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Abstract art involves paintings or sculptures which do not have a clear depiction of a place, person or thing as it exists in the real world. The art is displayed in a distorted and exaggerated way. The subject of abstract art is based on what one sees in terms of color, size, shapes, scale and brushstrokes. Even though most people have liking towards abstract art personally I do not like abstract art at all. There are various reasons why I do not like this type of art.
First of all, abstract art refers to art which has no forms that can be recognized or art which does not aim to display anything. Abstract art in most cases is more personal and less figurative. Abstract art means a lot to the artist who did the art work since the image has some sense of appeal to the artists. When looking at…… [Read More]
Thus surrealist art is much more difficult to interpret and more subjective than abstract art. Abstract art is less visionary and more the equivalent of an artist attempting to create an image that represents something real in symbolic form (Wittenborn, 1957). For this reason abstract art more similarly represents realism, only the artists works to deliver an impression or symbol of an actual object or event rather than create something purely from a visionary perspective. One might actually suggest that abstract art is closer to impressionist technique than surrealism in this respect as the artist when creating abstract art often tries to produce something that is equivalent but not exactly the same as a real object, event or circumstance.
At first glance abstract art and surrealism appear very similar, when in fact both forms of art are created from very different perspectives. Abstract art and surrealist art are similar in…… [Read More]
Another artist who fits into the abstract mold and who is also concerned with non-objective art is obert Pepperell. He differs from the works of Frank Stella in that his works do suggest to some extent a world that lies outside the artwork per se, but his focus is not on an idealistic spiritual area of apprehension but rather on the way that we see the world around us. Like Stella, his work does not conform to the earlier abstract views and to Kandinsky's'inner necessity'.
Paradox 1. (2005)
obert Pepperell's work has been described as an exploration and even a postmodern deconstruction of the habitual mode of seeing the world. In other words, the paintings refer to elements and images that are on the fringes of recognition but are never able to be completely placed or categorized. The works tend to put our normal sense of viewing the…… [Read More]
The title of the painting comes from Latin and means "Man, heroic and sublime," going back, in fact, to an essay that the painter wrote, in which he asks "If we are living in a time without a legend that can be called sublime, how can we be creating sublime art?." This is, in part, his answer.
According to some interpretations, the thin lines are a show of admiration for the Italian artist Giacometti and they are a representation of the human individual in all his weaknesses and glory as well. However, it is also a geometrical representation which helps divide the painting and the red background into different segments. Apparently, there is no rule to that, however, one can notice that the segment that is thus created in the middle is a perfect square.
The strive for perfection and the ultimate symmetry is perhaps even more obvious in Robert…… [Read More]
Art One-Point Linear Perspective in the enaissance
One-Point Linear Perspective in the enaissance
In the context of art, perspective is generally defined as "… the technique an artist uses to create the illusion of three dimensions on a flat surface" (Essak). Perspective is in essence an illusion of depth and realism in the work of art. It is also an intrinsic part of human evolutionary makeup. As Edgerton ( 2006) states, "
Every human being who has ever lived from Pleistocene times to the present, has experienced in vision the apparent convergence of parallel edges of objects as they extend away from our eyes and seem to come together in a single "vanishing point" on the distant horizon… (Edgerton, 2006)
However, from an art historical perspective it is also true that linear or single-point perspective has not always been an accepted part of painting and artistic creation. It is in…… [Read More]
One can easily recognize this by the line
that runs down the back of the object which represents the spine. This
idealized subject is also stretching his "muscles", for one can see where
the "muscles" bulge in the middle section of the back, the shoulders, and
Since this object meets all of the above-mentioned traits, being
form, space, mass and volume, proportion and scale, it is indeed a work of
art. Personally, I find this object very appealing, due to its abstract
nature and the way that the light is reflected from its curvaceous surface.
My overall reaction is based on the object's aesthetic value, being one of
beauty and great eye appeal. Although it is not as aesthetically pleasing
as Rodin's The Kiss, it nevertheless serves as a great example of modern
abstract art.… [Read More]
The basis of collage with is associated with humor and entertainment forms its captivating content, an element for passing its information. Materials that are used for collage are normally readily available old objects that have been disregarded. Use of new materials in the art is not restricted but again not considered to add value to the collage work. It is thus a considerably less expensive process as compared to other artistic communications avenues such as painting that requires newly acquired materials that consequently calls for extensive financial commitment. Its relative affordability together with its captivating elements makes collage a good avenue for communication especially in social campaigns. This becomes specifically effective if the entire society is integrated in the collage representation (Learning, 10).
Other collage artists
There are a number of collage artists that have also been significantly felt because of their contribution in collage. Apart from Michael Anderson, Oliver…… [Read More]
Pollack and othko
The 1930s art world enjoyed several different creative styles. The Social ealists painted works that normally depicted a social message and, with Edward Hopper, even oppression. The egionalists also felt a need to show the trials of daily life. However, others began to see things in greater abstraction. Hans Hoffman was interested in expressive abstract art, and the American Abstract Artists favored a more mathematical perspective1. By the 1940s, the younger artists wanted to break away from earlier methods and pursue a method to show reality in a more unpredictable and immediate fashion. Jackson Pollack and Mark othko exemplified this new style. As othko said in a letter to the editor of the New York Times in 1943: "We are for flat forms becaue they destroy illusions and reveal truth."
