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Adolescent Psychology Issues
There will always be some conflict between adolescents and their parents because growing up means finding one's own way -- relating to the world through youthful, sometimes naive eyes -- while also being instructed and guided by one's parents. But the intensity of conflict and the reasons for conflict in this parent-adolescent genre differ dramatically, and have different impacts on adolescents as they grow and mature. The research article by Barbara Allison and Jerelyn Schultz delves into the parent-adolescent conflict during the "early years" of adolescence, which the authors claim has received "much less attention" than the adolescent years (12 to 18).
Parent-Adolescent Conflict in Early Adolescence
According to Allison et al., their checklist given to 357 young people (grades 6, 7, and 8) revealed many conflicts with parents "…over a sizable number of issues." And during this period of adolescent -- parental contentiousness, Allison's research shows…
Allison, Barbara N., and Schultz, Jerelyn B. (2004). Parent-Adolescent Conflict In Early
Adolescence. Adolescence, 39(153), 101-117.
Adolescents undergo different changes, which also come with many challenges. Adolescent interviews can be conducted to find out about different factors affecting their lives. Some of these factors include life-course trajectories, teenage parenthood, early marriage and different body changes affecting them. These children can also have intergenerational changes that can affect them. These changes occur since they use up most time with their friends, family, classmates and even neighbors. Intergenerational effects can be studied by looking collective socialization of peers at home and school. The interviewer should be conscious about adolescents' developmental tasks and processes. The interviewer can also explore different areas, from identity, family school performance, peer group and sex.
Family patterns encountered by the children show that the patterns are most influential during adolescence. Adolescent start to look at their future at this stage and this makes them form collective socialization about family forms, in the social context…
Bonio, S.C. (2005). Adolescents and Risk Behaviours. Chicago: Springer.
Neinsten, L. (2010). Adolescent Healthcare: A Practical Guide. Atlanta: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Olson, S.N. (2011). Toward an Intergrated Science of Research. London: National Academic Press.
Matching students' interests with learning objectives will increase the chances of students' learning. They tend to use it and remember it long after. Using literature relevant to adolescents, for example, will raise their literacy and capacity to address contemporary issues affecting them. Reading materials about adolescents and for adolescents are another window into their world that teachers should be looking into. This is the time when they should read about themselves rather than simply sitting down for an hour and taking notes (Chckley).
Applying Learning in the Community through Projects
Projects, which give meaning to learning in the classroom, will leave an impression in adolescents' mind (Checkley, 2004). Learning about Veterans Day as a service-learning project, for example, demonstrates this. Students may be asked to identify a veteran in their family or among their acquaintances or friends. They may be asked to write the veteran a letter of appreciation or…
Checkley, K. (2004). Meeting the needs of the adolescent learner. Vo. 46 # 5 Education
Update: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Retrieved on July
21, 2012 from http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/ed_update/ecc200408.checkley.pdf
Cherry, K. (2012). Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. About.com: The New
Adolescent Bullying Fact Sheet
Opinions regarding the etiology of bullying vary. As with many behaviors, there are those that contend that bullies learn and practice behaviors of aggression and violence in the home environment. Some argue that bullies hurt others because they experience abuse in their own lives and manifest their feelings of disgust & horror at their own weakness or vulnerability by hurting others. There are also arguments that some people become bullies because they lack sufficient social intelligence, awareness and skill. They may perceive aggression or hostility in others, including in their words & behaviors, when the person victimized by the bully, truly shows no signs nor has no intentions of violence or conflict. The pathophysiology of bullies includes higher blood pressure, subpar impulse control, and other physical indicators of stress, anger, rage, and even confusion. Those who are victimized may sweat excessively, have anxiety attacks,…
Coopers, G.D., Clements, T.C., & Holt, K.E. (2012). Examining Childhood Bullying and Adolescent Suicide: Implications for School Nurses. The Journal of School Nursing, 28(4), 275 -- 283.
National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center. (2002). Facts for Teens: Bullying. Rockville, MD. Available from: www.safeyouth.org. 2013 January 16.
The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2011). Facts for Families -- Bullying. The American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Journal, 80(2011), 1 -- 3.
The transition from pre-conventional to conventional moral development is changing one's view from selfishness to responsibility for others. The transition from conventional to post conventional development is from goodness to truth that "they are people, too." Gilligan's theory supports that there is more than one dimension to moral reasoning, whereas Kohlberg's theory is focused on a male-centered view.
An individual employing problem-focused coping strategies will target the cause of their stress and focus on the problem that is causing the stressful situation. People typically try to learn about the problem and develop skills to manage the situation. Problem-focused coping strategies work best in situations the individual can control, for example, studying for an exam and work-based stressors. In circumstances that are out of an individual's control, such as death and coping with loss, one can use emotion-focused coping strategies. Emotion-focused coping involves reducing stress that is coupled with negative…
Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments: 10-Year Critical eview of the esearch Literature
Over ten million teenagers in the United States admit in a national survey that they drink alcohol, although it is illegal under the age of 21 in all states. In some studies, nearly one-quarter of school-age children both smoked cigarettes and drank alcohol. Over four thousand adolescents every day try marijuana for the first time. The dangers of use, abuse and dependency on each of these substances have been established. When we also consider that these three substances are considered gateway drugs, that is, drugs whose use is likely to lead to experimentation with "hard" drugs, the potential problem of such widespread use is even more severe. Additionally, use of these substances is known to co-occur with a number of other psychiatric conditions as well as health issues such as the incidence of sexually-transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancies and…
Aarons, Gregory A.; Brown, Sandra A.; Hough, Richard L.; Garland, Ann F.; Wood, Patricia A. Prevalence of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders Across Five Sectors of Care (Statistical Data Included). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, April 2001 v40 i4 p419
Adger, Hoover Jr.; Werner, Mark J. The pediatrician (role in treatment of alcohol-related disorders). Alcohol Health and Research World, Spring 1994 v18 n2 p121 (6)
Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Symptoms of Adolescents. National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence of the San Fernando Valley, Inc. [Online]. Retrieved January 20, 2003 from http:/ / www.ncadd-sfv.org/symptoms/teen_symptoms.html
Alcohol use and abuse: a pediatric concern (American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Substance Abuse). Pediatrics, March 1995 v95 n3 p439 (4)
The key years during which experimentation occurs - between 13 and 16.
Kobus discusses influences that launch an adolescent's smoking habit from several perspectives. First, the "social learning theory": relationships that are "more intimate" and that are developed "earlier in the youth's experiences" and thought to be more important; and youths are more likely to "imitate the smoking habits" (or non-smoking habits) of those with whom they have the closes and most frequent contact. Second, the "primary socialization theory" takes into consideration influences of the family, schools, and peer clusters; this theory also gives consideration to an adolescent's "individual personality traits" like self-esteem, anxiety, "sensation seeking and psychopathology" that are "direct influences on drug use and deviance," Kobus writes. hen the bonds a youth has with family and school are "weak," the role of peer clusters is "heightened"; and of course if the individual has low self-esteem, the peer cluster…
American School Board Journal. (2007). Violent video games poison the teenage brain:
Study. National School Boards Association.
Crosby, Richard; Voisin, Dexter; Salazar, Laura F.; DiClement, Ralph J.; Yarber, William L.;
Caliendo, Angela M. (2006). Family Influences and biologically Confirmed Sexually
Economic deprivation arises from various activities and aspects of the family in attempts to minimize the threats affecting the at-risk youth. Some of the factors affecting the economic deprivation in relation to at-risk youth within the family include rehabilitation fee, treatment fee, and addiction cost thus affecting the overall economic level of the family (McWhirter,2013). This is a problem with the scarce family resources thus the need to adopt and integrate effective elements towards minimization or management of the problems affecting the growth and development of the family members in relation to the existing factors.
Another critical family problem or issue relates to the lack of adults and parental role models under the influence massive drug addiction thus affecting the growth and development of the youths within the family unit. It is also essential to note that at-risk youths increases parental criminality and development of family violence attitudes or anti-social…
Monica H. Swahn & Robert M. Bossarte. (2009). Assessing and Quantifying High Risk:
Comparing Risky Behaviours by Youth in an Urban, Disadvantaged Community with Nationally Representative Youth. Public Health Rep. 124(2): 224
Ken C. Winters et al., (2011). Advances in Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment. Curr Psychiatry Rep. 13(5): 416 -- 421.
Kuther TL & Posada M. (2004). Children and adolescents' capacity to provide informed consent for participation in research. Adv Psychol Res. 32:163-73.
The lessons teens learn during this potentially idealistic period are lessons the teens can remembers throughout their lives, and hopefully use to become more involved and concerned adult citizens.
Set limits for behavior, but show respect for teens. Demand respect from teenagers, this article counsels both patents and educators. But also show respect for teens. Just as, for example, a parent ought to hold fast to a curfew, a teacher should hold fast to deadlines and try to create good habits that will last the adolescent for the rest of his or her lifetime. Requirements should be reasonable, and developmentally appropriate, but they should not infantilize the teen. Rather, teachers must treat adolescents as adolescents, not as children or as adults. Ideally, using the teen's developing self-awareness as social consciousness to create a more positive identity and role for the adolescent as a student and citizen should be the goal…
Posting #3 ead articles choose interest. Analyze articles describe leadership roles discussed. Compare attributes nurse leaders. •http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/global_health/home/News/women/mch_midwives.
