Abnormal Psychology Essays (Examples)

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Abnormal Psych Each of the

Words: 573 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97253896

Behaviorism focuses almost exclusively on the outward manifestations of mental illnesses. Underlying emotions, childhood memories, and dreams are trivialized in order to focus on bad habits or dysfunctional behaviors. Behavioral therapy employs methods based on classical and operant conditioning including systematic desensitization and aversive conditioning. Talking therapy is not an integral part of behavioral interventions.

Cognitive therapies may, however, combine both talking therapy with behavioral techniques. Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a specific subset of cognitive psychology and includes interventions like rational-emotive therapy. The methods used by cognitive-behavioral therapists encourage the client to address and change faulty thoughts, irrational beliefs, and other underlying cognitions. The ultimate goal is to change behavior as well. Cognitive psychologists may focus more exclusively on altering negative thought patterns such as guilt and self-hatred. The therapeutic intervention acknowledges the role that childhood upbringing and repressed anxiety plays in the creation of mental illness. However, cognitive psychologists are…… [Read More]

References

Lazarus, a.A. & Coleman, a.M. (1995). Abnormal Psychology., London and New York: Longman.

"Psychological Therapies." Retrieved May 8, 2010 from http://web.mst.edu/~pfyc212b/Therapy.htm

"Psychology Schools of Thought in the United States" (nd). Psychological Health Care. Retrieved May 8, 2010 from  http://atwitsendbook.com/psychological-schools-of-thoughts-in-the-united-states.php
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Psychology Master's Degree Methodology Degree

Words: 2396 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70293634

The subject promises to
approach issues of theology, sociology, ethicality and behavior with
necessary interdependency.

sychology: rofessional Ethics and Legal Issues (523), though an elective,
seems to be an absolutely indispensable channeling of study time. The
examination of issues of ethical and legal centrality to the research or
practice of psychology should arm future professionals with the underlying
information and philosophical orientation needed to approach this complex
field with sensitivity, objectivity and integrity.

Teaching Introduction to sychology (GIDS 524) is an elective which should
serve to further the knowledge and information obtained in Advanced
Educational sychology (GIDS 521), continuing to refine the ideas and
theories instructed through my larger course of study into a set of tools
for the demonstration of this knowledge. Here, I anticipate sharpening the
skills which I already possess to serve in the instructional capacity on
the interdisciplinary relevance of psychology.

hase 1:
This first phase…… [Read More]

Psychology: Professional Ethics and Legal Issues (523)

Spring 2010:
Advanced Educational Psychology (521)
Teaching Introduction to Psychology (GIDS 524)
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Psychology - Treatment Approaches Major

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63918182



Paranoid/Schizoid personality disorders are difficult to treat via insight-oriented therapeutic approaches, mainly because the patient is prone to doubt the motives of the therapist by virtue of the nature of the symptoms of the disease itself: namely, paranoid delusions that convince the patient that the therapist is part of a larger "conspiracy" against the patient (Shapiro 1999).

Narcissistic, histrionic, borderline, and antisocial disorders are treatable via several insight-oriented, one-on-one psychoanalytic psychotherapeutic approaches conducted by specialists in those types of disorders, as are many obsessive-compulsive and avoidant disorders (Gerrig and Zimbardo 2005). Alternatively, obsessive- compulsive, dependant, and especially, avoidant disorders are treatable in group settings as well. Avoidant and dependent personality disorders, in particular, may be best-suited to cognitive behavioral therapeutic approaches where the roots of the patient's disorder relates to distorted self-perceptions capable of being addressed directly (Coleman, Butcher and Carson 1994).

Where paranoid or schizophrenic personality disorders are associated…… [Read More]

References

Coleman, J., Butcher, J., and Carson, R. (1994). Abnormal Psychology and Human Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co.

Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005).

Psychology and Life 18th Ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Shapiro, D. (1999). Neurotic Styles. New York: Basic Books.
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Psychology - History of Psychology

Words: 1415 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59949647



Whereas the behaviorist and psychodynamic models contradict each other in their fundamental assumptions and focus, humanistic perspective does not necessarily contradict behaviorism or the psychodynamic approach, except that it considers both of those views as explanations of only portions of human behavior rather than all human behavior.

The Cognitive Perspective:

The Cognitive perspective broadens the study of human psychology even further than the humanistic perspective. In addition to considering all of the influential elements within the behaviorist, psychodynamic, and humanistic views, cognitive psychology also studies the combined contributions of knowledge, memory, previous experience, subconscious desires, external factors, and volitional thought on external behavior (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).

Cognitive psychology accepts many of the fundamental concepts of other schools of psychological thought, and much like the humanistic point-of-view, merely considers them incomplete explanations of human behavior rather than oppositional theories.

According to cognitive psychologists, even the most inclusive theories like humanistic…… [Read More]

REFERENCES Coleman, J.C., Butcher, J.N., Carson, R.C. (1984) Abnormal Psychology and Human Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co. Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.

New York: Allyn & Bacon.
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Abnormal Psych-Lifespan Dev't What Would

Words: 896 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39873532



Schizophrenia can begin as early as infancy but more often starts during adolescence or early adulthood (Prinel, 2006, 449). It is communicated genetically but is also aggravated by environmental factors, such as stress (Kring, et al., 2006). elatives of patients with schizophrenia are more predisposed to the disorder (Ibid). Further, they may not only have the same genes but may also share the same experiences (Ibid). Studies have shown that while schizophrenia may only affect 1% of the population, the incidence of inheriting this disorder rises to 10% among close biological relatives (i.e., in a parent, a child or a sibling) (Prinel, 2006, 450).

However, the development of schizophrenia is not attributed merely to genetic factors. Even though a person may be predisposed to the disorder, the environment in which he lives in plays a defining role in the activation of the disorder (Prinel, 2006). Family related factors, such as…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Edition). Washington DC: Author

Konstantareas, M., & Hewitt, T. (2001, February). Autistic Disorder and Schizophrenia: Diagnostic Overlaps. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 19-28. Retrieved September 11, 2009, from Education Research Complete database.