This new artwork technique sprang from a non-realist language, searching for "power of color, internal luminosity and…… [Read More]
Along with Georges Braque, Fernand Leger and Pablo Picasso were firmly at the forefront of the cubist movement in modern art. Cubism sprouted from Picasso's experimentations with collage, along with Braque, but later morphed into an interpretive and expressive style of painting that heralded many related movements in abstract modern art including futurism. As Fitz puts it, Picasso used the cubist style to express the things he could not see, but which he knew were there; the things that everybody is "certain of seeing," but which are not depicted on a traditional canvas (228). As a result, Picasso reinvented painting, and reinterpreted what the function of painting was. Leger deserves credit also, for he too pursued the " quest for a means by which to accurately describe three-dimensional objects on a two-dimensional canvas," (Spector). Leger and Picasso developed totally unique and distinct brands of cubism, even if their formative…… [Read More]
Art Culture: Public Space Art
Public art like that of Koon's Train (2011), Serra's Tilted Arc (1981), Lin's Vietnam Veterans Memorial (1981), and James' Sea Flower (1978), ignite discussion to the point of its modification, re-arrangement, or removal. The reason for this controversial treatment of public art is its ability to embrace a variety of aesthetic practices. The adoption of different aesthetic values like poster art, outdoor sculpture, earthworks, multimedia projections, and community-based projects among others, breaks the public's traditional understanding of art (Glahn, 2000). This critique finds that the public's totalizing classification of public sphere brings about controversy and dialogue over public art displays. By reviewing the famous public art "Tilted Arc" (1981) by Richard Serra, this analysis will show that there are distinct differences between public understanding and professional understanding of public art.
The government with the intention of exhibiting, protecting, and edifying art, commissions public art in…… [Read More]
Art can come in many shapes, sizes, and mediums, yet one thing that all art has in common is its ability to connect to individuals and enable them to experience catharsis, that is illicit an emotional response. Some of the most awe-inspiring works of art are architectural such as the Lincoln Memorial, which bookmarks the National Mall in Washington, D.C.
The Lincoln Memorial is impressive and its sheer magnitude and size was unexpected. Walking up to the memorial, I realized that it was much larger than I had anticipated and that much like a temple, the actual memorial is located at the top of a series of steps. It was nothing like looking at the back of a penny or a five-dollar bill. The Lincoln Memorial successfully combining the concepts of form and function through its structure (Pearson Publication, Inc., 2009, p. 164). The memorial itself was designed by Henry…… [Read More]
In essence, this painting "mixes a toothpaste smile with the grimace of a death's head" and symbolizes the true work of an American "action" painter (de la Croix & Tansey, 774).
Another great example of an American abstract expressionist master is Mark Rothko (1903 to 1973), who emigrated to the United States in 1914 from Latvia with his family to escape Czarist Russia and its strict policies towards Jews. Although Rothko was a friend and contemporary of Pollack, Kline and de Kooning, his paintings exhibit none of the aggressive attack or slashing brushwork one finds in the works of these artists. Rothko's Four Darks on Red does not exhibit the usual traits of "action" painting, for it shows a calm and contemplative mood with soft color variations, yet it also shows "a mysterious effect of forms and images occupying an ambiguously-defined space," much like Kline and Pollack (de la Croix…… [Read More]
Art and Architecture
Architecture and Art
In a recent visit to Chicago, I observed the Chicago Picasso which was a gift to the city by the famed artist Pablo Picasso. Located in the downtown Chicago loop, the monument stands 58 feet tall, weighs 162 tons and is constructed of Cor-Ten (corrosive tensile) steel. Pablo Picasso gave this massive work of art to the city of Chicago, even though he'd never been to the city, and never went during his lifetime. The unpaid work was based on a 42-inch-tall version Pablo crafted. It was later executed by U.S. Steel Corporation ("Chicago Sculptures," 2011).
It is reported that Pablo Picasso never named his creation nor gave an explanation as to what it represents. The 3-D piece of art looks different from every angle. People have stated that it resembles a baboon; mainly because of the close-set eyes and flaring nostrils. Also, the…… [Read More]
Roy Lichtenstein -- Stepping Out is a painting done in oil and magna on canvas by Roy Lichtenstein. (Magna is a plastic painting product made of permanent pigment ground in acrylic resen with solvents and plasticizer. This material mixes with turpentine and mineral spirits and dries rapidly with a mat finish) (www.artlex.com/ArtLex/M.html).Painted in 1978, this work is 85 inches in heighth and 70 inches in width, 218.4 cm by 177.8 cm. This work of art, accession number 1980,420, is located at The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (5th Avenue and 82nd Street). It was purchased in 1980 as a Lila Acheson Wallace Gift with additional funding through the Arthur Hoppock Hearn Fund, the Arthur Lejwa Fund, in honor of Jean Arp; the ernhill Fund, the Joseph H. Hazen Foundation Inc., the Samuel I. Newhouse Foundation Inc., and gifts fromWalter areiss, Marie annon McHenry, Louise Smith, and…… [Read More]
Art Practice in the Past and Present
A skill or mastery that stimulates the process of thought, amusement, and emotions is called an art. It is also defined as a special quality used by many people to express their feelings, approach and position. Dating back to 50,000 years ago, art has various forms that ground itself from sculptures, rock paintings, wall craving to modern paintings. Countries like Egypt, Persia, India, Europe and America have great foundations of ancient civilizations that developed their own way of expressing their work and teaching it to their future generations. These teachings started with simple body signs for expressing there need to using brushes, knifes and other tools to explain there work. As a result of these teachings, the art present today expresses an urbanized form of historic art.