The influence of adolescent egocentrism (personal fable, imaginary audience, invincibility) on delinquent behavior
Parents often refer to adolescents as egocentric and self-centered. However, this is not simply a subjective moral judgment of a frustrated mother or father -- it is an identified product of the biological and social experience of being an adolescent. Adolescent egocentrism is different from the egocentrism of a very young child that perceives no differentiation between self and other (Alberts, Elkind & Ginsberg 2007: 71). With adolescents, egocentrism manifests itself in what is called the 'imaginary audience' or the belief that everyone in the world is equally preoccupied with the adolescent as him or herself. An adolescent might spend hours getting ready to go to a casual party than an adult might prepare for a half hour…
Alberts, Amy, Elkind, David & Ginsberg, Stephen. (2006). The personal fable and risk-taking in early adolescence. J Youth Adolescence (2007) 36:71 -- 76
Adolescence: A conflicted life period
Adolescence is often considered to be a particularly 'fraught' time during the average individual's life history. Although the construction of adolescence and the age during which someone is considered to be an adolescent may vary from culture to culture, most societies define a certain period of time as 'not childhood' and 'not adulthood.' There are common physiological changes seen in all adolescents such as menstruation in females; lowered voice in males; and increased height and body hair in both genders. Adolescents also begin to experience and experiment with showing sexual desire. However, these changes can cause great anxiety and confusion, as the adolescent struggles with his or her emerging adolescent identity.
Females in particular tend to be more anxious about their body image than boys because of the great emphasis placed upon female beauty within the culture as a measure of self-worth…
Zastrow, C. & Kirst-Ashman, K. (2010). Understanding human behavior and the social
Environment. 8th ed. Cengage Learning.
His article does an excellent job of discussing in comprehensible terms the recent research which has addressed the current state of knowledge about the relationship between substance abuse amongst teens and mood disorders and provides a breakdown of possible treatment options.
Flaherty, L., & Flaherty, M. (2005). Adolescent psychiatry: he annals of the American society for adolescent psychiatry (Vol. 29). Hillsdale, New Jersey: Analytic Press.
his resource is from a special edition of Adolescent Psychiatry that pertains specifically to issues that arise along with adolescent substance abuse issues. he topics within range from teenagers with Ecstacy addiction to gambling problems. o the practitioner and the interested adult, parent, or educator, the information within this journal provides a fastidious and compelling look into the vast range of issues that may coincide with an adolescent's substance abuse problem. With specific regard to adolescents, depression, and substance abuse, two articles are especially illuminating:…
This resource is from a special edition of Adolescent Psychiatry that pertains specifically to issues that arise along with adolescent substance abuse issues. The topics within range from teenagers with Ecstacy addiction to gambling problems. To the practitioner and the interested adult, parent, or educator, the information within this journal provides a fastidious and compelling look into the vast range of issues that may coincide with an adolescent's substance abuse problem. With specific regard to adolescents, depression, and substance abuse, two articles are especially illuminating: one which discusses comorbidity amongst teenagers with depression and substance abuse issues and another which discusses issues related to dual diagnoses in adolescents with depression and substance abuse issues.
Schwartzberg, A.Z. (Ed.). (1998). The Adolescent in Turmoil. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. Retrieved April 17, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=26000946
Schwartzberg addresses several of the salient issues that have arisen in modern times with regard to adolescents and mental health conflicts. A significant amount of the book focuses upon diagnosing and treating adolescents struggling with depression. Within this text, he also addresses the normal and pathological adolescent as well as the overall development of the adolescent which can be helpful in addressing the differences amongst adolescents with depression and those without. There are additional sections that discuss specific issues that afflict troubled adolescents such as eating disorders, mood disorders, aggressive and violent behavior, and suicide. This text is written in comprehensible terms and the reader does not need to have extensive medical background to understand its contents.
It produced a net increase in perceived benefits of protective behavior and in self-efficacy among both males and females, and a reduction in perceived barriers to protective behavior among females. Consistent with these changes, it was also associated with a reduction in risky sexual behavior among young men and an increase in contraceptive use among young men and women (Agha, 2002, p. 67+).
Agha also noted that there was more positive change among young women than among young men, a fact that "may reflect a better ability of these adolescent sexual health interventions to address the concerns of women than of men, or a greater receptivity to such interventions among young women than among young men" (2002, p. 67+). Because of the success of this program, however, Agha suggests that means of reaching young men to the same extent are worthy of additional study, and multi-media, educational programs of long…
Agha, Sohail. "A Quasi-Experimental Study to Assess the Impact of Four Adolescent Sexual Health Interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa." International Family Planning Perspectives, vol. 28, no. 2 (2002), vol. 28, no. 2, p. 67+. Retrieved October 12, 2005 from www.questia.com.
Dijamba, Yanyi K. "Social Capital and Premarital Sexual Activity in Africa: The Case of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo." Journal Title: Archives of Sexual Behavior. 32, no. 4, (2003), 327+. Retrieved October 12, 2005 from www.questia.com.
Kiragu, Karungari and Laura Schwab Zabin. "The Health Consequences of Adolescent Sexual and Fertility Behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa." Studies in Family Planning, vol. 29, no. 2 (1998), 210+. Retrieved October 12, 2005 from www.questia.com.
Koblinsky, Marjorie A., Oona M.R. Campbell, S.D. Harlow. "Mother and more: A broader perspective on women's health." In The Health of Women: A Global Perspective. Ed. Marlene A. Koblinsky, Judith Timyan, and Jill Gay. Boulder, CO. Westview Press. (1993) Pp.33-62.
Adolescents' Emotional Adjustment
School Organization and Adolescents' Emotional Adjustment
att's article explores the connection between school organization and adolescents' mental health. There is a commonly held belief that adolescents receive a superior educational and interpersonal experience in private schools and small schools. att cites studies by Coleman and others that have given support to the perceived superiority of private schools. Coleman's findings in support of private schools did not however address mental health, but were instead limited to academic achievement.
att's questions "Are private schools better not only for academic achievement but for mental health? Are small schools associated with broad indicators of emotional well-being?" (2003, p.345) form the basis for her study. att's study addresses these issues by examining three indicators of adolescents' emotional adjustment: depression, suicide attempts and violent dispositions.
att's study analyzed data collected by the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent health, which surveyed health-related…
Watt, T.T. (2003). Are small schools better for adolescents' emotional adjustment? Sociology of Education, 76(4), 344-367.
Adolescents & Advertising Media Messages
Examination of a Commercial
The advertisement chosen for examination in this brief study is Britney Spears Pepsi commercial in 2010, which was part of the advertising during the World Cup. The intended audience for the advertisement is the general audience and specifically male and female young people. The ad features Brittney Spears singing, drinking Pepsi, and volley a ball. Brittney appears beautiful and sexy in this commercial and gives the appearance that drinking Pepsi will make everyone athletic and sexy. This ad would be interpreted of course by each gender differently as the male gender would interpret the commercial to mean that drinking Pepsi would ensure that they attract sexy girls and females would view the commercial as appealing to them to drink Pepsi to ensure that they are hot and sexy like Brittney Spears. This ad is not accurate in its portrayal of body…
(13) Kaiser Family Foundation (2005). Generation M: Media in the lives of eight to eighteen-year-olds. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www.kff.org/entmedia/entmedia030905pkg.cfm .
(14) How to Magazines Effect Body Image (2008) Center on Media and Child Health. Education.com. Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/how-magazines-affect-body-image/
(15) Ransohoff, J. (2010) Teens and the Media. Palo Alto Medical Foundation. Retrieved from: http://www.pamf.org/teen/life/bodyimage/media.html
In fact, even executives in fashion and beauty magazines see an alarming trend of "too thin" to the point of looking emaciated and unhealthy -- certainly not a look that "sells" (Wilson 542).
What is happening is a continual push to be something different, not because there is actually anything wrong with us -- at all. It is because advertising tells us that something is wrong. Advertising is part of the marketing mix that is designed to persuade a consumer to purchase something. Of course, there are many ways of doing this, and the "science" of this media has certainly evolved in the last century. Advertising is subliminal, sophisticated, pervasive, covert, overt, and a seminal part of the contemporary world. However, advertising has become so sophisticated that it sends messages both overt and covert that even if we are not paying attention to the exact product, the images we see…
Croll, J. "From Body Image and Adolescents." Elements of Arguments. Ed. a. Rottenberg and D. Winchell. 9th. New York: St. Martin's, 2010. 536-41.
Wilson, E. "When Is Thin Too Thin?" Elements of Arguments. Ed. a. Rottenberg and D. Winchell. 9th. New York: St. Martin's, 2010. 542-4.