Kring, a., Davison, G., Neale, J., Johnson, S. (2007). Abnormal

Psychology (10th Edition). Chapter11 (pp. 349- 385). USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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Psychology of Gender

Words: 2477 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89556914

Psychology of Gender

In psychological circles there is a case made famous by a psychologist by the name of John Money, who dedicated his life to the study of sexuality. This case is so well-known, that undergraduate psychology students are as familiar with it as they are with the Stanford Prison experiment. efore the year 2000, it was simply known as the "twin's case" or the "John/Joan case." Nowadays, the psychological community uses the name of the little boy who was anonymously famous, written about, and studied extensively for almost 20 years: David Reimer. In a deeply heartbreaking and shocking work of nonfiction, John Colapinto retraces the steps that David Reimer took as a baby boy, to a sex-assigned girl, and back to manhood.

Although David Reimer was born a healthy and anatomically correct boy, an accident during babyhood put him in a special category with other numerous cases that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Berenbaum, S.A. (2006). Psychological Outcome in Children With Disorders of Sex Development: Implications for Treatment and Understanding Typical Development. Annual Review of Sex Research, 171. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Colapinto, J. (2000). As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl. New York, NY: HarperCollins.

Crooks, R., & Baur, K. (2008). Our Sexuality 10th ed. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

Oltmanns, T.F., & Emery, R.E. (2010). Abnormal Psychology 6th ed. International. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Psychology -- the Development of

Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37385660

Among other choices, those related to eating, drinking alcohol, sexuality, and peer group selection are some of the most important. In some respects, those decisions have a lot to do with the way that adolescent brains perceive, process, and react to external circumstances and experiences. The development of eating disorders is one example (Leon, Fulkerson, Perry, & Cudeck, 1993). Specifically, there is empirical cross-sectional data illustrating that specific teenage perception and interpretations of self-image (especially body-image) correspond to eating disorders. That valuable information provides a good strategy for identifying teens at greatest risk of developing eating disorders without knowing anything about their actual eating habits (Leon, Fulkerson, Perry, & Cudeck, 1993).

Adolescents value their peer group associations more than the approval of society more generally. They are also much less receptive to absolutes such as firm "all-or-none" rules prohibiting them from drinking any alcohol or requiring absolute sexual abstinence. Generally,…… [Read More]

Reference

Gloria R. Leon, Jayne a. Fulkerson, Cheryl L. Perry, and Robert Cudeck. "Personality

and Behavioral Vulnerabilities Associated With Risk Status for Eating Disorders in Adolescent Girls." Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Volume 102, Issue 3; (1993): 438-444.
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Abnormal Psyche

Words: 1190 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8843987

ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY: WHAT DO CLINICAL RESEARCHERS DO?

In the past, our most knowledgeable people have gotten some things very wrong. Aristotle called the brain "an organ of minor importance," and in 1984, genetic researches announced that mammals could not be cloned. Clearly we have things left to learn about humans. This is what makes research so important. The example given in the book of the lobotomy is very important: experts believed it worked when it did not, but before this was recognized, surgeons damaged many thousands of people even more, making their situation worse instead of better. This chapter describes many research approaches.

A case study focuses on one individual. The researcher describes the person's history, family, how the person's problems evolved and developed, and usually, the treatment and how well that treatment worked. This was an approach Sigmund Freud used at least sometimes. He did not know the child…… [Read More]

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Analyzing Psychology of Trauma

Words: 3530 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40788305

Psychology Dual Diagnosis: Substance elated Disorders and Co-Occurring Disorders

The abuse of substances and the dependence on it are considered to be two separate types of disorders. This is according to the DSM-V use of the terms. The DSM-V is a manual that is made use of by professionals in the field of medicine and mental health. They specifically refer to this manual when they are diagnosing disorders related to the mental health of a patient and the use of substances. Through the use of this manual, there is a standard way of diagnosing disorders (ockville, 2005). Substance use disorders are often found to exist with co-occurring disorders. This report highlights the assessment and treatment of substance related disorders and the co-morbid disorders.

Introduction

The abuse of substances and the dependence on it are considered to be two separate types of disorders. This is according to the DSM-V use of…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Substance-related and addictive disorders. Retrieved from http://www.dsm5.org/documents/substance%20use%20disorder%20fact%20sheet.pdf

Bierut, L., Dinwiddie, S., Begleiter, H., Crowe, R., Hesselbrock, V., Nurnberger, J.,. . ., & Reich, T. (1998). Familial transmission of substance dependence: alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and habitual smoking: a report from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Archives of General Psychiatry. 55(11), 982-8. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9819066

Brunette, M. F., Mueser, K. T., & Drake R. E. (2004). A review of research on residential programs for people with severe mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders. Drug Alcohol Rev, 23,471-481.

Collins, R. L. Blane, H. T., & Leonard, K. A. (1999). In OttP. J., Tarter, R. E., Ammerman, R. T. Sourcebook on substance abuse: Etiology, epidemiology, assessment, and treatment. Boston: Allyn and bacon, pp.153-165.
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Psychology Analysis When I First

Words: 1138 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83185066



I believe I have learned many things in class that will help make me more effective and successful in my personal life. Perhaps the most evident thing I have learned is how to determine my own conscious motivators and recognize how my unconscious beliefs and morals may impact my attitudes, beliefs and behaviors. This falls more into the realm of social psychology. I have learned exactly how critical environment can be to ones success or distress.

With regard to my profession, I believe that I can use psychology in many ways. Psychology is an important tool for employees and managers alike. When used correctly it can help foster a collaborative and open work environment that encourages individual thinking, behavior, and goal setting. It can also be used to mitigate and problem solve. Psychology can also be used to address more difficult aspects of the workplace environment.

A learned for example…… [Read More]

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Psychology Definitions Psychosis Loss

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85134043



Know the predominant features of each personality disorder = Such knowledge will help the therapist to identify assistance strategies ahead of time, which can be modified as necessary.