Similarities and difference of past and present art
Artists today are very similar in…… [Read More]
The Narrative Tradition in Art: Evidence and Examples from the Neolithic and the Hellenistic Periods
Artists have existed since long before the dawn of civilization and the beginnings of recorded history, and the subject matter chosen for depiction in paintings has at once been highly varied and remarkably similar as civilization progressed and societies same and went. Wildly disparate styles have led some to emphasize color and the abstract while others attempted to paint exactly what was seen, and buildings dominate some paintings while landscapes dominate others; at the same time, there have been similarities in that paintings always represent the world as seen by the civilization producing the art, and thus people and certain other elements are almost always well represented. Art is a way of mirroring life, and of displaying features of importance to a given people, and representations of men and women and the objects…… [Read More]
The process whereby the truth of a certain matter or problem is investigated is in and of itself an art form. Though the manner in which certain problems are investigated are very similar, they are also very different depending on the person conducting the experiment. Each scientists works in a unique manner as does each artists working to uncover beauty. Thus one may suggest that the quest for uncovering truth is much like the quest for discovering beauty. In fact, one may simply define beauty as the pursuit or discovery of the certain truth about something or someone.
As alike as these two concepts may be they are also irreconcilably different. In the process of finding the truth one must seek out concrete realities. Typically these realities have to be something that can be proved or disproved, based on reasoning and logic rather than subjective experience. Science often involves experimentation…… [Read More]
Futurism brashly and boldly embraced new technology, celebrating even the bellicose. In Marinetti's "Manifesto of Futurism," he states, "We will glorify war -- the world's only hygiene -- militarism, patriotism, the destructive gesture of freedom-bringers, beautiful ideas worth dying for, and scorn for women," (p. 148). This peculiar statement reveals the nature of futurism as it was manifest at early twentieth century. Futurism was all embracing, rejecting nothing based on immorality because futurism shunned morality. For this reason, Futurism emerged as a staunchly progressive and open-minded genre in the visual arts. The movement not just embraced new technology but celebrated it. Even the uglier side of technology, such as heavy industries and the pollution they create, was something futurists admired and incorporated into their visual art schema. Within the futurist framework, it is certainly possible to imagine works of art that represent something genuinely new.
One reason it is…… [Read More]
Later, perhaps inevitably as a consequence of his fascination with cinema, arhol began to make films and to engage in non-static works of performance-based art ("Andy arhol," PBS: American Masters, 2006).
In such art of the 1950s the way in which the art was perceived was as equally important as the image of the art. Disposable and even trashy images and products could be, with the use of irony and a performance space that put the works in 'quotations,' turned into artistic works, to make a statement about American popular culture. Not all Pop Art 'happenings' were inspired by cinema, however. For example, Claus Oldenberg 1961 created a plastic 'store' of manufactured goods, like pies, that reminded him of his childhood general store: "Unlike the slick, mechanical appearance of some pop art, they [the pies] are splotchy and tactile. Oldenburg's manipulation of scale and material unsettle our expectations about the…… [Read More]
Impressionism in art developed in the 19th century. Impressionist paintings were characterized by visible brush strokes, and subject was drawn from ordinary life and outdoors, rather than being confined to still life, or portraits and landscapes drawn in studios. Emphasis was laid on the effect of light changing its qualities as well as movement. These characteristics of impression can be well observed in the works of art by Gustave Caillebotte, Edgar Degas and Edouard Manet in their paintings Paris: A ainy Day, The Absinthe Drinker and The Bar at the Folies Bergere respectively.
Paris: A ainy Day is an oil painting drawn in 1877 encompasses the Impressionist use of landscape scene. The curator of the Art Institute of Chicago was quoted describing the painting by Hedy Weiss in the Chicago Sun-Times (December 12, 1995) as "the great picture of urban life in the late 19th century." The masterpiece gives…… [Read More]
A good example of this can be seen with Sistine Chapel in the Last Supper. In this piece, he is using color and his imagination to understand what is happening. The use of bright and dark colors added to the sense of realism by giving the appearance as if these events were happening at the moment. In the future, this technique would be utilized by artists to create a sense of appreciation and underscore the emotions of the work itself.
Furthermore, the article that was written by Oremaland (1980), is discussing how pieta has often been used throughout many different building projects in the world (with the original at St. Peter's Cathedral). Since that time, various churches have used this dome like structure to create designs that mirror those of Michael Angelo. These different elements are important, because they are showing how this technique was continually embraced by various contractors…… [Read More]
Art Museum Visit
This particular piece of art is a limestone statue, which in all likelihood, originally was a painted piece. Limestone was a precious mineral, and would have most likely been honed and by prepared by a servant or slave for the artisan to work with. This statue is considered to be sculpture in the round as there are no additional supports required (Barnet 113). A great deal of detail is carved into the headdress, and because of the realism qualities, the statue is of a woman. A number of these statues were designed in small decorative forms; however, many were crafted in life size and even larger forms. The proportions seem to be to scale. The Egyptian use of proportions is a method that depicts the human figure in a consistent way, using measurements derived from the observation of real bodies and related to Egyptian metrology (Baines 9).…… [Read More]
Palmer C. Hayden and Laura Wheeler Waring were two of the painters of the Harlem Renaissance, and they focused on painting stylized portraits of prominent African-Americans and scenes of black life from a variety of perspectives.
