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Compulsive and Addictive ehavior
THE FACEOOK OSESSION
Recent statistics say that about 50% of all persons between 18 and 34 open their Facebook page after waking up each morning (Reimer, 2013). More than half of them do so on their smartphones even before getting out of bed when they wake up. Almost half of young Americans surveyed said they obtain their news through Facebook. Other youngsters consider Facebook not only a medium of interaction with friends but also about news and developments. More than 10% of all persons aged 25 and younger as against only 6% of older ones can be interrupted during sex by a Facebook message; 22% of this same age group during a meeting as against only 11% of older adults; 24% will be interrupted while on the way to the bathroom as against only 12% among older ones; and 49% during a meal as compared to…… [Read More]
You can be both physically dependent (addicted) and psychological dependent on a substance. Or you have only one type of dependence. For instance, you might be psychologically dependent on your teddy bear or a cup of chamomile tea at bedtime, and believe you can't possibly go to sleep without it. How do you know if you are physically dependent upon a substance?
Probably the most obvious symptom of physical addiction is the onset of symptoms of withdrawal, if the addict attempts to stop using the drug. Psychological dependence may produce physical symptoms caused by the anxiety that is created by stopping the comforting behavior. But the symptoms of physical addiction are so unpleasant that even if the individual wishes to stop using drugs, because his or her liberty, job, or family is at risk, it is still extremely difficult to do so, because the effects on the body…… [Read More]
e. managerial, social, political, economic benefits are linked to the study's results) the proposed helpful outcomes are realistic (i.e. dealing with questions that can actually be answered through the type of data gathering and analysis you're proposing. The suggested helpful outcomes do not go beyond the data that's to be collected).
The increase in teen smoking may be abating, or may be taking a pause before it continues the climb seen in the past 10 years, from 1996 to 2005. In either case, reducing smoking at an early age has a lifelong effect on individuals' health, and can lead to better quality of life for millions of people who might otherwise take up smoking. A secondary benefit is that lessons learned may help to reduce the current 3.1 million teen smokers, many of whom try smoking and quit -- it would be useful to know why they started in the…… [Read More]
" Another strongly associated physical symptom is the persistence of migraine. Wieland observes that 40% of severe IAD youth take medication for migraine. The physical detriment of migraine develops into lifelong problems that are many times hard to cure or incurable.
The physical health of youth internet addicts are hard to dissect, partly this is because physical health often results from psychological addiction, and as a result, are attributed to traditional addict like symptoms and affects. The negligence of addicts in relations to their health causes indirect health problems, that may not be directly linked to IAD, but internet use lies at the heart of how such problems will occur and are dissected.
The problem of internet addiction among youth has been carefully dissected through both social and scientific constructs. However, prevailing research into the actual physical and mental health of youth as a direct result of internet…… [Read More]
The teachers acknowledge that the other disruptive behaviors propagates the destruction of the school property therefore computer-based management results in the upstaging of the security of the school properties. This eminent vandalism is prominent in the cases where the students would like to have money selling the school properties.
The teachers separately attribute the poor morals of the students to inexperience and the ignorance of the students. Involving of computer-based programs in the student behavior management clears the doubt in the effectiveness of the management of the issues entailed. The perspective to the approach assists in the enhancement of the Developmental period of the basis of the Phase learner. They view the approach to increase the contact between the teacher and the student in the countering of the trends emergent in the process. They attribute the computer approach to the advancement in the mastery of the life skills for the…… [Read More]
Internet Addictive Disorder or IAD is defined in this paper as a "maladaptive behavior surrounding the use of the Internet," and it was established earlier that this kind of disorder is not yet formally recognized, most especially among the scientific community. IAD is significant and poses a crucial problem for every individual who gets acquainted with Internet use, and even though IAD may be difficult to define and determine accurately, the problems it poses to an individual and the society around him/her can be considered serious and critical.
This paper also discussed some behavioral patterns in which one can observed an individual or even one's self if they are afflicted with this kind of disorder. Primarily, IAD is considered to be type of an obsessive-compulsive disorders (OCD). Another theory says that IAD is only a "phasic" behavior, which can be rationally explained because of the overwhelming effect of Information Technology,…… [Read More]
Social capital increases in the presence of the church hence numerous connections and relationships come into existence in the church. In the modern setting of the church, there is extensive application of contemporary technology. Contemporary technology in the church helps bring religious members together as they communicate on the common religion. Church has a significant impact on the political behavior of the nation. Politicians associate with churches in order to solicit votes from the religious members. eligious groups vote in relation to their interest in the political arena thus have a greater say during elections. Churches also have the capacity to produce potential and actual leaders to serve the nation (Putnam, 2000).
Workplace enables the development of bridging social capital. This is to serve the interest of diversity within the workplace. Workers come from different background, thus experience unique cultures. This makes it necessary for companies to initiate social capital…… [Read More]
Risky Behaviors in Adolescents
Adolescents engage in a wide variety of risky behaviors in this day in age. Youth engage in activities that put them at risk for serious injury, sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infection and chronic disease, such as heart disease and cancer ("Despite improvements," 2004). Risky behaviors that adolescents undertake can include but are not limited to substance use, unprotected sex and sexual promiscuity, failure to use seatbelts and helmets, violent behaviors, etc. On addition, problems with school work has been linked to cigarette smoking, alcohol use, involvement in weapon use and violence. Also, frequently "just hanging out" with friends has been associated with smoking and substance abuse. Having close friends who drink or smoke also puts youth at a higher risk factor for engaging in those behaviors (Carpenter, 2001). This paper will discuss how risky behaviors of adolescents can lead to serious diseases, a tragic accident,…… [Read More]
There have been several studies that have confirmed the effects of caffeine and the personality dimension of impulsivity (Smith 2002). Performance, according to Smith (2002), is "an interactive function of task difficulty, caffeine and impulsivity" (2002).