Know about the link between borderline personality disorder and suicide attempts = an awareness of this link will help the therapist to identify warning signs and provide assistance in a timely way.

Know that group therapy is useful for treatment of avoidant personality disorder = Knowing this avoids the intuitive tendency to reinforce the patient's avoidance.

Patients with which disorder are most likely to seek treatment on their own? Depression sufferers are most likely to seek treatment for their condition.

Problems in using the DSM-IV-TR to diagnose personality disorders = the main concern is that some guidelines are very specific. Some personality disorders may overlap or display atypical symptoms.

Chapter 14

Are boys or girls more likely to have a diagnosable psychological…… [Read More]

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Psychology Chapter 5 Of the Abnormal Child

Words: 562 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85306710

Psychology

Chapter 5 of the Abnormal Child Psychology textbook is about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity (ADHD). The chapter provides a brief description and history of the disorder. Then, core characteristics of ADHD are listed, such as inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. This information is helpful for understanding how ADHD is diagnosed. The authors also give information on the DSM criteria, which are critical for an actual diagnosis of the disorder. A section on associated characteristics refers to cognitive deficits, speech and language impairments, tic disorders, and medical concerns associated with ADHD.

The authors also talk about accompanying or related psychological disorders such as conduct disorder, anxiety disorders, and mood disorders. Prevalence, course, and outcomes of ADHD are discussed along with social variables including gender. There is a section outlining various theories as to why ADHD exists, such as genetics, diet, and family influences. Finally, treatment options are listed including medications, parent management training,…… [Read More]

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Psychology Criminal Behavior Has Been

Words: 1023 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42256803

As explained by Gelles and Strauss in their works, "With the exception of the police and the military, the family is perhaps the most violent social group, and the home the most violent social setting, in our society. A person is more likely to be hit or killed in his or her home by another family member than anywhere else or by anyone else." (Gelles & Straus, 1985, p. 88). Therefore it is evident from this theory that the social connections and settings can impact upon a person's conduct and emotions and could force them to act violently, proving this theory to be true in explaining the biological connection with criminal behavior.

Another biological theory mentions that the gender differences, especially in cases of men, generate strings of violent reactions to the opposite gender. This theory argues that the natural superiority instincts in men push their brain functions to act…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barkow, J., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1992). The Adapted Mind. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bartol, C.R., & Bartol, a.M. (2007). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach (8th Edition). Prentice Hall.

Dawkins, R. (1986). The Blind Watchmaker. Harlow, UK: Longman.

Gelles, R.J., & Straus, M.A. (1985). In Crime and the Family. Springfield, U.S.: Thomas.
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Abnormal Psych in Media Disorganized

Words: 2856 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7654120

This confusion would have been intolerable for him, creating disorganized patterns of thought. Out of this disorganization developed delusion. The boy came to imagine that the father killed the mother.

Another way cognitive (and psychodynamic) approaches explain the genesis of schizophrenia is by reference to childhood trauma. Things such as abuse, divorce, a domineering mother, or witnessing murder are seen as major factors in schizophrenic development (Koehler & Silver, 2009, p. 225). Traumatic events lead to dissociation from parents and from reality. Other related factors are stress, fear, anxiety, and social isolation that lead to schizophrenia. In other words, it is how the person is embedded in extreme and dysfunctional social relations that may shape their development. Here Spider's malady would be discussed in terms of intense family strife. There is evidence for severe marital tension in the film, exemplified by the man's having an affair. Combined with poor family…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: author.

Beck, A.T., Rector, N.A., Stolar, N., & Grant, P. (2009). Schizophrenia: Cognitive theory, research, and therapy. New York: Guilford Press.

Bellack, A.S., Mueser, K.T., Gingerich, S., & Agresta, J. (1997). Social skills training for schizophrenia: A step-by-step guide. New York: Guilford Press.

Chavez, M.G. (2009). Group psychotherapy and schizophrenia. In Psychotherapeutic approaches to schizophrenic psychoses: Past, present and future, eds Y.O. Alanen, M.G. Chavez, A.-L. Silver, & B. Martindale, pp. 251-266. London: Routledge.
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Psychology How Stress Affects the

Words: 933 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3101532

This occurs when people experience feelings of terror and helplessness during a trauma and then has recurrent flashbacks, nightmares, impaired concentration and emotional numbing afterwards. Some victims of this disorder turn to alcohol or other drugs which do nothing accept compound the problem. It is thought that approximately 10% of Americans have had or will have this disorder at some point in their lifetime (Carpenter and Huffman, 2008).

Since it seems evident that we can't escape stress, we need to learn how to effectively cope with it. There is not one single thing that must be done but a process that allows us to deal with various stressors. A person's level of stress depends on both their interpretation of and their reaction to stressors. Elimination of drug use and no more than moderate alcohol use are important in the successful management of stress. It is known that people, when stressed,…… [Read More]

References

Carpenter, Siri and Huffman, Karen. (2008).Visualizing Psychology. New Jersey: Wiley.

Stress. (2009). Retrieved July 31, 2009, from MedicineNet Web site:

 http://www.medicinenet.com/stress/article.htm
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Abnormal and Child Psychology -

Words: 3058 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25227202

(the National Institute of Mental Health, 2008) Though we are able to identify some external factors, like drug use, and development problems in the womb, mainly it is the genes which determine the occurrence of this disease. We may say that it is a biological disorder. The persons suffering by this disease are largely affected by programs on TV, games, bad environments food intake and similar occurrences. It is Genes that have control over the chemicals in the neurotransmitters and the affected child has these chemical output out of balance. The scans conducted reveal that these defects can be noted in the areas of the brain that deals with psycho motor reflexes. This imbalance creates and distorts the functions of the person in changing focus of thought, organization of things and methods, planning out things, memory, and emotion and reasoning and differentiating between the two. They have impairments of speech…… [Read More]

References

Adler, Lenard. (2007) "Scattered Minds: Hope and Help for Adults with Attention Deficit..."