The dynamism of the machine age is exhibited not only in the engineered workings of inventions like automobiles and early airplanes, but also in the Futuristic paintings of the period. There is a blend of very strong geometry and straight lines that combine to create larger images of fluidity and movement that almost seems impossible when the smaller constituent elements of the painting are focused on. It is as though magic and passion are meeting science and cool logic, which is a way of describing things like the combustion engine as well. This period was a time when the world seemed to be moving in two directions, at once looking forward to the…… [Read More]
Art and Politics
"Light being the very essence of our existence, a work of art that is not concerned with light has no right to exist." (Rosso 23)
The eye takes in and processes a world of information all at once. We do not even fully recognize all of the inputs that the brain processes. In fact, the brain is still more sophisticated than the world's most powerful computer. These facts have deep implications for art and art appreciation since the "impression" of the art is important in the sense that it attempts to recreate a reality. For an artist to try to recreate reality they must pay particular attention to light and color. However, all of this assumes an artist wants to "recreate" something natural and the feeling that accompanies it during the first impression. This is not always the case.
Other artists and architects have focused more on…… [Read More]
The bronze piece on the front is textured or hammered, too, adding another depth of pattern and texture to the work. There is not a lot of intricate detail on the piece, but for some reason it seems detailed, anyway, perhaps because of the size of the piece.
Because this is a three-dimensional work, there is a feeling of space and depth to the piece, too. In fact, the figure seems to be frozen in a moment in time, and commands the space around it. The bronze "shield" on the front in concave, and so gives additional depth and a three-dimensional quality to the piece, and so does the hole in one of the legs. This is not a massive sculpture, but it seems larger than it is because of the use of space and depth to create a fuller, more complete piece of art.
The artist definitely wanted to…… [Read More]
My letters to my brother Theo often touch upon this theme."
Q: hat was your relationship like in Arles?
Gaugin: "I would say that Vincent definitely needed me more than I needed him. Vincent was always looking for a friend, you know -- a kindred spirit. His brother Theo was sympathetic but separate from him. In me he found someone who shared his passion for art and who understood what he was trying to accomplish. But Vincent was unstable and our relationship was often frustrated by his inability to reconcile himself to the artist's lonely lot. I, certainly, was more comfortable being a loner."
Van Gogh: "My sojourn in Arles in a rented yellow house, which I depicted on canvas in my typically thickly-applied, brightly colored 1888 painting, would end in a kind of portentous delirium. Gauguin's stay and my increasing reliance upon the Frenchman proved a misstep. Gauguin's insufferable…… [Read More]
The Metropolitan Museum of Art currently presents three fascinating special exhibits including one on cubism, another on enaissance tapestry, and a third on ancient Assyrian art. Each of these three special exhibits is different, and exciting in its own way. The exhibit on enaissance tapestry is entitled "Grand Design" and focuses on the work of Pieter Coecke van Aelst. Some of the tapestries are lavish and intricate, such as the "Seven Deadly Sins." Having never before encountered tapestries from this era, I was stunned at the workmanship and marveled at the amount of time it must have taken to weave these incredible patterns. As if on cue, the museum's curator had prepared several information panels informing viewers about the process of tapestry making, its history, and its relevance during the enaissance. Van Aelst had produced tapestries for Europe's elite, including the Medici family. This made me ponder the nature…… [Read More]
The Material Image is a photography exhibition at the Marianne Boesky Gallery, which is curated by Debra Singer. The exhibition includes work from eighteen artists: Michele Abeles, Lucas Blalock, Sam Falls, Ryan Foerster, Amy Granat, Rachel Harrison, Leslie Hewitt, John Houck, Barbara Kasten, Jason Loebs, Nick Mauss, Ken Okiishi, Arthur Ou, Anthony Pearson, Marina Pinsky, Mariah Robertson, Matt Saunders, and Chris Wiley. The material images are displayed throughout the Marianne Boesky Gallery, a heritage building imparting a naturalistic feel and setting for which to view and interact with the imagery. Warm wood finishes and doorframes in the interior enhance the presentation of the photographs, while the stark white walls allow each image to stand out. The classic heritage building serves as an ironic counterpoint to the exhibition, which challenges the definition of photography and stretches the ultimate boundaries of the art. The style of The Material Image is eclectic,…… [Read More]
The artworks prevalent during the early Middle Ages in many ways stand between these two extremes. The art of this period was one that was both religiously inclined but also celebrated the human form and human nature that was to become so prominent in the enaissance. In many ways much of early Medieval art was similar to the abstract and decorative art that we find in Islamic examples. An example that has been chosen to represent this early period of European art is the Gerona Bible Master from Bologna, Italy,
This decorative example displays intricate artwork that emphasizes and enhances the Biblical context. The text or lyrics on the page refers to hymnal and religious phrases of praise, such as "Let us rejoice" (Art: Middle Ages). Note the way that the decorative images add depth to the aesthetics of the script and the manuscript as a…… [Read More]
Laid on its side, auschenberg's "Bed" contains the same visual and tangible objects as a real bed. "Bed" seems like more than a representation of a bed; it could just as well be one especially given the use of actual bedding.