Performance on an easy letter cancellation task was improved as caffeine dose increased, but on a difficult task impulsive subjects (less aroused) improved while non-impulsive subjects (more aroused) improved then deteriorated. Other results do not fit this pattern and could reflect other individual differences such as expectancies or caffeine usage (Smith 2002).
Another study conducted by Sawyer, Julia and Turin (1982) showed that caffeine does indeed play a role in behavior, which includes changes in "arousal, anxiety, and performance" (1982). Once again, Sawyer et al. (1982) found that personality plays a big role in caffeine's effects on humans as does sensitivity, adaption to caffeine, and the way that caffeine may interact with both nicotine…… [Read More]
As is the case with so many other benign behaviors (and even behaviors that are generally useful and beneficial), the Internet became a source of compulsion and addictive behaviors for many of those who are already naturally inclined toward compulsivity and addiction (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008). Those who use the Internet appropriately generally establish routines for checking e-mail and may also regularly use the Internet for social networking and interpersonal communications. However, they do not characteristically spend ever-increasing amounts of time online; they do not neglect other aspects of their lives to pursue online activities, and they can function without becoming dependent on their Internet habits.
Conversely, some Internet users exhibit these typical signs of compulsion and addiction that are generally associated with compulsion and addiction (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008). They may spend so much time checking email, updating social networking pages, pursuing online interpersonal communications, and playing computer games…… [Read More]
The authors state: "The amphetamines occasioned dose-related increases in d- amphetamine-appropriate responding, whereas hydromorphone did not. Amphetamines also occasioned dose-related increases in reports of the drug being most like "speed," whereas hydromorphone did not. However, both amphetamines and hydromorphone occasioned dose-related increases in reports of drug liking and in three scales of the ARCI. Thus, some self-report measures were well correlated with responding on the drug-appropriate lever and some were not. Lamb and Henningfield (1994) suggest that self-reports are complexly controlled by both the private event and the subject's history of experience with the drug. Some of the self-reports they observed (e.g., feels like speed) are probably occasioned by a relatively narrow range of stimuli because in the subject's experience with drug administration, these reports have been more selectively reinforced by the verbal community relative to other reports (e.g., drug liking). They also suggest that these results imply…… [Read More]
Patty's introduction to prostitution certainly reinforces this notion: it became a part of her life as a result of her social situation and a perceived necessity. Still, more fervent moral positions against prostitution, in the Untied States, often come from Christianity. Obviously, it violates the general principles of Christianity to pay for sexual intercourse; however, it is also a violation of Christian principles to engage in premarital sex, extramarital sex, homosexual sex, or even masturbation. Notably, none of these actions are illegal in the United States -- or at least the antiquated laws pertaining to them are not enforced -- and of them, only homosexuality is ever regularly regarded as a form of social deviance; though this too is a matter of debate. Ultimately, viewing prostitution as a moral crime from the standpoint of Christianity fails miserably, because doing so would require accepting that law should be solely determined by…… [Read More]
real problems faced by real people in the world, it might seem foolish to analyze a fictitious character. But sometimes it is easier to understand human nature when we look to art or fiction, in part because art provides us with some needed distance at times and in part because fictitious characters are often relatively pure distillations of character types. This is the case with the character of Grace from the television show "Grace Under Pressure." This paper provides an analysis of this character using first the Adlerian therapy model, then analyzing her through a behavior model and then finally suggesting a treatment plan for a person with the profile of Grace.
Grace's character - to begin with a thumbnail of her - is presented in the series as a no-nonsense, take-no-guff survivor of a bad marriage that was often abusive (at least in psychological terms). After eight years of…… [Read More]
A physiological assumption that relates behavior to the activity of the brain and other organs of the body.
An ontogenetic consumption that describes development of behavior or of a brain structure. C. An evolutionary assumption that examines a brain structure or behavior in terms of evolutionary history.
A functional assumption describing why a particular brain structure or behavior evolved the way it did (Kalat, 2012).
What historical disciplines converge to create biological psychology?
Several areas of psychology are involved in biological psychology including clinical psychology, social psychology, cognitive psychology, evolutionary psychology, and bits and pieces from other areas of psychology. All areas of neuroscience and biology are particularly relevant to biopsychology. Comparative anatomy, physiology, medicine (e.g neurology and psychiatry), research methodology, and statistics also contribute to the creation of biological psychology (Kalat, 2012).
3. What are some of the earliest examples of a biological approach to studying behavior?…… [Read More]
While the subject's rationale for blaming his most recent victim for dressing provocatively may reflect "normal" (Macionis 2002) social conditioning (particularly among adolescent males), his complete lack of empathy (as distinct from responsibility or fault) is more consistent with pathological indifference and lack of empathy often observed in serial rapists and other sociopaths who display a clinical indifference to their victims (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).
Subsequent analysis will distinguish whether the subject's relative immature statements about the connection between video game violence and the real world are the result of low intelligence and delayed cognitive skills in the area of logical reasoning and responsibility or functions of repressed rage directed at all females.
viable intervention strategy must emphasize intensive psychological counseling to address the subject's past sexual victimization, the rage associated with it, and the direction of his anger at all females. Behavioral psychotherapy will be necessary to…… [Read More]
In conclusion, much academic attention has been spent on the role of serotonin deficiency and its role in depression and other mood disorders. There has been increasing attention on developing SSRIs that are target-specific in an attempt to reduce unwanted side effects. However, as we have seen too much serotonin many have lasting effects on the brain and contribute to elderly dementia, or permanent damage to the hippocampus.