There are remedies (albeit not easy ones for the individuals involved), as suggested by the research. However, and this is very important, the current public health approaches that the Saudi government has taken, as Mabrey et al. (2010) note, have focused fairly narrowly on medical approaches. This focus includes research that has been conducted on metabolic syndrome (which is caused primarily by being overweight). This is caused by clear-cut factors and has a number of possible poor consequences.
Mabrey et al. (2010) note that metabolic syndrome is on average 10 to 15% higher in the GCC states than in the rest of world and that females are disproportionately affected by metabolic syndrome. These researchers are among those who note that a strictly medical approach to such medical problems is far from sufficient. For while metabolic syndrome itself can be identified and described in purely medical terms, such an approach does…
Abraham, S. & Nordsieck, M. (1960). Relationship of excess weight in children and adults. Public Health 75: 263-273.
Alghamdi, K.M. (2010). The use of topical bleaching agents among women: A cross-sectional study of knowledge, attitude and practices. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 24(10): 1214-1219.
Al-Qahtani, D.A., Imtiaz, M.L., Saad, O.S., & Hussein, N.M. (2006). A comparison of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi adult females using two definitions. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, 4(3): 204-214.
Al Qauhiz, N.M. (2010). Obesity among Saudi Female University Students: Dietary Habits and Health Behaviors. Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 85(1-2):45-59.
Adolescence is an especially critical development stage for any individual. At this stage, individuals not only experience biological changes, but also become more aware of gender roles and expectations and experience cognitive development. Family and school become social incubators that trigger changes and psychosocial responses in adolescents. The film The Breakfast Club shows how a group of five adolescents go through critical changes in this stage of their life. This paper will highlight the developmental markers observed in one character depicted the film, Claire. Clare will be used as a case study to explore developmental issues related to gender, biology, and cognition. The paper also highlights various socialization agents (specifically school and family) and how they impact the individual’s self-concept, identity, and social role.
The Breakfast Club features five teenagers detained all day at Shermer High School. Several developmental markers are evident in the film. One of the markers is…
The subject interviewed is a 17-year-old Hispanic male from Cleveland, Ohio. Although his legal name is Harley, this adolescent chooses to call himself by the name "Renegade." Renegade lives in a loft with 12 other boys ranging from the ages of 15 to 27 above a rare book store in a historic and impoverished section of the city. Renegade was either orphaned or abandoned at a young age, and spent many years bouncing around foster homes and group homes as a ward of the state of California. Since leaving the care of the state, Renegade was able to uncover many mysteries about his past that were officially "sealed" regarding his biological family. Renegade was not given any information about his ethnic background as a child, but his mocha-colored skin and dark, striking hair obviously set him apart as an ethnic minority. There were Latino and Mexican boys in…
Aranel et al. (2005) "Erik Erikson." Wikipedia. Retrieved 3/10/2005 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erik_H._Erikson
Brainmeta. (2004) "Jean Piaget" Retrieved 3/10/2005 from: http://brainmeta.com/personality/piaget.php
Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [3/10/2005] from http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/piaget.html .
Karp, J. (2004) "Erikson's stages of psychosocial development." (2005) "Erik Erikson." Wikipedia. Retrieved 3/10/2005 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erikson%27s_stages_of_psychosocial_development
Student counselors are can organize a student led drug abuse prevention committee and create awareness among the adolescent children. Study results have confirmed the positive value of such student led programs in preventing the malice of drug abuse. It has also been found that multiyear preventive programs have long lasting positive effects that short-term programs. . Programs such as 'Friendly Persuasion', 'Life skills Training', 'Midwestern Prevention Project' which were implemented in schools had a considerable measure of success in reducing drug abuse and in delaying the onset of drinking.[155-158]. Student counselors have to interact with teachers, social workers, health care professionals and other community-based groups to workout and implement student activity programs that can be run by adolescents.
4) by providing a positive developmental environment at school the student counselor optimizes the chances of a student succeeding in his overall development. As Pittman states, "Adolescents who are merely problem-free are…
CBASSE, "Community Programs to Promote Youth Development (2002)"
National Academy Press, Available Online at, http://books.nap.edu/books/0309072751/html/R1.html#pagetop
This term seems to have been coined in the 1990s when researchers were attempting to describe a constellation of behaviors observed in persons using the Internet to such an extent that it began to cause other aspects of their lives to become dysfunctional. The DSM-IV disorder most similar to the pattern of behaviors observed with overuse of video games is pathological gambling. Presumably, the more colloquial term addiction was derived from the similarities to gambling addiction. For this report, this pattern of heavy video game playing is referred to as "video game overuse." (Khan, 2007) Kahn additionally relates that: "Symptoms of time usage and social dysfunction/disruption appear in patterns similar to that of other addictive disorders. It is not clear whether withdrawal symptoms are associated with video game overuse; some excessive users do not exhibit "cravings" for the games if they are unavailable, while other users insist they cannot reduce…
Hauge, Marny R. And Gentile, Douglas a. (2003) Video game addiction among adolescents: associations with academic performance and aggression - Presented at Society for research in child development conference, April 2 -- 3 Tampa Florida.
Special Report: Video Game Addiction (2005) New Orleans WDSU.com. 24 Feb 2005. Online available at http://www.wdsu.com/news/4160216/detail.html .
Khan, Mohamed K. (2007) Emotional and Behavioral Effects, Including Addictive Potential, of Video Games. Report of the Council on Science and Public Health. CSAPH Report 12-a-07
Computer Games Addiction (2005) National Institute on Media and the Family. Online available at http://www.mediafamily.org/facts/facts_gameaddiction.shtml
This research considered this by looking at a key constituent of low self-control which is the risk seeking tendency in order to decide its constancy and change throughout early childhood, its influences on changes in criminal behavior, and its receptiveness to a complete delinquency lessening program. These matters were looked at with information from the Children at isk (CA) program, an arbitrarily allocated interference that looked at early youth. The examination exposed considerable reliability in risk seeking, but there was proof of change as well, and these alterations were connected with contemporary alterations in delinquency. isk seeking alterations were not a consequence of contribution in the CA program, in spite of that program's achievement at dropping some appearance of delinquency (Hay, Meldrum, Forrest and Ciaravolo, 2010).
Part II: Assessment of the main strengths of the reading with particular emphasis on its utility for understanding adolescent development or social work intervention.…
Arthur, Michael W., Hawkins, J. David, Brown, Eric C, Briney, John S., Oesterle, Sabrina and Abbott, Robert D. (2010). Implementation of the Communities that Care Prevention
System by Coalitions in the Community Youth Development Study. Journal of Community Psychology, 38(2), p. 245 -- 258.
Hay, Carter, Meldrum, Ryan, Forrest, Walter and Ciaravolo, Emily. (2010). Stability and Change
in Risk Seeking: Investigating the Effects of an Intervention Program. Retrieved December 6, 2010, from http://yvj.sagepub.com/content/8/2/91
On the other hand, 'resistance for liberation' may have the obverse effect causing children (in this case adolescents) to take these self-same disabling elements and use them for their growth and success.
Poverty may be a social construct but it need not tarnish an individual for life. Ultimately, the individual decides what to do with his or her life, and the same circumstances that can turn one into a drug-doped self-destructed convict can turn another into a bastion of society.
Ayers. W. A kind and just parents. The children of juvenile court
Leadbetter, B.., & Niobe, W. (2007). Urban girls revisited: Building strengths. NY Univ. Press. NY.
Lichter, D., Shannahan, M., & Gardner, E. (2002). Helping others: The effects of childhood poverty and family instability on prosocial behavior, Youth and Society, 34, 89-119
Martin, D., Martin, M., Gell, ., Davis, C., & Guerreri, K. (2008). Adolescence, 43, 608-711.
Ayers. W. A kind and just parents. The children of juvenile court
Leadbetter, B.R., & Niobe, W. (2007). Urban girls revisited: Building strengths. NY Univ. Press. NY.
Lichter, D., Shannahan, M., & Gardner, E. (2002). Helping others: The effects of childhood poverty and family instability on prosocial behavior, Youth and Society, 34, 89-119
Martin, D., Martin, M., Gell, R., Davis, C., & Guerreri, K. (2008). Adolescence, 43, 608-711.
There is also a strong peer-association element to inhalant abuse which is why identification of at-risk behaviors, preventative counseling, and education are among the most effective means of prevention (NIDA, 2010; Wu, Pilowsky, & Schlenger, 2004).
By the time pre-teens and adolescents begin experimenting with alcohol, tobacco products, chemical inhalants, and recreational drugs, it is much more difficult to intervene effectively than it is before those behaviors first emerge (Wu, Pilowsky, & Schlenger, 2004). Since inhalant abuse is one of the first forms of substance abuse available to children, the most effective approach to prevention and intervention is educational programs targeting elementary school children. By socializing younger children to recognize the dangers associated with inhalants, it is possible to reduce the likelihood that they will participate in that behavior by the time they reach the age of 12, which is when most participants begin experimenting with it for the…
NIDA. (2010). Inhalant Abuse. Accessed 1 November, 2010, from:
Wu, L.T., Pilowsky, D.J., and Schlenger, W.E.J. "Inhalant abuse and dependence among adolescents in the United States." American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Vol. 43, No. 10; 2004: 1206-14.