The expansion of the visual plane and the reworking of the canvas paralleled expansions of consciousness. Those transformations in consciousness and their impact on the art world were a result of historical and social change. During the 1950s when auschenberg worked, technology was growing in its relevance to the global economy. Advancements in science included quantum mechanics and theoretical physics. Medical marvels abounded. Culture was becoming less homogenous as the spread of ideas flowed across borders. Human sexuality and sexual freedom were also growing more liberated. Gender roles were changing and so were global political norms. Within the exciting environment of the 20th century arose conceptual transformations in the…… [Read More]
The concept of color value may be better illustrated by impressionist artists like Renoir. In "The Skiff," Renoir depicts a boat on a placid pond using different shades, or values, of blue:
Capitalizing on color value in this case adds considerable depth and nuance to the painting, as well as texture.
Texture: Texture is most obvious in three-dimensional and especially in multimedia artwork. Sculptor Giacometti molded metal, preserving its naturally bumpy texture as in the following depiction of a man walking:
One of the distinguishing features of Giacometti's work is his use of texture. Instead of smoothing the metal to create a more realistic sculpture, the artist lets the texture become an essential defining element of the artwork. Multimedia artist Louise Nevelson sometimes carved niches into wood, thereby achieving the same type of textural experience:
In fact, the Nevelson piece also illustrates the visual function of Pattern.…… [Read More]
It is also interesting that the artist used different mediums in this painting, which is not so common. It seemed to make the painting more realistic somehow, even though the painter does not really paint realistic scenes. he ink helped bring out some of the details, and the paper gave texture and a 3-D quality to the work. his keeps on in the perspective of the work, which certainly is not real. he door into the room is tiny, while some of the chairs in the room seem twice as big as the door! he different types of chairs also don't have anything to do with most interior designs, but some how, the whole thing comes together and seems to please the eye somehow. I did not used to appreciate modern art very much, but this painting kind of reminds me of a cartoon, and I like it. he bright…… [Read More]
Godard believed that cinema should be an extension of criticism, a concept that he is able to achieve in Le Mepris through his criticism of traditional Hollywood cinema and the restrictions imposed on directors who were struggling to define their style and voice their interpretation of stories set before them. Godard is able to inject his personal interpretation of Moravia's novel by writing the script of the film and by incorporating aspects of his relationship with Karina into the film. Godard does not compromise his authorial interpretation of Moravia's novel, yet is able to stay within the parameters set before him by the producers of the film.
In "The Art of Cinema as a Mode of Film Practice," Bordwell argues that ambiguity helps to unify realism and authorial expressivity; however, Godard does not employ ambiguity and allows the film to end conclusively. Godard believes, "A story should have a beginning,…… [Read More]
This is a form of art that is found in all religions and it presents a concrete and a tangible image that they are told is their god and they end up worshiping the image, a product of art. Due to this urge to have a tangible item to refer to as god, each religion has the image of the supreme divine being that cannot be replaced with any other, if not the supreme divine being, then there must be an artistic representation of the representative of the supreme divine being that is universally accepted by all the members of that particular religion.
In the initial years and the middle ages, the images and pieces of art that represented the deities had strict qualities but during the renaissance some of these qualities were lost as the painters gave the images more qualities of divine inspiration with an aim of making…… [Read More]
Art & Science of Nursing
Since its very inception, there has been a conflict within the nursing profession about its status as to whether it is a science or an art. This is due to the fact that the profession of nursing includes within its tradition both scientific and artistic aspects.
The opposition between science and art has existed from the beginning of modern nursing. Nightingale championed the view of nursing as a moral art, while Fenwick argued for registration and insisted that nursing was an independent profession allied with science and technology.
(Le Vasseur J. 1999)
On the one hand, nursing viewed as a science implies objectivity and distance while on the other hand it can be seen as an art form which implies subjectivity and detachment. There has been considerable debate about these two apparently opposing points-of-view, as well as attempts to find areas of consensus between the…… [Read More]
Art of Nursing According to Virginia Henderson
Virginia Henderson has tremendously helped to bring a new perspective of the art of nursing. For this reason, her biographical sketch together with educational and professional details earned her the name the Modern-day Mother of nursing and the Nightingale of modern nursing. Virginia Henderson's theory was a major stride in the field of nursing and in the art of nursing. The theory has also been used by the theorist to come up with another definition of nursing. The art of nursing according to Virginia Henderson has had major implication on nursing and is of relevance to the current nursing practices. This paper will give a biographical sketch of Virginia Henderson. In addition to this her educational and professional overview will be analyzed also. Henderson's theory and its applications will then be reviewed where the four major concepts constituting it will be looked at.…… [Read More]
All this attention paid to their appearance demanded that a high-quality mirror be used. (Virtual, 3)
Hand-held mirrors were made of a sheet of metal hammered down to less than a millimeter (1/32") thick. They were sometimes decorated with solid gold and inlaid with precious stones. The handles were sometimes a sculpture of a maiden holding a cat, or other object, or with her hands raised to hold the mirror; abstract and symbolic designs were also utilized. The Egyptians felt that makeup and mirrors would be needed in the afterlife, so they were placed in the tombs of the deceased. The bronze on a mirror could not be touched, or it would ruin the shiny surface with the oils from fingers. If the mirror was simply cleaned occasionally with a damp cloth, the valuable and decorative object would last a long time. Some of these mirrors have survived until today,…… [Read More]
"Rural Electrification" by Bess Bingham Hubbard is a lithograph created in 1942. Unfamiliarity with lithography in general, and from this era in particular, is the primary reason for choosing this particular work. Moreover, the subject matter of the lithograph is poignant, as it juxtaposes rural simplicity with the intricacies of the modern world, symbolized by the power lines running through the farm.
