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7% from 2002 to 2012 was revealed. Lawyers, on the other hand, reported an average annual income of $108,790 in 2004, while job openings for lawyers are expected to increase 17% between 2002 and 2012. (World Wide Learn, 2006)
However, it appears that the President of the United States is not happy at the state of affairs within the administration of justice system within his country, and he has publicly stated that improvement and changes must be brought in at the earliest. The reason may be that there is today an increasing disrespect for the law, and also a blatant distrust of the Courts. This would mean that unless the justice administration is able to prove its worth with its people, there would be no real respect for the system. (Folgelson, 1974) However, a fresh new idealistic candidate, newly armed with a degree in the administration of justice would be…
Directory of Schools. (2007) "Online Criminal Justice Degree Programs" Retrieved 28 November, 2007 at http://www.directoryofschools.com/Criminal-Justice-Degrees.htm
Education Portal. (2007) "Master of Science, Online administration of Justice and Security degree" Retrieved 28 November, 2007 at http://education-portal.com/articles/Master_of_Science:_Online_Administration_of_Justice_and_Security_Degree.html
Folgelson, Robert M. (1974) "Administration of Justice in the United States"
Administration of Justice in Cases of Mentally Ill Offenders
Final Project Summary
Administration of justice in criminal accusations concerning mentally disturbed people has been neglected for many years. Mentally disturbed individuals have very slim chance in receiving fair trials under the current judicial system. It is evident that many people with such symptoms of emotional instability end up with sudden violent incidences, which render them vulnerable to criminal offences. However, these people do not receive the chance of proving their innocence during such acts. Instead, such offenders are judged equally or even more harshly as compared to offender with normal emotional status. The study of this develops clear knowledge and gives distinct evidence to transparency of the judicial system.
Statistics reveal that mentally disturbed people get arrested much often and at a higher rate. The rate at which the jury receives violent cases of mentally disturbed people is growing by…
Babbie, E.R. (2010). The Practice of Social Research. New York: Cengage Learning.
Balance in the Administration of Justice and Security:
The twenty-first century world contributes to several challenges to governments because life has become increasingly globalized. The two major challenges in the globalized world are protecting the security of citizens and to protect people's freedom. The protection of security is a challenge because of the emergence of global terrorism, mass movements of individuals, and advances in communications technology. These factors make it difficult for governments to protect their citizens because it's much easier for terrorists to organize and co-ordinate their activities and campaign. In relation to protection of citizen's liberty, technology plays a crucial role in making the challenge tougher. This is primarily attributed to developments in computer science, satellite monitoring systems, and information storage that make it difficult to keep tabs on individuals ("Balancing Freedom and Security," 2006). As a result of these advances, citizens have to deal with a far-reaching…
"Balancing Freedom and Security -- A Modern British Bill of Rights." (2006, June 26). Full Text
of David Cameron's Speech to the Centre for Policy Studies. The Guardian. Retrieved March 26, 2013, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2006/jun/26/conservatives.constitution
Bradley, G.V. (2012, March 1). Retribution and Overcriminalization. Retrieved March 26, 2013,
U.S. Courts and the Administration of Justice
In this short essay, the author will comment on five issues that they feel impact upon the administration of courts and justice in the United States. It is the opinion of the author that the quality of the administration of the courts and the justice system is reflected in the way it treats its minorities. hile the record has been decidedly mixed in the past, it has been pleasantly surprising to see some recent Obama administration initiatives that will be the subject of this review. However, much more remains to be done. This analysis will include information about juvenile defenders, justice and Native Americans, the overwhelming amount of minorities as opposed to Caucasians in the population, targeting of minorities by police, and the affordability of legal counsel for the poor in the United States justice system
One issue that jumps out immediately as…
History of right to counsel. (2004). Retrieved from http://www.nlada.org/About/About_HistoryDefender .
How is the criminal justice show is the criminal justice system racist? (2005, May).
Retrieved from http://www.defendingjustice.org/pdfs/factsheets/10-Fact%20Sheet%20-%20System%20as%20Racist.pdf.
Reform the nation's juvenile justice system. (2009, January). Retrieved from www.aecf.org/~/media/../Juvenile_Justice_issuebrief3.pdf.
Moving Targets: Placing the Good Faith Doctrine in the Context of Fragmented Policing" by H. Aviram and J. Seymour (2010)
In the United States, due process of law is guaranteed by the Fifth Amendment and applies to all citizens by virtue of the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. In sharp contrast to the Crime Control Model that focuses on the early identification of the guilty, the Due Process Model of crime control places a high priority on preserving accuracy in legal proceeding and avoiding the conviction of the innocent. These issues form the basis of a peer-reviewed journal article by H. Aviram and J. Seymour (2010) which is critiqued in the paper the follows. A summary of the research and important findings concerning due process and crime control are provided in the paper's conclusion.
This paper provides a review of a peer-reviewed journal article on improving crime control through…
Aviram, H. & Seymour, J. (2010, May). Moving targets: Placing the Good Faith Doctrine in the context of fragmented policing. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 37(3), 709-715.
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
CICC and GIWG Compared
The Criminal Intelligence Coordinating Council (CICC) is criminal intelligence body that is responsible for gathering intelligence information for the U.S. government. This organization is tasked with the responsibility of ensuring that military officials and other security personnel have the right information needed for the flawless undertaking of their duties. This body is closely related to the Global Intelligence Working Group (GIWG) in terms of functions and scope of operations. The body acts as a federal advisory committee to the U.S. attorney general. It is the official advisory body to the attorney general on matters relating to the work and considerations that the attorney must consider while on duty.
The body works with the Bureau of Justice Assistance to assist the attorney general fulfill his mandates. However, the two bodies are functionally related. Both of them are mandated to collect intelligence information from the public and help…
Kraft, M., & Marks, E. (2012). U.S. Government Counterterrorism: A Guide To Who Does What. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Shapiro, D. (2011). Managing Multinational Teams Global Perspectives. Amsterdam: Elsevier
The United States judicial system is ranked among the most sophisticated systems in the world. Each and every day there are thousands of people who include officers for law enforcement, judges, lawyers, accused criminals and officials in the government take part in the system with the hope that they will settle disputes and work towards the achievement of justice. This system is quite remarkable since it operates successfully in a country which is quite large and diverse. There are various elements of the criminal justice system in the U.S. these include criminal courts, arraignments, trials, sentencing, booking, bargaining of a plea, jury, punishment, appeals and so on. Within these systems there are elements that work quite well when it comes to the completion of the entire judicial process (Silverman, 2012).
The existence of criminal courts within the judicial system of the U.S. is an element that has made…
Silverman, J. (2012). How the Judicial System Works. Retrieved August 22, 2013 from http://www.howstuffworks.com/judicial-system.htm
Justice in the Workplace
Globalization, or increase economic cooperation and communications between countries has opened up a number of opportunities for employment, trade, and cultural and technological development between nations. One of these effects is the diversification of the human resource pool within organizations. In fact, the more global society becomes, the less geographic boundaries matter when hiring employees. This is particularly evident when hiring a new workforce in developing countries -- moving the so-called "have nots" into the working world of global organizations (Mittleman, 2002). Ethnic and cultural demographics play into this by adding another spectrum and layer of variety in income, education, housing issues, population trends, etc. (Trebing and Estabrooks, 2005).
Justice in the Workplace and Globalization- Increasing diversity, particularly globally, in the workplace, however, brings a number of issues to the forefront that accentuate the need for organizational justice and ethical decision making. An organization is far…
It would strive to minimize the pay and quality-of-life differential between the wealthiest individuals and the poorest, although it would permit whatever differential justified by the greater good served by certain professional commitments and responsibilities.
Rawls' ideas if incorporated into society would not compel any person to contribute to the greater good any more than he or she desired; they would simply impose mechanisms for distributing resources and potential rewards in the most socially beneficial and equitable manner. Industries that produce socially beneficial products and services that contribute to the greater good would be permitted to profit more from those endeavors than superfluous industries; physicians would be entitled to sufficient compensation and benefits to ensure against any shortage of physicians in society; and police officers and firefighters would earn more than professional athletes, although closer to several times the average wage in society instead of the equivalent of hundreds or…
"Many social decisions are, of course, of an administrative nature. Certainly this is so when it is a matter of social utility in what one may call its ordinary sense: that is, when it is a question of the efficient design of social institutions for the use of common means to achieve common ends" (Rawls, 1958 p187).