To specifically teach the biology of puberty, students can fill in diagrams of the body and brain, identifying the areas associated with the hormones the human body releases in during puberty and the areas of the body affected most by these hormones (Puberty, 2007, Discovery.com). Understanding the physical reasons for hair growth and the male change of vocal tone can make these changes seem less frightening when students experience them personally.
Also, trusting adults can be difficult for students at this age. Parents may be worried about what their child is learning in class on this subject. To bridge the difference between adult and child attitudes, and create dialogue, teachers can create supportive assignments such as asking students to brainstorm questions they have about the opposite sex and the experience of puberty, and then assigning students the task of interviewing a parent or trusted adult of the opposite sex to…
Puberty." (2007). Lesson Plans Library: Grades 6-8. Discovery.com. Retrieved 26 Aug 2007 at http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/programs/ragingteens
This was equivalent to those youth utilizing ongoing, long-term services (Pollio, Thompson, Tobias, eid and Spitznagel, 2006).
There are several significant limitations that must be considered when looking at the results of this study. First, there was lack of a control group which limits the conclusions that can be drawn concerning causal assertions about the effectiveness of services. It is thought that future research on service use for this population needs to include a comparison condition of other troubled youth, perhaps runaway/homeless youth not seeking crisis services. Features of the sampling strategy limited the generalization of the findings. Since the sample included only service-using youth, it is not generalizable to the entire runaway/homeless population. The authors believed that the youth in this sample were representative of the population of service-using runaway/homeless youth from Missouri, Illinois, Nebraska, and Kansas. However, other research has suggested that this population is not representative…
Pollio, David E., Thompson, Sanna J., Tobias, Lisa, Reid, Donna and Spitznagel, Edward.
(2006). Longitudinal Outcomes for Youth Receiving Runaway/Homeless Shelter
Services. Journal of Youth & Adolescence. 35(5), p. 852-859.
Bay-Cheng, L.Y. (Aug., 2001). SexEd.com: Values and norms in Web-based sexuality education. Journal of Sex Research, 38(3), 241-251.
Beebe, T.J., Asche, S.E., Harrison, P.A., & Quinlan, K.B. (Aug., 2004). Heightened vulnerability and increased risk-taking among adolescent chat room users: Results from a statewide school survey. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35(2), 116-123.
Borzekowski, Dina L.G. & Rickert, Vaughn I. (2001b). Adolescent cybersurfing for health information: A new resource that crosses barriers. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 155, 813-817.
Brown, J.D. (Feb., 2002). Mass media influences on sexuality. Journal of Sex Research, 39(1), 42-45.
There are multiple stages of development that all children go through. The depth and breadth of these developmental changes ebb and flow greatly as growing children move from one stage of development to the next. Overall, there are several major developmental stages in the life of a child. There are the toddler years, the prepubescent years and the adolescent/teenage years. The brief literature review that follows in this report shall focus on the last of those. To be complete with this analysis, adolescence is not the end of human development given that many suggest that development extends into the 20's and 30's. Even so, the adolescent years of development are hailed by many as being the most pivotal, at least in some regards. While many would debate the above, it is clear that the adolescent years are among the most important.
Regardless of the development or life stage that…
Increased vocabulary levels leads to increases in reading comprehension. Students with higher levels of vocabulary can also express themselves in more unique and complex formats, essentially increasing their ability to comment on the reading material in a way that better correlates with their exact emotions or experiences associated with that reading material.
Writing summaries for reading material is another method of using writing exercises to increase literacy levels. Teachers should implement lessons were students write hierarchal summaries that help organize the structure of reading material in a shape that is more familiar and understandable to students (Meltzer, Cook, & Clark, 2011). Writing summaries force students to internalize the material and reassert it in a different way. This further engages them with the texts, as they are forced to put the material in their own words.
Thirdly, using student-generated content to expose weaknesses in understanding can play a key role. Having…
Guthrie, John T. (2001). Contexts for engagement and motivation in reading. Reading Online. 4(8). Retrieved September 21, 2012 from http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=/articles/handbook/guthrie/index.html
Guthrie, John T. (2012). Adolescent literacy: Issues, knowledge base, design principles, and challenges. Center on Instruction. Web. Retrieved September 21, 2012 from http://centeroninstruction.org/
Melzter, Julie, Cook, Nancy, & Clark, Holly. (2011). Adolescent Literary Resources: Linking Research and Practice. Center for Resource Management. Brown University. Web. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from www.alliance.brown.edu/pubs/adlit/alr_lrp.pdf
Self-esteem must be combined with other components of emotional distress, such as the factors which affect perceptions of the self and of other peers. Factors should include competence, confidence, and acceptance, among others.
Behaviors that are considered to be negative by society may not be the factors that most strongly affect self-perceptions and self-esteem, however. As noted by Mosley (1995), factors which are interpreted and internalized as negative will have a significant impact on self-esteem, even if they are not socially irresponsible. Mosley's example is that adolescent receipt of welfare is associated with lower levels of perceived self-worth. Mosley notes the importance of self-esteem on the mental health and ability of children and adolescents, as noted in previous research (Wilson & Portes, 1975 as cited in Mosley, 1995). Rosenberg and Pearlin (1978) found little relationship between social class and self-esteem, while other researchers have found conclusive links between income/class and…
The traditional two-dimensional views of self-esteem must be abandoned for it to be an effectual method of measure. High self-esteem does not necessarily create a healthy adolescent. Campbell and Foddis (2003) notes the high levels of self-esteem in murderers, rapists, and other social deviants. In these cases, the perpetrator may be affected by perception of others as inferior, therefore justifying his or her actions, or may be affected by the perception of self, regardless of self-esteem. How high one's perception of self is may be an accurate way to determine the likelihood of social deviance. Of course, there are many other factors to be considered as well.
Most research does not take all, or even many, of the factors necessary for developing an understanding of the adolescent situation. Taking a global approach to self-esteem that would include perceptions of the self and perceptions of others, as well as self-esteem levels, may reveal some understanding of adolescent reactions and behavior. The proposed research being approached presently would take global factors into consideration rather than merely focusing on one or two individual factors which would not reveal a complete picture.
The perception of
This study can apply to just about any overweight adolescent, and it is important because that is a growing segment of America's overweight population. The researchers concluded this is a "sensitive population," and that is true. Many studies have shown that this can be the time lifelong eating habits develop, including eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia. Thus, discovering what works and motivates adolescents when they are dieting can lead to reduced numbers of young people suffering from these diseases as well as obesity.
A chose this article because I have had friends with eating disorders, and friends who are overweight from a young age. I think it is important to find ways to educated adolescents so the obesity problem lessens, and they develop healthy eating habits early in their lives.
L. Shepherd, D. Neumark-Aztainer, K. Beyer, et al. "Should Adolescent Obesity Prevention Programs Focus on Calories?" Nutrition…
L. Shepherd, D. Neumark-Aztainer, K. Beyer, et al. "Should Adolescent Obesity Prevention Programs Focus on Calories?" Nutrition Research Newsletter, Oct. 2006. 30 Jan. 2007. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0887/is_10_25/ai_n16807654
(Reading for the 21st Century: Adolescent Literacy Teaching and Learning Strategies," 2004)
2. Alphabetic Principle-related Skills: This includes: "phonemic awareness, the ability to manipulate the sounds of oral language and phonics and the relationship of letters to sound." (Ibid) Strategies includes instruction" that focuses on high-frequency, sound- spelling relationships." (Ibid)
3. Fluency: This is the ability to read "quickly, accurately and with appropriate expression." (Ibid) Strategies include: "guided oral reading and repeated reading" (Ibid) for improving fluency and comprehension.
4. Vocabulary: The size of the learner's vocabulary is that which leads to "large variations in reading ability." (Ibid) Strategies include "direct [and] explicit instruction and learning from context while reading" (Ibid) for increasing vocabulary among students.
5. Reading Comprehension: This is the most "apparent deficit in students' reading abilities at the secondary level." (Ibid) Strategies include the following:
a) Comprehensive monitoring;
b) Cooperative learning;
d) Story structure;
Davey, Heidi (2006) Motivation and Adolescent and Adult Readers. PowerPoint presentation. Hoffman Estates High School, Northern Illinois University. Online available at http://www.reading.ie/conferences/2006/Motivation%20and%20the%20Adolescent%20Reader.ppt.
Alvermann, Donna E. (2001) Effective Literacy Instruction for Adolescents. National Reading Conference (NRC) position paper - revised. 25 Oct 2001. Online available at http://www.coe.uga.edu/reading/faculty/alvermann/effective2.pdf .
Reading Literacy for the 21st Century (2004) published online and available at http://www.all4ed.org/publications/Reading%20for%2021st%20Century.pdf .
Wigfield, Alan (nd) Motivation for Literacy During Adolescence. Online available at http://www.soe.umich.edu/events/als/downloads/wigfield.pdf .
