -- 648. doi: 10.1017/S0033291704004180. PMCID: PMC2242349. NIHMSID: NIHMS38985. Retreived http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2242349/#__ffn_sectitle
Franklin, K. (2010, May 30). Psychopathy guru blocks critical article. Will case affect credibility of PCL-R test in court? In the News: Forensic psychology, criminology, and psychology-law. Retrieved http://forensicpsychologist.blogspot.com/2010/05/psychopath-guru-blocks-critical-article.html
It would be agreeable that the growth of multicultural focus is something that has remained a long journey towards our present understanding of the topic. The path towards our contemporary multiculturalism remains a distinct area of psychology that developed some years ago. The historical development shows clearly that there have been different individuals and thinkers who have focused on the ethnic associations and issues related to human interactions (Cauce, 2011).
Throughout the years in history, it would be clearly agreeable that different historical periods have constantly played a unique role in establishing different thoughts, ideas, and concepts that have defined our societies. For instance, there are stances of activism and even racism that have been playing a unique towards the development and establishment our present ideas on human psychology and multiculturalism (Franklin, 2009, p. 420). Different societal establishments and communities have over the years been critical towards establishing the best…
Adams, J.Q. & Welsch, J.R. (2009). Multiculturalism: The Manifest Destiny of the U.S.A.: An
Interview With Ronald Takaki. Multicultural Perspectives, 11(4), 227 -- 231
American Psychological Association (2012). Crossroads: The Psychology of Immigration in
The New Century. American Psychological Association: 1-18
Eating disorder is characterized by abnormal eating habits involving excessive or insufficient intake of food which is detrimental to the individual's physical and mental well-being. There are two common types of eating disorders although there are other types of eating disorders. The first is bulimia nervosa which is excessive eating coupled with frequent vomiting. The second type is anorexia nervosa which is immoderate restriction of food which leads to irrational weight gaining. The other types of eating disorders include eating disorders not otherwise specified which are essentially where a person has anorexic and bulimic behaviors, binge eating disorder which is compulsive overeating without any kind of compensatory behavior, and pica which is craving for certain non-food items such as glue, plaster, paper. It is estimated that roughly 10-15% of cases of eating disorders occur in males and statistics show that women are at a higher risk of developing eating disorders…
Doll, H.A., Petersen, S.E., & Stewart-Brown, S.L. (2005). Eating Disorders and Emotional and Physical Well-Being: Associations between Student Self-Reports of Eating Disorders and Quality of Life as Measured by the SF-36. Quality of Life Research, 14(3), 705-717. doi: 10.2307/4038820
Kime, N. (2008). Children's Eating Behaviours: The Importance of the Family Setting. Area, 40(3), 315-322. doi: 10.2307/40346135
Krauth, C., Buser, K., & Vogel, H. (2002). How High Are the Costs of Eating Disorders - Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa - for German Society? The European Journal of Health Economics, 3(4), 244-250. doi: 10.2307/3570016
Martin, A.R., Nieto, J.M.M., Jimenez, M.A.R., Ruiz, J.P.N., Vazquez, M.C.D., Fernandez, Y.C., . . . Fernandez, C.C. (1999). Unhealthy Eating Behaviour in Adolescents. European Journal of Epidemiology, 15(7), 643-648. doi: 10.2307/3582136
According to the American Psychological Association (APA), multicultural psychology allows us to identify and respond to different needs for particular individuals and groups historically marginalized or disenfranchised within and by psychology based on their ethnic/racial heritage and social group identity or membership.
What is the significance of multicultural psychology?