It appears that maintaining the proper balance of serotonin in the system is the best method for the prevention of the immediate effects of depression and the long-term effects of dementia. Diet plays an important role in the ability of the body to maintain proper serotonin levels. However, there may be times when the body simply cannot maintain the balance on its own. That is when drug therapy such as MAOIs and SSRIs come into play. These drugs are good are relieving…… [Read More]
Relapse prevention therapy breaks down the chemical dependency recovery process into specific tasks and skills, which patients must learn in order to recover; it also shows patients how to recognize when they are beginning to relapse, and how to change before they start using alcohol or drugs again (Gorski and Kelley, 2003).
In order to understand the process of relapse prevention, we will first look at the phenomena of chemical dependence, and its associated behaviors, and the phenomena of relapse, in order to be able to then look at the various ways of tackling these behaviors to induce relapse prevention in the patients.
What is Chemical Dependency/Chemical Addiction?
Chemical dependency is a disease caused by the use of alcohol and/or drugs, causing changes in a person's body, mind, and behavior: as a result of the disease of chemical dependency, people are unable to control the use of alcohol and/or drugs,…… [Read More]
Speech on Alcoholism and Addiction
Main Points: I. Alcoholism is an addiction, not a character flaw.
Treating alcoholism requires modern rehabilitation methods.
The "Twelve-Step" program advocated by Alcoholics Anonymous (AA)
represents an extremely effective route to recovery.
Central Idea: For centuries, society has viewed addiction to alcohol and other substances as a defect in one's moral fiber, rather than a medical affliction. Modern scientific exploration into the subject of addiction has revealed that alcoholism is actually the result of neurotransmitters in the brain becoming activated, chemical responses throughout the body, genetic influences, and even environmental factors. By revising the widespread belief that addiction to alcohol is one's own "fault," and recognizing the litany of variables which determine whether somebody will be prone to addictive tendencies, the stigma placed on alcoholism may eventually be lifted.
A. For as long as mankind been aware that the actions of an individual are…… [Read More]
A brief overview of some prominent theoretical models relating to behavior modification is felt to be a pertinent starting point for his study, as many of these aspects can be compared to the actual interviews and case studies of the subjects. Research suggests that the recovery from drug and alcohol addictions is commonly a long-term process and can involve relapses before sustained and permanent rehabilitation is achieved. ehavioral theories have been shown to be effective in this process. Theories such as cognitive behavioral relapse prevention are a method that has been proven to have a sustained success rate. This theory relates specifically to the formations of behavioral changes in that patients are taught ways of acting and thinking that will assist them in avoiding previous addictions.
For example, patients are urged to avoid situations that lead to drug use and to practice drug refusal skills. They…… [Read More]
The two hypothetical systems working on an individual's brain during the experience of addiction are complementary within and between system changes. The first counteradaptation results in a decrease in the transmission of dopamine and serotonin release during withdrawal phases of the cycle (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively, dopamine and serotonin transmission is artificially increased beyond the normative range during drug use, then virtually stopped once the drug has left the body. This intensifies not only the "come down" feeling but also the preoccupation anxieties associated with substance abuse as well as the existing emotional, environmental, or social vulnerability which lead to the initial lapse. Sensitization is the component of addiction which compels an individual to continually seek greater quantities of the substance (obinson & Berridge 2001). Effectively once the brain has been exposed to a chemical which alters neural transmission, the body attempts to return to a homeostatic state.…… [Read More]
All participants will be clinically diagnosed with an addiction problem to alcohol and/or another controlled substance. Those that are addicted to prescription medicine alone will be excluded from the study as they are suspected to represent a different underlying order. Subjects will be chosen for addiction to alcohol, meth, crack, opiates and other controlled substances, other than prescription drugs. Participants may have single or multiple substances of addiction.
In order to eliminate as many potential confounding variables as possible the subjects will be males between the ages of 25-40. They will be from a number of socioeconomic backgrounds and will not be eliminated for race or other cultural attributes. However, these attributes will be considered in the final analysis to eliminate potential sources of sample bias. Participation in this study will be voluntary and all participants will be asked to sign a consent form. Participants meeting the criteria will be…… [Read More]
Brain's Reward Pathway in the Context of Addiction
The brain's reward pathway involves the mesolimbic dopamine system controlling the way that an individual reacts to stimuli. Natural rewards such as food, sex, and diverse interactions with others can thus play an important role in motivating a person. One of the simplest ways to describe the brain's reward pathway would be to consider the fact that an individual learns that he or she needs to repeat an action in order to get a reward. Memory is connected with the reward pathway, as memory centers concentrate on identifying all the steps that lead to the reward and attempt to recreate these respective actions. Drugs that are addictive have an effect on the reward system as they reinforce certain behaviors, with the dopamine reward pathway being stimulated by these substances.