Rawls' ideas would seem to comport perfectly with the essential purpose of public administration services. In principle, the entire structure of modern administrative services in society is precisely to improve society and contribute to the public good much more efficiently and effectively than individual citizens could ever hope to, even in a collaborative effort. Granted, to a certain extent, Rawls' ideas could be seen as excessively constraining individual initiative and creativity; however, in the realm of public administration of social services and justice, they would greatly increase the quality of life and contribute to the greater good. Instead of the poorly motivated, apathetic attitudes frequently associated with civil service employment, Rawls' ideas would reward civil servants sufficiently to guarantee much greater commitment to their responsibilities.
Generally, modern public administration and civil service exemplify the very concepts emphasized by Rawls except that the pay differential between civil servants and employment in many areas of the private sector greatly detract from the communal spirit and cooperation that Rawls hoped to promote through his ideas. Ultimately, while some of the specific mechanisms suggested by Rawls' ideas may be impractical to impose on a free society, their general purpose is likely achievable to some degree simply by increasing awareness of some of the conceptual arguments.
Justice and Court Administration
Administration and management of courts is filled with challenges. Often depending upon the geographical context of the court, such challenges will include resource shortage, a perpetual docket of criminal cases and the broader complexity of providing civil order and justice to communities while balancing constitutional law and local ordinance. Moreover, the complexity of administering justice in and of itself plays a part in the difficulty of court management, with issues such as the deepening ethnic diversity of encountered populations and shifting ideas about victims' rights playing defining roles in the tasks before any given court. The discussion here on language interpretation services and the timeline in the evolution of victims' rights are offered within the context of court administration.
Language Interpretation Services:
It is often the case that courts will find themselves burdened with the task of wading through the details of officer-defendant confrontations…
Missouri Courts (MC). (2010). Court Interpreter Services. Courts.mo.gov.
Muraskin, R. & Roberts, A. (2004).Visions for Change: Crime and Justice in the Twenty-First Century. Prentice Hall.
Robinson, M. (2002). Justice Blind? Prentice Hall.
esearch also showed that offenders tend to be part of or return to communities with high concentrations of offenders. The concentration of offenders in these neighborhoods affects the community negatively by increasing the stigma associated with the community and also saddling the community with additional problems without providing added resources needed for restoring or maintaining order. The ultimate consequence is the that the criminal justice system destabilizes informal networks of social control and increases poor attitudes towards formal social controls, both of which have been shown to contribute to increases in crime and disorder in the communities. Churning results in unnecessary pressure being put on the other residents of the communities who are law-abiding in disadvantaged communities. The removal of men from the community through incarceration has the chilling effect of changing the family's socio-economic structure. The families of incarcerated members, especially men, of the community also face stigma and…
Burke, K. And Leben, S. (2007). Procedural Fairness: A key Ingredient in Public Satisfaction.
Court Review: The Journal of the American Judges Association. 44 (1), 4-25.
Davis, A.J. (2008). Racial Fairness in the Criminal Justice System: The Role of the Prosecutor. Colombia Human Rights Law Review. 202 (39), 202-32.
Hurwitz, J and Peffley, M. (2001). Racial Polarization on Criminal Justice Issues:
Evolution of Criminal Justice Policy:
The evolution of the criminal justice system can be traced to as early as 1969 when the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice presented a report on the growing challenge of crime in the society. In addition to providing a detailed approach on the prevention and fight against crime, the report also provided means of improving the collaboration among policing, courts, and corrections. This is because of the significance of these three parts in the criminal justice system and their ultimate impact on the implementation of the criminal justice policy.
As the first contact between a criminal and the criminal justice system, policing or law enforcement has evolved in three distinct areas i.e. politically, progressively and through reforms. Both the political era and progressive period of the evolution of policing was during the pre-colonial period with the political era emanating from…
Hartmann, F.X. (1988, November). Debating the Evolution of American Policing. Retrieved from National Institute of Justice -- U.S. Department of Justice website: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/114214.pdf
"History of Criminal Justice, Punishment and Corrections." (n.d.). Intelicus. Retrieved August
23, 2011, from http://intelicus.com/history-of-criminal-justice-punishment-corrections/
criminal justice system and the historical foundations of the system. The study has discussed the current criminal justice system and how it has evolved during the years. The various functions of the criminal justice system are also discussed briefly to get clear understanding on the topic.
Criminal Justice System is a system of institutions and practices employed to uphold crime, deterring and social control or to put sanctions on those who are violating the laws by imposing criminal penalties and through rehabilitation efforts. The accused criminals also have some protections against the misconduct or abuse of prosecution and investigatory powers.
The criminal justice policy in the United States is guided by a ground breaking report that was presented to the President's Commission in 1967 on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice. This commission had advised a systematic approach in dealing with criminal justice through a coordinated effort among courts, correctional…
Kelling, George L., Mary A. Wycoff (2002). Evolving Strategy of Policing: Case Studies of Strategic Change. National Institute of Justice.
Mayo, K. (1920). Justice to All: The Story of the Pennsylvania State Police. Houghton Mifflin.
History U.S. Criminal Justice Systems/Police
It is undeniable that criminal justice and police activities are integral parts of every relatively peaceful nation in the world. ithout the actions and standards set forth by the agencies that "protect and serve" many wrongs would go not only unpunished but possibly unnoticed as well.
The basic purposes of policing in democratic societies are: 1. To prevent and investigate crimes; 2. To apprehend offenders; 3. To help ensure domestic peace and tranquility; and 4. To enforce and support the laws (especially the criminal laws) of the society of which the police are a part." (Schmalleger Chapter 5 Summary)
Though the developmental history of modern policing and criminal justice there have been many changes, changes in focus and standard, and even crime and justice. The very term professionalism has completely evolved across the board, more so in the policing industry than almost anywhere else. A…
Downer L.J. Legis Henrici Primi Abstract Retrieved April 25, 2004 at http://www.powellschicago.com/html/reprints/16560.html.
Fagin, James A. Criminal Justice New York, NY Allyn & Bacon, 2003.
Hirschel, J. David, and William Wakefield. Criminal Justice in England and the United States. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1995.
As Schmalleger explains, the American juvenile-justice system was designed a century ago to reform kids found guilty of minor crimes, but more and more, the system has to cope with more violent crimes committed by younger people. The response on the part of lawmakers has been largely to siphon the worst of these young people out of the juvenile system by lowering the age at which juveniles charged with serious crimes can be tried in adult courts, a trend that seems to increase around election time. The underlying philosophy of early juvenile courts was parens patriae, which means that the courts took the role of parent and protected the rights of the child. Shifting the child to adult court reduces his or her rights rather than increasing them and also bring son harsher punishments. As Daniel P. Mears notes, the creators of the juvenile court system thought it would…
Eskridge, Chris W. Criminal Justice, 4th edition. New York: Roxbury, 1993.
Schmalleger, Frank. Criminal Justice Today 8th edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2005.
" The lawsuit states that the "defendants knowing paid out far less than policy holders deserved to repair flooded homes and property [Officials throughout NFIP] deliberately and fraudulently used low-balling, high pressure tactics to get people to accept pennies on the dollar of what they are entitled to. (Seid, 2005)
In an article entitled "Multiple Failures Caused elief Crisis - The Breakdown of the elief Operation in New Orleans was the esult of Multiple Failures by City, State and Federal Authorities" (eynolds, 2005 BBC News) which states: There was no one cause. The failures began long before the hurricane with a gamble that a Category Four or Five would not strike New Orleans." (eynolds, 2005 BBC News) This mistake followed with an evacuation plan that was lacking and resulted in "a relief effort hampered by lack of planning, supplies and manpower, and a breakdown in communications of the most basic…
Seid, Jessica (2005) Disaster strikes, lawsuits follow -National Flood Insurance Program may pay out billions, but some may choose to head to court.
CNN Money September 15, 2005: http://money.cnn.com/2005/09/14/news/economy/katrina_lawsuit/index.htm
La Monica, Paul R. (2005) Rebuilding the Gulf, but at what cost? - Economists say Bush's reconstruction plan is necessary; some wonder if the government can afford it.