The monochrome element of lithography reminds the viewer of the lack of color and thereby strips down the art to its core themes. Rendered using only the grey scale, "Rural Electrification" speaks volumes about the nature of rural life in America. The viewer knows that earth is brown and grass is green. Hubbard wants to direct the viewer's attention away from nature, to focus on more abstract principles like modernization and change. Using a lithograph and grey scale, Hubbard achieves the goal of stripping down the work…… [Read More]
Great Art proponents
Art is not something new that started recently. Art work has been in existence for a very long time and there are various artists who have brought an influence in this field. When looking at art in the 1960s we can see that there are various art movements as well as cultural histories which are associated with this period.
Andy Warhol was a very influential pop artist in the 1960s. He took product logos and their labels from a commercial context and displayed them as a form of art. He also went ahead to make sculptures that were identical to Brillo boxes and Campbell's soup cans. Through his work we can see that pop art posed as a challenge to traditional art through equating imagery that was mass produced in advertising with existing fine arts. This was attracted by graphical directness of advertising and consumer packing…… [Read More]
Arts and Education
Lack of Arts in School Curriculum affects learning and interest in learning
School leaders and policymakers pay little attention to arts despite the experience that, allowing young people to participate in arts and culture can influence their development tremendously. The major problem lies with the fact that very few people bother to carry out a research, and record the far-reaching effect arts and culture can have on students. Instead, schools, researchers, and policymakers spend more time focusing on what is easily and commonly measured: reading and math success. This has led art proponents into trying to establish a connection between arts and higher reading and math grades -- a claim that still lacks scholarly, scientific evidence. For other advocates of arts, there is no need and no way to measure the benefits (Greene, et al., 2014).
In recent years, most attention with regards to education have been…… [Read More]
New York Art
New York's Post II Art Scene
After orld ar II, so many parts of Europe were in ruin. Economies were shattered, new governments worked to gain mandates for their authority and the people of Europe's countless and once rich cultural centers struggled to establish new identities. And following more than a decade of fascism, genocide and territorial war, many of the intellectually and culturally elite talents had departed the content for a context more hospitable to freedom and creativity. Relative to what they found in the spread of fascism, the United States would prove itself not just as the newly dominant military and commercial power in the world but also art center of the world. ith devastation persistent throughout the great cities of Europe, New York emerged as the capital of the modern art world and so many of the innovations that would extend there from in…… [Read More]
Cultural Event Report: Museum of Art Fort Lauderdale
Recently, I had the pleasure of visiting the Museum of Art at Fort Lauderdale. Surprisingly, I had never been to the museum before. It sits adjacent to Nova University, in a very beautiful and modern section of the city. The very moment I walked up to the doors, I was excited. The museum is a very interesting exterior composition, with the bright coat of abstract paint, which seems to drift down the side of one of the main exterior walls. From looking at pictures of its old facade, I am definitely impressed with how well they have grown and opened up to facilitating the true spirit behind modern art. Pictures from their website show a much different building, one that was much more drab and boring. The new facade that now stands is much more enlightening; a true testament to the modern…… [Read More]
Dada or Dadism is a form of art that was considered very controversial when it was created due to the political and cultural statements that it made. Dadism was a protest of the violence of human nature specifically war and its atrocities. Personally I feel that Dadism is a form of art that should be cherished, preserved and appreciated because it has a lot to offer not only in a historical and political sense but also culturally and artistically. I enjoy the liberty and style of Dadism although many times it is not aesthetically pleasing; it is interesting, provoking and enjoyable. I especially enjoy the fact that works of Dadism leave their interpretation open to the viewer due to their abstract composition. Essentially Dadism was a movement that protested contemporary politics and modern art. It was designed to be a social commentary on what Dada artist felt was wrong with…… [Read More]
Age/Grade Level of Children
Creative art forms like drawing, coloring, painting, and sculpting form a key constituent of toddler/ preschooler with special needs curriculum. Engaging in creating artworks supports child development over multiple domains besides facilitating development of small muscle control and coordination. This paper will deal with the planning of an art center for older toddlers with special needs (aged 2-3 years).
Number in Group
The class will comprise of 20 children with special needs aged 2-3 years, an easily manageable number. A maximum of 4 to 6 toddlers will be allowed into the center at a time to ensure smooth supervision. The toddlers with special needs may practice their cognitive skills through experimentation with color, band and texture, which offer self-discipline limits. Furthermore, art helps toddlers develop creativity (Aslin et al., 2014).
Goals of the Center
An art center for toddlers with special needs may aim at achieving…… [Read More]
The codes appeared on the screen and were read by trained typographers. In 1970, the Merganthaler Linotype VIP became the first phototypesetter to incorporate a minicomputer with programmable software that could be used to process raw text within the output machine (Barlow & Eccles, 1992).
The graphic artist and designer had been losing some of their credibility in relationship to the fine artists up to the 1970s, because typesetting became a mechanical process that required technical training rather than artistic talent. Yet illustrators continued to be considered artists. However, several graphic designers proved such beliefs biased and irrelevant. Starting in the 1950s, Alan Fletcher used pop art, humor and bold and colorful works to develop new works of art. David Carson, a typographer and graphic designer, established his expertise in the 1980s for experimental typeface design. Completely developing his own approach, he established new rules of design and typography and…… [Read More]
Federal Art Project (FAP) was founded in 1935 to offer work assistance for artists in different media with varying levels of experience. Holger Cahill, a curator and folk art professional, was chosen as the program's director. Similar to other Federal cultural projects of that time, the program aimed to bring artists and art into the daily lives of communities all through the U.S. via community exhibitions, classes, and art centers (LOC, n.d.).