Unfortunately, for those individuals who did not use direct coping strategies but instead used the kind of coping that distances one's thoughts, emotions, and physical presence from the stressor (e.g., denial and wishful thinking) or disengages completely (e.g., escape and emotional numbing) to cope with discrimination stress tended to have lower self-esteem.
Consequences/Effects of Low Self-Esteem
A number of studies have shown that low self-esteem is predictive of negative outcomes. Parker et al. (2005) found that girls and adolescents with low self-worth reported the greatest jealousy of friends and that a reputation for being jealous of friends was associated with aggressive behavior and other peer adjustment difficulties, including loneliness.
Donnellan et al. (2005) found a link between low self-esteem and externalizing problems such as aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. The authors cited osenberg (1965), who suggested that low self-esteem weakens ties to society and weaker ties to society decrease conformity…
Donnellan, M.B., Trzesniewski, K.H., Robins, R.W., Moffitt, T.E. & Caspi, A. (2005). Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. Psychological Science, 15, 328-335.
Edwards, L.M. & Romero, A.J. (2008). Coping with discrimination among Mexican descent adolescents. Marquette University Education Faculty Research and Publications. Retrieved from http://epublications.marquette.edu/edu fac/59.
Krayer, A., Ingledew, D.K. & Iphofen, K. (2008). Social comparison and body image in adolescence: a grounded theory approach. Health Education Research, 23. 892-903.
Martinez, I & Garcia, J.F. (2008). Internalization of values and self-esteem among Brazilian teenagers from authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, and neglectful homes. Adolescence, 43, 19-29.
Substance Abuse and Suicide isk Among Adolescents
Adolescents are at high risk for suicidal ideations, behaviors, attempts, and suicide.
Adolescent needs for independence, identity formation, and peer acceptance increase risk-taking behavior.
Suicide is the third-leading cause of death among people aged 15-24.
Suicide is the main reason for referrals for child and adolescent emergency psychiatric services.
There has been a steady increase in adolescent drug abuse in the United States since 1960.
Substance abuse has been proposed as a risk factor for suicidal behavior.
The study examined whether there was an association between drug abuse and suicidal behavior and whether drug abuse was specifically a risk factor for suicide.
The data collection process was a literature review conducted by two people independtly examining peer reviewed articles for relevancy and other factors, such as language, leaving 17 articles for examination. The results were then extracted and presented in a table along…
Pompili, M., Serafini, G., Innamorati, M., Biondi, M., Siracusano, A., Di Giannantonio, M.,
Giupponi, G., Amore, M., Lester, D., Girardi, P., Moller-Leimkuhler, A.M. (2012). Substance abuse and suicide risk among adolescents. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 262, 469-485. doi: 10.1007/s00406-012-0292-0.
There is a high correlation between youth with substance abuse problems and youth with mental illness. Often, the substance abuse is a means of self-medicating. There are a lot of potential underlying factors for this high comorbidity, but it is important to recognize that the comorbidity exists, and it has implications for treatment. Proper psychiatric care is often required in concert with addiction treatment interventions, in order to ensure that youth facing these issues are able to overcome their addictions.
There are a number of psychiatric disorders that can occur with substance abuse during adolescence. For example, among those with an alcohol use disorder, 37% had comorbidity with a mental disorder. The odds are particularly high for multiple addictive disorders, such as drug use disorders. Some of the most common comorbidities with substance abuse disorders are antisocial personality disorder, schizophrenia and bipolar disorders (egier et al.,…
Bukstein, O., Brent, D. & Kaminer, Y. (1989). Comorbidity of substance and other psychiatric disorders in adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry. Vol. 146 (9) 1131-1141.
Greenbaum, P., Prange, M., Friedman, R. & Silver, S. (1991). Substance abuse prevalence and comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders among adolescents with severe emotional disturbances. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Vol. 30 (4) 575-583.
NIH (2011). Comorbidity: Addiction and other mental disorders. NIH.gov. Retrieved April 11, 2016 from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/comorbidity-addiction-other-mental-disorders
NIH (2016). Comorbidity: Addiction and other mental illnesses. National Institute of Drug Abuse Retrieved April 11, 2016 from https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/comorbidity-addiction-other-mental-illnesses/why-do-drug-use-disorders-often-co-occur-other-mental-illnesses
bevy of information about diabetes and the many different considerations for treatment that pertain to it. In this regard I found it quite comprehensive. It provides a good deal of detail about treating this condition from administering insulin to the different ways the human body can change: and the ways those changes inherently affect treatment. The article is loosely structured around a case study of an adolescent diabetes patient who is incurring difficulty with managing type 1 diabetes. Her story is used as a framework for the author's explanation of treatment concerns pertaining to adolescents which involves physical attributes, hormonal ones, and even social ones. The author explores the different types of diabetes and a number of different options for managing this condition. The focus of the way the majority of the information is presented, however, is within a context that applies to adolescents.
I learned a substantial amount of…
Trast, J. (2014). CE: diabetes and puberty: A glycemic challenge. American Journal of Nursing. 114(7), 26-35.
The coming-of-age struggles of to Kill a Mockingbird and Romeo and Juliet
Although written in radically different styles (one is written from the perspective of an Elizabethan playwright, one is written in the voice of the child), at radically different eras, and in completely different media (one is a play, the other is a drama), both illiam Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet and Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird can be classified as coming-of-age dramas. In Romeo and Juliet, the teenage protagonists gain a sadder and more sophisticated understanding of the conflict-ridden world in which they live as a result of their love for one another. In To Kill a Mockingbird, the young narrator Scout comes to better understand the evils of the simmering racial tensions which exists within polite Southern society. Through the emotional struggles they personally undergo and witness both characters attain new levels of maturity they…
Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. New York: Grand Central Publishing, 1988.
Shakespeare, William. Romeo & Juliet. No Fear Shakespeare. Web. 31 May 2015.
Adolescent Obesity and Drug Abuse -- Literature eview
The work of Brownson, et al. (2010) states that childhood obesity "…is a serious public health problem." In fact, "obesity rates have increased threefold among U.S. children and adolescents. Approximately 16% of children and adolescents aged 2 to 29 years are obese." (Brownson, et al., 2010) isk factors include hypertension and high cholesterol as well as increased risk of cardiovascular disease and incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. (Brownson, et al., 2010, paraphrased) Health professionals identify overweight and obesity through use of the Body Mass Index (BMI), which is calculated by measuring the proportion of weight to height. (Eisenberg, adunovich, and Brennan, 2007, paraphrased) The criteria used for categorizing BMI for children are both age and sex-specific and often referred to as BMI-for-age. BMI-for-age weight status categories and the corresponding percentiles are listed in Appendix 'A' following this study.…
Rates of youth obesity is reported to vary among different groups with African-American, non-Hispanic girls and Mexican-American boys being the groups most likely to be obese. (Eisenberg, Radunovich, and Brennan, 2007, paraphrased) African-American females are reported to "remain at the highest risk, and have substantial rates of obesity-related diseases and causes of death." (Eisenberg, Radunovich, and Brennan, 2007) It is reported that there is "no assessment of body composition inherent in BMI" as "BMI identifies people who are at risk for having high levels of excessive body fat but it does not actually determine body fat. Anthropometric measurements, such as subscapular and triceps skinfolds and bioelectrical impendence are commonly used to assess body fatness in clinical settings." (Fleming and Towey, 2003) The causes of adolescent obesity are stated to include: (1) parental influence; (2) school influence; and (3) community influences. (Fleming and Towey, 2003)
Discipline II & Integration
Drug addiction among adolescents is a problem that requires the benefit of more research as new findings have shed light on the origins of addiction. The work of Nestler (2004) reports that one of the mechanisms that result from drug abuse and that serves to induce relatively long-lasting changes in the brain resulting in the addictive state is the mechanism of regulation of gene expression. In other words, addiction is in reality a disease directly related to the individual's genetics. The two transcription factors are stated by Nestler to be those as follows: (1) CREB (CAMP response element binding protein); and (3) ?FosB, which contributes to drug-induced changes in gene expression. (Nestler, 2004) Both of these are reported as of the nature that are activated "…in the nucleus accumbens, a major brain reward region, but mediate different aspects of the addicted state." (Nestler, 2004) CREB is stated to be the mediator of a type of tolerance and dependence of the nature that dulls the individual's sensitivity to "subsequent drug exposure) as well as contributing to an emotional state characterized by negativity during early withdrawal stages. FosB on the other hand is the mediator of "a state of relatively prolonged sensitization to drug exposure and may contribute to the increased drive and motivation for drug, which is a core symptom of addictive disorders. There is stated to be a need to better understand how CREB and ?FosB, acting together in other various drug-induced nucleus accumbens changes and other regions
Adolescent Substance Abuse
Substance abuse, commonly referred to as drug abuse and alcohol abuse, has recently gained popularity amid the youth of America. This has been confirmed by SAMHSA (2003) whose survey indicated that around 2.2 million teenagers were convicted of being involved in substance abuse in 2003. Teenage is called the golden period of a person's life as this is full of excitement and energy. People are willing to experience all the good and bad things in life, and for some natural reason, bad things tend to be more attractive. Therefore, the inclination of youth towards excessive usage of drugs and alcohol is not surprising. However, the teenage period does not last long. If people continue the same activity as adults, this can ruin a person's social, academic life, putting a stop to his professional career. This makes it a critical problem that should be resolved as a priority.…
Diller, J.V. (2007). Cultural Diversity: A Primer for the Human Services. 3rd ed. pp. 28.