CNN Money September 16, 2005: http://money.cnn.com/2005/09/16/news/economy/katrinarebuild/index.htm?cnn=yes
Global Criminology: Similarities and Differences Between Adversarial and Inquisitorial Justice Systems
Similarities and Differences between Adversarial and Inquisitorial Justice Systems: Global Criminology
Every country uses fundamental rules and procedures to ensure fairness and justice in its legal system. The effectiveness of any legal system is assessed based on how well it facilitates truth-finding, efficiency, and fairness. This text assesses the effectiveness of adversarial and inquisitorial justice systems to determine which one would be more effective in fighting global crime.
Similarities and Differences between Adversarial and Inquisitorial justice systems
Every country uses fundamental rules and procedures to ensure fairness and justice in its legal system. Based on these rules, a country can be termed as either adversarial or inquisitorial. Experts have given diverse views on the effectiveness of either system in achieving the aims of a country's legal traditions. This insight is crucial for the interpretation of the Constitution, as well…
Ambos, K. (2003). International Criminal Procedure: Adversarial, Inquisitorial or Mixed? International Criminal Law Review, 3(1), 1-37.
Dakolias, M. (2014). Court Performance around the World: A Comparative Perspective. Yale Human Rights and Development Journal, 2(1), 87-144.
Dammer, H. R., Fairchild, E. & Albanese, S. J. (2006). Comparative Criminal Justice System. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thompson Learning.
Doak, J., McGourlay, C. & Thomas, M. (2015). Evidence in Context (4th ed.). Third Avenue, NY: Routledge.
Juvenile Delinquency in Courts
Addressing Juvenile Delinquency
Juvenile delinquency is a current issue trending in the American Society, especially due to its impact on the social environment. A close examination depicts the changing role that the youth and children have taken up in the American Society. From previous research, courts have been on the verge of dealing with juvenile related cases, owing to certain domains responsible to the increased rates of juvenile delinquency. Such domain continues tagging along societal problem to social institutions such as schools, the neighborhood, and families related to the juveniles. In response to this social problem, a juvenile justice system featuring juvenile courts has been established to provide judicial methods, relations and facilities to the juveniles convicted. However, juvenile judicial proceedings are in dilemmatic positions in regards to the principle of parenspatriae. The latter enables juvenile court actions to act in lieu of parents and guardians…
Roberts, A.R. (2004). Juvenile Justice Sourcebook: Past, Present, and Future: Past, Present, and Future. London: Oxford Publishers.
Siegel, L. J and Welsh, B.C. (2011). Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Practice, and Law. New York: Cengage Publishers.
Criminal justice organizations have "varied and complex environments," and are affected by those environments in ways that makes them "malleable" and prone to frequent change (Stojkovie, Kalinich & Klofas, 2015, p. 15-16). Because of this, criminal justice administration reflects the core principles of learning organizations. Criminal justice organizations must be flexible, responsive to changes in social norms and public policies, and willing to account for developments in empirical research that might alter practice. Leadership in criminal justice organizations must therefore be visionary and transformative, motivated by core goals. Because the core goals of criminal justice organizations are as complex as their organizational structures and functions, it is important to explicitly clarify the missions, values, and goals of each organization under the criminal justice umbrella. Likewise, it is important to understand the role of the criminal justice organization within the overarching government.
As governmental institutions, criminal justice organizations are bureaucratic in…
Stojkovie, Kalinich, & Klofas. (2015) Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management - custom (6th ed.) Florence, KY: Wadsworth Publishing
Wiechmann, A.D. (2007). Public Administration in Criminal Justice Organizations. San Diego: University Readers.
Justice and Social Equity
Income inequality is growing at a precipitous rate in America. The cry for justice for the 99% reflects the notion that America is increasingly being dominated by wealthy elites, and the wealthy can use their greater economic, political and social capital to sustain their advantage at the helm of American society. This is manifested in a variety of ways, including the high burden of debt carried by young people who try to better themselves by going to college and then are faced with the prospect of being beholden to that debt for most their productive working lives -- provided that they can find a job upon graduating. Fear of debt may drive the children of the middle and lower classes to cheaper colleges, thus creating even more of a concentration of wealth and power, given the social connections that can be fostered at elite…
Frederickson, H. George. (2005). The state of social equity in American public administration.
National Civic Review.
Justice ithout Trial
The author and professor of criminal justice, Jerome Skolnick, argues in his book entitled Justice ithout Trial: Law Enforcement in Democratic Society, that the first line of defense in the protection of personal safety and property any democratic society is that of effective law enforcement. However, the police form not a human line of protective and retributive justice, as they ideally should, but instead have created and fucntion as a subculture with little respect for other institutions of justice in the nation, such as trial by jury and presumptions of innocence. Instead, Skolnick states that even in allegedly democratic America, justice takes place without a trial, in the eyes of the prejudices of a policeman when they see a supposed perpetrator in the night. The presumption of guilt in the heart of the policeman, rather than the objectivity of a judge becomes the most compelling determinant of…
Skolnick, Jerome. (1993) Justice Without Trial: Law Enforcement in Democratic Society, First published in aticle form in 1966.
Justice & Social Change
The author of this report has been exposed to several topics during the course of the current class. As explained in the parameters for this assignment, the author has discussed or read about organizational ethics, comparative ethics, the ethics of dissent, human rights, liberty, equity and equality. However, the topic of discussion for this report is justice. There is a lot of symbolism and imagery associated with justice including the statue of a blindfolded woman with a scale in her hand, among other things. The author will explain the meaning behind the symbolism. The author will also answer how the author's personal concept of justice influences the author's decisions as it relates to the ethical responsibilities of a public administrator. While being an ethical public administrator is often a straightforward task, there are some areas and situations that are less than easy to navigate.
Frederickson, H.G. (1990). Public administration and social equity. Public Administration Review, 50(2), 228 -- 237. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Mittelman, J.H. (2002). Making globalization work for the have nots. International Journal on World Peace, 19(2), 3 -- 25. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
Yeager, S.J., Bartley Hildreth, W., Miller, G.J., & Rabin, J. (2007). The relative effects of a supervisory emphasis on ethical behavior vs. political responsiveness.
Public Integrity, 9(3), 265 -- 283. Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
There are many facets to the field of criminal justice, and many changes that have taken place within it over the years. As such, it is important to consider the current state of that field, and where it is potentially heading in the future. In order to do that, it is necessary to realize that criminal justice contains a significant number of smaller areas and fields in which changes have been seen. In order to be aware of those changes, one has to examine why the changes have been made, whether those changes have been valuable, and if there are other changes that should also be made in an effort to ensure proper treatment for everyone involved. There are still some disparities and unfair treatment issues that have to be considered when it comes to criminal justice, as well, because of many differences in what has been considered…
Friedman, L.M. (1993). Crime and punishment in American history. NY: Basic Books.
Fuller, J.R. (2005). Criminal justice: Mainstream and crosscurrents NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hanes, R.C. & Hanes, S.M. (2005). Crime and punishment in America (Vol. 1). MI: Thomas Gale.
Marion, N.E. & Oliver, W.M. (2011). Public policy of crime and criminal justice (2nd ed). NJ: Prentice Hall.
What do you Think
Paradigm of Laws
Paradigm of Laws
• the paradigm of law your actions define and give reasons
Law and ethics applies to everyone whether free individuals or a prisoners. Everybody has the right of existence, justice and fairness. However, there are occasions when a prisoner cannot be offered the right of confidentiality and privacy. This is exactly what I have done to the inmate in state prison where I am a correctional officer. My paradigm of law does not believe in sincerity of inmates. Given the history of the prisoner who has deceived twice earlier, I cannot trust him again. Whatever he says or does, it has to be communicated to authorities so that they can take action.
The inmates are individuals that have caused harm to the society earlier thus they are in the prison. These people should not be blindly trusted. The…
Jensen, O.C., (1934), "Kant's Ethical Formalism," Philosophy, 9(34), 195-208
Retributive vs. Restorative Justice, (2009), Retrieved from:
Criminal Justice Program at the John Hay College of Criminal Justice. This is one of the most famous criminal justice programs in the nation and its home is one of the most diverse and challenging metropolis in the country: New York City. The criminal justice program here is different from others in a variety of ways, most notably in its origins.