Perigee.

American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. (2008) "Child and Adolescent Mental

Illness and Drug Abuse Statistics" Retrieved 27 February, 2008 at http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/resources_for_families/child_and_adolescent_mental_illness_statistics
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Expectations of Psychology Prior to

Words: 1053 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66425707

All of the information I was gaining about a topic I had not previously understood was intriguing to me, and made me excited and ready to learn more. General Psychology I and Abnormal Psychology were my two favorite classes at Bergen, and I wanted to pursue additional psychology classes.

I transferred to Fairleigh Dickinson and enrolled in General Psychology II with the expectation that I would learn even more about psychology. I did not have an expectation as far as what topics would be covered in the course, but I did expect the material to be harder and more complex; I was right. I did not expect to study the biology and physiology of the brain, and I struggled with understanding and memorizing the material. Memorizing and understanding the parts of the brain and their function, such as the thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem, etc. did not appeal to me and…… [Read More]

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History of Psychology Over the

Words: 965 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71637223

The ideal self is the person, someone feels they should be and will model their behavior, based upon this image. The real self is the side of your personality that friends and family know well. This creates a conflict in the individual called self-actualization, as the person will attempt to live up to the image of their ideal self. Where, these perceptions will affect the self-image of the individual throughout their life. (Gentile, 2008)

Evelyn Hooker

Evelyn Hooker conducted the first scientific experiment on male homosexuality. Where, she would survey both heterosexuals and homosexuals, to determine if homosexuals have trouble adjusting to various social circumstances. The effects of the survey were: homosexuals have no difference in adjusting to social situations in comparison with heterosexuals. As a result, this information would help to provide a research methodology that would be used in the future, to understand homosexual behavior. (Gentile, 2008)

Thomas…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Gentile, B. (2008). Foundation of Psychological Thought. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing.
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Freudian Perspective of Human Psychology

Words: 1089 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83980863

More specifically, children whose

transition through the Oedipal or Electra Complex and those whose parents neglected to fulfill their other crucial emotional needs during their developmental years retain long-

lasting negative psychological attachments to those areas in which their needs where unfulfilled. Alternatively, they may retain a fundamental psychological orientation that

corresponds to the precise stage of development (i.e. oral or anal phase, etc.) where their essential needs where unfulfilled within their family of origin (McWilliams, 2004).

Most significantly, whereas most children experience the psychological "loss" of the parent through this process, the manner in which parents interact with their children and the specific experiences of the child during that stage determines many aspects of the psychological issues that develop within the individual in connection with subsequent romantic urges and relationships (McWilliams, 2004). Similarly, Freud proposed that the other stages of infancy such as the oral phase and anal phase…… [Read More]

References

Coleman, J.C., Butcher, J.N., and Carson, R.C. (2004). Abnormal Psychology and Human Life. Dallas: Scott, Foresman & Co.

Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2008). Psychology and Life. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

McWilliams, N. (2004). Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy: A Practitioner's Guide. New York: Guilford.

Mitchell, S., and Black, M. (1995). Freud And Beyond: A History Of Modern
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Understanding Psychology

Words: 2540 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98502726

Psychology: Alcohol & Drug Abuse

The over-all focus of this paper is to show how alcohol, drug addictions and abuse is fundamentally a disease of the brain. It will focus on various psychological aspects of addiction, such as some theories as to why people get addicted to drugs or alcohol in the first place, and some theories for treatments of those addictions; some psychological processes of how certain drugs work; how those drugs shape addiction through their processes; and finally analyzing the understanding of addiction within the brain.

Some major theories for why people begin to use substance such as drugs (legal or not), and alcohol are the reward and reinforcement theory, recreational use, and the stress-reduction theory. Some theories for treatments include using combinations of cognitive/social support rehabilitation, or using some form of rehabilitation with medications as well. The types of drugs and their effects that will be discussed…… [Read More]

References

Anton, R. "Substance abuse is a disease of the human brain: focus on alcohol." Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics Winter 2010: 735+. Gale Student Resources In Context. Web. 21 Apr. 2011.

Feldman, R.S. (2009). Understanding psychology (9th ed.). Boston, MA: Mcgraw-Hill.

Drummond, D. (2001). Theories of drug craving, ancient and modern. Addiction, 96(1), 33-46. doi:10.1080/09652140020016941

Oltmanns, T.F., Emery, R.E. (2010). Abnormal psychology (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice True Psychology

Words: 19429 Length: 71 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78576075

Soul: Why Only Christian Psychologists Can Practice "True Psychology"

Today, there are more than one hundred thousand licensed psychologists practicing in the United States. These mental health professionals are in a unique position to provide individuals, groups, and American society with valuable counseling services for a wide range of mental health issues and mental disorders. This study uses a triangulated research approach to demonstrate that true psychology can be done only by Christians since only Christians have the resources that are needed to understand and transform the soul in healing ways. The first leg of the research approach consists of a review of the relevant literature, the second leg consists of a custom survey of 25 practicing American psychologists, and the final leg of the triangulated research approach consists of an exegetical analysis of relevant biblical verses concerning the human soul and its relevance for mental health professionals. Finally, a…… [Read More]

References

American people and society. (2015). CIA world factbook. Retrieved from https://www.cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.html.

Bassett, R.L. (2013, Winter). An empirical consideration of grace and legalism within Christian experience. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 32(1), 43-49.

Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Bobgan, M. & Bobgan, D. (1987). PsychoHeresy: The psychological seduction of Christianity.
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Experimental Psychology Zimbardo Prison Study

Words: 2123 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95692907

In fact, during the study, the guards became more sadistic when they thought no one was watching them. Zimbardo notes, "Their boredom had driven them to ever more pornographic and degrading abuse of the prisoners" (Zimbardo). This may be the same reason guards at Abu Ghraib tortured and humiliated their charges, and the study seems to indicate this could happen in just about any prison anywhere, if the guards have enough power. The world should pay more attention to this study and its implications. As another writer notes, "The young men who played prisoners and guards revealed how much circumstances can distort individual personalities -- and how anyone, when given complete control over others, can act like a monster" (Alexander). This is what happened at Abu Ghraib, and chances are it is happening all around the world as well. In an interview about Abu Ghraib, Zimbardo notes the prison environment…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, Meredith. "Thirty Years Later, Stanford Prison Experiment Lives On." Prisonexp.org. 22 Aug. 2001. 9 Jan. 2007. http://www.prisonexp.org/30years.htm

Bronstein, Phyllis A., and Kathryn Quina, eds. Teaching a Psychology of People: Resources for Gender and Sociocultural Awareness. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1988.

Giles, David. Media Psychology. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2003.

O'Toole, Kathleen. "The Stanford Prison Experiment: Still Powerful After All These Years." Stanford University. 8 Jan. 1997. 9 Jan. 2007. http://www.stanford.edu/dept/news/pr/97/970108prisonexp.html
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Psychology Sociology and Criminology of Juvenile

Words: 1276 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63879656

juvenile justice requires evidence-based interventions and corresponding policy. This intervention analysis research is rooted in antisocial potential theory, a subset of cognitive theories of criminality and social behavior. Antisocial potential theory suggests that at-risk populations, in this case youth, exhibit antisocial tendencies and that those tendencies can be mitigated via evidence-based interventions. The following annotated bibliography draws primarily from the disciplines of psychology and sociology, with a goal of informing evidence-based intervention policies and strategies. However, the research also includes empirical criminal justice research studies illustrating the relationship between juvenile psycho-social development and offender outcomes.

Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012

This article approaches juvenile justice and intervention from a criminal justice perspective. Prior research has clearly shown that adverse childhood experiences and…… [Read More]

Focusing exclusively on sex offences, this article shows that victim empathy approaches are popular but that their efficacy has not been thoroughly proven in the literature. Although my research does not focus only on sex offences, this research will be instrumental in showing how treatment programs can and should be evaluated critically and on a continual basis, to ensure cost-effectiveness as well as overall efficacy. Moreover, the concept of victim empathy is one that can have some effects on certain populations, and could be shown to help juveniles who are at risk of developing antisocial behaviors.

10. Morin, S., Cruise, K., Hinz, H., Holloway, E., & Chapman, J. (2015). Content, Structure, and Usefulness of Juvenile Predisposition Psychological Evaluations. Child & Youth Care Forum, 44(6), 893-917. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10566-015-9312-3

Because of my emphasis on the ways at-risk youth may be prone to antisocial behavior, this research will be critical to show support for my hypothesis. Also offering a dispositional point-of-view, this research shows that psychological evaluations taken at intake can influence outcomes and also influence recommendations offered by juvenile probation officers. To improve the overall quality of services delivered by the justice system, it is important to perform psychological evaluations that are evidence-based and interpret the results of those evaluations accordingly.
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Behavioral and Psychopathology Analysis

Words: 1045 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33411140

Abnormal Psychology

Lamanda has an etiology that has causal factors gathered right from her childhood. She is behaving in a manner likely to indicate an abnormal psychological problem. No wonder the social worker, she meets at the restaurant she currently works as a waiter, advises her to seek for professional assistance. Lamanda seems confused, disorganized, withdrawn and is living in denial of herself and origin. There is an observable trend in her recent lifestyle, where she has chosen to lead a sedentary lifestyle and her health and physical stature seems to be deteriorating. She dislikes her job and is disinterested in looking for another. She has withdrawn from the other employees at the restaurant and her social circles. She has acquired a new trend of lousiness and laziness. She has lost interest in her physical appearance and personal grooming. She seems to have lost interest in the important things in…… [Read More]

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Classic Social Psychology Experiments

Words: 5609 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63362377

Social Psychology Studies: Explaining Irrational Individual Behavior by Understanding Group Dynamics

Social psychology is, as its name suggests, a science that blends the fields of psychology, which is the study of the individual, and sociology, which is the study of groups. Social psychology examines how the individual is influenced by the group. It looks at the influence of group or cultural norms on individual behaviors, thoughts, and feelings. However, because group norms are believed to change behavior, social psychology can be very difficult to document; the presence of the observer is believed to change behavior. As a result, social psychologists have developed a number of different studies aimed at investigating the interaction between group expectations and individual behavior. These studies offer insight into human social behavior, particularly into those social behaviors that seem to defy expectations and well-established social norms.

While there have been numerous social psychology studies since the…… [Read More]

References

Abrams, D. & Hogg, M. (1988). Comments on the motivational status of self-esteem in social identity and intergroup discrimination. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18, 317-334.

Bond, R., & Smith, P. (1996). Culture and conformity: A meta-analysis of studies using Asch's

(1952b, 1956) line judgment task. Psychological Bulletin, 119(1), 111-137.

Darley, J. & Latane, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies: Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 8(4), 377-383.
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Clinical Psychology as a Distinct Pursuit and

Words: 1554 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52515054

clinical psychology as a distinct pursuit and profession emerged in the late nineteenth century. However, a "climate of ideas receptive to the development of clinical psychology" emerged as early as the late 18th century (eisman, 1976, p. vii). Clinical psychology perspectives reflected trends in Enlightenment thinking and the rise of the scientific method as a primary means of investigating reality. Enlightenment issues like individualism underlie much of clinical psychology. The evolution of the professional field indicates the important role of both scientific research and methodology including statistical analysis. Imbuing psychology with the scientific method allowed clinical psychology to emerge as a credible profession dedicated to the explication and healing of mental health issues. Clinical psychology is one of many approaches to psychology and mental health. Psychiatry, counseling psychology, and social work all share elements in common with clinical psychology even though all are distinct professions.

eisman (1976) defines clinical psych…… [Read More]

References

Albee, G.W. (2000). The Boulder Model's fatal flaw. American Psychologist 55(2): 247-248.