The reward pathway is particularly old when regarding things from an evolutionary point-of-view.…… [Read More]
Natural Remission Has Had on the Addiction Field
Spontaneous remission from addiction is often referred to under different titles. These include, natural recovery, maturing out, and unassisted change. All of these titles refer to the process of recovering or being in remission from an addiction without the intervention of conventional methods and techniques of addiction treatment. Until fairly recently the idea of spontaneous remission had been vilified in the medical profession as being misleading and even dangerous. A paper by Chiauzzi and Liljegren ( 1993) entitled Taboo topics in addiction treatment: an empirical review of clinical folklore, stated that the concept of natural recovery was identified as a ... Taboo topic, stating that disease model advocates had put forth a tautological argument that an ability to cease addictive behaviors on one's own suggests that the individual was not addicted in the first place, .the failure to seek treatment for a…… [Read More]
First Student Placement Experience Expectations
Overall, I am anticipating an extremely positive experience although I am also sure that it will be punctuated with certain doubts, failures, and disappointments. In those instances, I will try to remember that perfection is another type of addiction and that as long as I am making the best and most genuine effort that I can to help my clients, that is the best that I can do. Nevertheless, I expect this experience to be a learning opportunity more than anything else but I hope to accomplish something beneficial for clients during the process.
Allen, K. "Development of an instrument to identify barriers to treatment for addicted women, from their perspective" International Journal of Addictions, Vol. 29, No.
4; (1994):429 -- 444.
Allen, K. "Barriers to treatment for addicted African-American women" Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 87; (1995):751 -- 756.
Beckman, L.…… [Read More]
Animal models of addiction do not generalize well to substance dependence in humans as there are different criteria involved. For example, in animals "addiction" has been traditionally defined by a caged laboratory animal's tendency to press a lever for a reinforcing substance, whereas in humans the criteria for dependence (the clinical term for addiction) include a number of behavioral criteria and consequences that could never exist in laboratory animals (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). These criteria include: tolerance, withdrawal, taking more of a substance than originally intended, a history of unsuccessful attempts to quit, inordinate amounts of time spent in using and seeking the substance, a reduction in activities (occupational, social, or education) due to use, continued usage despite adverse consequences (APA, 2000). Interestingly, only three of these criteria need to be met in a year, so one need not demonstrate significant physical signs such as tolerance and…… [Read More]
These kinds of compulsive behaviors are observed on a daily basis. It has been highlighted by the authors that there is an acceptable use policy implicated on the students in academic institutions and on the daily basis, without regarding the restrictions placed by these policies, students work against the policy. According to the policy, computers within the universities can only be used for academic purposes only. The policy has highlighted that computers in an academic environment should not be used for online sharing, downloading, social networking and gaming (Nykodym, Ariss, & Kurtz, 2008, p. 7). But in the campuses and academic institutions, it is seen that the students usually sit in for social networking and gaming. Thereby, from here it can be seen that either the students don't want to follow the policies or they don't want to understand the restrictions placed in the policies.
The authors have highlighted that…… [Read More]
exist on kleptomania. They may include treatment options, background on the disorders, or even how to identify a person suffering from kleptomania. New research however, has begun linking the disorder to others in hopes of better understanding what causes kleptomania and how to effectively treat it. Kleptomania has been linked to compulsive buying and binge-eating disorder. omen are known to suffer more from these disorders than men. This suggests these three disorders may have more in common than initially believed.
Kleptomania is a rare disorder found in both men and women with women producing higher occurrences than men. Shoplifting although similar to kleptomania, is not habitual nor does it produce the same effects that someone suffering from kleptomania would. The disorder is commonly characterized by a need to steal things, sometimes trivial things, in order to feel better or feel in control. Normally people who show symptoms of kleptomania…… [Read More]
Food Addiction: Causes and Treatment
Fortuna, J.L. (2012). The obsesity epidemic and food addiction: Clinical similarities to drug
Dependence. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 44(1), pp. 56-63.
As of 2010, nearly 70% of adult Americans were overweight or obese. Fast food establishments are abundant, portion sizes are larger, and people generally have insufficient intake of Omega 3 fatty acids. Additionally, Americans do not get sufficient physical exercise.
Sugar primes endorphin and dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, similar to the "high" experienced by users of illegal drugs. In some individuals, this brings about addictive behavior very similar to that seen in alcoholics and substance addicts.
Fortuna reviewed the literature that investigated two clinical similarities between food addiction and drug dependence.
Animal studies show that bingeing on high-sugar foods, compared to fat dense foods, trigger the release of endorphin and dopamine.
3. Similar results were obtained with human…… [Read More]
Postmodern and Family System Theory Approach
There have been significant interest in research on the problems of addiction; hence, the many scientific studies on the issue. Many of the studies in this area end up with the same conclusions; the concept of addiction is complicated. The complexity partly arises from the effect it has on the drug abuser from different perspectives such as psychological, social, biological, and the impacts of addiction on social law, economics and politics. On the other hand, psychologists perceive drug addiction as a disease. From a religious worldview, addiction is a sin. Therefore, it is possible to view addiction from a medical, behavioral, and spiritual angle. As stated, the concept of addiction is complex, and there are many definitions of addiction reflecting the complexity of the phenomenon (Sremac, 2010).
Notably, all the definitions of addiction portray a negative judgment on addiction, but owing to…… [Read More]
This is an example of the overlapping story lines that makes this book so powerful -- unlike a simple chronicle, Sheff shows the reader that life continues, that adults grieve, and that imperfection and doubt follow us throughout our cycle on hear. Sheff writes, "When I am alone, I weep in a way that I have not wept since I was a young boy" (Ibid).