Mark, T.L, Song, X., Vandivort, R., Duffy, S., Buttler, J., Coffey, R., Schabert, V. (2009). Characterizing substance abuse programs that treat adolescents. Retrieved from http://www.samhsa.gov/samhsa_news/VolumeXIV_5/article12.pdf
SAMHSA. (2003). Results from the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Retrieved from http://www.oas.samhsa.gov/nhsda/2k3nsduh/2k3Results.htm
Tripodi, S.J.; Bender, K; Litschge, C; Vaughn, V.G. (2010). Interventions for Reducing Adolescent Alcohol Abuse: A Meta-analytic Review. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010; 164(1):85-91
Adolescents at isk of Suicide
Today, alarming numbers of young people are contemplating taking their own lives, and many follow through on their suicide ideations to actually kill themselves or to make an attempt. In sum, suicide represents the second-leading cause of death for people aged 15 to 34 years and is the third-leading cause of death among young people aged 10 to 14 years (Suicide facts at a glance, 2015). To gain some additional insights into these issues, this case study provides a description of hypothetical 14-year-old runaway Caucasian adolescent, "Jane," who as referred from a homeless shelter with suicide ideations to determine what screening and testing should be performed, a discussion concerning current recommended treatment protocol, drugs and non-pharmacological interventions, and a description of expected treatment outcomes including a corresponding time frame and follow-up plan. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning adolescents such as…
Horwitz, A. V. & Wakefield, J. C. (2007). The loss of sadness: How psychiatry transformed normal sorrow into depressive disorder. New York: Oxford University Press.
Interventions for suicide risk. (2017). Zero Suicide. Retrieved from http://zerosuicide.sprc.org/ toolkit/treat/interventions-suicide-risk.
King, K. A. & Price, J. H. (2009, April). Preventing adolescent suicide: Do high school counselors know the risk factors? Professional School Counseling, 3(4), 255-257.
Maris, R. W. & Berman, A. L (2000). Comprehensive textbook of suicidology. New York: Guilford Press.
Adolescent Literacy Plan of Action
Successful academic learning and student performance are founded on literacy (Meltzer & Ziemba, 2006). Listening, reading, observational, writing, presentation, speaking and critical thinking skills are used by literate students to learn, communicate what they have learned and even transfer the knowledge gained to other scenarios (Meltzer & Ziemba, 2006). A literacy leadership team and the school principal must lead continual improvement as a goal for students to develop literacy. When an entire school community collectively holds expertise in literacy, it becomes the most beneficial to students (Irvin, Meltzer & Dukes, 2007). In addition to expertise, schools must do what's necessary to enhance their ability to minimize the gap existing between practice and knowledge. All school aspects, like assessments, curriculum, resource allocation, policies and structures, professional development of teachers, instruction and culture of the school, are impacted by the existence of systemic literacy development efforts (Irvin,…
ACT (2006b). Reading for college and reading for work: Same or different? (Report). Iowa City, IA: Author.
Cooney, S. (1999). Leading the way: State actions to improve student achievement in the middle grades. Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board.
Elmore, R. F. (2002). Bridging the gap between standards and achievement: The imperative for professional development in education. Washington, DC: Albert Shanker Institute.
Graves, Michael, and Lauren Liang. (2008). "Four facets of reading comprehension instruction in the middle grades," Middle school journal (March 2008).
Adolescents with poor problem-solving skills are at greater risk of suicide, according to an article in the Journal of Clinical Psychology (Grover, et al., 2009). The authors concentrate on the problem of "chronic stress" in adolescents, saying it involves "deprivation or disadvantage" that is ongoing and those dynamics create a "continuous stream of threats and challenges" for the adolescent. The therapy in this research? Counselors, therapists, parents and teachers all need to help adolescents learn "well-developed problem-solving abilities" in order to "buffer the negative impact of both episodic and chronic stress…" (Grover, p. 1286).
Earlier in this paper it was asserted that up to 20% of adolescents in the U.S. will encounter some form of depression due to stress. The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) suggests that the best treatment for severely depressed youths is a combination of psychotherapy and antidepressant medication; that formula works better than either…
Bradley, Kristen. (2002). Survey Shows High Levels of Teen Stress. International Child and Youth Care Network. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://www.cyc-net.org/today2002/today021016.html .
Byrne, D.G., and Mazanov, J. (1999). Sources of Adolescent Stress, Smoking and the Use of other Drugs. Stress and Health, 15(4), 215-227.
Cherry, Kendra. (2009). What Is Emotional Intelligence? About.com. Psychology. Retrieved April 10, 2011, from http://psychology.about.com .
Ciarrochi, Joseph, Deane, Frank P., and Anderson, Stephen. (2001). Emotional Intelligence
Farris (1990) cites Glasser's Control Theory as a foundation for developing activities to motivate adolescent learners. Briefly this theory asserts humans have five basic needs: the need for survival, belonging, power, freedom and fun. Effective teachers recognize and respond to students' needs and a critical part of that response lies in helping students accept and maintain that essential control.
Farris (1990) proposes possible classroom responses designed to meet these needs. To satisfy the need to belong a teacher should create a classroom with an accepting atmosphere, create a sense of ownership, recognize student's attempts to be accepted, praise students' performance, teach using groups, and discipline or reprimand in private whenever possible to avoid humiliating students. The need for freedom can be addressed by involving students in rule making, providing opportunities for free expression, encouraging creativity in assignments, and possibly consider eliminating assigned seating. The need for power can be addressed…
Caissy, G. (1986, November/December). Early adolescence: The physical transition. FWTAO newsletter.
Caissy, G. (1987a, January). Early adolecscence: A time of stormy emotions. FWTAO newsletter.
Caissy, G. (1987b, February/March). Early adolecscence: The social demension. FWTAO newsletter.
Caissy, G. (1987c, June). Early adolecscence: The intellectual domain. FWTAO newsletter.
Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Hong Kong
The prevalence of mental health problems in people with disabilities is estimated at between thirty and fifty percent, in Hong Kong (Vasa & oy, 2013). Anxiety disorders are the most common mental problems occurring during adolescent and childhood, at least one in ten people having anxiety disorders. In addition, anxiety disorders are the most common manifestations of psychological distress among people with autism. People with autism are much likely to be anxious than their non-autistic peers. Oftentimes, they are described as highly anxious. The co-morbidity of separation anxiety is frequent in people with autism. Similarly, epidemiological studies indicate that approximately eighty percent of people with autism have separation anxieties. This study concentrates on discussing the treatment method or way of Autism and Separation Anxiety Disorder among children and adolescents in Hong Kong.
isk factors owing autism
Young people with autism are more prone…
Mash, E.J., & Barkley, R.A. (2013). Child psychopathology. New York: Guilford Press.
Ozonoff, S., Rogers, S.J., & Hendren, R.L. (2013). Autism spectrum disorders: A research review for practitioners. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Pub.
Saklofske, DH, & Schwean, V.L. (2009). Handbook of psychosocial characteristics of exceptional children. New York [u.a.: Kluwer [u.a..
Vasa, R.A., & Roy, A.K. (2013). Pediatric anxiety disorders: A clinical guide. New York, NY: Humana Press.
Leadership Training for Adolescents
The focus of this work is the examination of whether early youth leadership training for adolescents could be a vehicle to address these problems among youth in rural communities. This study is quantitative in nature and investigates the existence of current leadership training programs at primary and high schools. The effect of newly developed leadership training programs and their effect on selected study participants will be examined. The sampling in this study will involve various age groups between 12 and 18 years of age.
Research questions in this study include those stated as follows:
(1) What is the relationship between early leadership training and problem solving skills among rural youth?
(2) What is the relationship between early leadership training and self-esteem among youth?
(3) What is the relationship between early leadership training and enhancing leadership skills among rural youth?