In the U.S., FAP existed in the forty-eight states. Its main outreach program was in art education for kids. The Federal Art Project maintained not less than 100 community centers across the country, managed art programs, and also conducted art exhibitions for the works generated by both kids and grownups. There was the production of numerous prints, posters, paintings, sculptures, and murals under this program, which were in turn given to libraries, galleries, schools as well as other…… [Read More]
The left side (from the viewer's perspective) has a trimming in the shape of a series diamonds, while the right side is trimmed in a series of squares. Instead of running directly under the lip of the bowl, both series of images wander and wobbles. The central image on the bowl, interconnected crisscross carvings in the middle of an egg-shaped focal point is similarly irregular.
It is unclear if these pigment in-fillings are purely decorative, or if they have a specific significance. The culture that produced the work does not seem to value harmony and balance of design as out culture does, but no historical or cultural context is given to the bowl beyond its coloring in Hamson's description. Hamson classifies the bowl as utilitarian, along with all other bowls in the collection, but whether the bowl was used for eating, for holding objects, for decorative, or ritual purposes is…… [Read More]
Indeed, researchers such as Dr. Karen Hendricks have found that the artist's personality tendencies often match those of the schizotypal tendency. They see the world in detail, often rebel against the status quo, and attempt to provide the world with their unique ideas and thoughts. This tends to perpetuate the view of their personalities as slightly odd, or at least different from that of mainstream society.
Being self-employed, individuals in the fine and craft arts need not only perseverance, but also self-confidence. They need to trust that their art is good enough to provide them with an acceptable level of living.
The commercial group of artists mentioned above - the illustrators, multi-media artists and animators are more secure in their income and can focus their creative energies completely upon their work. As such, these artists need very technical knowledge of the media they are working in. Animators for example more…… [Read More]
There are expressed their feelings through different work of art such as filming. Through films, they used actors and actresses to manipulate the story of the film. And thus through the facial expressions and their actions people watching it can get the whole picture of what the story was all about. One of the first to sense this transformation of the actor by the test performance was Pirandello (enjamin 1937). It was through the film actor that critics understand the moral of the story. Through time, the film was enhanced, it was first a silent film where the artists acts and try to relay the message through his actions but now, there are sounds that help the actor easily and accurately relay the message. His feelings as well the manner of his delivery through the sounds can very well understand the message of the story.
Technology boomed and changes came…… [Read More]
est's art, although it is crafted is a kind of 'found' art, and his desire to demystify the process of artistic creation is yet another reason he brings the gallery owner into the process of artistic manufacturing, such as by asking the museum's director what color the Chameleon color of the walls and chairs will become, as the work moves from place to place. est classifies his fundamental artistic philosophy as along the lines of the schools of what he calls that "adaptives," which holds that "if the form is useful, then it's beautiful.
After all, in most ancient, primitive societies, art's form and function were one: a plate was not decorative, even though it might be highly crafted: the dining ware it had a purpose. est makes a similar claim about the art of today -- that it be functional as well as artistic, and art is found in…… [Read More]
Color Me Three
The use of color by artists depends on both personal predilections as well as environmental and social circumstances. This paper will use the works from three well-known artists to illustrate the assumption that the use of color and the style of each artist is combination of these various factors. An important issue that will be dealt with is the artistic climate and the predominant view on art and art theory at the time. Another important aspect is the artist's personal creative aims and views as they relate to color and art in general.
The use of color is part of the artist's creative process and forms an important part of the works of the following three artists: Claude Monet, Pierre onnard and Paul Signac. Specific woks by these artists will be referred to in this discussion.
Color, while not the only element that constitutes their works is…… [Read More]
Visual Imagery and Qualitative Dimensions of Life & Consciousness in Visual Art
Throughout history all cultures have produced works of art. The impulse to create as a means of personal expression and to stimulate the imagination of viewers is universal and perpetual. In their various manifestations, the arts play an important role in defining culture by presenting intelligent viewpoints of our present state of being, and by serving as a record of our past. The visual arts are a repository of those qualitative dimensions of life, which enhance our consciousness through the use of visual imagery.
The most exquisite expression of the self is through art, be it literature, history theatre, painting, sculptor and so on. From the wondrous Egyptian pyramids to the majestic statue of liberty, from eloquent Greek writer Homer - who produced masterpieces like the Odyssey - to 20th century literati like Palestinian journalist Edward Said -…… [Read More]
Impressions of the Ohr-O'Keefe Museum of Art
The non-profit Ohr-O'Keefe Museum of Art -- located in Biloxi, Mississippi -- was recently commissioned and constructed to honor the legacy of ceramic artist George E. Ohr. According to the museum's website, "the self-proclaimed 'Mad Potter of Biloxi' created a body of ceramic work which defied the aesthetic conventions of 19th century America & #8230;while today Ohr is considered an early leader in the modernist movement and it is his creative spirit which informs the mission of the Ohr-O'Keefe Museum." Among the exhibits on display during my recent visit were a gallery of African-American art by Carl Joe illiams titled "Shades of Perception," a historical pottery exhibit sponsored by the Mississippi Sound elcome Center, which featured the work of Biloxi transplant and Master Potter Joseph Fortune Meyer, and a gallery of clay and bronze sculptures by Rod Moorhead titled "Entropy." The diverse nature…… [Read More]
Thus, the invention of perspective by the artists of the Renaissance reflected the emergence of science and the mathematical ordering of man's observations of the physical world.