The idea that love is never enough when dealing with an addict is another major theme; when Nic is sober, he is hopeful if tenuous, when he relapses, he steals for his next "high." But the power of Nic, whether in the room or not, juxtaposes with the addictions we all face in life; "We do not talk about Nic. it's not that we're not thinking about him. His addiction and his twin, the specter of his death, permeate the air we breathe" (Fong). Yet,…… [Read More]
Computer Games esearch
When considering the short history of computers, video and PC gaming are very recent on the timeline of technology. This is one of the reasons why there have not been many conclusive studies on the negative and/or positive effects of electronic games on children and young adults -- the most formative years. With the ever-increasing interest and involvement of children in this activity, much concern has been expressed about the impact of these games, especially ones of a more violent nature, on physical and psychological development. At the crux of the debate is the question of whether they are detrimental to a young person's health. There are specific concerns about such factors as aggression, addiction, criminal activity, obesity and reduced academic achievement.
Studies thus far show both positive and negative results from playing video and PC games. Some research finds that the playing or observing of violent…… [Read More]
marketing mix pubs entice gamblers? 2. Ethical issues marketing pubs, impacts individuals, groups society a . The answers specific case situation. CASE STUDY: Drinking gambling: What core business pubs? Introduction Known slot machines world, 'pokies' a business continues grow Australia.
Setting the context
The gambling industry is often associated with the large American casinos, which attract wealthy individuals from across the globe, and which are luxurious and enticing. These casinos integrate the entire gambling act in an overall greater experience of luxury and elegance.
But the industry of gambling has suffered some notable changes throughout the past recent years, in the meaning that it became more accessible to the average consumer. Nowadays then, gambling occurs in corner street pubs all over Australia, normally through slot machines (pokies) and the phenomenon raises some notable social issues. For instance, the people most affected by financial loses as a result of pokies are…… [Read More]
Biological Factors and Juvenile Delinquency
A biological theory or a biological factor contributing to delinquency:
A genetic propensity for addiction
Although many teens experiment with drugs and alcohol, not all teens become addicted. Biological as well as social factors can impact an adolescent's propensity to become addicted to illicit substances. According to the research study, "Youth substance use and body composition: Does risk in one area predict risk in the other?" from the Journal of Youth and Adolescence, a positive association has been found in numerous studies between high adolescent BMI and alcohol, cigarette and marijuana use (Pasch et al. 2012). The willingness to engage in illegal behavior regarding drugs and alcohol has thus been linked to a higher BMI in youth and adolescents.
The authors of the study initially speculated that this association might be due to the fact that overweight teens use smoking as an appetite suppressant,…… [Read More]
Overlapping Neural Correlates for Food and Drug Addiction
The Neural Correlates of Food and Drug Addiction Overlap
A recent popular press article in the Huffington Post reviewed a recently published research article that revealed the brain functions in a similar manner whether a person is addicted to food or drugs. Women scoring high as emotional eaters and exposed to a milkshake preferentially activated the anterior cingulate cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and caudate, as imaged by fMI. The lateral orbitofrontal cortex was less active when compared to the brains of subjects scoring low as emotional eaters. These areas correspond to those that have been found to be involved in drug using/seeking behavior, which suggests the mechanisms involved in food and drug addiction are similar or the same. Previously published research studies support this conclusion, although addiction-related behaviors are very complex and additional studies will be…… [Read More]
AAPT Level IV Cert / Written Test
Anxiety is fear that interferes with normal, daily functioning (Akiskal & enazzi, 2006). There are several different categories, including generalized anxiety, panic disorder, and phobias. While these all present themselves in different ways, they are similar in the problems they can cause in daily life. Theories of anxiety and the psychopathology related to feeling anxious include issues with biological, cognitive, and learning perspectives. The biological perspective addresses the receptors in the brain and how the chemicals there work with one another. Cognitive theories deal more with the way people perceive issues, such as feeling as though they do not have control over something. The learning perspective focuses on how people actually learn to be anxious about something, and the changes they learn to make in their lives in order to lower the levels of anxiety they feel (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2004; Kato,…… [Read More]
educing Substance Abuse Among College Freshman
Motivational Interviewing as an Intervention for Substance Abuse Problems among College Freshman
Motivational Interviewing as an Intervention for Substance Abuse Problems among College Freshman
Kazemi and colleagues (2013) were interested in understanding whether a behavioral intervention would reduce the prevalence of substance abuse among college freshman in the United States. The independent variable was motivational peer-counseling sessions (motivational interviews) about the risks of alcohol abuse and illicit drug use. The dependent variables were scores obtained on two questionnaires. These scores were then used to determine if there was a statistically significant association between blackout frequency, illicit drug use, and alcohol consumption. Demographic information (attribute variables) was also collected and the attributes of primary interest were ethnicity and gender. The hypothesis tested by the researchers is whether the intervention could reduce the prevalence of self-reported high risk behaviors among college freshman at a representative…… [Read More]
Neural Correlates of Drug elapse Propensity
efraining from Drug Use
Treating drug addiction requires experience and skill, because no single approach has broad efficacy (reviewed by Bauer, Covault, and Gelernter, 2012). High inter-individual variability of contributing factors and a lack of knowledge about what causes treatment failure (reviewed by Walton, Blow, and Booth, 2001), helps explain a relapse rate between 40% to 60% (NIDA, 2011). For this reason, researchers have been trying to identify what factors contribute to addictive tendencies and influence treatment success.
To better understand why some substance abusers are successful in overcoming their drug addictions and others are not, this essay will examine the neural correlates of drug relapse behavior. Particular attention will be paid to environmental and genetic factors and how they influence brain function on an anatomical and cellular level.