Benjamin, L.T. (2005). A History of Clinical Psychology as a Profession in America. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology 1(1-30)

"Brief Institutional History of Clinical and Health Psychology," (n.d.). Chapter Two in Curriculum in Clinical and Health Psychology. Retrieved online:  http://www.cop.es/English/docs/brief.htm 

Fazakas-DeHoog, L. (n.d.). History of clinical psychology. Retrieved online: http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=clinical%20psychology%20history&source=web&cd=7&ved=0CFoQFjAG&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.laurafazakas.com%2Fpdf%2Fpsych_260b_chap-02_history_of_clinical_2007-2008.pdf&ei=qvjGTun9BM-ctwe_0OytDA&usg=AFQjCNEEyhpcURpsU11hKeTwPKMV-Cketw
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Clinical Psychology Mental Health Is an Essential

Words: 1268 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41604961

Clinical Psychology

Mental health is an essential part of overall health. The Surgeon General's report on mental health in 1999 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1999) and the 2001 supplement Mental Health: Culture, ace and Ethnicity (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001) both highlighted mental health as a critical health aspect affecting a broad range of individuals today. Current paper is focused at exploring the concept of clinical psychology and how it is different from social psychology, counseling psychology and forensic psychology.

Clinical Psychology is the field of psychology in which theory, science and clinical knowledge are combined for the objective of comprehension, prevention and relieve distress and dysfunction based on psychology and for the promotion prejudiced comfort and personal development. The main features of clinical psychology are psychological assessment and psychotherapy. Though clinical psychologist participate in psychological research, teaching, counseling and forensic assessment. Clinical Psychology…… [Read More]

References

Goldstein, A.M. (2007). Forensic psychology: Toward a standard of care. In A.M. Goldstein (Ed.), Forensic psychology: Emerging topics and expanding roles (pp.3-41). New York: Wiley.

Heilbrun, K. (2001). Principles of forensic mental health assessment. New York: Kluwer.

Kane, A.W. (2007a). Basic concepts in psychology and law. In G. Young, A.W. Kane, & K. Nicholson (Eds.), Causality of psychological injury: Presenting evidence in court (pp. 261-292). New York: Springer Science + Business Media.

Mackenzie, B.D.(1977). Behaviorism and the limits of scientific method. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press.
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Social Psychology Is the Study

Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43188761



Looking at a problem from several different angles and viewpoints is the ultimate goal of group work and group decision-making. Having people who are different from one another helps to avoid 'groupthink' and contributes to in-depth discussions and better ideas than could be found in a group where the participants were basically all alike (Chartrand, van aaren, & argh, 2006). How a person reacts to others and to the situation, though, can seriously affect the outcome of the group. Society is made up of many different kinds of people, so a good group will be comprised of the same. This will help to ensure the success of whatever decision that the group comes to, since there will be a greater suggestion that the public will be receptive to it, as based on the opinions of the various group members.

oth internal and external information must be tracked in order to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chartrand, TL, van Baaren, RB, & Bargh, JA. (2006). Linking automatic evaluation to mood and information processing style: Consequences for experienced affect, impression formation, and stereotyping. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 135(1), 70-77.

Livingston, BA & Judge, TA (2008). Emotional responses to work-family conflict: An examination of gender role orientation among working men and women. Journal of Applied Psychology. 93(1), 207-216.

Molden, DC & Dweck, CS. (2006). Finding "meaning" in psychology: A lay theories approach to self-regulation, social perception, and social development. American Psychologist. 61(3), 192-203.
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Biological Psychology

Words: 2139 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36635259

Behavioral Psychology

The main link between the brain and the mind is through the nervous system. It processes information from various regions in the body and transmits it via electrical and chemical signals. The study of the relationship that the brain has on the mind, consciousness and behavior is called behavioral psychology. Decades ago, scientists would use electrodes to stimulate various regions of the brain to understand how it affected the body. Today psychologists use modern radiological techniques to understand mental processes and behaviorism in diseases ranging from Huntington to Epilepsy. (Nobus, 2000)

Although many interesting stories and interpretations have led to the evolution of biological psychology, a great contribution to this field was made by the famous psychologist, Signmund Freud.

Sigmund Freud was born in 1856 and spent most of his life in Vienna. From early on in life, Freud had a strong inclination towards human concerns, and even…… [Read More]

REFERENCES:

Ablon JS., & Jones EE. (1999). Psychotherapy process in the National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression Collaborative Research Program. J Consult Clin Psychol, 67:64 -- 75.

Cameron, P. (1967). Confirmation of the freudian psychosexual stages utilizing sexual symbolism.Psychological Reports, 21(1), 33-39. doi: 10.2466/pr0.1967.21.1.33

Sigmund, F. (1925). An autobiographical study . Retrieved from http://www2.winchester.ac.uk/edstudies/courses/level two sem two/freudautopdf.pdf

Westen, D., & Gabbard, G. (2002). Developments in cognitive neuroscience: I. conflict, compromise, and connectionism. J Am Psychoanal Assoc, 50(1), 53-98.
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History of Social Psychology Past and Future

Words: 2484 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12479081

History Of Social Psychology: Past and Future Directions

The fields of psychology and social psychology owe their existence to the earlier philosophical thinkers including Aristotle, Plato, Descartes, Locke, Hume and Kant. However, the recognized founder of the field (by most historians) is the German scientist Wilhelm Wundt (Farr, 2003). In 1862 Wundt proposed that there psychology should consist of two branches: a social branch and a physiological branch of psychology (Farr, 2003). From Wundt's view psychology was more concerned with studying immediate conscious experience as opposed to studying overt behavior. However, in 1890 Wundt published the first volume of a classic 10-volume set of social psychology which described and analyzed a wide variety of social thought and social behaviors. Although Wundt's ideas and writings carried significant influence in Europe, his writings were not translated into English until sometime later. The behaviorist view became the more influential paradigm in the United…… [Read More]

References

Adorno, T.W., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D.J., & Sanford, R.N. (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: Harper and Row.