Unlike other criminal justice programs, this one developed not out of student demand, but out of need. "In the mid 1950s, civic leaders and the New York City Police Department became increasingly aware of the growing complexity of police work, not only in the internal administration and operation of the department, but also in the ongoing relations between police and the community. In response to these concerns, a Police Science Program was established in 1954 at the then Baruch School of Business and Public Administration of City College" (jjay.cuny.edu).…
American.edu (2013). Drug Market Intervention Training. Retrieved from:
Gendall, J. (2013). John Jay College of Criminal Justice. Retrieved from Architectmagazine.com: http://www.architectmagazine.com/education-projects/john-jay-college-of.aspx
Jjay.cuny.edu. (2013). History of John Jay. Retrieved from Jjay.cuny.edu: http://www.jjay.cuny.edu/835.php
Administration and Leadership
Maintaining order and control in correctional facilities -- while also presiding over well-managed facilities from a fiscal and ethical perspective -- is the goal of every conscientious administrator. The Center for Innovative Public Policies (CIPP) published a list of "core competencies" for leadership in correctional facilities. Among the skills most vital to a competent prison leader are: a) to be able to "anticipate, analyze, and resolve organizational challenges"; b) to build and "maintain positive relationships with external stakeholders"; c) to "communicate effectively" and to "comprehend, obtain, and manage fiscal resources"; d) to create a diverse organizational that "promotes respect"; e) to be visionary and to engage in "strategic planning" and develop a vision for the mission of the institution; f) to enhance "self-awareness and maintain proactive professional commitment; g) to "establish organizational authority" and design roles and responsibilities; h) to make sound decisions, manage change,…
Center for Innovative Public Policies. (2010). Core Competencies for Jail Leaders. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from http://cipp.org/jail/core.html .
Trulson, Chad R., Marquart, James W., and Kawucha, Soraya K. (2009). Gang Suppression and Institutional Control. Corrections One News. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from http://www.correctionsone.com .
United Nations. (2010). Handbook for Prison Leaders. Retrieved January 21, 2013, from http://www.iccir.law.ubc.ca.
Wortley, Richard. (2002). Situational Prison Control: Crime Prevention in Correctional
Under the stewardship of Police Commissioner Howard Safir, the NYPD began analyzing daily crime statistics collected from its 40,000 officers throughout the five boroughs of New York City and generating computer modeling of crime trends in a system dubbed CompStat that allowed the accurate identification of crime trends with pinpoint accuracy, often permitting nearly as precise predictive modeling via extrapolation (Safir, 2003).
The other main benefit and purpose of CompStat was that is enabled police administrators to grade the performance of every precinct according to any criteria defined by policy considerations. That aspect of CompStat is relied upon heavily by NYPD administration to the extent that Commissioner Safir reassigned, removed, or demoted fifty-four precinct commanders during his tenure as commissioner between 1996 and 2000 (Safir, 2003). Naturally, the technical means of data collection and analysis techniques differ quite profoundly from those available to previous generations of police administrators, but the…
Coleman, J.L., Thomas, C.C. (2002). Operational Mid-Level Management for Police. Illinois: Springfield.
Conlon, E. (2004). Blue Blood. New York: Riverhead.
Lee, W.D. (2007). Program Evaluations: Improving Operational Effectiveness and Organizational Efficiency; FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin (Nov/07 Vol. 76
No. 11, pp. 1-6).
Criminal Justice System
Ever since gaining independence status, both Mozambique and Zimbabwe have come under the scanner for violation of human rights incidences and extrajudicial excesses. The under trials, often arrested without formal sanctions have been continually processed through undemocratic norms and subjected to undue treatment when in confinement and under the control of policing authorities in spite of the fact that statutory provisions in the constitution provide assured guarantee for appeal and fundamental rights protecting the citizens in both the nations. The Dependant Variables hence comprise of use of force and even firearms against those in detention and secondly custodial executions and deaths.
Defining extrajudicial executions and deaths in detentions:
Extra judicial killing is the act of execution or subjecting an under trial to violent acts that may result in death of the person. Such uses of force or acts of violence precede, supersede or bypass any due judicial…
Ackerman, S.R. (n.d.). Independence, political interference and corruption. Retrieved from: http://www.google.com.pk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CB8QFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2Fresources.transparency.bg%2Fdownload.html%3Fid%3D674&ei=nmSFVJjfJsX3UIzXgpAL&usg=AFQjCNG3iXhyvEpGajwTxpO_2SO2oFiECw&sig2=qZhx2nM7AmhxVKqpdVdtOA&bvm=bv.80642063,d.d24
BAR Human Rights Committee of England and Wales. (2010). A Place in the Sun Zimbabwe: A Report on the state of the rule of law in Zimbabwe after the Global Political Agreement of September. Retrieved from: www.barcouncil.org.uk/media/144602/7351_bhrc_zimbabwe_report.pdf
Barkow, R.E. (2008). Institutional Design and the Policing of Prosecutors: Lessons from Administrative Law. Stanford Law Review 61, 869-922.
Barzelay, M. (1992). Breaking through bureaucracy. Berkeley: Univ. Of CA Press.
Richard Allen, the state's prisons commissioner, said ednesday the change is meant to reduce overtime, and should save the state $3 million to $4 million a year. 'e don't have any choice about it,' Allen said. 'e've got to save money. e've got to do some things that are out of the box, and this is one of them'" (Diel 2008). Corrections officers have naturally protested this measure, citing the dangers of the job and the impact upon the quality of their health and financial lives.
Alabama is not alone. In Florida budget cutbacks were blamed recently when "A Florida correctional officer was killed on the job last week" (Ray 2008). Even though corrections officer positions have not been eliminated in the state of Florida, an expanding prison population coupled with a refusal to add more positions have lead to understaffed prisons and overworked, tired officers. In other states, cutbacks…
Corrections officers. (2008). 2008 Occupational Outlook. Department of Labor Statistics 2008-
2009 Edition. Retrieved 1 Oct 2008. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos156.htm
Diel, Stan. (2008, September 25) Corrections officers at seven Alabama prisons to work 12-hour shifts. Birmingham News. Retrieved 1 Oct 2008.
In 1993 there were 155,704 recorded crimes of burglary and of these 20,200 were residential burglaries. Since the mid-1970s the level of recorded burglaries has fluctuated around a level of 130,000 to 150,000 crimes per year although during the three last years, 1991 to 1993, the level has been close to 155,000. The number of recorded car thefts in 1993 was 61,141 and of these 18,300 were attempts. During the 1980s the number of recorded thefts of cars has doubled from 34,301 in 1980 to 69,003 in 1989. However, in the last three years this crime has decreased from roughly 70,000 in 1991 to roughly 61,000 in 1993.
Drug offenses. In 1993, 40,700 violations of the Narcotic Drugs Act were reported to the police. This figure is 40% higher than in 1990. Due to the method of counting drug offenses and the fact that this is a crime category highly…
An Introduction to the Sami Culture" (1996) Retrieved, January 28, at http://boreale.konto.itv.se/samieng.htm
Criminal Matters" Swedish Government Offices Website Retrieved, January 28, at http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2138/a/14884
Malmstrm, C. "Diversity in the European Context" Retrieved, January 28, at http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/8660/a/82943
Reiter, P.L. (2007), Comparative criminal justice systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall/Pearsons.
There should also be refresher courses given every year so that officers do not forget about their ethical responsibilities. t is important in the police arena that ethical behavior is top priority and that everyone is as ethical as they can be.
Web Field Trip
Tonry, M. (1997). ntermediate Sanctions in Sentencing Guidelines. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles/165043.pdf
The article ntermediate Sanctions in Sentencing Guidelines is a very comprehensive guide to what intermediate sanctions are and how they can be incorporated into sentencing guidelines. This article defines what intermediate sanctions are and how they can be used in sentencing guidelines in order to help those offenders who may not otherwise benefit from traditional sentencing practices. The guide also discusses the problems that can occur when implementing these types of sanctions and what can be done to try and avoid the issues that can occur. The overall gist of the article is to…
Intermediate Sanctions for Non-Violent Offenders Could Produce Savings. (2010). Retrieved
The article Intermediate Sanctions for Non-Violent Offenders Could Produce Savings is a good discussion of how the use of intermediate sanctions used for certain offenders can lead to cost savings. In today's economy money for correctional institutions is at a low just like it is for everything else. Because of this it is becoming more and more important for corrections in general to cut costs. This article is a very good discussion on how intermediate sanctions can be used to help cut expenses in the criminal justice system. The article discusses how these types of sanctions can be used for certain offenders in order to benefit them the most while reducing the amount of money that it takes to lock every offender up for a specific period of time. This article also discusses the drawbacks that come along with implementing intermediate sanctions and how these issues can be addressed ahead of time in order to mitigate their effects.
ace Discrimination Justice
ACE DISCIMINATION CIMINAL JUSTICE
ace and Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System
acial inequality has long been an issue in the American society. Despite making substantial progress in creating a more racially equal society, there are still many issues involving race and discrimination that can be found today. The criminal justice system was designed to treat all individuals equally under the law. However, covert racism and discrimination still plague the system and many minorities are adversely impacted and are not treated equally under the law. While most judges and public officials profess a strong dedication to remaining racially impartial, the evidence suggests otherwise. This literature review will focus on various points that indicate that there is a substantial amount of inequality to found within the criminal justice system in our modern society.
acial differences in the criminal justice system have been important topics since the…
Crutchfield, R., Fernandes, A., & Martinez, J. (2010). Racil and Ethnic Disparity and Criminal Justice: How Much is Too Much? The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 903-932.