Neural Correlates of Environmental Triggers
Environmental triggers have long been known to increase the risk…… [Read More]
Alcohol and usiness Ethics
Introduction moral society is built on the basis of a number of unspoken, but generally agreed upon social issues. A moral society generally applies the maxim "treat others in the way you would like to be treated" and this proverb, although it's heard more frequently in the school play yard than in the corporate boardroom, should affect business decisions which affect the community at large. Some would say that operating a business within legal boundaries is not an accurate measure of an ethical business. Within the past few decades, advertising has become the focus of ethical pressure. The 'Joe Camel' cartoon character developed as a spokesperson - mascot for the camel cigarette was pulled after community outrage that the furry, cute character was likely an attempt by the company to market their addictive and destructive products to children.
A tremendous pressure has been brought to bear…… [Read More]
LaFond Padykula, N. And Conklin, P. (2010). The self-regulation model of attachment trauma and addiction. Clinical Social Work, 38(4), 351-360.
LaFond Padykula theorized the self-regulation model (SRM) as a means of informing the practice of assessing and treating addiction and attachment trauma. dialectical philosophy John Bowlby[footnoteRef:1] (1988) developed the theory of attachment through his seminal work observing the distress of infants and young children who had been separated from their mothers. Bowlby asserted that attachment was not consciously controlled but was instead hard-wired in humans and many other animals. [1: Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York, NY: Basic Books.]
The theory builds on and integrates the attachment behavior research by Bowlby, positing addiction as the efforts of an individual to regulate their own attachment in the direction of more normal adaptive behavior. The theoretical foundation for the self-regulation…… [Read More]
In that regard, the counselor would want to explore any possible connection between the social turmoil that might have been responsible for generating his subsequent social disillusionment. To the extent the counselor determines that the subject's social disenfranchisement is attributable to his involvement or response to those social conflicts he would assist the subject evaluate the objective conclusions and expectations that have shaped his outlook as an older adult in substantially different social circumstances and living in a very different society than the one responsible for his feelings about government representatives and authority figures in general (Gerrig & Zimbardo, 2008).
B. Preliminary Hypotheses of Main Apparent Problems
Hypothesis # 1 -- Multiple Causes of Intimacy Issues
First, it is likely that there are multiple concurrent causes of the subject's apparent difficulty establishing and maintaining close intimate relationships and effective communications within his marriage. The psychodynamic perspective teaches that it is…… [Read More]
gambling/poker and culture. Poker, and gaming in general, permeate our culture today. The World Series of Poker is a huge event when even a decade ago it was barely known on a world scale, and poker players are the new "role models" for many in society. What does this say about our society and culture that reveres people whose only skill may be based on luck and a turn of the cards? It says a lot about our culture and what we worship, and that may be frightening to contemplate.
"The game [poker] exemplifies the worst aspects of capitalism that have made our country so great."
-- Walter Matthau
First, it is necessary to define poker. Poker is a card game, played in casinos for pleasure and hopefully profit. There are many different games of poker, from Texas hold 'em to Seven-card stud. Each game follows a different format, but…… [Read More]
Drug treatment and behavior therapy may be useful, rather than analysis.
Also, psychological symptoms may produce biological phenomenon, like sleep disturbances. "Sleep disturbances and unipolar depression are such intransigent bedfellows that troubled sleep is considered a hallmark of the mood disorder," for example. (Marano, 2003) However, insomnia can also fundamentally unbalance the brain's natural state of homeostasis, causing the symptom of depression, as well as manifesting itself as a symptom of depression itself.
Behavioral problems in children can have their roots in biology. Children without enough sleep or proper nutrition are more likely to act out inappropriately, and without treating these biological causes, simply addressing the children's purely psychological feelings or even giving them coping mechanisms such as rationally discussing the issues, will matter little. Children and adolescents also have different sleep needs, and different internal time 'clocks' because their bodies are still busily growing at night. Children and adolescents,…… [Read More]
(1999) which are:
1) Those with serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, bi-polar disorder with major depression and who use alcohol and drugs to self-mediate to cope with the symptoms; and 2) Those with borderline personality and anti-social personality disorders including anxiety disorder that is complicated by use of alcohol and illicit drugs. (Mather et al. 1999)
Presenting further difficulty is the establishment of problems with alcohol and illicit drug use for adolescents entering service programs outside of the AOD system. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2005) In an analysis of data taken form a sample group of youth in five San Diego county sectors of AOD treatment, mental health, juvenile justice, child welfare and public school-based services for severely emotionally disturbed [SED] youth gives indication that "there are relatively high rates of substance use disorders among adolescents in these systems, as determined in diagnostic interview with DSM-IV…… [Read More]
" (Giovacchini, 1996, pg. 2)
According to Giovachinni research into the psychodynamics of individuals in their experience of current adjustments and symptom formation is "much more interesting and fulfilling than monitoring surface behavior. processes are innately fascinating and their study creates dimensions and viewpoints that expand our appreciation of the versatility of the psyche as our in-depth understanding is increased, in itself, an aesthetic experience." (Giovacchini, 1996, pg. 2) Unconscious motivation is the "essence of the intrapsychic focus..." which serves to transform patients into "interesting human beings rather than the passive recipients of pharmacological ministrations. How the treatment procedures fits into the therapeutic relationship is taken into account, enabling patients to pursue autonomy and mastery of their emotions." (Giovacchini, 1996, pg. 2)
The work of Halil entitled: "Personality and Coping: A Multidimensional Research on Situation and Dispositional Coping" (2004) states that coping is defined "as a constantly changing cognitive and…… [Read More]
" (p. 12) According to Cromer (2005) the literature that addresses the relationship between stressful life events and obsessive compulsive disorders does provide some degree of support implicating traumatic life-stress as being a factor in the onset and maintenance of the obsessive compulsive disorders however the exact relationship between the SLE and OCD "remains an empirical questions" specifically relating to "traumatic negative life events" (2005; p.13) Most of studies in this area investigation the association between SLEs and OCD have held limitations of: (1) small sample sizes; and (2) difficulty of establishing retrospectively the temporal relationship between onset and SLEs; and (3) a limited scope with regard to the effect of SLEs on OCD. (2005; p.13) Cromer relates that "mounting evidence suggests that early life-stress, in particular may preferentially incline individuals to develop adult psychiatric disorders." (2005; p.13) McCauley et al. (1997) states evidence from a large epidemiological investigation that…… [Read More]
The following images show certain disorders that result due to mutation. Children born from the same family members' shows higher similarity index regarding the genetic disorder number inclusive of the Indian community (Cummings, 2010, pg 333).