Allport, F. (1924). Social Psychology. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Allport, G.W. (1985). The historical background of social psychology. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The Handbook of Social Psychology. New York: McGraw Hill.

Allport, G.W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books.
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Four Goals of Psychology

Words: 791 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99982551

Goals of Psychology

Psychologists in various areas of specialty put emphasis on different behavioral aspects though often with similar goals, that of getting acquainted to the human behavior. The paper will look at these four goals of psychology as well as an example of a study created that would help elaborate on each of these four goals of psychology. These four goals of psychology are to describe behavior, to explain behavior, to predict behavior and to control behavior.

Describe behavior

This involves the naming and classification of a behavior that is displayed by an individual or a group of people. A description is normally based on careful, systematic procedure carried out which is a contrast to the haphazard description that may be put forth without backing of well researched data. Description is important as it clarifies the phenomenon under study and it is only after a description of the phenomena…… [Read More]

References

Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2013). What is psychology ? essentials. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
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Anti-Psychology Wherefore Art Thou Psychology

Words: 880 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90495728

The discipline or disciplines of various schools of psychology are continually evolving, and contrary to the idea that psychology looks to find excuses for behavior, psychology seeks to find ways to make life, and behaviors better. New therapies like Dialectical-Behavior Therapy (DBT), which stresses the replacement of negative coping mechanisms with positive coping mechanisms demands not extensive excavation of the past, one of the critiques of therapy, but aims to decrease patient behaviors that destroy the quality of their life such as self-harm. It helps the patient not focus on the past and live in the "present moment," with an almost Zen Buddhist like orientation of mindfulness (Sanderson, 1997). But it is also focused on setting practical life goals, and the therapy often has a fixed duration, in contrast to the assumption that psychotherapy is only available to the wealthy who have a great deal of free time. DBT offers…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Goldberg, Carl. (2000). "A Humanistic Psychology for the New Millennium."

Journal of Psychology. 134 (6). 677-682.

Marano, Hana. (2002). "Wrestling with bipolar disorder." Psychology Today.

Last reviewed Jun 2002. Revised 2005. Retrieved 16 Mar 2007 at http://psychologytoday.com/articles/index.php?term=pto-20&page=2
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Theoretical Perspective of the Biological Approach to Personality Psychology

Words: 3177 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56691092

Theoretical Perspective of the Biological Approach to Personality Psychology

Personality is defined as a person's exceptional deviation on the general evolutionary design for human temperament. A personality trait refers to a durable disposition to act in a certain manner in different situations. Personality traits represent some of the most significant sets of individual disparities in organizations. It is the comparatively set of psychological characteristics that differentiates one person from another. People should strive to comprehend fundamental personality attributes and the manner in which they influence a person's behavior (Griffin 2007).Most perspectives to personality presuppose that some traits are more fundamental compared to others. This concept underlie that a small number of basic personality traits determine other, more superficial traits. With respect to the biological approach to personality, personality traits are determined by human genetic inheritance, behavioral tendencies that develop from evolutionary history and human conduct that generate through intricate biological…… [Read More]

References

Andrewes, D. (2001). Neuropsychology: From theory to practice. New York: Psychology Press.

Ashton, Q. (2012). Advances in Nervous System Research and Application: 2011 Edition. New York: Scholarly Editions.

Carducci, B. (2009). The psychology of personality: Viewpoints, research and applications.

London: John Wiley & Sons.
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Gordon Allport and Psychology of the Individual

Words: 2834 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18885570

Gordon Willard Allport, one of the most influential of American psychologists in the 1900s, was the youngest of four brothers. He was born in Montezuma, Indiana in 1897. One of his elder brothers, Floyd Henry Allport, was also an influential psychologist, and it is said inspired him (Hall & Lindzey). Allport, who graduated from Harvard with a Ph.D. In 1922, was a long time member of the faculty at Harvard University from 1930 until his death in 1967. He produced a number of influential books and professional works over his career such as the influential book The Nature of Prejudice. Allport was initially exposed to Freudian notions of behavior as a graduate student, but he rejected the notions of Freudian psychology and later notions of behaviorism (in fact there is the famous story of his meeting with Freud that often used to explain the development of his own theories). Allport…… [Read More]

References

Allport, G.W. (1937a). Personality: A psychological interpretation. New York: Holt and Company.

Allport, G.W. (1937b). The functional autonomy of motives. American Journal of Psychology, 50, 141-156.

Allport, G.W. (1955). Becoming: Basic considerations for a psychology of personality. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Allport, G.W. (1961). Pattern and growth in personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
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Professional in Psychology

Words: 1258 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30124457

Sigmund Freud and Jean Martin Charcot

Psychology refers to the applied and academic discipline that includes the scientific study of behaviors and mental functions. Anyone who has studied psychology has the immediate understanding groups and individuals through the general principles establish by renowned professionals in this field. Psychologists attempt to understand the role played by mental functions in social behaviors and individuals whilst exploring the biological and psychological process that underlie behaviors and cognitive functions. This study endeavors to explain the important contributions made by two psychologists namely Sigmund Feud and Jean Martin Charcot, and the similarities and contrasts of their contributions.

Sigmund Freud and his contributions

He was a neurologist based in Australia and lived between 1856 and 1939. He was the founder of psychoanalysis. He graduated from the University of Vienna as a qualified doctor and carried out extensive research into aphasia, cerebral palsy and microscopic neuroanatomical. He…… [Read More]

References

Freud, S., & Strachey, J. (2001). The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud: early psycho-analytic publications. Vol. 7, 1901-1905, A case of hysteria, three essays on sexuality and other works. London: Vintage.