The impact of multicultural psychology is huge. It helps us to stop attempting to apply a one-size fit all blanket solution to the challenges and ills we face in society. It allows us to understand that cultural differences actually can and do make a difference in how individuals perceive and respond to information and events. We can no longer make the easy assumption that we all think and behave identically; it forces us to have a deeper understanding and a greater appreciation for gender, cultural, class, racial and ethnic differences. The study of multicultural psychology opens our eyes, allowing us to…
psychologists, especially Freudians, considered experiences undergone at the tender, early childhood age to be crucial to social, psychological and mental growth. Newer studies reveal that even late-childhood experiences are influential, capable of altering a child's developmental course. A majority of contemporary psychologists discuss sensitive, rather than critical, phases, which are phases when an individual is found to be particularly reactive towards or equipped to handle particular experiences. Hence, while childhood is deemed to be the ideal age to independently learn any second language (i.e., without direct teaching on others' part), adults also can and have effectively learnt second languages (Woolfolk & Margetts, 2012).
Different Individuals' Development Occurs at Different Paces
Within classroom settings, one can witness several examples demonstrating varied developmental rates of pupils. While some pupils will be better, faster, organized or more responsible and conscientious with regard to their social relationships and attitudes, others may be relatively slower…
David's life calmed down, but there were years of mixed-messages and confusion that plagued him the rest of his life. He eventually married as a male, but later committed suicide.
From a sociological perspective, the case shows how perceptions can be influenced by incomplete research. Dr. Money reported the decision as a success, despite Brenda/David's clear uncomfortability during childhood. Dr. Money's beliefs were used as a basis to 'assign' gender to hundreds of boys born with extremely small sexual organs, or a lack of a penis, and raised as girls. The relevency of the book, however, goes beyond the scientific. It is a clear account for those who are interested in transgender issues, who either know someone or are feeling uncomfortable themselves in gender related issues. The human issue centers around comfortability -- an individual's right to live in a way that is most productive for them. Certainly, it is…
Baron-Cohen, S. The Essential Difference: The Truth about the Male and Female Brain. New York: Perseus Book Group, 2003.
Blackless, M, et.al. "Atypical Gender Development - A Review." International Journal of Transgenderism 9.2 (2003): 29-44.
Colapinto, J. As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl. New York:
Anothe poblem associated with Paint hoses is 'lethal white' syndome, in which Paint maes give bith to white foals that ae unable to pass feces and die shotly afte bith. "The mutated gene altes neual cest cell migation o suvival, which affects the pogenito cells fo melanocytes and intestinal ganglia. Affected foals suffe fom aganglionosis of the submucosal and myenteic ganglia of the distal pat of the small intestine and of the lage intestine, esulting in intestinal immotility and colic" (Lightbody 2002). Accoding to genetic eseach conducted though the Minnesota Paint Hose Association, it was found that of 100 hoses that poduced lethal white syndome foals, all OLWS (Oveo Lethal White Syndome) foals had two lethal alleles, thei paents had a nomal and a lethal allele, and contol goup of solid-coloed hoses all had two non-lethal alleles (Votsos & Santschi 1998). Howeve, unlike the moe geneal 'nevousness' associated with piebald…
Lightbody, Tamara. (2001). Foal with Overo lethal white syndrome born to a registered quarter horse mare. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 43(9): 715 -- 717. Retrieved October 18, 2011
Vrotsos, Paul D. & Elizabeth M. Santschi. (1998). Stalking the Lethal White Syndrome.
Paint Horse Journal Retrieved October 18, 2011 at http://www.apha.com/breed/lethalwhites03.html
psychological concepts. In some questions, specific scenarios were also given and we had to analyse them with reference to psychological concepts. Over all, this assignment broadened our knowledge of psychology and improved our thinking skills.
To answer this question, first we have to understand the meaning of gender. While sex refers to the biological differences between males and females, gender refers to the sociological differences between males and females. Gender however can be influenced by biological differences but it basically is a social phenomena. Gender differences can vary in different cultures and societies. For e.g. most of the females work in the U.S. But many women in Asian countries do not go to work. So if women and men were classified on basis of going to work, then women in U.S. would be very different from women in the Asian countries.
Let us now talk about gender roles. Gender roles…