Curbing gene disorders
Stoppage of varying types of disorders is possible through learning in consideration of human development the number of genes contained in a single genome, their respective location and the establishment of functions or roles in the various genetic processes. This is achievable through strategized genetic mapping, where the establishment of specified genes having same linkage involved. The mapping establishes the respective linkages between genes and as a result of their location in the same gene, the crossing over frequency with the existing distance amid them is notable (Cummings, 2010, pg 333). esearch on the various risks factors involved can also be considerable as beneficial. This enables the development of certain preventive…… [Read More]
One aspect of a goal attainment program researched within the content of an article by Ng & sang, is group therapy work, where individuals are offered the opportunity to self-reflect through the group process to help assimilate "normal" behaviors and reasonable goals into their own hoped for future.
raditional psychiatric rehabilitation programs focus on 'problems' and 'negatives' of individuals and tend to ignore strengths and assets (Hagedorn, 1992). Unlike the traditional approach, this program uses a holistic and client-centered approach (Rogers, 1984) which helps individuals establish future directions in home and work resettlement. he Goal Attainment Program focused on the participants' future expected life roles and social functioning in relation to the environmental context (i.e. their 'participation level', according to the International Classification of Impairment, Disability and Handicap (ICIDH-2) of the World Health Organization). he program emphasized the needs and positive aspects of individuals (Rogers, 1984), as well as the…… [Read More]
psychosocial smoking cessation interventions for coronary heart disease patients effective?
The association with smoking and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been well documented. To prevent further heart attacks, as well as to preserve their life, smokers have been consistently and strongly advised to quit smoking, and associations such as the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Task Force have drafted recommendations and reams of advice to assist patients in doing so. Nevertheless, many patients diagnosed with CHD continue to smoke despite the possibility of interventions and programs (many of them free) helping them to stop. Mortality can be reduced by as much as 36% if smokers with CHD determine to stop smoking 3-5 years after diagnosed (Critchley, 2003) aside from which dramatic reductions in cardiac attacks have been discovered when smokers have stopped smoking for as short a time as a year (Quist-Paulsen, & Gallefoss, 2003). The Coronary…… [Read More]
Drake, R., et.al. (1998). Review of integrated mental health and substance abuse treatment for patients with dual disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin. 24 (4): 589-608.
Many times, patients with severe mental health disorders such as bipolar or schizophrenia also have substance abuse issues. When these patients present with co-occurring issues, there remains confusion as to parallel treatments, efficacy of therapy and medication, and a general dissatisfaction with the integrated model of care. More of a meta-analysis, this study reviewed 36 research studies on how effective integrated treatment could be for dually diagnosed patients, and found that only 10% of current research showed any degree of effective, individualized, and substantiated longitudinal treatment. Given the numbers and magnitude of the problem, more research and funding is necessary to flesh out these issues.
Garner, B., et.al., (2008). Exposure to adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach treatment procedures as a mediator of the relationship between adolescent substance abuse…… [Read More]
theory counseling exist, giving a background fit views personality. My views: Life experiences play a vital role's life. These experiences negatively positively effect future. Our life choice, decide destiny.
In today's mental health services, almost anyone either with a university degree or by paying some fees upon following specific courses, can call himself a therapist or a counselor. That professional training is not required when practicing psychotherapy is either something to be worrying us a lot or something we should be thankful for. In the first case, people may be misleading themselves into thinking they can treat patients with mental health issues simply because they've been accredited by nonaccredited training programs. When information is poor and experience is less, we must consider that patients' situation can either not improve or even worsen. On the other hand, there may be a lot of individuals out there with prolific abilities into treating…… [Read More]
lucidly stated to orbit around Leventhal's self-regulation theory which suggests that the actions which can help better explain behavioral changes are founded in the patient's unique view of their illness, and how they in turn regulate their behavior and the extent to which they engage in risk management. According to Burns and Grove (2009), this is a substantive theory.
The framework is presented in a somewhat lose manner, largely proposing that emotional and cognitive process help one in solidifying their perceptions of their illnesses and thus, impact the mode of action during a health crisis and the way in which the individual behave. As no strict framework is presented, concepts such as the identification of the illness, the presumed causes, the prospective consequences, the length of time of the disease, and the presumed control over the disease are all factors which can impact and influence the ability or perceived ability…… [Read More]
I don't go hungry, or feel the need to abuse drugs or alcohol, but I can see how this happens in these neighborhoods, where it seems there is little else to do and little else you can do to fit in with your peers. I do not think that is right, but I understand why it occurs. It is an easy way out, and it is readily available to just about everyone in the community, and it is common, and so, just about everyone engages in some kind of addictive behavior.