Green, E. (1991). Judicial Attitudes in Sentencing - A Study of the Factors Underlying the Sentencing Practice of the Criminal Court of Philidelphia. National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 157.
Gross, S. (1997). Crime, Politics, and Race. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 405-416.
Staples, R. (2009). White Power, Black Crime, and Racial Politics. The Black Scholar, 31-41.
Criminal Justice Module 1 SLP
Enforcement Issue: Overcriminalization
Overcoming Overcriminalization by Stephen F. Smith, Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology June 22, 2012
Recent surveys show that over-criminalizaton has become a serious concern in the American justice system (Smith, 2012). The incidence has so increased that the phenomenon tends to degrade the very quality of the system. One very serious consequence is the imposition of unjust punishment. Over-criminalization occurs in cases of poorly defined crimes. These crimes are in themselves vast in scope and in punitiveness. As such, they tend to increase prosecutorial power and thwart the opportunity for fair warning towards criminal liability (Smith).
Upon investigation, the incidence proceeds from the imposition of more severe sanctions through expansive criminal statues, extension of reach and scope and duplications of federal criminal law (Smith, 2012). Reducing and overhauling the criminal code would be the suitable measure and this need not…
Grasso, K.L., et al. (2001). The criminal justice system's response to parental abduction.
Juvenile Justice Bulletin: U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved on August31, 2013 from http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdfiles/ojjdp/186160.pdf
Smith, S. (2012). Overcoming overcriminalization. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology: Northwestern University School of Law. Retrieved on August 31, 2013
U.S. Criminal Justice system as in the last few decades and link the trends to the future. We will access the following, including:
ecent and future trends and contemporary issues affecting the criminal justice system.
Value of the criminal justice system in a changing society.
Traditionally, American citizens have traditionally thought of the United States criminal justice system as being in the business of dispensing justice for crimes that are actually committed. Unfortunately, over several decades a move within the criminal justice system has been unfolding where instead of punishing past offenses, it attempts to prevent future crimes through the incarceration and control of dangerous offenders. This is a fallacious approach and erodes our constitutional protections of individual rights under the Bill of ights and the United States Constitution.
Unfortunately for individual rights in the United States, the criminal justice system has misused the War on Terrorism and an act…
Greenberger, M. (2004). Is criminal justice a casualty of the bush administration's
"war on terror"?. Retrieved from http://www.americanbar.org/publications / human
Criminal Justice Administration. The question ."How augmented reality unmanned aerial vehicles/systems function incorporated a law enforcement agency?." 500 words APA format 3 references
The contemporary society has reached a particularly advanced level when considering technology today and more and more domains start to depend on new technologies. In the current environment, law enforcement agencies need to be effectively prepared to deal with criminals and this means that they need to focus on adopting a series of technologies in order to achieve success in their field of work. Augmented reality and unmanned aerial vehicles/systems are especially intriguing when regarding the use of technology in the context of law enforcement and by considering these two concepts, law enforcement agencies are probable to significantly decrease crime rates.
Augmented reality can be particularly effective when coupled with facial recognition, as these two would provide law enforcement with the ability to rapidly detect criminals. y…
Cowper, T.J. & Buerger, M.E. "Improving Our View of the World: Police and Augmented Reality Technology." Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.fbi.gov/stats-services/publications/police-augmented-reality-technology-pdf
"An Easy Explanation Of Augmented Reality and The Practical Uses For The Technology." Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.examiner.com/article/an-easy-explanation-of-augmented-reality-and-the-practical-uses-for-the-technology
"Considerations in Selecting a Small UAV for Police Operations." Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.aeryon.com/applications/whitepapers/224-whitepaperpolice.html
Australian Criminal Justice System
Formal mechanisms are required to make certain there is no bias or discrimination against the people. With informal mechanisms there was unfair treatment of the accused even to the point of receiving unjust sentencing. Those who had the power within the informal mechanisms often received the property or other goods once held by the accused, withhold evidence for personal benefit, or acted as vigilantes exacting their own justice (Lincoln and obinson, 2010).
Social control is best managed by those that have been elected to oversee the management of the changing formats of punishment for criminal behavior. The formal mechanisms work best when connected with matters of state within society (oach Anleu, 1998). One theory that demonstrates the interconnected relations is the Behaviorists Concept. This theory asserts that social control lies within governmental administration of what is considered a normal lifestyle through
Legislation, legal action and negotiation…
Australian Government Department of Foreign Investment and Trade (2011). Legal System. Retrieved December 15, 2011 from http://www.dfat.gov.au/facts/legal_system.html
Indehmar, D and Roberts, L. (2009). Confidence in the criminal justice system. Retrieved December 15, 2011 from http://www.aic.gov.au/documents/D/6/8/%7BD68CD7EA-536A-4025-A8C0-A5BADF59A6AC%7Dtandi387.pdf
Lincoln, R. And Robinson, S. (2010). Crime over Time. Cambridge Scholars Publishing: Newcastle Tyne.
Roach Anleu, S.L. (1998). The role of civil sanctions of in social control: a social legal examination December 15, 2011 from http://www.popcenter.org/library/crimeprevention/volume_09/Role_ofCivilSanctions.pdf
Equal protection is a fundamental constitutional protection, that in modern times, guarantees the equal effect of law to all persons. In that regard, the Supreme Court has established specific suspect classes of individuals, such as membership in a minority race, whose rights to equal protection must be guarded most scrupulously, primarily because the need to do so has been more than adequately demonstrated by aspects of relatively recent American history.
According to criminologists and researchers who have conducted studies of the impact of criminal laws in general, and of capital punishment in particular, criminal defendants who are members of minority races (as well as those who are poor) are statistically much more likely to receive the death penalty in comparison with non- minority (and wealthier) criminals convicted of identical death-penalty-eligible offenses (Schmalleger, 2007; Zalman, 2008). This discrepancy suggests that capital punishment in the U.S. still violates one of…
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Bantam Books.
Friedman, a. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
Kaveny, C. (2008). Justice or vengeance: is the death penalty cruel and unusual?
Commonwealth; Feb 18/08.
Privatizing Prison Administration
Description of the Financing System.
Description of How the Current System orks. The financial costs associated with maintaining America's prison system are staggering. Just to stay even with an inmate population that grows by 50,000 to 80,000 a year, approximately, 1,000 new jails and prisons have been built since 1980, and about one new 1,000 bed facility must be added every week for the next ten years (Mccormick 2000). The cost of imprisoning adult offenders ranges from $25,000 to $70,000 a year, and the total costs associated with constructing each new prison cell has soared to $100,000; as a result, the annual budget for constructing and maintaining prisons has jumped in the last two decades from $7 billion to almost $40 billion dollars (Schlosser 1999).
According to Stephen Donziger (1997), "prisons are the largest public works program in America, providing housing, food, (and only sometimes) education, mental…
Campbell, Allison, Andrew Coyle and Rodney Neufeld (Eds.). Capitalist Punishment: Prison
Privatization & Human Rights. Atlanta: Clarity Press, 2003.
Mccormick, Patrick T. (2000). Just Punishment and America's Prison Experiment. Theological Studies, 61(3):508.
Schlosser, Kathryn Casa. (July 2, 1999). Prisons: The New Growth Industry. National Catholic Reporter, 16.