The manifestation of perspective can clearly be observed in the paintings of many Renaissance artists. For instance, da Vinci's masterpiece the Last Supper, rendered between 1495 and 1498 as a wall fresco, portrays the figure of Jesus Christ sitting in the center of the picture with his body framed by a central window in the background and a curved pediment, the only curve in the architectural framework serving as a halo, arching above his head which serves as the focal point for all the perspective lines/axis in the composition, a system not invented by da Vinci but one copied from earlier master painters.
Another earlier example is Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to St. Peter by Perugino, rendered as a wall…… [Read More]
Artist Zwelethu Mthethwa
Zwelethu Mithethwa says, "I chose color because it provides a greater emotional range. My aim is to show the pride of the people I photograph" (National pp). Born in 1960 in Durban, Kwa-Zulu Natal, Mithethwa holds diplomas from the Michaelis School of Fine Art from the University of Cape Town (National pp). As a recipient of a Fullbright Scholarship, he studied at the Rochester Institute of Technology and in 1989 received a master's degree in imaging arts (National pp). Mthethwa left teaching in 1999 to devote himself fulltime to his artwork (National pp). He has received national and international recognition and has had over thirty-five solo exhibition in galleries and museums in the United States, Italy, Germany, Spain, France, Switzerland and South Africa (National pp). Residing in Cape Town, Mthethwa is best known for his large-format color photography, however he also works in pastel and paint (National…… [Read More]
Attn: Adrian Johnson
Letter to the Editor
In response to the recent article, eview of Abstract Expressionism, about the failures of Abstract Expressionism, it is important to remember the how American art during the 1930s embodied democratic values. In the 1930s, America was experiencing a depression that is commonly known as the Great Depression. This period was characterized by significant economic difficulties and collapse that culminated in a war. While the country was renowned as a land of opportunity and hope during this period, the Great Depression changed people's perception regarding the United States since it became a nation of despair and depression. Given the underlying economic situation in this period, artwork and the field of art in general was seemingly irrelevant as many artists were experiencing tremendous economic challenges and remained unemployed (Hittner, n.d.).
However, the series of social liberal recovery programs initiated…… [Read More]
Vincent Van Gogh, Frank Lloyd right and Madeleine Vionnet. hat did this 19th century artist, architect, and fashion designer share in common? Very simply: They all incorporated Japanese techniques into their works of genius. hen Commodore Perry opened the doors to this Eastern country in 1853, an abundance of unique and influential styles of art rushed out and captured the imaginations of artists throughout the estern world. As author Emile Zola once said,
It is certain that our students painting with black bitumen, were surprised and enhanced by these horizons, these beautiful vibrating spots of the Japanese painters in watercolours. There was a simplicity of means and an intensity of effect which struck our young artists and then influenced them with a painting filled with air and light
This flow of Japanese artistic riches and influence continues to this day. Ask any graphic designers including those at alt Disney Company…… [Read More]
Note the distinct similarities.
An examination of Escher's Circle Limit III can thus tell us much about distance in hyperbolic geometry. In both Escher's woodcut and the Poincare disk, the images showcased appear smaller as one's eye moves toward the edge of the circle. However, this is an illusion created by our traditional, Euclidean perceptions. Because of the way that distance is measured in a hyperbolic space, all of the objects shown in the circle are actually the same size. As we follow the backbones of the fish in Escher's representation, we can see, then, that the lines separating one fish from the next are actually all the same distance even though they appear to grow shorter. This is because, as already noted, the hyperbolic space stretches to infinity at its edges. There is no end. Therefore, the perception that the lines are getting smaller toward the edges is, in…… [Read More]
The subject of terrain is covered exclusively in one of the thirteen chapters in Sun Tzu’s The Art of War. In fact, terrain is addressed throughout The Art of War, so critical is positioning to tactical advantage and strategy. For example, the fourth chapter on “Tactical Dispositions” addresses positioning prior to Sun Tzu’s more formal “Classification of Terrain” in Chapter Ten. Whereas “Tactical Dispositions” covers defensive options, and relative positions vis-a-vis the enemy, “Terrain” demonstrates how variations in terrain impact strategy and outcome. Therefore, “Terrain” offers an unparalleled level of detail on the subject of geography that is of tremendous use to military strategists. Sun Tzu extends his discussion on the importance of terrain in Chapter Eleven of The Art of War, showing how terrain impacts the nine main possibilities for battleground formation and how to address challenges and crises by using skilful means.
Introduction: Why Terrain?
Even in…… [Read More]
Film plays an important role in all of our lives; it would be nearly impossible to find a person who has not been affected in some way by a movie. From the films we watch in our childhood, to the classics, and the more challenging cinema we see later as we study the art of filmmaking, the movies offer so much opportunity to consider the principles of art (Janaro & Altshuler, 1984). Because filmmaking is a multimedia endeavor, involving costume design, sound and lighting, music, skillful writing, graphic art, and performance art, considering filmmaking as a whole encourages appreciation of all that goes into just a few minutes of reel.
When I consider Tarantino films, for example, I think about how the filmmaker places the music front and center in Pulp Fiction. The soundtrack to that movie is as memorable as the characters. I also appreciate how filmmakers like Tarantino…… [Read More]