Significance of the Study
The significance of…
In a widespread "declaration of principles for youth participation in community research and evaluation" stated is that participation by youth in community research and evaluation transforms its participants, it transforms their ways of knowing, their activities, and their program of work." (Checkoway and Richards-Schuster, nd) Youth participation is additionally reported to promote the empowerment of youth and to acknowledge their experience and expertise and to develop their organizational and community capacities." (Checkoway and Richards-Schuster, nd) Youth participation additionally works in building partnerships and valuing the resources and assets of "all age groups" as well as providing strength to relationships that are supportive between adults and youths. (Checkoway and Richards-Schuster, nd ) Youth participation is reported as well to equalize "power relationships between youth and adults" as well as to establish common ground for them to overcome past inequities and collaborate as equals in institutions and decisions." (Checkoway and Richards-Schuster, nd)
Checkoway, B. And Richrds-Schuster, K. (nd) Participatory Evaluation with Young People. Retrieved from: http://ssw.umich.edu/public/currentprojects/youthAndCommunity/pubs/youthbook.pdf
Stiflier, L. (2010) Leadership Development in Rural Communities. Community and Economic Development in North Carolina and Beyond. Retrieved from: http://ced.sog.unc.edu/?p=872
Nowadays, adolescent problem behavior is conceptualized as 2 empirically derived syndromes: externalizing problems (including delinquency and aggression) and internalizing problems (including depression, anxiety, and withdrawal) (Achenbach, 1991a, 1991b). Little is known about the structure of internalizing problem behavior. Accordingly, the first aim of this study is to examine the structure of externalizing and internalizing problem behavior during adolescence. (eitz, Dekovic, & Meijer, 2005, ¶ 2).
At the end of their study, eitz, Dekovic, and Meijer (2005) recount that prior research primarily focused on externalizing problems, the structure of a limited range of problem behavior, and basically found support for a 1-factor structure. Their study, eitz, Dekovic, and Meijer assert, extended previoius research as it explored externalizing, as well as internalizing problems, examining whether both types of behaviors belonged to one single factor of general problem behavior (1-factor model), or whether the two types behavior ought to be deemed two separate…
Bartlett, R., Holditch-Davis, D. & Belyea, M. (2007). Problem behaviors in adolescents.
Pediatric Nursing. Jannetti Publications, Inc. Retrieved April 27, 2009 from HighBeam
Biglan, Anthony., Foster, Sharon L., Brennan, Patricia A., & Holder, Harold D. (2005). Helping
Sexual Activity in Adolescence
The scholarly literature on adolescence and health reflects the fact that some young people make risky decisions regarding sexual activities -- and the use of drugs also plays a role in their behavior. In this paper, those issues and others related to adolescent behaviors -- including the earlier initiation of sexual activities -- will be presented through in-depth analysis.
Adolescent Sexual Activities and Psychosocial Adjustments
There has been an assumption in the literature for some time that when adolescents delay their first sexual experience, they adjust better psychosocially as young adults a bit later in their lives. Another assumption has been that instances where young adults have their first sexual intercourse experience between 16 and 18 years of age "…are linked to lower adjustment in many life domains" (Haase, 2012, 199).
However, a peer-reviewed research article in the journal European Psychologist challenges those notions with empirical…
Cooper, M.L., Wood, P.K., and Orcutt, H.K. (2003). Personality and the Predisposition to Engage in Risky or Problem Behaviors During Adolescence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 390-410.
Fantasia, H.C., Sutherland, M.A., and Kelly-Weeder, S. (2012). Gender Differences in risky behavior among urban adolescents exposed to violence. Journal of the American Academy
of Nurse Practitioners, 24(7), 436-442.
Haase, C.M., Landberg, M., Schmidt, C., Ludke, K., and Silbereisen, R.K. (2012). The later, the Better? Early, Average, and Late Timing of Sexual Experiences in Adolescence and Psychosocial Adjustment in Young Adulthood. European Psychologist, 17(3), 199-212.
Teen Alcohol Abuse
Adolescent alcohol abuse has been an ongoing public health problem for many years. While alcohol abuse trends tend to increase and subside over time, recent research continues to show an alarming level of alcohol use. For example, surveys by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) show that alcohol use has dropped slightly when compared with previous years, in 2011 almost two thirds (65%) of high school seniors and almost one third (29%) of eighth graders had used alcohol within the past month (Winters, Botzet & Fahnhorst, 2011).
Health Needs Assessment
As of 1988, the purchase of alcohol by youth under the age of 21 is prohibited. Therefore, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) define underage drinking as consuming alcohol prior to the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years. Further, zero tolerance laws make it illegal in all states for youth under age 21 to drive…
Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (2010). Alcohol & drug use. National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Retrieved February 25, 2012 from: http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/alcoholdrug/index.htm
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). (2011). InfoFacts: Nationwide trends. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved February 25, 2012 from: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/infofacts/nationwide-trends
Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center. (n.d.) Substance abuse/Chemical dependency. Retrieved February 25, 2012 from: http://medicalcenter.osu.edu/patientcare/healthcare_services/mental_health/mental_health_about/substance/Pages/index.aspx
Sterling, S., Weisner, C., Hinman, A., & Parthasarathy, S. (2010 July). "Access to treatment for adolescents with substance use and co-occurring disorders: Challenges and opportunities." Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(7): 637-726. doi: 10:1016/j.jaac.2010.03.019
The influence of social disconnectedness upon adolescent suicide is also manifested in one study which found that adolescents who moved frequently were significantly more at risk of attempted suicide (Qin, Mortensen, & Pedersen 2009). It should be noted that this risk factor was "attenuated, but still significant, after controlling for the child's own psychiatric morbidity and loss of a mother or father, as well as parental psychiatric history," indicating that some adolescents may be inherently more vulnerable to this type of environmental stressor (in other words, some adolescents may be more socially adept at coping with the inevitable social problems that occur with frequent moving) (Qin, Mortensen, & Pedersen 2009: 628). isk of suicide has genetic and epigenetic components, but social difficulties as a risk factor cannot and should not be ignored. The association of frequent with moving suggests that positive peer relationships can act as a counterbalance to risk…
Biddle, V.S., Sekula, L.K., Zoucha, R., & Puskar, K.R. (2010). Identification of suicide risk among rural youth: Implications for the use of HEADSS. Journal of Pediatric Health
Care, 24(3), 152-167. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedhc.2009.03.003
Qin, P., Bo Mortensen, P., & Pedersen, C.B. (2009). Frequent change of residence and risk of attempted and completed suicide among children and adolescents. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66(6), 628-632. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2009.20
Schilling, E.A., Aseltine, R.H., Glanovsky, J.L., James, a., & Jacobs, D. (2009). Adolescent alcohol use, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. Journal of Adolescent Health, 44(4), 335-341. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.08.006
Third, increased cognitive demands in school challenge the adolescent. Fourth, the adolescent must develop more mature verbal communication skills. Fifth, the teenager will develop an ego separate from the parents, whereas in childhood the ego remained closely linked to that of the parents. Sixth, the adolescent formulates clearer career goals. The seventh task of adolescent development comprises the psychological detachment from the parents, often entailing interpersonal conflicts and difficulties relating to authority figures. Eighth, the adolescent develops stronger relationships with peers that help him or her formulate a sense of self. The ninth task of adolescence relates to the development of the sexual self: the teenager also comes to terms with gender issues. Tenth, the adolescent develops a personal system of values that may remain with the individual throughout the lifetime. The eleventh and final state regards controlling immature impulses and becoming a more mature manager of instincts and behaviors.
Crime Delinquency Teenagers
Virtually no one can deny that there is a definite, tangible link between adolescence and crime. Anyone not familiar with this subject would be hard pressed to dispute the eminent statistical data that alludes to that dangerous link. In 1990, teenagers were more than 3.5 times likely to commit an indexed crime than were adults in the United States. Index crimes are both violent criminal activity such as "murder & non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault" as well as serious property crime such as "burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson" (No author 1990). This point is underscored by the fact that in 2005, approximately 10,000 prisoners in the United States were serving life sentences for actions that were committed before they turned 18 (Liptak 2005). This proclivity of teenage criminal offenders is evinced overseas in other countries as well, such as in…
Krueger, J.G. (2006). "Brain science offers insight to teen crime." ABQTrib. Retrieved from http://www.abqtrib.com/news/2006/dec/08/brain-science-offers-insight-teen-crime/
Liptak, A. (2005). "Jailed for Life After Crimes as Teenagers." New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/03/national/03lifers.html?_r=1&pagewanted=all
No author. (1990). "Teenagers have the highest crime rates." Race Matters. Retrieved from http://www.racematters.org/hicrimer.htm
Reynolds, J. (2007). "Crime and the teenage brain." The Monterey County Herald. Retrieved from http://www.montereyherald.com/ci_7109878
Young people with poor eating habits can develop eating disorders or these disorders may be in response to various psycho-sociological issues that arise during adolescence. Irrespective of the cause, adolescents with eating disorders run the risk of a wide range of adverse healthcare outcomes, including obesity, high blood pressure, bone loss and even death. The problem is more common than many people believe, and the prevalence of eating disorders has been increasing in recent years due in part to improved recognition of the condition by clinicians. To determine the current state of affairs with adolescent eating disorders, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature to develop a background and overview of eating disorders, their effects and how these conditions are treated. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings about adolescent eating disorders are provided in the conclusion.
Background and Overview
Professional and public…
Cariun, C., Taut, D., & Baban, A. (2012, March). Self-regulatory strategies for eating behavior in children and adolescents: A concept mapping approach. Cognitie, Creier,
Comportament, 16(1), 49-54.