Whereas judicial decisions are more likely to concern substantive matters of law and definitions of legal concepts, legislative adjustments generally reflect social consensus, particularly over large spans of time. Admittedly, political access and the relative ability of specific individuals, communities, and entities to generate legislative changes beneficial to them are not, in any sense, equal when viewed from the microcosmic perspective. Nevertheless, over time, changes in the American criminal justice are largely functions of widely-shared societal concerns and social values in the United States.
In recent years, the American criminal justice system has changed in several significant respects: it has become increasingly federalized; it seen a dramatic increase in the privatization of criminal justice facilities; and it has become ever-more effective by virtue of its technological evolution. Likewise, concepts and principles of criminal reform have continually undergone cyclical changes, due in part to unanticipated flaws in prior approaches or simply…
Supervision in the Criminal Justice Field
Problems and challenges facing a criminal justice organization
Supervision in the criminal justice system is an integral aspect of the inmate rehabilitation process. In this paper, we conduct an intensive investigation and examination of the supervisory problems as well as challenges that are unique to the criminal justice organizations. In our analysis, we provide the details of general supervision, management, leadership, personnel evaluation, motivation, mentoring and training.
Keller (2002) pointed out that inmate violence, vandalism, escape, unsanitary conditions, inmate suicide, and high level of stress as well as low staff morale are the main issues that inspire supervision in the correctional facilities. It is therefore necessary that effective inmate supervision as well as behavioral management be made integral elements in all correctional facilities. Keller (2002) went on to indicate that in a historical perspective most correctional facilities have been designed and run…
Atlas, R (1989).Reducing the opportunity for inmate suicide: A design guide.Psychiatric Quarterly, Vol 60(2), Sum 1989, 161-171. doi: 10.1007/BF01064942
Berry, P.E., & Anderson, R. (2001). An evaluation of a private alternative probation and counseling program:Predicting program outcomes from client characteristics. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 26, 121-130.
Brimhall, J (2011).A SQL Experiment-Mentoring
S/he must therefore implement correction and rehabilitation measures as the courts of the country see fit for the convicted individual. However, the compromise would be the kind of treatment the convicted individual gets from the Christian practitioner. As a person of faith, s/he must recognize also that the person is an individual who might have shown deviant behavior to society, but s/he is nevertheless a person who must be treated equally despite his/her unfortunate circumstance (i.e., incarceration) (McCrudden, 2008:659).
Preservation of human dignity in the face of legal punishment is the compromise that is developed as the Christian practitioner tries to achieve the balance of maintaining criminal justice as both a profession and a vocation. And what about love and forgiveness, which also comes into play as one tries to understand the unfortunate circumstances of other people who are punished by the legal system? Convicted individuals deserve the love and…
Bottoms, A. And J. Tankebe. (2012). "Beyond procedural justice: a dialogic approach to legitimacy in criminal justice." The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, Vol. 102, No. 1.
McCrudden, C. (2008). "Human dignity and judicial interpretation of human rights." The European Journal of International Law, Vol. 19, No. 4.
"Responsibility, rehabilitation, and restoration: a Catholic perspective on crime and criminal justice." United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Official Website. Accessed on April 19, 2014. Accessed at: http://www.usccb.org/issues-and-action/human-life-and-dignity/criminal-justice-restorative-justice/crime-and-criminal-justice.cfm
Biblical quotes/verses. Open Bible Official Website. Accessed on April 19, 2014. Accessed at: http://www.openbible.info/
The death penalty is not unconstitutional and is even mandatory for certain crimes with the judge and jury having little discretion in the matter in order to avoid violating the provision that prohibits 'cruel and unusual punishment' the methods used for execution of the death penalty should be humane and sensible. While the criminal may lack in possessing any compassion whatsoever that this complete lack of the ability to have or posses real compassion that resulted in their being sentenced to death is a consideration in the regard given those sentenced to death. Finally, there should be no lack of certainty that the individual being put to death was the perpetrator of the crime committed.
VI. The ISSUES & the DEATE[S]
The issues and debates surrounding the Fourth, Fifth, Sixth and Eighth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution are becoming more heated with each passing day and while the general public…
Constitution of the United States (nd) U.S. Government Printing Office (GPO) Access: Sixth Amendment Rights of Accused in Criminal Prosecution. Online available at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/
Rasmussen, David W. And Benson, Bruce L. (1994) the Economic Anatomy of a Drug War: Criminal Justice in the Commons. The Independent Review. Vol. 1, No. 2 Fall 1996. The Independent Institute.
Jones, Ben (2008) Sex Offenders May Get Special Tags. USA Today. 23 Oct 2008. Online available at http://www.usatoday.com/printedition/news/20070502/a_licenseplates02.art.htm
Criminal Justice ystem Components Analysis
Research the questions below for each of the three criminal justice system components: police, criminal courts, and correctional agencies. Prepare a table or chart that compares and contrasts the information you gather on the components. For example:
Criminal Justice Components
management structure bureaucratic structure with hierarchy of authority and strict regulations
A collection of federal, state, and local public agencies that deal with. They are interdependent
Traditional organizational structures. The chief executive officer is at the top, with other functions dispersed at various layers down through the pyramid
The differences between the organizations in this component as compared to the other two?
The purpose of the police is to maintain order, enforce the criminal law, and provide services.
Courts are the place where defendants / the accused / plaintiffs come to have their please adjudged by judge and jury.…
Barbaree, H.E., Marshall, W.L. (2008). An introduction to the juvenile sex offender: Terms, concepts, and definitions (2nd Ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Holmes, S.E, James, R.S & Javad K. (2001). Risk Factors in Childhood that Lead to the Development of Conduct Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, .31
Rozalski, M., Deignan, M., & Engel, S. (2008). The world of juvenile justice according to the numbers. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 24,143-147.
When the Constitution replaced the Articles of Confederation in 1789, the United States of America formed a government that specifically divided its powers between three separate branches. This was done in order to make certain that no one branch of government could accumulate too much power. These three are called the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches of government, and the Constitution defines the powers each branch of government is allowed to exercise. While the Executive and Legislative branches of government deal with the running of the government, the Judicial branch is limited to dealing with legal matters. While it may seem that the Judicial branch is someone less important, it is the judiciary that decides whether the actions taken by the other two branches of government are legitimate.
Alexander Hamilton argued in the Federalist Papers that a separation of powers was necessary in order to prevent one particular…
"Court Procedures." United States Courts Web Page. Retrieved from http://www.uscourts.gov/FederalCourts.aspx
"Criminal Justice System - Structural and Theoretical Components of Criminal Justice Systems, The Systems in Operation, The importance of Viewing Criminal Justice as a System." Retrieved from Criminal Justice System - Structural And Theoretical Components Of Criminal Justice Systems, The Systems In Operation, The Importance Of Viewing Criminal Justice As A System
Kaiser, Frederick. (2003). American National Government: An Overview. CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/RS20443.pdf
"Federal Courts." United States Courts Web Page. Retrieved from
In that regard, sentences imposed for crack cocaine are so much harsher that approximately 100 times as much powdered cocaine is required to approach the sentences imposed in connection with crack cocaine offenses. This issue is particularly relevant to the disparity inherent in mandatory sentencing and arbitrariness in sentencing, especially since dealers in powdered cocaine are much more likely higher up on the supply chain than distributors of crack cocaine (USSC, 2007).
The issues concerning provisions of the U.S.A. PATIOT Act pertain to establishing sentences for crimes established and defined by the ACT, such as narco- terrorism, smuggling munitions or military equipment without a license for transport, mining U.S. waters, and interfering with maritime navigation equipment (USSC, 2007).
The Adam Walsh Child Protection and Safety Act of 2006 requires sex offenders to register and imposes criminal penalties for failure to comply. The current federal sentencing issues authorize increasing sentences for…
Cullen, F.T., Eck, J.E., Lowencamp, C.T. (2002) Environmental Corrections: A New Paradigm for Effective Probation and Parole Supervision.
Lynch, M.J. (1999) Beating a Dead Horse: Is Their Any Basic Empirical Evidence for the Deterrent Effect of Imprisonment?
Schmalleger, F. (2001) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Industries that face stiff competition may favor and encourage an aggressive approach from employees that produces rapid results, rather than thoughtful, strategic action. When the gains cannot be realized in the desired time frame, there is a temptation to implement short cuts; resulting in fraud." (Price; Norris, 2009) That however is not a justification, although it prompts some regulations on the way industries operate.