Huberman, G., & Charcot, J.M. (2003). Invention of hysteria: Charcot and the photographic iconography of the Salpe-trie-re. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
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Clinical Psychology

Words: 60005 Length: 200 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12402637

Deam Content as a Theapeutic Appoach: Ego Gatification vs. Repessed Feelings

An Abstact of a Dissetation

This study sets out to detemine how deams can be used in a theapeutic envionment to discuss feelings fom a deam, and how the theapist should engage the patient to discuss them to eveal the elevance of those feelings, in thei pesent, waking life. It also discusses the meaning of epetitious deams, how medication affects the content of a deame's deams, and if theapists actually "guide" thei clients in what to say. This "guidance" might be the theapist "suggesting" to thei clients that they had suffeed some type of ealy childhood tauma, when in fact, thee wee no taumas in thei ealy childhoods. The oigin of psychiaty is not, as it would have people believe, medicine, theapy o any othe even faintly scientific endeavo. Its oiginal pupose was not even to cue mental affliction.…… [Read More]

references. This may be related to the large decrease in familiar settings in the post-medication dreams. Although Domhoff (1996) does not list a high percentage of elements from the past as an indicator of psychopathology, he does mention that people suffering post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a type of anxiety disorder, tend to have dreams in which distressing events are relived again and again. It may be that other anxiety disorders invoke a similar response in which the dreamer has a tendency to dwell on past events, which merits further research.

A final observation is that the results of this study provide support for Hartmann's (1984) biological model of the effects of drugs on dreams. An early study which focused mainly on long-term sleep patterns found little change in dream content associated with psychotropic drug administration (Hartmann & Cravens, 1974), but a later study conducted in Hartmann's laboratory indicated that increased levels of dopamine resulted in more vivid, nightmarish dreams (Hartmann, Russ, Oldfield, Falke, & Skoff, 1980). Based on his own research and the literature on drugs and nightmares, Hartmann (1984) proposed that drugs that increase the neurotransmitters dopamine or acetylcholine, or decrease norepinephrine or serotonin, produce nightmares and more vivid and bizarre dreams.

Drugs that have the opposite effects would decrease the incidence of disturbing dreams. The dreamer in this study was taking a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, which served to increase the effects of serotonin. According to the biological model, with the onset of medication the dreamer should have experienced a decrease in nightmares, or, in Hall and Van de Castle's terms, lower aggression, negative emotions, and other unpleasant factors. This was, in fact, the case.

The emphasis on statistically significant differences without regard to effect sizes slowed progress in the study of dream content by creating unnecessary polarities and focusing energy on methodological arguments. The introduction of effect sizes into the study of dream content makes it possible to suggest that the controversy over home and laboratory collected dream reports never should have happened. The emphasis in dream content studies henceforth should be on effect sizes and large samples. Then future dream researchers could focus on testing new ideas using dream reports collected either at home or in the sleep laboratory.

Summary
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Personalizing Punishment-Based on Brain Psychology

Words: 1884 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2325030

Psychopathology Criminal Behavior Part

What might be some of the implications for the forensic field of the differences between the "low-fear hypothesis" and the "high-impulsive" subtypes of psychopathy? In other words, how might the differences in the models help inform us about best practices for such activities as police work on the streets, interrogation methods, trial and sentencing practices, providing treatment, or evaluating recidivism risks?

In retrospect, theorists view Lykken's conceptual framework as a first step toward distinguishing between primary and secondary psychopathy (Baskins-Sommers, 2010). As theory building continues in this decade, the typology is supported by the notion of trait-like sensitivities and trait-like cognitive capacities that suggest the following implications for criminal justice procedures. Primary psychopathy is characterized by disinhibition, which is an inability to abort a dominant response, integrate socialization, or adopt alternative objectives. An individual who is considered to have primary psychopathy will fail to consider emotional…… [Read More]

References

Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Wallace, J.F., MacCoon, D.G., Curtin, J.J., and Newman, J.P. (2010, October 1). Clarifying the Factors that Undermine Behavioral Inhibition System Functioning in Psychopathy. Personal Disorders, 1(4), 203 -- 217. doi: 10.1037/a0018950. PMCID: PMC2992384. NIHMSID: NIHMS211679. Retrieved  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2992384/#!po=74.5614 

Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Curtin, J.J. And Newman, J.P. (2013, May). Emotion-modulated startle in psychopathy: clarifying familiar effects. Journal of Abnormal Pychology, 122(2), 458-468. 10.1037/a0030958. Epub 2013 Jan 28. Retrieved  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23356218 

Blonigen, D.M., Hicks, B.M., Krueger, R.F., Patrick, C.J. & Iacono, W.G. (2005, May). Psychopathic personality traits: heritability and genetic overlap with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. Psychological Medicine, 35(5): 637 -- 648. doi: 10.1017/S0033291704004180. PMCID: PMC2242349. NIHMSID: NIHMS38985. Retreived  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2242349/#__ffn_sectitle 

Franklin, K. (2010, May 30). Psychopathy guru blocks critical article. Will case affect credibility of PCL-R test in court? In the News: Forensic psychology, criminology, and psychology-law. Retrieved  http://forensicpsychologist.blogspot.com/2010/05/psychopath-guru-blocks-critical-article.html
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History of Multicultural Psychology History

Words: 2799 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68026623

It would be agreeable that the growth of multicultural focus is something that has remained a long journey towards our present understanding of the topic. The path towards our contemporary multiculturalism remains a distinct area of psychology that developed some years ago. The historical development shows clearly that there have been different individuals and thinkers who have focused on the ethnic associations and issues related to human interactions (Cauce, 2011).

Throughout the years in history, it would be clearly agreeable that different historical periods have constantly played a unique role in establishing different thoughts, ideas, and concepts that have defined our societies. For instance, there are stances of activism and even racism that have been playing a unique towards the development and establishment our present ideas on human psychology and multiculturalism (Franklin, 2009, p. 420). Different societal establishments and communities have over the years been critical towards establishing the best…… [Read More]

References

Adams, J.Q. & Welsch, J.R. (2009). Multiculturalism: The Manifest Destiny of the U.S.A.: An

Interview With Ronald Takaki. Multicultural Perspectives, 11(4), 227 -- 231

American Psychological Association (2012). Crossroads: The Psychology of Immigration in

The New Century. American Psychological Association: 1-18