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Education and training today are one of the most important components of success in life. Hence, institutions that offer these need to do so in a varied and relevant way to ensure that their students can make a success of their lives with the tools offered at the training institution in question. To accomplish such success for their students, one of the most fundamental requirements of such institutions is an adequate administration system. Since most of the pool of students entering campuses today have some sort of access to the online world, it would make sense to use a provider that offers as much online capability as possible. This is what Strathfield College in Australia seems to have accomplished with the CICOS Management System.
According to Abraham (2013), the CICOS Management System provides simple registration processes for a egistered Training Organisation (TO) such as Strathfield. Once the system…
Abraham, A. (2013). CRICOS Management Systems. Retrieved from:
Strathfield College. (2013). Retrieved from: http://sc.nsw.edu.au/en/home
S. Congressman or U.S. Senator or possibly as State Governor. The information gained in the course of the interviews in this study is important and specifically reflects the considerations of the individual in any of the aforementioned capacities in public administration. Not only will it be important to remember that elections can be both won and lost depending upon one's effective and efficient public administration or alternatively the lack thereof but as well it is critical to remember the responsibility that carried by those in positions of public administration to provide the service for which they are responsible and to do so in a fiscally reasonable and prudent manner and with a focus toward effective and efficient public administration and service provision. Transparency and availability certainly are key considerations for the future in the public administration initiative for the writer of this work.
Cities of the Future: Global Competition,…
Cities of the Future: Global Competition, Local Leadership (nd) PriceWaterHouseandCoopers. Online available at: http://www.pwc.com/en_GX/gx/government-public-sector-research/pdf/cities-final.pdf
Napolitano, Janet (2006) Service Integration: A Partnership for Safe and Stable Families in Arizonian. Arizona Department of Economic Security. 5 Jan 2006. Online available at: https://egov.azdes.gov/CMS400Min/InternetFiles/Reports/pdf/service_integration.pdf
Gilliat-Ray, Sophie (2005) Sacralizing Sacred Space in Public Institutions: A Case Study of the Prayer Space at the Millennium Dome. Journal of Contemporary Religion. Vo. 20, Issue 3 October2005. Abstract online available at: http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a727172047~db=all~order=page
Organizations basically assume a social responsibility for the welfare of their workers and dependents despite paying them fairly and adequately for their work and contributions towards the achievement of organizational objectives. The social obligation for the well-being of employees and their dependents is carried out through the establishment of a benefits and service program. The need for establishing such programs is because employees expect to enhance productivity through increased job satisfaction and a sense of security that comes from benefits though the benefits are not directly linked to product output. However, there have been numerous concerns on whether these benefits and services stimulate enhanced job performance by employees. Despite these concerns, there is proof that even a limited and unacceptable package of benefits and services help in preventing high-quality employees from seeking for other employment opportunities.
Generally, a good benefits program helps in developing a motivational working environment…
Henderson, R.I. (2006). Benefits and Services. In Compensation management in a knowledge-based world (10th ed., Chapter 17, pp.420-467). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
"What is Benefits Administration?" (n.d.). Wise Geek. Retrieved December 2, 2013, from http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-benefits-administration.htm
This instance may make the school unable to obtain the best price on a piece of property if the landowner is able to search public records to find out bargaining information to use as leverage in obtaining full price on the sale.
ne of the duties of public administration is to oversee benefit programs for those members of the community who need public assistance. A government program that requires payment to anyone who meets specific qualifications is called an entitlement program. Those members of the community who meet criteria set up as guidelines to the programs are 'entitled' to the benefits of such plans as Social Security, Medicare, food stamps, etc. There are many more people entitled to these benefits at the present time because the economy is still struggling. As it improves there will be fewer people who will need these kinds of programs, but there will always be…
One of the duties of public administration is to oversee benefit programs for those members of the community who need public assistance. A government program that requires payment to anyone who meets specific qualifications is called an entitlement program. Those members of the community who meet criteria set up as guidelines to the programs are 'entitled' to the benefits of such plans as Social Security, Medicare, food stamps, etc. There are many more people entitled to these benefits at the present time because the economy is still struggling. As it improves there will be fewer people who will need these kinds of programs, but there will always be members of society who need them, and it is unrealistic to believe that these programs can ever be phased out.
The Food Stamp program, for example, was first started during the Great Depression in 1939 and still continues to serve needy families today with food purchase benefits. Families who qualify financially for this program are awarded monthly benefits for food purchases. This used to be in the form of coupons that they could use at the store, but is now handled in many states by a debit card. This reduces some of the uncomfortable stigma that a lot of people felt when they were required to present their food stamps to the cashier and also makes the entire transaction faster and easier. The program is overseen by the Department of Agriculture and serves millions of households each year.
The benefits of the program are obvious, as it helps to combat poverty and hunger in the United States, however one disadvantage of the program is the presence of fraud and people who seem to "abuse the system" and come to rely heavily on it. In the 1980's, critics of the program blamed food stamps and other welfare programs for enticing illegal and nonworking legal immigrants to the United States. A major reform act in 1996 helped to cut spending in the program and re-allocate many benefit dollars to local food charities. While there is still waste within the system, it is not nearly as bad as it used to be. Improvements have been made and continue to be made so that people who really need the benefits can get them, those who are trying to take advantage will be weeded out, and the system as a whole will run more efficiently and effectively for those who need it and those who oversee and regulate it.
" However, states are often limited in terms of how much tuition they can charge and how many out-of-state students they are permitted to accept.
As a result, states have sought "greater autonomy to compete for students and resources more like private institutions" but the type of control that would allow them to create a unified vision and mission for a state university is often elusive (Knott & Payne 2004). Statewide governing boards often impose unified standards on university's admission standards, allocation of funds between departments, and other requirements that can make it difficult for a school to carve out a unique 'niche' for itself. In some states, these boards have a great deal of administrative power, while in other states universities have secured more power for themselves in decision-making.
According to Knott and Payne's data-driven analysis, more decentralized state governing systems of universities tended to have higher tuition costs,…
Dealtry, Richard. (2005). Achieving integrated performance management with the corporate university. Journal of Workplace Learning, 17(1/2), 65-78. Retrieved December 13,
2009, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 810419471)
Knott, Jack H. & A. Abigail Payne. (2004). The impact of state governance structures on management and performance of public organizations: A study of higher education institutions. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 23(1), 13-30. Retrieved
December 13, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global. (Document ID: 536017491).
Administration for Children & Families of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Children's well-being has become an issue of crucial concern not only in the United States but also across the world. Homelessness, poverty, racism, and violence shape the childhood experiences of millions of youth and children. Child welfare advocates and grass root activists have been working tirelessly to put the concerns of youth and children on the public agenda in both national and international realms. Major reforms are underway in some nations to offer new systems for considering the upbringing and care of children in traditional post-industrial world. A number of proposals are forthcoming for programs, intervention technologies, and policies. Nevertheless, some of these proposals have challenged the fundamental aspects of the child welfare system because it has been in place for centuries. This analysis is necessary to come to terms with the history of the ad…
Child Welfare Policy Manual. Retrieved from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/cwpm/programs/cb/laws_policies/laws/cwpm/index.jsp
Administration and Stakeholders
Over the last several years, the number of medical errors that health care facilities have dealing with has been steadily increasing. A good example of this can be seen with a study that was conducted by the Institute of Medicine and National Academies. They found, that the total number of medical errors reported around the country account for 1.5 million cases every year. This added to the total costs of medical expenses by $3.5 billion. ("Medical Errors Injure 1.5 Million People," 2006) Part of the reason why this is taking place, is because many staff members will often feel increasing amounts of pressure and they are exhausted (from working 12 plus hours a day). Evidence of this can be seen with a study that was conducted by the Mayo Clinic. They found that the majority of medical errors were from: residents, nurses, doctors and others staff members…
How Technology Can Drive Down Health Care Costs. Science Blogs. Retrieved from: http://scienceblogs.com/effectmeasure/2010/04/how_technology_can_drive_down.php
Medical Errors Injure 1.5 Million People. (2006). National Academies. Retrieved from: http://www8.nationalacademies.org/onpinews/newsitem.aspx?recordid=11623
Arnst, C. (2008). Behind Rising Health Care Costs. Business Week. Retrieved from: http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/jul2008/tc2008079_279097.htm
Callahan, D. (2011). Health Care Costs. The Hastings Center. Retrieved from: http://www.thehastingscenter.org/Publications/BriefingBook/Detail.aspx?id=2178
Administration & Evaluation of Adult Education Programs
Similar to other government financed schemes, adult education has met with mounting requests to exhibit its efficacy and the importance of the guidance it presents. Akin to every government-financed service and education programs in current period, the adult education programs has been confronted with growing demands, at the state as well as national platforms, to report to decision makers, legislators and the public at large tangible results arising from program partaking. A lot of states have made, tailored, or taken up standards, yardsticks, and course related outlines for adult, basic and literacy education. The states are Massachusetts, Arizona, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Florida, New York and Texas. (reen, 1991, p.20)
At the national level, there has been a shift in the direction for accomplishing excellence in learning standards and encouraging responsibility in education. More and more, the funding authorities are evaluating the program's outcome to…
Berelson, Bernard R; Lazarsfeld, Paul F; McPhee, William. Adult Education Programs. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.
Breen, M. Program Evaluation and Planning Handbook. Toronto;
Ontario, Literacy Coalition, 1991
Caffarella, R.. Planning Programs for Adult Learners.
It has been suggested that school leaders have to lead in ways that encourage mastery experiences for teachers. This is often done by way of an affiliative leadership style. It is by way of these leaders attempting to build up trust and generate accord by way of the development of bonds, teamwork, and communication that true efficacy can be seen.
Goddard, Hoy, and Hoy (2000) agree, that "Although mastery experiences are the most powerful efficacy changing forces, they may be the most difficult to deliver to a faculty with a low col-lective efficacy." They continue this argument by writing that this situation can be remedied if school administra-tors "provide efficacy-building mastery experiences" through "thoughtfully designed staff development activities and action research projects." In order for teachers to have efficacy they must feel as if they are part of the group that is making the decisions that affect the way they…
Breen, Anne. (n.d.). Leadership: An Introduction to Fundamental Concepts and Styles. Retrieved March 22, 2011, from Web site:
Goddard, R.D., Hoy, W.K., & Hoy, a.W. (2000). Collective teacher efficacy: Its meaning, measure, and impact on student achievement. American Educational Research Journal,
Knowledge and skills of an administrator for this project
Although I have spoken of the variety of skills and some knowledge needed to successfully complete this project this information will be recapped for the reader in this section.
As a principal on this project I or anyone who were to undertake one similarly should have a thorough knowledge of the school improvement process. In addition, he or she should know the state and local expectations in the core curricular areas including such things as grade level content expectations. The principal should be schooled in the process of action research and stay abreast of the latest educational theories about teaching and learning such as differentiated learning and collaborative planning. Finally, the principal should be expert at using all types of technology, at ease with modeling its use and actively seeking opportunities to incorporate it into this plan.
As to the skills,…
McEvoy, a. & Welker, R. (2000). Academic behavior, academic failure and school climate: a Review. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders. 24:65-78.
Marshall, M. (1993). Examining school climate: Defining factors and educational influence.
Georgia State University: Center for Research on School Safety, School Climate and Classroom Management.
Wang, M. (1993). Toward a knowledge base for school learning. Review of Educational
The basic principles and functions of personnel administration as applied in the field of criminal justice include recruiting, selecting, hiring, placing, evaluating, training, educating, dismissing, promoting, firing, and career development for law enforcement professionals. There are three major current issues in the field. The first major issue involves what educational requirements should there be for police officers. The second major issue is the prior misuse of females in law enforcement and how that can be remedied. The third major issue is sexual harassment and how it impacts criminal justice agencies. While there are, of course, other issues that impact personnel administration in criminal justice, these three topics help explain the historical evolution of criminal justice, as well as reflect the projected hopes for the field.
Whether or not police officers should have some form of higher education is a topic of longstanding interest in the criminal justice community. It…
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2010, April 23). State court statistics. Retrieved January 5, 2011,
from the United States Department of Justice website: http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=212
De Sario, N. (2003). The quality of indigent defense on the 40th anniversary of Gideon: the Hamilton County experience. Retrieved January 5, 2011, from Capital University Law School website: http://culsnet.law.capital.edu/LawReview/BackIssues/32-1/DeSario.pdf
Findlaw. (2011). Plea bargain pros and cons. Retrieved January 5, 2011, from Findlaw.com website: http://criminal.findlaw.com/crimes/criminal_stages/stages-plea-bargains/plea-bargain-pros-and-cons.html
The study suggests that the long-standing policy of vaccinating the high risk groups first has been ineffective and that a more reasoned approach might be to vaccinate the groups that are more responsible for the transmission of the influenza such as school children.
The three studies noted are a small sampling of those available on the issue but demonstrate the wide range of issues associated with the vaccination program in the United States. There is no shortage of available studies on this issue which reflects on the serious and acrimonious nature of this problem in the United States.
As the articles suggest, an enormous effort is made every year in the United States to combat influenza. Part of this effort is the production of influenza vaccine and delivering it to the public. In light of the fact that such efforts are not reaching the bulk of the U.S.…
Jones, T.F. And L. Amanda Ingram, Allen S. Craig, William Schaffner. (2004). Determinants of Influenza Vaccination, 2003-2004: Shortages, Fallacies and Disparities. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 1824-1828.
Longini, I.M. And M. Elizabeth Halloran. (2005). Strategy for Distribution of Influenza Vaccine to High-Risk Groups and Children. American Journal of Epidemiilogy, 303-306.
Mello, M.M. And Troyen a. Brennan. (2005). Legal Concerns and the Influenza Vaccine Shortage. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 1817-1820.
administration have to deal with continuous changes in the school, in the staff, and with the students. In order to be an effective school administrator, one has develop methods that will not only benefit and instruct the staff and students, but will also emphasize the importance of continuous learning. Most things in life are ever-changing. If people learn to adapt to these changes by continually learning new skills and approaches, they will be prepared for many of life's unexpected changes.
Taking this into consideration there are several points to cover to get this kind of message across. First and foremost, to promote continuous learning, one has to adopt a method of communication that is both effective and inspirational. People are more likely to want to learn when they feel motivated. Setting up and establishing rewards for meeting those goals is a great way to inspire people. Setting goals that involve…
Research Brief Nurturing and Sustaining Professional Learning Communities. (n.d.). Ous.edu. Retrieved June 17, 2014, from http://gearup.ous.edu/sites/default/files/Research-Briefs/ResearchBriefSustainingPLCs.pdf
Wisehart, R. (2004). Nurturing Passionate Teachers: Making Our Work Transparent. Teacher Education Quarterly, 1, 46.
Public Administration Mind Map
PA concepts decision-making, communication, public relations, supervision, coordination, unity of command, authority, leadership,
Theoretical Perspectives: modern theories:
behavioral approach of individual and organizational goals; social-psychological theory X and Y of McGregor; comparative PA by iggs; developmental administration by Weidner; new PA by Minnowbrook.
PA as a discipline began at the end of the
th century, with basis from different administrative perspectives from philosophy, economic, behavioral, political, and social of the early 1800s.
Selected PA Concept leadership, which is the ability to direct and organize human effort towards the achievement of specific objectives.
integrity, human understanding, intelligence, personal honesty, courage, and ability to communicate
identification of the most successful initiatives to address important issues; learning of that which does not and does work for each situation; inspiring in decision-making.
Basic Public administration: management of public affairs to achieve common goals.
Naidu, S.P. (2005). Public Administration: Concepts and Theories. Reprint. New Age International.
Osborne, S. (2006). "The New Public Governance?" Public Management Review, 8(3), pp. 377-387.
Pruthi, R.K. (2005). Theory of Public Administration. Discovery Publishing PVT.Ltd.
Trottier, T., Van Wart, M. And Wang, X. (2008). "Examining the Nature and Significance of Leadership in Government Organizations." Public Administration Review, 68(2), pp. 319-333.
Ethics in Justice Administration
Early studies on police ethics
Prior studies on justice administration
Sinful nature of man
Adam and Eve
A Christians Walk in Law Enforcement
Incorporation of Christianity in solving dilemmas
Morals and Ethics
Code of Silence
Choosing the Code of Silence
Choosing the Code of Ethics
Approaching Ethical Dilemmas
The bell, the book and the candle
Ethics in Law Enforcement Management
Ethics in Justice Administration
Ethics is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of questions of right and wrong, and how humans should live. Ethics incorporates making moral judgments on what is right or wrong, good or bad. Ethics provide ways on how to make right choices in case of dilemmas involving moral issues (Felkenes, 1987). The incorporation of ethics in the justice system reveals that there are challenges in…
Autio, C. (2005). What is your worldview? Answers in Genesis. Retrieved on 19 August, 2013
Carter, L., & Wilson, M. (2006). Measuring Professionalism of Police Officers. The Police Chief, 73(8), 42-44.
DeWitt, D. (2007). Unraveling the Origins Controversy. Lynchburg, VA: Creation Curriculum
Immigration between the Obama Administration and Congress:
United States immigration policy has been an issue of major political debates and controversies for several decades. The controversy surrounding the nation's immigration policy is partly because policymakers are increasingly considering the need to maintain global competitiveness through attracting top overseas talent against the need to curtail illegal immigration and secure the country's borders (Lee par, 1). In the past few years, the debate on immigration has focused on how to restructure a more bureaucratic visa application process and deal with millions of undocumented immigrants that are already living in the country. These initiatives have focused specifically on addressing young undocumented immigrants who were brought to the United States by their parents. In addition, the current focus on U.S. immigration policy looks at implementing policy at local level without endangering public trust across immigrant communities.
Obama Administration v. Congress:
As the controversy continues,…
"Congress: Piecemeal on Immigration?" First Read on NBC News. NBCNews.com, 20 Nov. 2013. Web. 05 Dec. 2013. .
Lee, Brianna. "The U.S. Immigration Debate." Council on Foreign Relations - Renewing America. Council on Foreign Relations, 19 Apr. 2013. Web. 05 Dec. 2013. .
Matthews, Laura. "Immigration Reform News: Advocates Say Bill Isn't Dead 'Until We Say So'" International Business Times. IBT Media Inc., 11 Nov. 2013. Web. 05 Dec. 2013. .
Administration and Leadership
Maintaining order and control in correctional facilities -- while also presiding over well-managed facilities from a fiscal and ethical perspective -- is the goal of every conscientious administrator. The Center for Innovative Public Policies (CIPP) published a list of "core competencies" for leadership in correctional facilities. Among the skills most vital to a competent prison leader are: a) to be able to "anticipate, analyze, and resolve organizational challenges"; b) to build and "maintain positive relationships with external stakeholders"; c) to "communicate effectively" and to "comprehend, obtain, and manage fiscal resources"; d) to create a diverse organizational that "promotes respect"; e) to be visionary and to engage in "strategic planning" and develop a vision for the mission of the institution; f) to enhance "self-awareness and maintain proactive professional commitment; g) to "establish organizational authority" and design roles and responsibilities; h) to make sound decisions, manage change,…
Center for Innovative Public Policies. (2010). Core Competencies for Jail Leaders. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from http://cipp.org/jail/core.html .
Trulson, Chad R., Marquart, James W., and Kawucha, Soraya K. (2009). Gang Suppression and Institutional Control. Corrections One News. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from http://www.correctionsone.com .
United Nations. (2010). Handbook for Prison Leaders. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from http://www.iccir.law.ubc.ca.
Wortley, Richard. (2002). Situational Prison Control: Crime Prevention in Correctional
To analyze the views of the general public about the Stanley Park project
To determine whether Stanley Park meets the needs of the public
To identify opportunities for service improvements in the project
Under 18 years old
Over 45 years old
How would you rate:
= awful, 2 = bad, 3 = okay, 4 = good, 5 = great
The design of Stanley Park
The environmental friendliness of Stanley Park
The amenities provided at Stanley Park
The comfort of the provided benches and lawns
Extras provided at the park
In your opinion, how important is it that: (circle)
= awful, 2 = bad, 3 = okay, 4 = good, 5 = great
10. Stanley Park is comfortable and pleasant
Brewer, M. (2000). Research Design and Issues of Validity. In H. Reis & C. Judd (Eds.), Handbook of Research Methods in Social and Personality Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wikman, A. (2006). Reliability, Validity and True Values in Surveys. Social Indicators Research, 78(1), 85-110.
One time or the other, these elected legislatures will find themselves in difficult situations that call for difficult ethical decisions in the processes of performing their duties just as public administrators and as some can mange such trying moments, others will fail to perform. These public administrators should ensure that they have proper interaction with the government/authorities so as to understand well how they function in the quest to establishing reliable solutions that are potential managers of public pressure to finally ensure that public action is not compromised (Stillman, 2009). For example, in the last twenty years, the pressure exerted on public administrators has been "more entrepreneurial, to find ways to do more things and new things with fewer resources, to be nimble in response to fluctuating problems and demands, has been acute" (Cook, 2007, p. 243). In addition, considering the pressure on public administration coupled by increasing global changes…
Business training schools. (n.d.). What does a public administrator do? Business-training-
schools.com. Retrieved from http://www.business-training-schools.com/a/what-does-a-public-administrator-do.html
Cook, B.J. (2007). Democracy and administration: Woodrow Wilson's ideas and challenges of public management. Baltimore, Maryland: JHU Press.
Dubai School of Government. (2010, April 4). Faculty positions in public administration, the Dubai school of government. International Association of Schools and Institutes of Administration. Retrieved from http://www.iias-
Social Equity Public Administration
Emergence as Concern in Field of Public Administration
Social equity has always been an important aspect of public administration, though only recently is it receiving much attention in the press. Whereas in times of old social equity concerned itself primarily with issues of fairness and equality in the public workplace, today social equity is emerging as a field encompassing many different aspects of administration.
Among these include public education, policy development, hiring and promotional practices, public welfare and even transportation. In modern public administration, all of these issues are applied to the field in order to establish fairness, justice and equality for all. Social equity in the field of public administration has emerged as a response to consumer demands for equitable policy making and fairness in governance.
Public administration as a whole may be defined as the management of "matters which have principally to do with…
Frederickson, G. (1986). "New public administration." Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
Rice, M.F. (2003). "Organizational Culture, Social Equity & Diversity: Teaching Public
Administration." Texas A& M. University, Bush School Working Paper #314. 14, November, 2004: http://bush.tamu.edu/content/research/working_papers/mrice/teach-post-modern.pdf
Christopher, G.C., Rutledge, P.J. (2001). "Reinvigorating the Social Equity Debate."
Public Administration and its Analysis
This is a paper on the concept and basis of Public Administration and the importance it holds in the field of management.
Defining the Breadth and Scope of Public Administration
In the early years of public administration was hailed as a strong and positive as a professional force for studying and putting into practice for the improvement and revamping of the administration of the federal, state and legislative government but also sure of the political and ethical authenticity of the field of public administration in performing that role.
In what is now known as the Classical period, the mind set of the people that were in the field of public administration were based on the resulting derivative of the theory and principles of values from the intellectual side of political science and, in the main part, from constitutional democratic theory. Woodrow Wilson is considered to…
Preface to Public Administration, A Search for Themes and Direction" by Richard J. Stillman II, copyright 1991 by St. Marin's Press, Inc. As the primary reference source":
U.S. Bureau of the Census (1996). Current Population Reports. No. P25-1130.
Noam, Eli (1995). Electronics and the Dim Future of the University. Science 270 (October 13): 247-249..
Klay, William Earle and Lance DeHaven-Smith (1997). It's the Economy (Values, Stupid! Findings of the FloridaScan Project. Futures Research Quarterly 13:4 (Winter): 51-73.
public administration and considers the effect of their writings and theories on the field of public administration. It has 6 sources.
An analysis of the core areas of public administration and how these areas interrelate with one another; taking into account the theories and writings of major players in the field of public administration and how their views shaped these areas.
The principles of public administration are the clearest description of its usefulness to society and government. This administrative science is barely 100-125 years old in the U.S. And a little over 200 years old in France. Tracing its roots back to Napoleon, public administration evolved largely as a result of the increasing complexity of society, economy and technology. The French system of Public Administration is still considered by many to be the world's best. Compared to Germany and Britain, the U.S. was relatively slower to utilize public administration in…
4)Harting, Tracey L. The Science of "Muddling Through" by Charles E. Lindblom 1998, Accessed on 31-3-2003 at http://www.tamucc.edu/~whatley/PADM5302/theo14e.htm
5) Book review. Understanding Public Policy. Prentice Hall. Accessed on 31-3-2003 at http://vig.prenhall.com/catalog/academic/product/1,4096,0130260088,00.html?type=FEA
6) Thomas Wadsworth, Book Review. Political Science. Fiscal Administration: Analysis and Applications for the Public Sector, Sixth Edition, Accessed on 31-3-2003 at http://newtexts.com/newtexts/book.cfm?book_id=816
The agents then formalize a data which helps them to stop the drug trafficking in future. By the end of year 1968, America's counter culture movement was at its peak and the trend of illegal drug use for the recreational purposes was rising. That was an alarming situation and then the President Lyndon Johnson introduced a legislation that ultimately combined the BDAC and Bureau of Narcotics into a single entity: Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs under the department of Justice (Kleiman & Hawdon, 2011).
As far as the core mission of the Drug Enforcement Administration is concerned, it is to enforce the laws and regulations regarding the controlled substances and to bring the law breakers to the criminal and civil justice system of the United States. The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) operations are not only limited to the United States but its jurisdiction is across the world as a…
DEA History. (n.d.). DEA - Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/dea/about/history.shtml
DEA Mission Statement. (n.d.). DEA - Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved May 18, 2013, from http://www.justice.gov/dea/about/mission.shtml
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). (2013). In Encyclopaedia Britannica.
Kleiman, M.A., & Hawdon, J.E. (2011). Encyclopedia of Drug Policy, Volume 1. USA: SAGE.
What is Public Administration?
Marc Holzer -- in the good company of thousands of colleagues in public administration and business -- embraced the box. The box serves to as a frame to our thinking, acts as scaffolding to our decision-making, and serves our innate tendency as human beings to create meaningful patterns from our experience. And how better to improve on the box, than to further divide it into four boxes -- each of which represents the tensions we experience regarding whatever we have put into the box. The box is familiar as it serves many disciplines. Economists may love the box more than any other group, save management consultants. That said, quadrants are a useful heuristic, and I utilize that attribute here in my version as applied to public administration and the management of non-profits.
The four quadrants I describe are, on the vertical axis,…
Buckingham, M. And Coffman, C. (1999). First, Break All the Rules. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.
Follett, M.P. (1996). The giving of orders. In Shafritz, J.M. & Ott, J.S. (Eds.). Classics of organization theory (pp.156-162). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Gulick, Luther. 1937. Notes on the Theory of Organization. In Papers on the Science of Administration, edited by Luther Gulick and Lydal Urwick. New York. Institute of Public
Administration, Columbia University.
solid waste management in impoverished areas versus affluent areas by examining the social, economic, ethical, and political reasons for placement of landfills and other waste removal facilities in poorer neighborhoods. By exploring the background of specific social movements, the first section of the assignment will seek to explore why the government placed landfills in certain locations versus others. The essay will also seek to examine what caused the social movements. As well as why the issue evolved from placement of landfills in poorer neighborhoods to placement of landfills in minority-majority poorer neighborhoods.
The next section will seek to analyze which candidates would be best for a nonprofit. Candidate one is a business-savvy employee wishing to change things by dismissing all the older employees and hiring new ones. Candidate two is a college graduate with experience in the field. By looking at the various perspectives of public administration theory, this section…
Aston, R. (1999). The Legal, Engineering, Environmental and Social Perspectives of Surface Mining Law and Reclamation by Landfilling: Getting Maximum Yield from Surface Mines (p. 120). World Scientific.
Brownell, P. & Kelly, J. (2013). Ageism and mistreatment of older workers. Dordrecht: Springer.
Frederickson, G. (1994). Ethics and Public Administration. Routledge.
Hill, B. (2014). Environmental Justice (p. 103). Environmental Law Institute.
Finance in Public Administration
One of the important components towards the successful delivery of services to the public is management of financial resources. Financial management in public administration basically entails budgeting as well as budget execution, monitoring, and accounting with respect to planning and programming of public administration. In essence, public finance administration basically entails raising revenue from the public, allocation of public funds and other financial resources, and managing public assets. These processes are usually carried out to help ensure that the government has adequate money to finance all its activities. In this regard, proper financial management in public administration is crucial towards preventing misuse of public money or resources as well as ensuring compliance with the relevant financial regulations. This paper examines finance in public administration in relation to the budgeting process and budget decision-making based on the fundamental principles of public finance.
Fundamental Principles of Public Finance…
The subject matter of systems administration includes computer systems and the ways people use them in an organization. This entails knowledge of operating systems and applications, as well as hardware and software troubleshooting, but also knowledge of the purposes for which people in the organization use the computers.
The most important skill for a system administrator is problem solving. The systems administrator is on call when a computer system goes down or malfunctions, and must be able to quickly and correctly diagnose what is wrong and how best to fix it. In some organizations, computer security administration is a separate role responsible for overall security and the upkeep of firewalls and intrusion detection systems, but all systems administrators are generally responsible for the security of the systems in their keep. (Encyclopedia.com, 2011)
What is a computer network? According to McGraw Hill Online Learning Center, "a network is two…
Armstrong, L. (1995), Let's Call the Whole Thing Off
Dignan, Ars Technica, Jan 28, 2001, post 305, http://arstechnica.com/civis/viewtopic
Encyclopedia.com - Information Technology- accessed 2011/1/14
Hegel, G.W.F., the Phenomenology of Mind, (1807), translated by J.B. Baillie, New York, Harper & Row, 1967
The finding of this study is consistent with others that over time the organizational culture, communication and culture will also change to reflect the IT foundational elements defined, implemented and eventually engrained into the culture of a public administration office or ministry (Androniceanu, 2009). ealizing this, public administration IT planners and Chief Information officers are designing systems to allow for greater agility and speed to response to citizen's requirements. The study analyzed and reported on by the authors underscore how an IT system must be designed to support transparency to the analytics and reporting level, in conjunction with designing in the specific stakeholder requirements to the screen and field level, in precisely the sequence they are accustomed to working with them (Androniceanu, 2009). The study shows how the omanian public administration also took the extraordinary step of implementing measures of citizen responsiveness and satisfaction levels for its call centers after…
Androniceanu, A. (2009). New Public Management Model based on an Integrated System using the Informational and Communication Technologies. Administratie Si Management Public, (13), 83-88.
devising a contract administration plan should include concise and clear direction. Focus or scope should be narrow and specific. Years of experience suggests the more focused one is on a subject, the more one can eliminate the unnecessary fluff, the better the product or outcome will be. People across various fields appreciate when a plan generates progress and that can be achieved through effective communication.
Perhaps that is why contract administraton planning, if done well, will affect a company's business in a positive way. As mentoned in a report by the Office of Federal Procurement Policy: "In contract administration, the focus is on obtaining supplies and services, of requisite quality, on time, and within budget. While the legal requirements of the contract are determinative of the proper course of action of government officials in administering a contract, the exercise of skill and judgment is often required in order to protect…
Luther, C. (n.d.). Preparing a Contract Administration Plan | Chron.com. Retrieved April 25, 2013, from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/preparing-contract-administration-plan-40327.html
OFFICE OF FEDERAL PROCUREMENT POLICY (OFPP) (1994, October). Best Practices for Contract Administration. Retrieved from http://acquisition.gov/bestpractices/bestpcont.html
While the superintendent may feel or even firmly believe that they have covered all of the bases on expenditures and other relevant issues in school budgeting, the failure to connect to other stakeholders throughout the district, who may or may not add to the data that the superintendent has prepared for presentation, is likely to result in some among those stakeholders feeling slighted or ignored and often lead to complicated budgeting which could have been avoided through simply opening the communication channels during this critical process of school administration.
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
This work in writing has related the various aspects of the school budgeting process which are the responsibility of the school superintendent as well as relating the various concerns of school budgeting and the importance of staying connected to the stakeholders in the community of the school district throughout the entire process of school budgeting. This work has…
Davis, Stephen, Darling-Hammond, Linda, LaPointe, Michelle, and Meyerson, Debra (2005) School Leadership Study: Developing Successful Principals. Stanford Educational Leadership Institute. (SELI). 2005. Online available at: http://www.srnleads.org/data/pdfs/sls/sls_rr.pdf
Joynt, T. (2002, December). School budgeting: Cost cutting through onion layers. The School Administrator. Accessed May 16, 2005 at www.aasa.org/publications/sa/2002/focJoynt.htm
Howley, C. (2003, October). Sustaining small rural high schools. The School Administrator, 9(60), 16-1.
Almack, John Conrad (1970) Modern School Administration, Its Problems and Progress. Ayer Publishing, 1970.
Democracy and Public Administration
This report is a theoretical essay on the inevitable conflicts that consistently occur between public agencies that are managed by unelected civil servants and the political environment in which these individuals and organizations operate in. Public agencies in the healthcare environment are prime examples of successful interdepartmental cooperation in most cases, but, there are also examples where they can demonstrate both internal and external in-fighting. "The health sector workforce, which usually comprises a significant element within the total public sector workforce, may be either directly employed by the public sector health system, or work in public-funded agencies or organizations (e.g., social insurance funded). In many countries healthcare will also be delivered by organizations in the private sector and by voluntary organizations." (World Bank Group) As concerns like the nation's aging population, a rapidly depleting Medicare Trust or the many potential pandemics such as SAs, Swine…
Antos, Joseph. (2008). "Medicare's Bad News: Is Anyone Listening?" American Institute for Public Policy Research. April, No. 3.
American Public Health Association (2009). Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from American Public Health Association Web Site: http://www.apha.org aphanet. (2001). Senators' Introduce Bill to Prepare For Possibility of Biological Warfare. Retrieved on November 2, 2009, from http://www.aphanet.org
CDC. (2009). H1N1. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center For Disease Control web site at http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/sick.htm .
Center for Disease Control. (2009). State and Local Infrastructure. Retrieved on November 3, 2009, from Center for Disease Control Web Site: http://www.cdc.gov/programs
ethics care" public administration? Using Stensota articles readings, describe "ethics care." After describing ethics care, give examples "ethics care" a modern employee public sector.
In my opinion, the fundamental part of Stensota's article is her argumentation, where she mentions that the concept of an "ethics of care" is centered on "human dependency" and on "relations between people." This means that the concept of ethics shifts from the obedience to norms and authority towards a more complex model in which the interest is also towards acting in the interest of the community and of society.
In public administration, as Stensota points out, the concept of ethics of care becomes relevant since public administration is, overall, determined or impacted by the relationship between the state apparatus and bureaucracy and its citizens. The more public administration is directed and managed in a way that positively impacts the population, the more one can evaluate…
However, some of these wars can also be justified with the explanations that he actually fought to carry into Europe the ideas of the French Revolution, many of which are the basis of today's society. He was just as efficient in implementing these changes as he was in his wars, which brought death and destruction. Many of the European countries today use his judicial codes and public administration today is also a reflection of his work. He was efficient both in implementing these and also in creating mechanisms that ensured they lived after his death.
As mentioned, he was also efficient in the way he managed his war machine. Entire generations of French people were wiped out. In the last campaigns, his soldiers were all 17-18 years old and many perished in the subsequent battles. Eventually, one can wonder whether his motivation was carrying the ideas of the revolution into Europe or whether, eventually, he just wanted to conquer all the countries. By 1812, he invaded Russia, after having defeated and annexed almost all the other countries in Europe.
So, the dark side to effective leadership can be the fact that it can be directed in a wrongful manner, that it can be used to do bad deeds rather than to the benefit of all people.
Master's Public Administration
My interest in nonprofit administration is has sprung from my extensive experience in the field, and my conviction that fund management can be one of the most important aspects of successfully managing a nonprofit organization. In the past ten years, I have played an important role in assuring the fiscal health of a number of important nonprofit organizations. Attending graduate school in Master in Public Affairs, with a specialization in Nonprofit Administration, would greatly enhance my work experience and allow me to develop a new level of professionalism and competence in the field of nonprofit fund management.
One of the most important challenges in nonprofit administrations is fund management. A nonprofit organization is in an important and unique position of trust, as it often manages large amounts of money that are earmarked for specific charities. As such, all financial dealings within a nonprofit organization must be dealt…
Bar code medication administration (BCMA) is one of the keys to minimizing medical errors in a manner consistent with evidence-based practice (Poon et al., 2010). However, universal embrace and utilization of BCMA remains stagnant. easons for resisting the transition to BCMA include nurse perceptions. Holden, Brown, Scanlon, & Tzion-Karsh (2012), for instance, found nurses reporting low perceived usefulness of BCMA in spite of the wealth of evidence supporting the technology. Perceived ease of use of BCMA was moderate, suggesting that it is mainly attitude factors preventing nurses from implementing BCMA in their institutions. When perceptions of the usefulness of BCMA increase, then compliance with BCMA standards can become more widespread. Any program that attempts to increase the utilization of BCMA must focus first on human factors including attitudes. This requires that all nurse leaders, as well as nurse educators, prepare advance practice nurses for using BCMA as a matter…
Duffield, C.M., Roche, M.A., Blay, N., & Stasa, H. (2011). Nursing unit managers, staff retention and the work environment. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 20(1-2), 23-33.
Roberts, B.R. (2013). Doctor of nursing practice: Integrating theory, research, and evidence-based practice. Clinical Scholars Review, 6(1), 4-8. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1939-2095.6.1.4
S. society (Miles, 2000)
IV. Effects on Commercial and Industrial Aspects in Society
In a report entitled "Trading Health Services Across orders: (GATS), Markets, and Caveats written is that "The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) is the result of an ongoing process of opening national markets to foreign health services within an international framework of trade agreements that prohibit discriminatory treatment of foreign suppliers. If healthcare is to be globalized then it will require that there be resources developed for the academic and corporate sectors of the developed society for empowering equitable and sustainable growth. Trading health services should be utilized as a tool in achieving the goals set out for the industry.
V. Cultural and Educational Impacts in Society
There are many consideration that must be given thought to in the medical community as the race, ethnicity as well as other factors vary among patients seeking medical…
Shared Destiny: Community Effects of Uninsurance - Committee on the Consequences of Uninsured National Academies Press 2003 April ISBN 030987260
The Health Effects of Economic Sanctions and Embargoes: The Role of the Professionals. Ethics and Human Rights Committee. Ann. Intern. Med. 2000 Jan 18:132(2): 158-61.
Schor, E.L. (2003) Family Pediatrics: Report of the Task Force on the Family; Pediatrics 2002 June;111 (6 Pt 2):154-71.
Liu, Connie & Basu, Sanjay (2004) Patents and Access: Another Look: AIDS Program, Yale University School of Medicine; 11 May 2004.
Penn is handled through the Wharton School, which also administers the graduate MBA program. Students take an intensive course load of business fundamentals, as well as credits devoted to traditional liberal arts degrees. That course load is indicative of the standard four- ear degree which is standard for other academic disciplines. That said the emphasis for the undergraduate business major is clearl designed to provide students with an education that is valuable to emploers from da one.
"Driven b the recession and one of the largest incoming freshman classes in the nation's histor, the business major is experiencing a surge in popularit among students" (Damast. a. September 24, 2009). Yet, the increased popularit of the business administration major underscores the long-term trend of the business degree.
Business has alwas been a popular major among undergraduates. In academic
ear 2006-07, the largest number of bachelor's degrees conferred was in business (21%),…
year 2006-07, the largest number of bachelor's degrees conferred was in business (21%), followed by social sciences and history (11%), education (7%), and health sciences (7%), according to the most recent figures available from the Education Dept.'s National Center for Education Statistics. (Damast. a. September 24, 2009).
The business administration student upon graduation can expect an extremely competitive salary. "According to a July report from the National Association of Colleges and Employers, the average starting salary for 2009 college graduates with bachelor's degrees in business increased less than 1%, to $47,239" (Damast. a. September 24, 2009). As the recession's lingering effects recede and economic growth returns, the job market for business school graduates should be one of the faster growing hiring segments. "The undergraduate business degree is now clearly on the path to respectability" (Bloomberg-Businessweek. May 8, 2006).
In discussing the business administration major it would be remiss not to mention the
Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002
administration as also a majority of other western administration witnessed the collapse of corporate giants like Enron & Worldcom in the aftermath of noticeably fraudulent executive actions of these companies. This led to shareholders losing confidence and stringent laws was felt necessary in the form of new legislation to avoid repetition of Enron and Worldcom like incidents. The then President George W. Bush entrusted Senator Paul Sarbanes and Congressman Mike Oxley to come up with stringent new laws which would arrest or at least diminish probability of corporate scandals from repeating which came to be known as the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, of 1992. (Holt, 2008)
Key components of SOX Act covered under major Sections of the Act:
Sec 406 of the Act mandates every senior Financial Executive to be signatories of a Code of Ethics. Sec 409 mandates that companies make adequate disclosure regarding material financial alterations…
Coates, John C. (2007) "The Goals and Promise of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act" Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 21, no. 1, pp: 91-116.
Holt, Michael F. (2008) "The Sarbanes-Oxyley Act: Costs, Benefits and Business Impact"
Mehera, Madhav. (n. d.) "Sarbanes-Oxley Three Years On" Retrieved 9 May, 2012 from www.wcfcg.net/Sarbanes-Oxley%20Three%20Years%20On.pdf
The most worrying aspect in this case is the fact that the Patriot Act seems to be endangering some of the fundamental liberties of the American individual. The motivation seems simple: the country is at war and, in any such conditions, it is allowed to resort to all means to achieve victory. On the other hand, the fact that certain governmental practices (many of which have probably been going on in the past, but had never been exposed) are now out in the open and even regulated.
The case of the American citizen Yaser Hamdi is quintessential for the application of policies in times of war. Yaser Hamdi was captured in Afghanistan, deemed to be a member of al Qaeda and was categorized as an "enemy combatant." He had been held imprisoned without being charged for almost two years, with no access to attorneys or trials.
His case brings about…
1. Cassel, Elaine. Yaser Hamdi gets a lawyer: he just can't do anything. December 2003. On the Internet at http://buffaloreport.com/articles/031207.cassel.hamdi.html
http://www.chargepadilla.org /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
As a student of the Public Policy and Administration program at Walden I looked forward to being a part of the drive towards positive social change in the world by uniting my skills, diligence, energy, time, and orientation to the idea that the world can be transformed for the better into a thriving, united, meaningful and honest society where camaraderie is key and individuals are treated with respect, dignity, transparency, and commitment.
My vision for positive social change is based in a belief that a better, more accountable society can be fostered through a social commitment to truth and transparency. This change could facilitate support for leaders who are transparent and accountable to a higher ideal, who hold themselves accountable, and who strive to do right on a social justice level.
In the context of my professional goals, this vision helps to fortify me against the dangers or temptations…
Walden University. (2014). About the school. Retrieved from http://www.waldenu.edu/colleges-schools/school-of-public-policy-and-administration/about
Walden University. (2014). Vision and mission statements. Retrieved from http://www.waldenu.edu/about/who-we-are/data/vision-mission-statements
Network Management and System Administration
The aim of the paper is to establish the difference between a system administrator and a network administrator. The paper is thus divided into three sections. The first section deals with the basic definition and responsibilities of a system administrator; the second does the same for a network administrator and the third compares their responsibilities to clearly identify the differences between the two.
The maintenance of computer systems in a company is the sole responsibility of a system administrator. They are responsible for maintaining, upgrading and installing servers. They are also entrusted with the task of checking the security of the server and maintaining its backup as well. They are also involved in programming for automating tasks at the server. For this purpose, they write programs, also known as scripting (Schneider, 2012a).
Education criteria for System Administrators:
With respect to the level of…
Schneider, L. (2012a). System Administrator. Accessed March 7th, 2012 from: http://jobsearchtech.about.com/od/careersintechnology/p/SysAdmin.htm
Schneider, L. (2012b). Network Administrator Profile -- " What is a Network Administrator. Accessed March 7th, 2012 from: http://jobsearchtech.about.com/od/careersintechnology/p/NetAdmin.htm
Morgan, H. (2010) Difference between Network and Systems Admin. eHow .com. Accessed March 7th, 2012 from: http://www.ehow.com/facts_6155311_difference-between-network-systems-admin.html
Philosophy of Public Administration
Policy Making Process
Policymaking is the act of making laws or setting principles for a business or a government. The process includes the essentials of agenda setting, decision making, implementation of the policy and evaluation of the set standards to understand its impact upon the citizens and the society as a whole. The policy formulated needs to be effectively communicated at all organizational levels to ensure positive execution. The stated elements of policy making would be discussed individually in the paper.
Policy makers start the process by setting up an agenda to gain public and elite support. The agenda should be such so that it could narrow a set of feasible subjects to the set that essentially becomes the center of attention. The problem highlighted in an agenda should be convincible and captivating for the government officials and people external to the government and diligently associated…
Bamberger, M. (2009, June). Making Smart Policy: Using Impact Evaluation for Policy Making. Retrieved from http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTISPMA/Resources/383704-1146752240884/Doing_ie_series_14.pdf
Cockrel, J. (1997). Public Policy Making in America. Retrieved from http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/ip/ip19/ip19.pdf :
Design citeia exist at the levels of the technical, system integation aspects of the database to othe systems though XML. This integation is citically impotant to ensue that the applications ceated can be effectively used ove time and not have any scalability issues. Thee is also the need fo designing the databases at the pesentation laye to povide fo scalability and flexibility of being able to ceate applications elatively quickly at the potal level. This is especially impotant fom a Business Pocess Management (BPM) standpoint as databases must be able to suppot the vaious pocess wokflows as defined as pat of business pocess e-engineeing effots ove time. Thee is also the need fom a design standpoint to have a continued development initiative going to captue use needs ove time and include them into the next geneation of database updates. The use of councils to ceate update plans and define the…
references and real-time workload in information services. Information Systems Research, 11(2), 177-196.
Pangalos, George (1994). A tutorial on secure database systems. Information and Software Technology, 36(12), 717.
Gerald Post & Albert Kagan (2001). Database management systems: Design considerations and attribute facilities. The Journal of Systems and Software, 56(2), 183-193.
Ji Ma, Mehmet A Orgun. (2008). Formalising theories of trust for authentication protocols. Information Systems Frontiers, 10(1), 19-32.
Reagan, J., & Rowlands, I.. (2007, January). Key Technologies Enabling a Seismic Shift in Enterprise Data Management. Business Intelligence Journal, 12(1), 17-25.
In addition to saving time and money, analytical skills are also vital in interpersonal relationships, which has become an important part of Business Administration. The analyst is no longer required to only address issues of economics and science; instead, the interpersonal component of management has become an inextricable part of leadership.
When interpersonal problems among employees for example need to be solved, analytical skills can be applied to help find a quick and amiable solution.
In more concrete terms, my current major is Economics. I believe that my knowledge of this direction will compliment the Management Science direction in a mutually beneficial way. In other words, when completing my studies in Management Science, I believe that my combination of talent, skills and knowledge will equip me to enter the business and management world at the highest levels, with a holistic approach to profitability and…
The United States judicial system is ranked among the most sophisticated systems in the world. Each and every day there are thousands of people who include officers for law enforcement, judges, lawyers, accused criminals and officials in the government take part in the system with the hope that they will settle disputes and work towards the achievement of justice. This system is quite remarkable since it operates successfully in a country which is quite large and diverse. There are various elements of the criminal justice system in the U.S. these include criminal courts, arraignments, trials, sentencing, booking, bargaining of a plea, jury, punishment, appeals and so on. Within these systems there are elements that work quite well when it comes to the completion of the entire judicial process (Silverman, 2012).
The existence of criminal courts within the judicial system of the U.S. is an element that has made…
Silverman, J. (2012). How the Judicial System Works. Retrieved August 22, 2013 from http://www.howstuffworks.com/judicial-system.htm
Johnson administration's "Great Society" initiatives? Defend your response.
As for intentions, the Johnson administration's "Great Society" initiatives should be given an A. hen he took office, Johnson saw that the country's success following orld ar II was declining and there was a potential for the country to enter a period of serious decline, a situation which ultimately did come to pass in the 1970s and again in the present period. Programs such as Medicare and Medicaid which were created during this period have continued to benefit Americans fifty years after their initial creation. However, given that much of Johnson's attention was being given to the escalation of the Vietnam ar and Johnson's encouragement of American involvement on that front, the actual effectiveness of the "Great Society" initiatives deserves a final grade of B- or C+. He was successful in getting the Civil Rights Act passed and tried to help Americans…
Harrison, B.C. & Dye, T.R. (2008). Power and Society: an Introduction to the Social Sciences.
conservative orientation in Public Administration, a concern with order, stability and continuity. I'm not sure that's all bad."
The above statement addresses one of the central concerns - and in many ways the central paradox - of public administration, both in the practice and in the study of this field. A society that is overly resistant to change stagnates. A species that does not adapt to changing environmental and competitive conditions will decline and even become extinct; this is true of societies as well. There must be change, or there will be decline and death.
But just as lack of change can be terribly damaging if not lethal to a society, too much change can also be dangerous. Societies that prosper are those that allow for change within an established structure - and both the change and the structure are important. (This does assume, of course, that the structure is…
ush Administration's Section 8 voucher program may be to limit the number of lower-income people who can enter the housing market for the first time. ush's plan reduces the amount of money available to rehabilitate multi-housing buildings. That will reduce the number of multi-housing buildings available to be bought and sold in the real estate market (Castellanet, 2003).
In addition, the plan would limit the amount of money available to pay rent in improved housing (Castellanet, 2003). This could reduce the attractiveness of buying depressed housing for the purpose of renovating it and making it either more salable or more rentable, because the owners would have more difficulty renting the units.
The ush administration maintains that too much fraud is present in the current program (Goldstein, 2003), and wants to turn control of Section 8 housing over to the individual states. It is not clear how this would reduce fraud,…
Castellanet, Craig. 2003. "NHLP Preservation e-News #3." National Housing Law Project, Oct. 27. Accessed via the Internet 10/27/03. http://www.nhlp.org/html/pres/email/pres_3.htm
Goldstein, David. 2003. "Bush plans scrapping HUD 'section 8' voucher program for state grants." Northern Illinois University (Knight-Kidder News Service). Accessed via the Internet 10/27/03. http://www.star.niu.edu/national/articles/050503-bush.asp
Richard Allen, the state's prisons commissioner, said ednesday the change is meant to reduce overtime, and should save the state $3 million to $4 million a year. 'e don't have any choice about it,' Allen said. 'e've got to save money. e've got to do some things that are out of the box, and this is one of them'" (Diel 2008). Corrections officers have naturally protested this measure, citing the dangers of the job and the impact upon the quality of their health and financial lives.
Alabama is not alone. In Florida budget cutbacks were blamed recently when "A Florida correctional officer was killed on the job last week" (Ray 2008). Even though corrections officer positions have not been eliminated in the state of Florida, an expanding prison population coupled with a refusal to add more positions have lead to understaffed prisons and overworked, tired officers. In other states, cutbacks…
Corrections officers. (2008). 2008 Occupational Outlook. Department of Labor Statistics 2008-
2009 Edition. Retrieved 1 Oct 2008. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos156.htm
Diel, Stan. (2008, September 25) Corrections officers at seven Alabama prisons to work 12-hour shifts. Birmingham News. Retrieved 1 Oct 2008.
Furthermore, I believe in fostering an atmosphere of openness among the teaching staff. That means listening to any ideas or suggestions that a teacher might want to bring to the table. Running a school's sports and physical education program is not a "one man show." Rather, it is a collaborative effort. Everyone working for the school's athletic and physical education program should have a say. In fostering such an atmosphere of openness, I believe that this ensures a positive atmosphere among the staff.
Above all, I feel that an administrator should be fully engaged with the day-to-day operations of the athletic and physical education program. That means maintaining a presence in the hallways and the classrooms - not just hiding away in some office somewhere. My own experience of a distant, authoritarian school principle that was feared and ridiculed by all has remained with me in to my adult life.…
Privatizing Prison Administration
Description of the Financing System.
Description of How the Current System orks. The financial costs associated with maintaining America's prison system are staggering. Just to stay even with an inmate population that grows by 50,000 to 80,000 a year, approximately, 1,000 new jails and prisons have been built since 1980, and about one new 1,000 bed facility must be added every week for the next ten years (Mccormick 2000). The cost of imprisoning adult offenders ranges from $25,000 to $70,000 a year, and the total costs associated with constructing each new prison cell has soared to $100,000; as a result, the annual budget for constructing and maintaining prisons has jumped in the last two decades from $7 billion to almost $40 billion dollars (Schlosser 1999).
According to Stephen Donziger (1997), "prisons are the largest public works program in America, providing housing, food, (and only sometimes) education, mental…
Campbell, Allison, Andrew Coyle and Rodney Neufeld (Eds.). Capitalist Punishment: Prison
Privatization & Human Rights. Atlanta: Clarity Press, 2003.
Mccormick, Patrick T. (2000). Just Punishment and America's Prison Experiment. Theological Studies, 61(3):508.
Schlosser, Kathryn Casa. (July 2, 1999). Prisons: The New Growth Industry. National Catholic Reporter, 16.
There should also be refresher courses given every year so that officers do not forget about their ethical responsibilities. t is important in the police arena that ethical behavior is top priority and that everyone is as ethical as they can be.
Web Field Trip
Tonry, M. (1997). ntermediate Sanctions in Sentencing Guidelines. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/165043.pdf
The article ntermediate Sanctions in Sentencing Guidelines is a very comprehensive guide to what intermediate sanctions are and how they can be incorporated into sentencing guidelines. This article defines what intermediate sanctions are and how they can be used in sentencing guidelines in order to help those offenders who may not otherwise benefit from traditional sentencing practices. The guide also discusses the problems that can occur when implementing these types of sanctions and what can be done to try and avoid the issues that can occur. The overall gist of the article is to…
Intermediate Sanctions for Non-Violent Offenders Could Produce Savings. (2010). Retrieved
The article Intermediate Sanctions for Non-Violent Offenders Could Produce Savings is a good discussion of how the use of intermediate sanctions used for certain offenders can lead to cost savings. In today's economy money for correctional institutions is at a low just like it is for everything else. Because of this it is becoming more and more important for corrections in general to cut costs. This article is a very good discussion on how intermediate sanctions can be used to help cut expenses in the criminal justice system. The article discusses how these types of sanctions can be used for certain offenders in order to benefit them the most while reducing the amount of money that it takes to lock every offender up for a specific period of time. This article also discusses the drawbacks that come along with implementing intermediate sanctions and how these issues can be addressed ahead of time in order to mitigate their effects.
M.S. Healthcare Administration Exploration National quality performance improvement initiatives. The organizations noted focused specific areas research; study practices information dissemination national organizations public, private governmental sectors.
The stated aim of the Leapfrog Group is to track the "safety, quality and affordability of health care" (Mission, 2012, Leapfrog). It is designed to help consumers to make more informed healthcare decisions (Mission, 2012, Leapfrog). It 'rewards' high-performing organizations with strong ratings and, conversely, penalizes poorly-performing organizations with weak ratings -- or notes their failure to report data (Mission, 2012, Leapfrog). Participation is voluntary, but there is a strong incentive to participate in Leapfrog because of its reputation as a 'gold standard' of patient care measurements.
Leapfrog's mission was solidified thanks to a 1999 report by the Institute of Medicine which found that 98,000 Americans die every year from preventable medical errors (Mission, 2012, Leapfrog). The Leapfrog…
Kasprak, John. (2006). The Leapfrog Group Healthcare Initiative. OLR Research Paper.
Jha, Ashish K. (et al., 2008). Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
34(6):318 -- 25. Retrieved:
healthcare administration and governance is medical staff credentialing and "delineation of privileges." As a senior manager, you will be directly involved in making sure that physicians practicing in your organization are qualified for the services they offer and procedures they perform. You must protect patients' safety as highest priority in this regard. hat steps will you take in the process of physician credentialing and delineation of privileges for your hospital or clinic?
The delineation of privileges may be one of the most important aspects to healthcare management. If the professionals that are tasked with treating patients are not properly trained or qualified then it is likely that patient care will suffer. Therefore, credentials for the delineation of privileges must be designed individually based on the particular roles of the employees in the organization. They should also follow best practices and national standards. Each position in the hospital should be designed…
Haynes, D. (2008, September 13). What Nurses Want. Retrieved from The Washington Post: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/09/12/AR2008091203367.html
Criminal Justice Administration. The question ."How augmented reality unmanned aerial vehicles/systems function incorporated a law enforcement agency?." 500 words APA format 3 references
The contemporary society has reached a particularly advanced level when considering technology today and more and more domains start to depend on new technologies. In the current environment, law enforcement agencies need to be effectively prepared to deal with criminals and this means that they need to focus on adopting a series of technologies in order to achieve success in their field of work. Augmented reality and unmanned aerial vehicles/systems are especially intriguing when regarding the use of technology in the context of law enforcement and by considering these two concepts, law enforcement agencies are probable to significantly decrease crime rates.
Augmented reality can be particularly effective when coupled with facial recognition, as these two would provide law enforcement with the ability to rapidly detect criminals. y…
Cowper, T.J. & Buerger, M.E. "Improving Our View of the World: Police and Augmented Reality Technology." Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/police-augmented-reality-technology-pdf
"An Easy Explanation Of Augmented Reality and The Practical Uses For The Technology." Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.examiner.com/article/an-easy-explanation-of-augmented-reality-and-the-practical-uses-for-the-technology
"Considerations in Selecting a Small UAV for Police Operations." Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.aeryon.com/applications/whitepapers/224-whitepaperpolice.html
Criminal justice organizations have "varied and complex environments," and are affected by those environments in ways that makes them "malleable" and prone to frequent change (Stojkovie, Kalinich & Klofas, 2015, p. 15-16). Because of this, criminal justice administration reflects the core principles of learning organizations. Criminal justice organizations must be flexible, responsive to changes in social norms and public policies, and willing to account for developments in empirical research that might alter practice. Leadership in criminal justice organizations must therefore be visionary and transformative, motivated by core goals. Because the core goals of criminal justice organizations are as complex as their organizational structures and functions, it is important to explicitly clarify the missions, values, and goals of each organization under the criminal justice umbrella. Likewise, it is important to understand the role of the criminal justice organization within the overarching government.
As governmental institutions, criminal justice organizations are bureaucratic in…
Stojkovie, Kalinich, & Klofas. (2015) Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management - custom (6th ed.) Florence, KY: Wadsworth Publishing
Wiechmann, A.D. (2007). Public Administration in Criminal Justice Organizations. San Diego: University Readers.
Long Term Care Administration
What are some of the ethical issues in this case?
Mrs. Beaudoin appears to be in a real ethical dilemma given the fact that she does not have formal power of attorney and her husband also lives in the same facility with her with moderate dementia and is very frail. The ethical issue involved in this case is that Mrs. Beaudoin’s health is failing steadily. She is known to have cancer throughout her body, a failing heart, moderate dementia and diabetes type II. Due to the cardiac arrest she suffered after a short stay in the intensive care unit she subsequently suffered a severe brain injury occasioned by lack of sufficient oxygen. Since she cannot make healthcare decisions on her own and her husband is in a state that is just as bad, the ethical issue here is; who will make healthcare decisions and end of…
So, even in such situations as when the countryside has also been hit by war, the local administrators are much more likely to be able to function productively as they are fundamentally closer to the need and have strong community ties and possible a strong desire for social order but more importantly for the meeting of the local publics' needs.
The importance of establishing a public administration theoretical framework that prioritizes citizenship over consumerism, in a society where so much of the citizenry relies on public services is foundational to social order and to mitigating the change that has occurred as a result of war. There is no one right answer to all the functional changes to public administration, with regard to war as the many facets of war also create many facets of change in public administration. The level of degradation to physical and psychological networks must be analyzed…
Boleman, L., & Deal, T. (2003). Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership. Third Ed. . San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Bruck, T. (1997). Macroeconomic Effects of the War in Mozambique. QEH Working Paper Series QEHWPS11, 1-63.
Chopra, J., & Hohe, T. (2004). Participatory Intervention. Global Governance, 10-27.
Denhart, J., & Denhardt, R.B. (2007). The New Public Service. Revised Edition. Armonk, NY:: M.E. Sharpe.
Goals of a Public Administrator
The implementation of the policies devised by the government is referred to as public administration. Moreover, public administration is also a discipline that is taught in many higher education institutions. This discipline is based on the studies that revolve around the aforementioned implementation and therefore it prepares the civil servants that would be working for the public service in the future (Frederickson, 1997). The fundamental goal behind the layout of the curriculum of this discipline and the training in this field is to advance the policies and management in order for the government to function effectively (Frederickson, 1997). There are various definitions that have been used to describe this term; "translation of politics into the reality that citizens see every day"; "the management of public programs" and "the study of the process of decision making by the government, the analysis of the devised policies, the…
Alvarez, K., & Stupak, R. (1993). An Analytical Essay and Annotated Compendium on Organizational Theory: Paradigms Lost and Needed in Public Administration. International Review Of Modern Sociology, 59 -- 81.
Brown-John, C. (1990). Budgeting in the Provinces: Leadership and the Premiers Allan M. Maslove, ed. Toronto: The Institute of Public Administration in Canada, 1989, pp. xxii, 175 Tax Reform in Canada: The Process and Impact Allan M. Maslove Halifax: The Institute for Research on Public Policy, 1989, pp. xv, 96 The Politics of Public Spending in Canada Donald J. Savoie Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990, pp. xiv, 433. Canadian Journal Of Political Science, 23(03), 568 -- 571.
Frederickson, H. (1997). The spirit of public administration. Jossey-Bass Publishers San Francisco, 80.
Geva-May, I., & Kfir, A. (2000). Developments in Policy Analysis and Evaluation in Public Administration. Public Administration, 78(2), 409 -- 422.
" (U.S. Department of Justice, 2007; 22)
The U.S. Department of Justice report also states that upon evaluation of the management of the DEA of "selected practices governing its SIU Program...revealed significant deficiencies including: (1) poor recordkeeping; (2) inadequate control over SIU equipment; (3) inadequate practices for supply salary supplement payment to unit members; (4) excessive span of control ratios for management of the units; (5) insufficient evidence of training; and (7) failure to perform exit briefing of outgoing SIU members. (2007) Stated to be crucial in the DEA success or failure in investigative activity internationally are relationships with: (1) other DEA offices (foreign and domestic); (2) other U.S. law enforcement agencies abroad; and (3) foreign government and their law enforcement components charge with combating illicit drug trafficking." (U.S. Department of Justice, 2007; 26) the following chart shows the sources of international training funds for the DEA in 2005.
DEA Mission Statement (2008) U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Online available at http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/agency/mission.htm
Agency Budget Summaries: Drug Enforcement Administration (1999) Policy Office of National Drug Control Policy. Online available at http://www.ncjrs.gov/ondcppubs/publications/policy/budget98/agency-09f.html
The Drug Enforcement Administration's International Operations (2007) U.S. Department of Justice Office of the Inspector General Audit Division Audit Report 07-19 February 2007.
Drug Enforcement Administration (2006) U.S. Department of Justice. Online available at http://www.usdoj.gov/jmd/mps/manual/dea.htm
Bachelor's of Business Administration with a special concentration in legal studies opens up a plethora of career opportunities with possible advancement into the field of law. According to the Glossary of Bachelor's Degree Programs on the Education Portal, "A BBA in Legal Studies prepares a student to work in various law sectors" including "public welfare, insurance, social services, human resources, real estate, taxes, banking, human rights, finance, business, and many others." The reasons for pursuing this degree are extensive. A high level of job security, relatively high starting and peak earnings salary, and tremendous amount of job flexibility and variety rank among the top reasons for pursuing a Bachelor's of Business Administration with a special concentration in legal studies. Because the degree can become a precursor to law school and a career as a lawyer, future career options are not only lucrative but also personally rewarding.
A lawyer has the…
Boyer, Allison. "Top 10 Reasons to Become a Lawyer." eHow. Retrieved online: http://www.ehow.com/list_6511480_top-10-reasons-become-lawyer.html
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition, Lawyers, on the Internet at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos053.htm (visited April 09, 2011).
"Business Law." Retrieved online: http://www.hg.org/corp.html
Drexel University. "Bachelor of Science in Business Administration - Legal Studies." Retrieved online: http://www.hotcoursesusa.com/us/bachelor-of-science-in-business-administration-legal-studies-at-drexel-university-570388-usa.html