The Law Catches Up
Today the criminal justice system responds to corporate crime much better than before. This is because earlier the scams were an unknown commodity in Australia and it was a U.S. phenomenon. Globalization changed that and now, according to the National Crime Prevention office in Australia the fraudster type of activities in firms were classified as fake billing and invoicing, investments and money chain scams, advance fee frauds, borrowing from the public as in ponzi type scams, the pyramid and money chain, insolvency…
Braithwaite, John. (1992) "Penalties for White-Collar Crime"
Retrieved 28 July, 2012 from http://www.anu.edu.au/fellows/jbraithwaite/_documents/Articles/Penalties_White_1992.pdf
Braithwaite, John. (1985) "White Collar Crime" Annual Review of Sociology vol. 11, no. 1, pp: 1-25.
"Definition of white collar crime" (from the scanned reference mailed by client -- book title not clear) Please insert book title here
Death penalty is generally conceived of as the supreme legal sanction, inflicted only against perpetrators of the most serious crimes. The human rights community has traditionally held a stance against the death penalty for a wide variety of reasons: critics argue that the death penalty is inhuman and degrading; that it is inappropriately applied and often politically motivated; and that rather than reducing crime, the viciousness of the punishment only serves as an inspiration to further violence.
Historically the death penalty has existed all around the world. Only since the beginning of the twentieth century has the death penalty been rejected by a growing number of people and states. International law discourages but does not prohibit it. Article 6 (paragraphs 2 and 5) of the International Covenant on Civil and Political ights states that "sentence of death may be imposed only for the most serious crimes in accordance with the…
Bernard, T. (1992). The cycle of juvenile justice. New York: Oxford.
Bohm, R.M. (2010). Death penalty opinions: Effects of a classroom experience and public commitment. Sociological Inquiry, 60, 285-297.
Bohm, R.M. (2003). American death penalty opinion: Past, present, and future. In J. Acker, R.M. Bohm, & C.S. Lanier (Eds.), America's experiment with capital punishment: Reflections on the past, present, and future of the ultimate penal sanction (pp. 27-54). Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.
Bradizza, C.M., Collins, R.L., Vincent, P.C., & Falco, D.L. (2006). It does the job: Young adults discuss their malt liquor consumption. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 1559-1577. doi: 10.1016jaddbeh.2005.12.001
National Institute of Justice (NIJ): Department of Justice
Importance of research to general knowledge
Methodology (Data collection approach, collection of data and analysis techniques)
f. Analysis techniques to be implemented
The purpose of the proposal
Review of relevant literature
Implication of policy and practice
Dependant and Independent variables
Due to tremendous increase in crime rate, there is urgent need to evaluate and understand criminal behavior, to implement programs and develop strategies that will prevent criminal activities and curb crime increase, using considerately cost effective approaches and technological inputs.
With regards to the nature of the problem, the most convenient way that will be cost effective and easy to implement will be the use of Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) programs being integrated into the high school syllabus as an incentive which will make the program more appealing to the students, hence allowing for prevention…
Modern Situational Policing Philosophy and Operational Methodology:
Operational methodology in modern police administration ranges from the no- tolerance approach end of the spectrum to the community policing end of the spectrum.
Instituting the right operational methodology requires the flexibility to adapt to the local environment and the procedural mechanisms to evaluate successes and failures. Both systems have their advantages where conditions are conducive to their methods; neither works particularly well where it is reflects only administrative decisions without careful consideration of the operational environment (Nolan et al. 2005).
Generally, the no tolerance approach is a function of the so-called "broken windows" theory, according to which seemingly minor issues such as the lowest level violations and the cosmetic deterioration of physical property correspond to increased crimes of more serious nature (Ellison 2006). The idea of no tolerance means mandatory enforcement of quality-of-life violations such as loitering, leash law infractions,…
Duff, H.W. Concerned Reliable Citizens' Program. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Journal. Vol. 75 No. 8 (Aug/06).
Ellison, J. Community Policing: Implementation Issues. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Journal. Vol. 75 No. 4 (Apr/06).
Hodges, K. Tracking "Bad Guys": Legal Considerations in Using GPS. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Journal. Vol. 76 No. 7 (Jul/07).
Nagosky, D.P. The Admissibility of Digital Photographs in Criminal Cases. Federal Bureau of Investigation Law Enforcement Journal. Vol. 74 No.12 (Dec/05).
Terrorists operate like spies and not like soldiers. For this reason, terrorists are not regarded as members of the combat concerning the conventions and treaties that ban torture. Therefore, it is normal for them to be given a different treatment when they are captured. This approach suggests that terrorists undertake actions that exclude them from protection from torture as indicated in treaties such as the Geneva Conventions (Hall 27). Their actions justify the argument that terrorists should not be given the legal protection normally given to other citizens on the foundation of law. Moreover, terrorism has created the foundation of the global context that provides justification to the suspension of the rights of suspects. People who are suspected to assist terrorists or to be part of terrorism groups do not belong to humanity. Therefore, it is possible and necessary for them to be tortured if this is the only means…
McCormack, Wayne. Understanding the Law of Terrorism. New York: Lexis Nexis, 2007. Print
Hall, Simon. Peace and Freedom: The Civil Rights and Antiwar Movements in the 1960s.
Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011. Print
.....justice' transcends the scope of a majority of arguments. A discourse on its many connotations offers dynamic players on opposite sides of law enforcement lines a peaceful way to promote fairness via exchanges and interface. The requisite interface transcends the "no justice, no peace" principle. However, defining the term 'justice' would be a fine way to begin (Walton 10).
State and federal level regulation safeguards citizens of the nation against abuse as well as other similar violations on the part of law enforcers and other governmental authorities. Police abuse victims may individually sue both policemen and the local governmental bodies employing those officials (Advice Company Staff 3).
Usually, law enforcement officers are sued by society under the 1871 Civil Rights Act, §1983. The Act expressly forbids individuals who act on legal authority against infringing others' civil rights. Further, law enforcers are provided legal safeguards (e.g., "qualified immunity" that often shields…
nations, what particular historical developments may have had a major effect on their formation of criminal law and criminal justice administration?
The six model nations are China, France, England, ermany, Japan, and Saudi Arabia. The criminal law and justice systems of each of the aforementioned countries are shaped by some key developments in history.
France: French criminal law is shaped by a number of historical events, the most significant being the 1789 passage of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen by parliament (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). This declaration asserted several rights including the freedom from arbitrary detention, the right to equality, the right to liberty, the right to a presumption of innocence, and the need for power separation (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). It forms the basis of the principles that govern criminal law in France today (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). The rising to power of…
Germany: the most significant event in the history of criminal law development in Germany was the unification of the criminal code across local territories locally referred to as Lander (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). The unified code developed thereof (Reichsstrafgezetzbuch) forms the basis of German criminal law today. Like the French Penal Code, it distinguishes between crimes on the basis of seriousness such that felonies are punished more severely than misdemeanors (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). Owing to this unification, individual territories are given the discretion to handle their own affairs in relation to lower court administration, corrections, and policing; however, all their laws and provisions must be within the confines of the provisions of the unified code.
Japan: the development of the Japanese criminal code dates back to 604 AD, when the Seventeen Maxims of Prince Shotoku were developed, and the 700s, when Codes of Yoro and Taiho were established (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). The 1868 Meijji Restoration, however, marked the beginning of Japan's development of structured legal codes because it was then that the French Penal Code was adopted for use in Japanese criminal law (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). This would mark a series of a couple of other adoptions -- the German Code in the late eighteenth century and certain aspects of U.S. Law at the beginning of the 19th century (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). Today, the Japanese Criminal Code is merely a hybrid of the American, French, Chinese, and German (predominant) criminal law. It is made up of 3 integrated codes -- prison law, the criminal procedure code and the penal code (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). Unlike other countries, however, the Japanese Penal Code does not categorize crimes on the basis of seriousness, rather, it divides them as i) crimes against society ii) crimes against individuals, and iii) crimes against the state (Dammer & Albanese, 2013).