A cope with not having enough money by looking toward the future when I graduate and getting a good job so I can live the lifestyle I want. That is because I have choices. If I could not afford to attend college, or had to drop out to work or have kids, I would look at my future very…… [Read More]
This article is important and useful for this study because it provides analysis of the role of gender and introduces an additional element connecting medical ailments outside of mental health issues to PTSD. It provides a model to incorporate substance abuse.
il-Rivas, V., Prause, J., & rella, C.E. (2009). Substance use after residential treatment among individuals with co-occurring disorders: The role of anxiety/depressive symptoms and trauma exposure. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23(2), 303-314. doi:10.1037/a0015355
il-Rivas et. al, survey the relationship between substance abuse rates in the aftermath of a residential treatment programs, specifically focusing on those individuals who entered the residential treatment program while possessing both ailments. The data is reviewed as the treatment program begins and follow up data is collected at 6 and 12 months. They found that upwards of 1/3 of the adults were diagnosed with PTSD. This article is important because, I am concerned with the…… [Read More]
CISM Program Surry Nuclear Power Plant
What is CISM?
Why is a CISM program necessary for the agency?
Agency description, community, and social context
Prevention and Interventions
Chronic health and innovative approaches
Proposed Budget .17
Critical incident stress management plays an important role in assuring the psychological resilience necessary for those who are exposed to a traumatic incident. This proposal outlines a program to add mental Health Services to the existing emergency management plan for the Surry Power Plant. The current plan does not address mental health issues, and this is an important need that will need to be considered in the future. The current plan will modify the existing plan through the addition of mental health services for the community.
Proposal: CISM Program
What is CISM?
A critical incident is any event that produces stress or trauma to personnel that are directly or…… [Read More]
Psychological First AID in CISM
Psychological First Aid
In this scenario, an act of terrorism has occurred at a nuclear power facility. Portions of the facility were destroyed by the explosion, killing some of the workers instantly. However, the threat of a core meltdown is imminent and both remaining workers and first responders are on the scene trying to prevent a community-wide radiation event. Both remaining workers inside the plant and the first responders will be experiencing a similar type of stress. Stress will be due to the loss of life, including friends and coworkers, as well as the dangers to their personal well-being from the potential radiation exposure. Tertiary stress is caused by a feeling of responsibility for protecting the community from the potential radiation release, including the lives of their own families who live in the area.
Acute Stress Symptoms
Stress reactions in this situation can be expected…… [Read More]
It is also possibly one of the most significant motivational factors among young people. Zuckerman refer to disinhibition as follows. "These who choose to follow a conventional lifestyle might periodically escape by engaging in social drinking..." (Franken, 2001, p. 343). This is an important factor as the desire or need for disinhibition may lead to an addictive patterns of behavior, where the drugs or alcohol supply the required escape from routine and inhibitory factors.
Disinhibition is also strongly related to the conventions of society where the individual may feel hemmed in and confined by the routine and patterns of ordinary life. This can lead to addictive behavior as the use of drugs or substances are motivated by the desire to free one's self and sense of identity and fulfill experiential needs.
The central concept that links al of these motivational theories is that they all can be seen to contribute…… [Read More]
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.
Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.
Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…… [Read More]
Some patients knowingly abuse the healthcare system to obtain drugs and substances, which only adds to the complexities of the substance misuse relationship with the medical community. In 2008, the National Survey on Drug Use and Health reported approximately 4.7 million Americans used pain medications for non-medical use within the last month (Fishbain et al., 2010). This statistic is only one indication of the substance misuse prevalence and its inherent demand on the medical community.
The medical community not only combats substance misuse in adult patients, but must also address misuse among adolescents. The years of adolescence are widely regarded as an age defined by curiosity and experimentation (Crome, 2004). Adolescents are continuously trying to identify with their world and engage in new experiences. Within this context, taking drugs and experimenting with such substances as alcohol and tobacco can be understood within a setting of normal behavior. The time of…… [Read More]
Etiology of Theories on Addiction
There are different sorts of addictions and substance abuse methods that plague the world today. However, in order to cure an addiction, one needs to go down to its root cause, and eliminate it, after which the damages caused can be mitigated and prevented. There are several theories and approaches to tackle an addiction problem. Most trained professionals use these theories in their treatment plan to get a better understanding of when and how the addiction came into being. After which, along with therapy, counseling and medication, the road to recovery can begin.
Medical etiology is the study of causes of an illness or any psychological condition. When a diseases is uncovered which the doctors are unable to explain and understand, an etiologist is responsible for determining the reason for its origin and being (Alcoholism, 2005). In this manner, the etiologist and the doctors are…… [Read More]
Screening and Assessment Methods
Drug or substance abuse and other addictive disorders have become a major issue in the United States given their prevalence among adult members across various occupations and workforce. Actually, recent statistics and trends have indicated that working adults account for a huge portion of illicit drug users. Notably, the substance abuse and other addictive disorders not only involve the use of illicit drugs but also entail misuse of prescription drugs like stimulants, tranquilizers, sedatives, and analgesics (Hersch, McPherson & Cook, 2002, p.1332). As drug abuse has increased tremendously, the negative impacts of addictive behaviors have become prevalent in the society such as increased health care costs and high rates of accidents. Consequently, several measures have been developed in an attempt to deal with these disorders including cognitive behavioral therapies.
The use of the various measures and therapies usually involves assessing and diagnosing clients for drug abuse…… [Read More]