Enos, G.A. (2013, March/April). Addressing eating disorders earlier. Addiction Professional,
Treating Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa
Anorexia nervosa is an eating confusion described by a terror of fatness experienced during the adolescence period that leads to them to starving themselves leading to harmful low body weight, a moody fear of being fat and compulsive hunt for thinness. Though not limited to a certain age or sex, it mostly affects the female. The eating disorder affects both the physical appearance; thin appearance and psychological health. Though the origin of anorexia nervosa is blurred, severe fasting and weight loss are regularly linked with efforts to manage the increasing psychological and social burden of adolescence, the disorder leads to a reported death rate of 6-10% of the adolescent who do not seek medication in time Berkman et al., 2006.
The worry among most clinicians is whether to focus on anxieties the adolescence have during this period of growth or addressing the rigorous dieting and…
Berkman, N.D., Bulik, C., Lohr, K., Brownley, K., J., S., Rooks, A., & Gartlehner, G. (2006). Management of Eating Disorders. North Carolina: AHRQ Publication.
Cachelin, M., & Rebeck, R. (2000). Barriers to Treatment for Eating Disorders among Ethnically Diverse Women. California: Wesleyan press.
Lock, J., Couturier, J., & A., S.W. (2006). Comparison of Long-Term Outcomes in Adolescents With Anorexia Nervosa Treated With Family Therapy. Ontario: DOI press.
Shepphird, S.F. (2010). 100 questions & answers about anorexia nervosa. Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Depression in African-American Adolescents
Etiology of Depression
Mental illnesses like depression can be very difficult to diagnose or to recognize: There is no serum to test for when looking for depression. In some real if rather vague way, mental health is simply the absence of mental disorders. And in the reverse we define mental illness as the absence of mental health. The circularity of this definition is certainly confusing, but it reflects the real confusion over the range of what may be considered to be mentally "normal." This vagueness as to definition does not mean that the problem of mental illness and especially depression is not real: Indeed, the difficulty of identifying those with mental illness and so of providing prompt and appropriate treatment to them makes the need to do so more effectively all the more important (Grob, 1991, p. 13). The need to identify mental illness in -…
Achenbach, T. etal. (22 December 2002). "Ten-year comparisons of problems and competencies for national samples of youth: self, parent, and teacher reports. J of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Boyer, C. (2003). Interview.
Crawford, I. etal. "The influence of dual-identity development on the psychosocial functioning of African-American gay and bisexual men." J. Of Sex Research 39 (3): 179-189.
Donnel, A. etal. (2001, Oct. 1). "Psychological reactance: Factor structure and internal consistency of the questionnaire for the measurement of psychological reactance." Journal of Social Psychology 141 (5): 679-687.
Infant Physical, Cognitive and Social Development
One of the most important aspects of a child's physical, cognitive and social development is motor skills development. In this case, an infant is expected to master fine and gross motor skills in order for him/her to effectively explore the surrounding environment/world. Gross motor skills are considered as large muscles movements such as arms and legs whereas fine motor skills are considered are movements of smaller groups of muscles like hand and wrist. Berk & Meyers (2016) have developed a table that provides a list of gross- and fine-motor skills milestones in different stages of an infant's development. As an 11-month old infant, David has relatively developed necessary and anticipated motor skills based on the milestones listed in the table. He has fairly developed nearly all motor skills expected of infants his age and seems to be progressing well in motor skills development. David's…
Leadership Training for Adolescents
How do adolescent in an early leadership program define their leadership experience?
Early leadership programs have made positive impacts on adolescents who participate in the programs. These programs help them in developing leadership related skills, knowledge and behavior. Adolescents participating in early leadership programs are more aware of the individual differences and developmental needs of young leaders (Herman & Cunningham, 2008). Further, they define their leadership experience as leaders who are responsible for the welfare of the community.
Moreover, adolescent leaders define their leadership experience as having been mentored by early leadership programs. Based on the possible outcomes of this question, adolescents are encouraged to be responsible and manage their training. This research question was chosen in order to determine the level of effectiveness of adolescent leaders in the community. The answer to this question is likely to determine the perception of adolescent leaders of the…
Herman, S. & Cunningham, D. (2008). Leadership: Some Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities. Ohio: Irwin/McGraw-Hill.
Lassey, W. (2006). Leadership and Social Change. California: University Associates
S1 - No
S2 - No
S3 - No
Rational - This question is intended to determine whether other forms of abuse occur within teenage social relationship even more frequently than actual physical abuse or face-to-face verbal abuse. Had any of the subjects answered affirmatively, that would have suggested specific follow-up questions to explore the issues raised.
6. Have any of your friends ever been the victim of stalking-type of behavior? If yes, through what medium (in person, by phone, via Internet, etc.)? Also, how many people do you know personally who have ever been victimized in this way?
S1 - Yes; four
S2 - Yes; two
S3 - Yes; four
Rational - This question provides a comparison to the subjects in the Claiborne study.
It also expands the anecdotal data to include three separate peer groups.
7. Have you ever before (today) discussed the issue of violence or…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005)
Psychology and Life 18th edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Hsu, C. (2007) Family First: Abuse Is Not Love; Sep 27, 2007. Retrieved October 21, 2008 at http://wcbstv.com/parenttoparent/family.first.abuse.2.292513.html
This resource consists of a transcript of a television news interview conducted on Smith, T. (2008) "Horrors" Found in Tween, Teen Dating: Survey Uncovers Significant Levels of Physical, Verbal Abuse; Sex at Young Ages; Many Parents in the Dark; Jul 8, 2008. Retrieved October 21, 2008, at http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/07//earlyshow/living/relationships/main4240192.shtml
These were being make, passiveness or unassertiveness, and a father who avoids conflict with a teenage child. Parental guidance on safer sexual practices, skillful assertion, negotiation and resolution of conflicts all help improve dating communication between teenagers. ut parents' strategies in solving everyday conflicts and issues with teenage children may be the true basis for the safe-sex negotiations in their dating. Parents who actively engage in open disagreement with their teenage children may induce confidence in their children to assert themselves and communicate their preference with a sexual partner regarding the use of condoms. These strategies are likely to develop from safe-sex communication with parents (Feingold).
Parental Processes and Style
The Kaiser Family Foundation surveys suggested that teenagers whose parents monitor their children's whereabouts and particular behaviors tend to have only one sexual partner or avoid unprotected sex (Howell, 2001). A combination of high-level communication and parental monitoring works well…
Aspen (2009). Sexual promiscuity in adolescents. Fact Sheets. Aspen Education Group.
Retrieved on July 21, 2011 from http://www.aspeneducation.com/factsheetpromiscuity.html
Feingold, A. (2006). Parents can help reduce sexual risk-taking. PsychCentral:
PsychCentral.com. Retrieved on July 21, 2011 from http://psychcentral.com/lib/2006/parents-can-help-teens-reduce-sexual-risk-taking
Ecstasy Use by Adolescents in Miami-Dade County, FL
Ecstasy, also known as MDMA, Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, has become popular as a club drug and at techno dance events, such as raves, trance scenes and private parties. Many who attend raves and trances do not use drugs, but those who do, may be attracted to their generally low cost and to the intoxicating highs that are said to deepen the rave or trance experience ("NIDA," 2004). It has gained the reputation as a "hug drug" promoting empathy, relaxation, and sexuality. Studies indicate an increase in abuse of this drug, especially among adolescents and/or teenagers. It is a human-made drug that acts as both a stimulant and a hallucinogen. It is taken orally, in the form of a capsule or a tablet. It has short-term effects including feelings of mental stimulation, emotional warmth, enhanced sensory perception, and increased physical energy.
Health effects can include,…
Chassin, L., Pitts, S.C., DeLucia, C., Todd, M. (1999). A longitudinal study of children of alcoholics: Predicting young adult substance use disorders, anxiety, and depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, pp.106-119
Director's report of the national advisory council on drug abuse. (1999). National
Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved April 22, 2005 from http://drugabuse.gov/DirReports
Drug facts. (2004). Office of National Drug Control Policy. Retrieved April 21, 2005
During the study a number of factors were considered for the evaluation of the fact that females unlike males in Saudi Arabia constitute a larger proportion.
Lifestyle and dietary
Adolescent boys and girls were studied for at least two weeks on their feeding habits, for this period, females were observed to consume more snacks than male in that males could only consume snacks once a fortnight unlike their female counterparts who for the 14 days averagely took snacks at least 12 days. For the consumption of rice, bread, nuts and fish the percentage of females consuming this surpassed that of men i.e. 54.8 to 50.5%, this shows that females consumes more food products that are energy giving than males in Saudi Arabia leading to deposition of more calories in the body triggering obesity as it is supposed that the body can not convert the whole chunk of calories. More…
Al-Gelban, K.S. (2008). Diatery Habits and Exercise Practices among the Students of a Saudi
Teachers Training College. Saudi Med J, 29 (5), 754-759.
Al-Rukban, M. (2003). Obesity among Saudi Male Adolescents in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med Journal, 34, 27-33.
Al-Shammari, S., Khoja, T., & Al-Subaie, A. (1994). Trans-cultural Attitude Towards Being