England: originally, English law did not distinguish between civil and criminal proceedings; it was not until the Norman Conquest of England in 1066 that this distinction was made (Dammer & Albanese, 2013). The legal system also became more organized after the conquest in 1066, with William the Conqueror establishing the King's Court (Curia Regis) to hear and decide criminal cases. The bases upon which these cases were
Victim advocates, also known as witness specialist or victim service providers are professionals within the criminal justice trained to offer support to crime victims in a compassionate and helpful manner. While the role of a victim advocate varies relative to the laws of a state, the roles could be summed into providing information provision, paperwork filing, crisis counseling, and court accompaniment. The role of a victim advocate may as well extend to contacting organizations such as social services and criminal justice that may provide information pertinent to a crime. The pertinent information provided may include; victim’s rights, victimization, crime prevention, criminal justice process, notification of inmates escape or release. Given that the victim possesses the most informed perspective relative to the crime, as opposed to telling the victim what decision to effect, a victim advocate provides the victim with diverse information that aid in reaching the appropriate decision…
Examples of offenses that are based on constitutional endowments of right contain tax evasion, possessing illegal substances and conspiring to violate civil rights. Courts have specified on the whole a wide explanation to the Commerce Clause authority, allowing Congress to create a federal offense of many widespread law crimes such as kidnapping or murder if state outline are fractious during commission of the crime and such as misappropriation and blackmail using instrumentalities of trade such as telephone lines or the U.S. post. Examples of offenses that are based on regions owned by or under the restricted power of the federal government contain crimes committed in the District of Columbia, in U.S. Territories, in U.S. National Parks, in federal courthouses and federal jails plus on board airplanes and ocean going ships. The United States armed force has its own immoral justice system applicable to its members, but civilians might be accused…
Wolfgang, Marvin (1990). Crime and Punishment in Renaissance Florence. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.
Schmalleger, Frank (2001). Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction. Prentice Hall. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.
Cornell University Law School. Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law School. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.
Nicholas J. Szabo. (2006). Jurisdiction as Property: Franchise Jurisdiction from Henry III to James I. Retrieved on January 11, 2008 at http://szabo.best.vwh.net/JurisdictionAsProperty.pdf
Distributive Justice and Accounting Practice:
Every society has an economic framework governed by laws, policies, and institutions that contribute to distinctive distributions of economic incentives and burdens among the members of the society. The economic frameworks are usually brought by human political processes and they usually change across societies and within societies over time. Economic frameworks play an important role in the society because their structures significantly influence the economic distributions, which in turn affect people's lives. One of the most significant aspects of economic frameworks is accounting principles and practices that play a significant role in the effectiveness of these systems. From a wider political/economic view, understanding the function of accounting is crucial for understanding how a society's economic framework operates. Generally, accounting is entrenched in a capitalist, free-market, and economic system through promoting the values upon which the system is based.
The topic of distributive justice…
"Federal Income Tax Brackets 2013." (n.d.). The 2013 Federal Tax Rates and Brackets.
Retrieved March 31, 2013, from http://www.taxbrackets2013.com/
Garrison, R.W. (1996, October 1). The Flat Tax: Simplicity Desimplified. Retrieved March 31,
2013, from http://www.fee.org/the_freeman/detail/the-flat-tax-simplicity-desimplified#axzz2P932Q1P5
criminal justice system by providing the essential definition of terms like Antidotal, Qualitative, and Quantitative Evidence. 'Justice' in the context criminal justice is also defined. The definitions in this study extend to include endnotes, footnotes, crime control, rehabilitative, due process, and nonintervention. The aspect of racial profiling like racism, bias, prejudice, bigotry, and discrimination in criminal justice is also addressed in detail.
Anecdotal evidence defines evidence established through anecdotes. The small sample allows for larger probabilities in realizing unreliable information due to non-representative or otherwise cherry-picked samples for typical cases. An example of anecdotal statement is 'There is proof that water can cure cancer. I read of a man suffering from cancer and was cured after drinking'. Qualitative evidence is sourced from methods of inquiry engaged in different academic disciplines and traditional forms of social sciences. However, it also includes further contexts and market research. Qualitative research aims at gathering…
Inciardi, James. Criminal Justice. New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2009. Print
Maxfield, Michael. And Babbie, Earl. Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology. New York: Cengage Learning, 2014. Print
Neubauer, David. And Fradella, Henry. America's Courts and the Criminal Justice System. New York: Cengage Learning, 2013. Print
Stojkovic, Stan, Kalinich, David, and John Klofas Criminal Justice Organizations: Administration and Management. New York: Cengage Learning, 2014. Print
However, as criminals become more aware of undercover tactics, the covert officer is required to provide more and more proof that he is indeed a criminal- which leads to the officer committing acts that compromise his or her integrity for the sake of maintaining cover. y understanding the often conflicting nature of these goals, deception and integrity, we can see how an undercover officer can become confused, lost, and susceptible to temptation (i.e. criminal behavior).
y examining both aspects- environmental factors and personality factors- we take into account both sides of a complex relationship. These two groups of factors, when combined together, shed some light on the exact nature of criminal tendencies amongst police officers.
Definition of Terms
Covert: another term for undercover, meaning the use of deception for the purpose of gathering information or intelligence.
Non-covert: police officers that, even in plain clothes, maintain their own true identity instead…
Choo, A., and Mellors, M. (1995) Undercover Police Operations and What the Suspect Said (Or Didn't Say). Web Journal of Current Legal Issues, Blackstone Press, University of Leicester. Web site: http://wenjcli.ncl.ac.uk/articles2/choo2.html
Girodo, M. (1985) Health and Legal Issues in Undercover Narcotics Investigations: Misrepresented Evidence. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3(3),299-308.
Girodo, M. (1991) Drug Corruption in Undercover Agents: Measuring the Risk. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 9, 361-370.
Girodo, M. (1997) Undercover Agent Assessment Centers: Crafting Vice and Virtue for Impostors. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 12(5), 237-260.
The killing of the two black American young men Amadou Diallo and Louima were separated by about two years but Amadou's killing happened just before the trial of Louima's case. Amadou's killing drew a lot of public interest that was focused on the conduct of the New York Police. It was the only such heated debate since the Knapp commission of the 70s which disclosed corruption in the police department. Amadou was from a middle class family that migrated from Guinea. They were engaged in simple trade activities including selling items on the streets. Amadou was shot 41 times in his apartment house in Bronx. His life was brought to an end by a special crimes unit of a group of four policemen operating under cover. It is a New York born strategy for combating aggressive crime (Harring & Ray, 1999). There is no doubt that a crime was indeed…
e. height, weight, age, race, etc.), in connection with the investigation of specific criminal activity, that information allows authorities to narrow the search for individuals who match those identifying characteristics. The process is perfectly logical and obviously makes infinitely more sense than continuing to search for individuals who bear no resemblance to the descriptions provided by reliable sources.
However, the same legitimate techniques with respect to specific evidence of crimes also has a history of impermissible application in ways that deprive subjects of police investigation of their fundamental constitutional rights. For example, in the late 20th century, the U.S. Customs Service and the Drug Enforcement Administration both made extensive use of what they called "criminal indicators" in connection with their efforts to apprehend criminal drug traffickers as they attempted to enter the U.S. At the borders (Schmalleger, 2007).
Among other criteria, those sets of indicators including Hispanic origin and language,…
Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Peak, K. (2002) Policing America: Methods, Issues, Challenges (Third Edition). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Schmalleger, F. (2007). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. Hoboken, NJ: Prentice Hall
U.S. Institute of Justice and Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (1999) Police-Public Contact Survey; Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences; Mar 2004
Patterns Juvenile Delinquency Throughout the World/How Determine Who Juvenile?
Patterns in juvenile delinquency also vary throughout the world, as do the way countries define "delinquency" among juveniles. The Japanese according to Platt (2005) have taken on a much more philosophical approach to juvenile delinquency, supporting a Confucian style structure of education and support, one that works toward educating children to become part of the larger social collective (p. 965). In this environment, children are encouraged to become more socially aware and to self-regulate, often given the opportunity to reform before they are punished for wrongdoings.
This conflicts sharply with juvenile delinquency programs and structures elsewhere in the world. In Australia, juvenile delinquency is often associated with being a member of a juvenile gang, which is defined as "youth hanging out on the streets with gang activity" or street activity that has the potential to lead to mischievous behaviors (Duffy &…
Duffy, M.P. & Gillig, S. (2004). Teen gangs: A global view. Westport: Greenwood Press.
ICMBA. (2007). American Legal System. Internet Center for Management and Business
Administration, Inc. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved 22, May, 2007: