Adult Learner Essays (Examples)

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Adult Learning Assessment

Words: 871 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14530132

Adult learning self-assessments can prove influential for motivating students (Stipek, ecchia, & McClintic, 1992, cited in oss, 2006, p. 7). The assessment developed for this assignment was designed to enable students to provide feedback both about their instructor as well as about the course they took from their instructor. Assessments help students who might not be able to convey their learning progress otherwise (Loacke, 2004). Specifically, this assessment was an opportunity for adult learners with students within Miami-Dade county public schools to reflect on their learning experiences with teachers in an effort to improve them in the future. As such, there were two primary facets of the assessment: a Likert-based questionnaire (in which a rating of 1 was disagree and 5 was strongly agree), and a pair of essays in which students discussed, respectively, what aspects of the course and of the pedagogue's instruction they would like to improve. Student…… [Read More]

References

YOU DID NOT INCLUDE THESE
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Adult Education Lesson Andragogy vs

Words: 528 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52629403

I remember almost nothing from the history class, but I still use information that I learned in the art class.

Houle's Classification Criteria for Continuing Education

According to Houle (as cited by Conner, 2004), learners can be classified as goal oriented, involving people who use their education to accomplish goals, activity-oriented, which includes those who learn because they enjoy the social contact, and learning-oriented, which embodies those who learn information for its own sake. I fall into more than one category. I am definitely goal oriented, and I have pursued a formal education because education is the only way to advance in our society. On the other hand, I also enjoy learning for its own sake. My learning-oriented activities, however, are not formal. I spend a lot of my own time reading and researching topics that interest me, but I do not normally attend classes to learn about these topics.…… [Read More]

References

Connor, M. (2004). Andragogy + pedagogy. Ageless Learner. Retrieved April 25, 2010 from http://agelesslearner.com/intros/andragogy.html

Connor, M. (2004). Introduction to motivation styles. Ageless Learner. Retrieved April 25, 2010 from http://agelesslearner.com/intros/mstyleintro.html

Knowles, M., Holton, E. & Swanson, R. (2005). The Adult Learner (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Elsevier. Retrieved April 25, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=J6qGsHBj7nQC&pg=PR1&dq=The+adult+learner+6th&cd=1#v=onepage&q=The%20adult%20learner%206th&f=true

Wirth, K. & Perkins, D. (2008, September). Learning to learn. Retrieved April 25, 2010 from http://www.macalester.edu/geology/wirth/learning.pdf
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Adult Learning Theory Twenty-First Century 9 Chapter 9

Words: 592 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10626573

Adult learning theory Twenty-First Century 9(chapter 9 book Sharan Merriam - New

The primary purpose of Cari Kenner and Jason Weinerman's "Adult learning theory: applications to non-traditional college students" and Sharan Merriam's "Adult learning theory for the twenty-first century" is to denote differences in adult learners from conventional higher education learners, and to accommodate those differences to maximize learning potential for the former students. The authors achieve these goals by discussing the impact and context of student experience, various aspects of learning theory, and a multi-dimensional approach to learning.

Adult learners are greatly shaped by their previous experience which oftentimes involves elements of real life such as their occupational experience and that of raising children. Oftentimes, such experiences are what distinguish adult learners from "college kids." These experiences can inform their learning in higher educational settings, particularly if pedagogues are aware of them and exploit them in their teaching.

Learning…… [Read More]

References

Kenner, C., Weinerman, J. (2011). "Adult learning theory: applications to non-traditional college students." Journal of College Reading and Learning. 41(2) 87-96.

Merrian, S.B. "Adult learning theory for the twenty-first century." New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education.
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Adult Learning Training and Development This

Words: 1624 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94476210



The importance in training and development with regard to understanding how adult learning works provides the ability to develop effective programs for adult learners in field of employment, education and interests.

When these two articles are blended together, however, they do not have to be mutually exclusive. The tips and training ideas can be taken from Lieb's works and applied to adult learning programs while the cautions of Brookfield's can also be respected and investigated more thoroughly.

Conclusion

As adult education continues to expand through online abilities, classroom learning and on site instruction at the workplace the understanding of how adults process information will continue to be important. Using the tips provided by Lieb will allow adults to be taught new material while at the same time investigating the concerns of Brookfield can be given attention.

It will be important to determine which of the experts is correct as future…… [Read More]

References

Issues in Understanding Adult (accessed 7-3-07) Learning http://www.nl.edu/academics/cas/ace/facultypapers/StephenBrookfield_AdultLearning.cfm

Leib, Stephen (1991) Principles of Adult Learning (Accessed 7-3-07) http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/adults-2.htm

Noe, Raymond (2004) Employee Training and Development 4th Edition.
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Adult Learning Personal Learning Style Strengths Weaknesses

Words: 1424 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86072126

Adult Learning

Personal Learning Style:

Strengths, Weaknesses, Improvement

Every student has a personal learning style. Although this is true for students of all ages, this notion is particularly pronounced in adult learners. Perhaps this is the case simply because adult learners have had ample time to become "set in their ways" with regard to what they feel comfortable with in the classroom. However, mere comfort can be deceiving, and many of the "ways" of learning adult students have become accustomed to utilize do more harm than good in their learning processes. In my case, I have found that my particular learning style can help, as well as hinder my academic progress -- this is particularly true considering issues of time management, research, and analysis skills.

There is little question that in my case, I seem to value autonomy in my learning style much more than I did as a younger…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Houle, C.O. (1961). The inquiring mind. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.

Kolody, Rita. Conti, Gary J. Lockwood, Suzanne. (1997). Identifying groups of learners through the use of learning strategies. Retrieved on October 12, 2004, from,  http://www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/documents/000000254.htm
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Adult Learning An Overview Brookfield

Words: 575 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32390536

As a younger student, I remember being somewhat obstinate and inflexible in that I always wanted to do things my way, even with the benefit of adult instruction. Today, I have the ability to recognize expertise in others and I respect the fact that they may know much more than I do about how to accomplish something in their area of expertise. I believe that my ability to adapt to different situations and to follow the directions of experts in the workplace will translate very well to the adult learning environment. Naturally, I also have some reservations about returning to a formal academic learning environment after so many years away from it. On the other hand, I am very hopeful that the maturity and perspective that I have developed in the meantime will more than compensate for any awkwardness or initial discomfort on my part.

Distance Learning

Finally, the author…… [Read More]

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Adult Literacy in African-American Communities

Words: 4045 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69580662

This model views literacy as woven into the person's identity, based in turn from his acculturation and participation in his socio-cultural community. Spoken or written communication is understood and appreciated according to who is reading or writing and the context and purpose of the communication. Learners come to the educational setting with individual experiences, perspectives, values and beliefs. They perform tasks subjectively. Their cultural background is, therefore, an essential requirement to teaching functional literacy.

The U.S. Department of Education through the Department of Adult Education and Literacy implements the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act. This legislation provides support money for adult literacy and basic education programs. It perceives adult education as that falling below post-secondary level for persons 16 years old and older. Statistics say there are about 51 million American adults in this category. Eligibility was adjusted from 18 to 16 in 1970; approved funding to non-profit organizations…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Guy, T. (2006). The adult literacy education systems in the United States. Literacy for Life. Education for All Global Monitoring Report. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 from http://unedoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001462/146281e.pdf

Onwuegbuzie, a., et al. (2004). Reading comprehension among African-American graduate students. The Journal of Negro Education: Howard University. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200410/ai_n13506807?tag=content;col1

Newsline. Adult literacy classes improve lives in California communities. Issue 4.

Office of Multifamily Housing Programs: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
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Adult Literacy Educational Program Design

Words: 3982 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52046011

" (Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson, 1998)

Activities in the classroom that use generative themes derived from the adult learner's lives "have been seen to facilitate their acquisition of literacy." (Friere, 1992; as cited in: Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson, 1998) According to Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson (1998) the use of "life-context-specific materials and activities in adult literacy programs is supported by research that documents the powerful role of context in learning." Stated as an example is "...workplace literacy programs teach literacy skills as they are needed within specific work contexts. Compared to programs that concentrated more on 'genera' literacy, adult programs that incorporated job-related materials were associated with larger increases in both job-related and general literacy." (Purcell-Gates, Degener, and Jacobson, 1998) However, it is noted that other studies state findings that "much of the growth made by participants in general literacy programs is likely to be lost if recently learned skills…… [Read More]

References

Basic Reading Skills - Adult Literacy Supplemental Assessment (2009) National Assessment of Adult Literacy (NAAL). National Center for Education Statistics. Online available at  http://nces.ed.gov/naal/alsa.asp 

Ways to Get Involved (2009) ProLiteracy. Online available at http://www.proliteracy.org/NetCommunity/Page.aspx?pid=499

Issues in Literacy (2009) SIL International. Online available at http://www.sil.org/literacy/issues.htm

Britt, Robert Roy (2009) 14% of U.S. Adults Can't Read. Live Science. 10 Jan 2009. Online available at http://www.livescience.com/culture/090110-illiterate-adults.html
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Adults With Learning Disabilities it Has Been

Words: 14280 Length: 53 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 855258

Adults ith Learning Disabilities

It has been estimated (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 that 50-80% of the students in Adult Basic Education and literacy programs are affected by learning disabilities (LD). Unfortunately, there has been little research on adults who have learning disabilities, leaving literacy practitioners with limited information on the unique manifestations of learning disabilities in adults.

One of the major goals of the (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 National

Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center (National ALLD Center) is to raise awareness among literacy practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and adult learners about the nature of learning disabilities and their impact on the provision of literacy services. This fact sheet provides: a definition of learning disabilities in adults; a list of common elements found in many useful LD definitions; and a list of areas in which LD may affect life situations of adults.

Background

In 1963, the term "learning…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Author Unkown. Adult with Learning Disabilities

http://www.niwl.org/nalldc/ALLDissues.html

Corley, Mary Ann & Taymans, Juliana M. Adults with Learning Disabilities:A Review of Literature

http://www.josseybass.com/cda/cover/0,0787960624%7Cexcerpt,00.pdf
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Adult Learning Fodor 1987 Offers

Words: 3581 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14163239

Second, it suggests that once an appropriate curriculum has been compiled -- one that produces the appropriate results -- then this very same curriculum should produce the same results every time it is employed properly. And third, it suggests that language itself cannot be conceived of as anything other than a response to an external stimulus; therefore, we, as teachers, should not be concerned with the internal, conceptual aspects of learning a language, and only with the observable, verbal responses that our teaching techniques produce. Of course, these stand as direct consequences of accepting the theory of behaviorism within the context of teaching ESL; however, my experience has shown that, if anything, the version of behaviorism that allows for consciousness is the most beneficial for developing an efficient and successful approach towards teaching.

Unfortunately for the theory of behaviorism, this phenomenon is not easily explained without the existence of internal…… [Read More]

Reference:

Cain, M.J. (2002). Fodor: Language, Mind and Philosophy. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Chomsky, N. (1975). Reflections on Language, New York: Pantheon.

Cole, David. (2004). "The Chinese Room Argument." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, March. Available:

 http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/chinese-room/ .
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Adult Learning Andragogy Adult Learning as a

Words: 2887 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17218108

Adult Learning: Andragogy

Adult learning as a concept was first introduced in Europe in the 50s (QOTFC, 2007). ut it was in the 70s when American practitioner and theorist of adult education Malcolm Knowles formulated the theory and model he called andragogy. He defined andragogy as "the art and science of helping adults learn (Zmeryov, 1998 & Fidishun, 2000 as qtd in QOTFC)." It consists of assumptions on how adults learn, with emphasis on the value of the process. Andragogy approaches are problem-based and collaborative as compared with the didactic approach in younger learners. It likewise emphasizes the equality between the teacher and the learner (QOTFC).

Adult Learning Principles

Knowles developed these principles from observed characteristics of adult learners. They have special needs and requirements different from those of younger learners (Lieb, 1991). Adults are internally motivated and self-directed. They bring life experiences and knowledge into their learning experiences. They…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chen, I. (2008). Constructivism. College of Education: University of Houston. Retrieved on June 6, 2011 from http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichn/ebook/et-it/constr.htm

Corley M.A. (2008). Experiential learning theory. California Adult Literacy Professional

Development Project. CALPRO: California Department of Education. Retrieved on June 13, 2011 from  http://www.calpro-online.org/documents/AdultLearningTheoriesFinal.pdf 

Kolb, D.A. et al. (1999). Experiential learning theory. "Perspectives on Cognitive
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Adult Learning Ranking of Relevance

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62751960

As such, I then find myself truly understanding the concept as opposed to forgetting or misunderstanding the information if I don't have a relationship or something to hook the concept onto. The other factor that is especially relevant to me is that I truly need to feel like I have some control over the learning which is why I enjoy taking online courses which allow me to choose when to study and how to study. Lastly, I am much harder on myself as an adult learner than I was as an adolescent. When I was younger, I did not bother to even look at a teacher's painstaking commentary in my essays whereas now I cannot wait to obtain feedback and I feel an immense amount of passion toward pleasing the instructor, putting forth my best effort, and obtaining the best grade possible.

2. According to the Whole-Part-Whole learning theory, learners…… [Read More]

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Adult Learning Adult Education Is

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77237665

This can be exploited to encourage the adult students to get into adult education and continue from one stage to another.

Secondly nowles poses that experimental or pragmatic education is the most effective form of adult education. This involves allowing the learners to make mistakes and continue learning from the same. This, as a practitioner, I can use as a very effective tool of assisting the adult learners. It is worth encouraging them to try what they can especially in class participation, assignments, co-curricular activities without reservations and pointing out the shortfalls as I tell them how they can use the same to learn.

Thirdly, Andragogy presumes that for adults to be truly ready to learn new ideas, they need to feel the assurance that whatever they are due to learn or are learning is straightforwardly pertinent to their daily lives. This helps practitioners develop a learning curriculum that is…… [Read More]

Knowles also posed that adults learn things from the perspective of actively solving problems, rather than acquiring new content and ideas passively. Adults have a wide range of experiences that form the basis of their learning. When teaching adults, it is crucial to use their divergent experiences to help them learn the applied skills in particular. Their experiences can be used to be a pivot from which the teacher or instructor introduces new ideas o them. Ralph and Roger (1991), says that adult learner will, "Identify his learning need when he finds a problem to be solved, a skill to be acquired, or information to be obtained. He is able to articulate his need in the form of a general goal, differentiate that goal into several specific objectives, and define fairly explicitly his criteria for successful achievement. In implementing his need, he gathers the information he desires, collects ideas, practices skills, works to resolve his problems, and achieves his goals. In evaluating, the learner judges the appropriateness of newly acquired skills, the adequacy of his solutions, and the quality of his new ideas and knowledge." This is proof enough that adult learners are equally active in their quest for knowledge and its application.

Information review

There has been significant scientific research made in the field of adult learning, one of them being on the general fallacy that human beings lose the brain cells everyday. It is however s established that
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Adult Education Within Human Resources Development the

Words: 4195 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46117124

Adult Education

Within Human esources Development

The literature which describes and analyzes the important aspects of adult education - within the Human esources Development genre - is vitally important in relating to today's employees who seek - and deserve - learning opportunities within their workplace environment. It provides a point of reference, it offers stimulating ideas for digestion and analysis, and it zeros in on the issue at hand, which is that learning should be encouraged and facilitated by employers, and it should be done in such a way that gains in individual learning and knowledge will transfer to competency on the job, and ultimately, profitability for the employer.

An exceptionally useful article by Theodore J. Marchese, entitled, "Insights from Neuroscience and Anthropology, Cognitive Science and Work-Place Studies": e.g., the brain is "remarkably plastic across the lifespan..."

Early experiences and genetic inheritance are very important," Marchese writes in his piece,…… [Read More]

References

Glastra, Folke J; & Hake, Barry J.; & Schedler, Petra E. "Lifelong Learning as Transitional Learning." Adult Education Quarterly 54 (2004): 291-306.

Hodkinson, Phil; & Hodkinson, Heather; & Evans, Karen; & Kersh, Natasha; & Fuller,

Alison; & Unwini, Loma; & Senker, Peter. "The significance of individual biography

In workplacelearning." Studies in the Education of Adults 36, (2004): 6-26.
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Adult Education Advantages and Disadvantages of Returning

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67711656

Adult education [...] advantages and disadvantages of returning to school as an adult.

ADULT EDUCATION

Returning to school as an adult has many advantages. Many times, adults returning to school have discovered that they really do not like the career they chose to major in as a teenager, and their interests and thoughts have changed. They return to school to study a new discipline. For example, a lawyer discovers they really do not enjoy practicing law, and they return to school to get a degree in education, so they can teach. These adult learners are often extremely motivated, and so they finish school more quickly. Many adult learners I have talked with also say they get more out of school the second time around. The first time they are not so interested, and the second time, they are.

In addition, most adult learners have already completed their basic education, if…… [Read More]

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Adult Learning Theory Applications to Non-Traditional College

Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53323742

Adult Learning Theory: Applications to Non-Traditional College Students" presents a number of important factors that are intrinsic to the propagation of adult education. The authors take a decidedly comprehensive approach to characterizing key distinctions between adult learners and those who are non-adults. As such, the pair make a number of astute observations that directly affect the way that the curriculum and program content should be facilitated for these learners, in order to maximize the didactic process. A thorough review of this article reveals that by choosing to emphasize various aspects of the adult learning experience, the curriculum can be significantly tailored in order to curb the rate of attrition and help adult learners thrive.

The first several pages of this article are concerned with identifying and discussing the ramifications of attributes that are intrinsic to adult learners. Oftentimes, these learners are distinct from others in the fact that the former…… [Read More]

References

Kenner, C., Weinerman, J. (2011). "Adult learning theory: applications to non-traditional college students." Journal of College Reading and Learning. 41(2) 87-96.
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Adult Learning Styles in the

Words: 7981 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98200563

For countries such as the U.S. And France, these needs can be reasonably expected to relate to the respective national cultures involved. For instance, in their book, Education in France, Corbett and Moon (1996) report, "An education system needs to justify itself constantly by reference to the values which underpin a nation's culture. In a democracy it is expected to transmit a range of intellectual, aesthetic and moral values which permeate the curriculum and approaches to teaching and learning" (p. 323).

Just as the United States has been confronted with a number of challenges in recent decades in identifying the best approach to providing educational services for an increasingly multicultural society, France has experienced its fair share of obstacles in this regard as well. According to Corbett and Moon, "In societies forced to come to terms with change, values are always challenged. French society, like others, had to adapt to…… [Read More]

References

Atkinson, R.D. (2006, May-June). Building a more-humane economy. The Futurist, 40(3), 44.

Blanchard, E. & Frasson, C. (2005). Making intelligent tutoring systems culturally aware: The use of Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Montreal, Quebec Canada: Computer Science Department, HERON Laboratory.

Bryant, S.M., Kahle, J.B. & Schafer, B.A. (2005). Distance education: A review of the contemporary literature. Issues in Accounting Education, 20(3), 255.

Calder, J. (1993). Disaffection and diversity: Overcoming barriers for adult learners. London: Falmer Press.
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Adult Education the Explosion of

Words: 558 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3515210

The writer also creates a new perspective when exploring different arguments. This new perspective creates a foundation for enhanced critical thinking and psychological skills. Finally, journal writing is also a self-directed activity that prepares students to critically understand and evaluate books and articles.

According to Muirhead (2002), the Journal riting approach relies on a student-centered assessment philosophy. In this model, students are not empty vessels to be filled up with knowledge. Instead, students and instructors are seen as academic partners. The adult students are autonomous and independent, and much of their studying depends on innovative assignments and assessment tools.

Because much of the learning is student-centered and done independently, it is even more important for the instructor to provide clear feedback. Towards this, Muirhead (2002) recommends the development of a rubric that allows an instructor to effectively grade and render evaluation. Developing such a tool takes time, and must be…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Muirhead, B. (2002, Feb). Relevant assessment strategies for Online Colleges & Universities. USDLA Journal, 16. Retrieved Oct 26, 2004, at http://www.usdla.org/html/journal/FEB02_Issue/article04.html.
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How Adults Use the Internet to Pursue Higher Education

Words: 5677 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15726576

Adult Education and the Internet

Higher Education, the Internet, and the Adult Learner

The concept of using the Internet in the pursuit of higher education is not exactly new. Indeed, the institution of "distance learning," has been in full swing since the heyday of late night Sally Struthers correspondence-school commercials. What has changed, however, is the increasing legitimacy and widespread use of the Internet in the pursuit of higher education -- from the research of traditional college students, to the complete education of students enrolled in "online universities" and courses.

Adult students face unique challenges when they utilize the Internet as part of their education in ways that mirror the issues they face within other instructional modalities.

In seeking to understand just how adults learn, these issues must be viewed collectively, for general adult learner/adult education studies must be considered as a whole along with the added factors arising out…… [Read More]

Kerka, Sandra. Distance Learning, the Internet, and the World Wide Web. http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed395214.html

Imel, Susan. Ethical Practice in Adult Education. http://www.ericfacility.net/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed338897.html

Brockett, R.G. "Ethics and the Adult Educators." In ETHICAL ISSUES IN ADULT EDUCATION, edited by R.G. Brockett. New York: Teachers College Press, 1988a.
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Reliability and Validity of Standardized Assessments in Adult Education

Words: 606 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10486034

Adult Learning Assessment

Adult learners comprise one of the fastest-growing segments of students today, and adult learners typically have needs that differentiate them from the younger learner. There is already much scholarship devoted to how the adult student learns new information. This understanding of the different learning styles has been taken into consideration in the design of courses and curricula for adult learners.

However, teaching tools are only part of the equation. Educators must also be able to assess if the adult learner is indeed retaining the information at both a critical and analytical level. Thus, in addition to the development of curricula, Cooledge et al. (2000) discussed the need to develop proper assessment tools for adult learners. In particular, Cooledge et al. (2000) focuses on the validity and reliability of portfolio assessment, one of the most popular tools in adult education.

The first part of this article is a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Coolege, N.., Coolege J., Weihe K.. (2000). Thorny issues of reliability, validity and fairness when evaluating portfolio assessment. Retrieved Oct 30, 2004, at http://www.ahea.org/Thorny_Issues.htm.
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Furthering Adult Education

Words: 1576 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77291672

Adult Education

In a more globalized society, competition has become as ubiquitous as it is contentious. Companies, customers, and governments continue to expand and move, irrespective of geographic boundaries. The information age, has allowed the seamless and cost effective exchange of goods services and information. As the information age, along with more interconnected societies continue to grow, so too will the need for effective job training. Unfortunately, adult education has not become a paramount interest to society. This is apparent with the overall lack of adult education and training mechanisms within the community. In order to better compete in a more globalized society, the constituents within society must be properly trained. America in particular, has fallen behind its Asian counterparts as it relates to both math and science. These two subjects are critical to the new found information transfer currently underway. Consequently, the adult population is not properly trained to…… [Read More]

References:

1) Merriam, Sharan, B. & Brockett, Ralph, G.. The Profession and Practice of Adult Education: An Introduction. Jossey-Bass, 2007, p. 7-19.

2) Bohonos, Jeremy Appreciating the Experiences and Expertise of Adult Students, Journal of College Orientation and Transition 2002, p. 20-34

3) Phipps, S.T.A., Prieto, L.C., & Ndinguri, E.N. (2013). Teaching an old dog new tricks: Investigating how age, ability and self-efficacy influence intentions to learn and learning among participants in adult education. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 17(1), 13-25.

4) Kunga, K., & Machtmes, K. (2009). Lifelong learning: Looking at triggers for adult learning. The International Journal of Learning, 16(7), 501-511
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Theory and Methods of Educating Adults

Words: 674 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83051562

Learner autobiography [EFLECT] Like most children, when I was very young I did not experience learning as a punitive exercise. Learning was fun and natural. While I was learning how to read I enjoyed how the teacher would read aloud to us; I remember learning about the multiplication tables using various piles of colored M&Ms. Unfortunately, around middle school there is often a period of resistance to learning, as students try to establish their own identities and view directions from the teacher in a negative light because they do not want an adult telling them what to do. Students are also aware enough that they are being 'taught' something but often question the applicability of that learning to what they consider real life.

[IDENTIFY] In college, I became more intellectually curious although I was still not 100% certain about what I needed to know for my future career. Still, I…… [Read More]

References

Knowles, M.S. (1980). The modern practice of adult education, from pedagogy to andragogy. The Journal of Technology Studies, 26(2). Retrieved from  http://www.hospitalist.cumc.columbia.edu/downloads/cc4_articles/Education%20Theory/Andragogy.pdf 

McLeod, S.A. (2010). Zone of Proximal Development. Retrieved from  http://www.simplypsychology.org/Zone-of-Proximal-Development.html
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Adult Learning Abstract Self-Direction in Adult Learning

Words: 613 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76509716

Adult Learning Abstract

Self-Direction in Adult Learning Forums

Technology has radically changed the face of adult learning during the past 25 years. The traditional brick-and-mortar classroom, while still dominant, has been joined by a wide variety of technology-based learning venues known as Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs). These virtual venues have been particularly successful in the field of adult education, where the freedom of location and schedule that these platforms offer are particularly attractive to learners. One trend that has been increasingly present in VLE education, and to some extent in the traditional classroom, is the use of self-directed learning.

Self-directed learning is defined as a "training design in which trainees master packages of predetermined material, at their own pace, without the aid of an instructor" (Simmering et al., 2009). Because it does not rely on the presence of an instructor, self-directed learning fits well in VLE platforms. It is particularly…… [Read More]

References

Rager, K. (2009). I feel, therefore, I learn: The role of emotion in self-directed learning. New Horizons in Adult Education and Human Resource Development, 23(2), 22-33.

Silen, C. & Uhlin, L. (August 2008). Self-directed learning -- a learning issue for students and faculty! Teaching in Higher Education, 13(4), 461-475.

Simmering, M.J., Posey, C., & Piccoli, G. (January 2009). Computer self-efficacy and motivation to learn in a self-directed online course. Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 7(1), 99-121.

Terry, M. (2006). Self-directed learning by undereducated adults. Educational Research Quarterly, 29(4), 28-38.
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Adult Support for Multicultural Education

Words: 1528 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16398406

As is stated by Bennett "When teachers accept the goal of developing competencies in multiple systems of standards of perceiving, evaluating, believing and doing, it becomes obvious that knowledge about multiple dialects and languages is part of becoming educated" (p. 297).

While neither educators nor parents can magically erase all cultural and ethnic barriers and inequities, any more than they can resolve all of the communication problems created associated with an increasingly diverse classroom, they can achieve significant results by making a conscious and concerted effort to ensure that every student is treated fairly and in a manner that respects rather than ignores their cultural heritage.

eferences

Allen, S.F. & Tracy, E.M. (2004) evitalizing the role of home visiting by school social workers. Children and Schools, 26, 197-208

Baker, M.L., Sigmon, J.N., & Nugent, M.E. (2001). Truancy reduction: Keeping students in school. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, 1-14

Bennett, C. (1995). Comprehensive…… [Read More]

References

Allen, S.F. & Tracy, E.M. (2004) Revitalizing the role of home visiting by school social workers. Children and Schools, 26, 197-208

Baker, M.L., Sigmon, J.N., & Nugent, M.E. (2001). Truancy reduction: Keeping students in school. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, 1-14

Bennett, C. (1995). Comprehensive multicultural education: Theory and practice (3rd ed.). Massachusetts: Allen & Bacon

Goodman, J.F., (1998, December) Moral descriptors and the assessment of children, Journal of Moral Education 27, 475-487
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Providers of Formal Adult Education

Words: 472 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94926979

adult learner, including statistics, and self-directed learning. Adult education has seen dramatic growth since the introduction of online and self-directed courses, and the numbers show it. As noted, in 1991, approximately 58 million adults participated in adult education courses, while in 1999; the number grew to 90 million. The latest figures show an even more dramatic rise in numbers. The National Center for Education Statistics indicates that by 2005, 53.9% of adults aged 16 to 64 had participated in adult education, for either business or pleasure, jumping to 133 million people (Editors, 2009).

Adult learning has taken off in the Internet age, and it is very interesting to note that the very highest percentage of adult learners returning to school, for various reasons, is the group who has already completed at least a bachelor's degree. Sixty-five percent of these adults have participated in adult education classes for business or pleasure.…… [Read More]

References

Editors. (2009). Participation. Retrieved 4 Dec. 2009 from the National Center for Education Statistics Web site:  http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d08/tables/dt08_370.asp .

Smith, C.B. (2009). Self-directed learning. Retrieved 4 Dec. 2009 at the University of Indiana Web site: http://www.indiana.edu/~reading/ieo/digests/d169.html.
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Understanding the Impact of Diversity in Adult Arts Education

Words: 2758 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39954679

Learning Objectives for Adult Education

Managing and Exploiting the Impact of Classroom Diversity in Adult Arts Education

As the American population becomes increasingly diverse, so goes classroom diversity (Cooper, 2012). By the end of the current decade, a White majority will no longer exist among the 18 and under age group. This rapid progression towards a plurality has already impacted primary schools, but the trend toward increasing diversity is beginning to affect adult education classrooms as well. If educators simply ignore this trend, not only will the academic success of students be harmed, but also the professional skills of educators. The solution, according to Brookfield (1995), is not the adoption of an innocent or naive attitude towards the diverse needs and abilities of racially and ethnically diverse students, but to engage in a process of critical self-reflection. Such a process would help educators uncover their own hidden motives and intentions,…… [Read More]

References

Berry, J.W. (1971). Ecological and cultural factors in spatial perceptual development. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 3(4), 324-36.

Brookfield, S.D. (1995). Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Brookfield, S.D. (2012). Teaching for critical thinking: Tools and techniques for helping students question their assumptions (1st ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Brookfield, S.D. (2013). Powerful techniques for teaching adults. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishing.
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Sociology and Adult Education

Words: 3070 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6128343

Sociology and Adult Education

Adult Education

Many believe that vessel education and training that that the very foundation of success. A strong educational background can help any individual branch into new opportunities, where individual goals and community goals are intimately intertwined. In addition to traditional education facilities, the United States has a prominent adult education industry which helps bring academic practices and continuous learning to individuals already within a working environment. Essentially, adult education helps empower both the individual and the community through a continual closure to new and useful information that continuously pushes the individual towards more progressive action.

There is a wide variety of types of adult education offers within mainstream American society today. Essentially, what sets adult education apart from traditional educational program is the fact that adults are already within the workforce are returning to an educational civility in order to train on some potentially lucrative…… [Read More]

References

Brookfield, Stephen. (1993). Self-directed learning, political clarity, and the critical practice of adult education. Adult Education Quarterly, 43(4). Web. http://www.nl.edu/academics/cas/ace/facultypapers/StephenBrookfield_Learning.cfm?RenderForPrint=1

Farmer, Lesley S.J. (2010). Gender impact on adult education. Information Communication Technologies and Adult Education. IGI Global. P 377-394.

Hopey, Christopher. (1999). Technology and adult education: Rising expectations. Adult Education, 10(4), 26-27.

Jarvis, Peter. (2004). Adult Education and Lifelong Learning. 3rd ed. Routledge Falmer.
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Concept Learner Centered Curriculum in TESOL

Words: 4782 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63782176

Learner-centered curriculum' in TESOL

The most important learning processes in any school anywhere in the world involve the use of several different means of communication. The communication methods may be verbal or non-verbal. Verbal communication involves the use of oral and written symbols that can communicate a message to the student, and non-verbal involves the use of, primarily, among other means, body language. Without communication there can be no means of telling the other person what one person wants or needs, and communication is used between teachers and parents, between groups, between the parents and the community, and also for the formation of interpersonal relationships and as the medium of instruction in a school. Any sort of behavioral problems in school would be dealt with by effective means of communication, and it can be stated that without communication there would be no education.

However, the culture or the background of…… [Read More]

References

Bacon, Suzanne. "Communicative Language Teaching" Retrieved From

http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/comlangteach/index.htm Accessed on 15 November, 2004

Counihan, Gerard. (July 1998) "Teach students to interact, not just talk" The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. IV, No. 7. Retrieved From

http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Counihan-Interaction.html Accessed on 15 November, 2004
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Learning Process Through Several Adult

Words: 2117 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92705101

e. The adult learners are always encouraged to understand why they need to study or learn a certain aspect, what can be its various potential categories and how it can be applied with minor adjustments in different scenarios. Furthermore, the andragogic learning processes encourage that the adult learner is an independent and self-dependent thinker and is able to draw in the previous experiences whenever required. Andragogic learning also encourages the understanding of the importance of using both the human and material assets in an experience. Andragogic learning encourages the learner to invest his knowledge and abilities around his personal experiences and personal growth.

Hence, the andragogic learning model is mainly built around the self-direction of an individual but allows the individual to use a certain set of rules within a specific environment to put his self-directed learning to test in order to sharpen it under strict and proper guidance.

Transformative…… [Read More]

References

Knowles, M.S. (1975) Self-Directed Learning. A guide for learners and teachers, Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall/Cambridge.

Knowles, M.S. et al. (1998) the Adult Learner, Butterworth-Heinemann

Merriam, S. And Caffarella, R. (1991) Learning in Adulthood. A comprehensive guide, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Mezirow, J. (1991). Transformative dimensions of adult learning. San Francisco, ca: Jossey-Bass.
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Transformative Adult Education Did You

Words: 1350 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12461868

They also focus more on institutional support, like the need for appropriate funding for such educational programs, rather than psychological issues attacked to assimilation. Changing demographics in recent years in Canada have forced adult education programs to meet the challenge of doing more with fewer resources, as they fight, for more funding for programs designed to orient immigrants in the language and culture of the area. "As new citizens to Canada, they need educational programs to help them navigate the complex paths that citizenship entails and to upgrade their language, knowledge and skills to fully participate in Canadian society."

Unlike Ferrigno's article on education that accepts community criticism and a critique of society as a whole, Guo and Sork's see "adult education as an agency of social progress" in moving students forward into better economic opportunities. Adult education is "an important forum for building inclusive citizenship" more so than changing…… [Read More]

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Teaching Adults Using Technology How

Words: 2272 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19724174

While commenting on the works of Baldwin & Ford, Detterman (Detterman & Sternberg, 1993) observed that the American enterprises were more likely to lose in case of teaching employers as they diverted lump sum of $100 billion annually to tutor employees. The loss is experienced because whatever is learned in an adult learning session is not practiced at the workplaces.

This problem is indicative of the dire need for combining knowledge with current practical work. The internships of doctors and people doing Ph. D serve as examples to show the link between learning and practical work (Lave & Wenger, 1991). The variations in practical applications and formal learning make it necessary that lifetime learners find out fresh strategies to tackle these variations. These variations comprise of the high work requirements that make the job training mandatory, unavoidable variation in an occupation, tech-literacy and the disparity created between the skilled and…… [Read More]

References

Detterman, D.K., & Sternberg, R.J. (1993). Transfer on trial: Intelligence, cognition, and instruction. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing,.

Fischer, G. (1991). Supporting learning on demand with design environments. International Conference on the Learning Sciences, pp. 165-172.

Fischer, G. (1998c). Making learning a part of life-beyond the 'gift-wrapping' approach of technology. In P. Alheit & E. Kammler (Eds.), Lifelong learning and its impact on social and regional development. Donat Verlag, Bremen, pp. 435-462.

Gardner, H. (1991). The unschooled mind, New York: Basic Books.
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Teaching Disadvantaged Adults There Are

Words: 1337 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5331319

As a result they are often excluded from the mainstream and from being productive members of society.

I feel that it is not only ethically and morally important to help these individuals but that it also makes economic and social sense to assist those who are disadvantaged to receive a better education and advance their potential in life.

I also believe that we should be careful to consider the fact that adult education is an area that requires a very different approach and involves different modes of understanding, as well as the use of appropriate techniques, when dealing with the various categories of disadvantaged adult. For example, in terms of those adults who are disadvantaged with regard to education backlogs, one has to realize that they often face a number of unique and specific problems; such as the fact that many will have families, children and work commitments, which make…… [Read More]

References

Moore, M.G., & Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance Education: A System's View.

Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Motivating Disadvantaged Adult Learners. Retrieved July 5, 2009 from http://ujop.cuni.cz/page/en/dalsi/presentations/MoDAL-basic%20idea.ppt.

Incidental teaching. Retrieved July 5, 2009 from Incidental Teaching.
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African-American Adult Learning Theories

Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60651368

Metacognition and Effective Study Strategies Among African-American College and University Students, Bernadette Nwafor discusses the fact that many African-American students have trouble with basic concentration and retention skills and how the implementation of various study techniques could enhance student concentration. Nwarfor purports that those students that try to understand what they are reading through "meaningfulness, collaboration and establishment of relationships between new ideas and old experiences" are more likely to do better on tests than those who learn by merely reading through text or memorization It is her perception that African-American students learn better when they can relate to the material in question. In this article she studies the three kinds of memory (sensory, short-term and long-term memory) as she shows that if a person associates something familiar with new material they are able to retain it better in their long-term memory. She cites for her example a study by…… [Read More]

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Teaching Disadvantaged Adults

Words: 1047 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95234506

Teaching disadvantaged adults could be one of the biggest challenges that an educator could face. Adults are already set in their ways. Their brains have already developed to the point where very little will be reshaped and habits are already set in. Not only can this pose difficulty when trying to teach something new to adults, it becomes an even harder task when trying to teach something novel to disadvantaged adults. Situational factors such as poverty, lack of complete grasp of the English language, and cultural factors could come into play and both negatively and positively affect their ability to learn and be taught (Kerka, 2002). A key concept in teaching disadvantaged adults is in the methods and materials chosen to appropriately affect their learning. An educator needs to make sure that these things are appropriate to an adult given their disadvantaged situation and that whatever method is chosen will…… [Read More]

References:

Kerka, S. (2002). Teaching adults: Is it different? Educational Resources Information Center. 21(3): 32-33.

Kozma R. & Wagner. D. (2006). Reaching the most disadvatanged with ICT: What works? Education and Training Policy ICT and Learning. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Chapter 5: 97.

Lyn, T. & Ducklin, A. (1995). Further education colleges and educationally disadvantaged adults. Scottish Educational Review. 27(2): 154-164.
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Teaching Theory Adult Teaching Theory

Words: 607 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12282376

This is the essence of Knowles' self-directed learning.

Question

The last sentence of Stephen Brookfield's Chapter on "Adult Learning: An Overview" states "To understand adult learning we need to know it's connections of learning in childhood and adolescence and to the formation during these periods of interpretive filters, cognitive frames and cultural values."

Brookfield's assertion is somewhat at odds with Knowles concept of the difference between child and adult learning, although it is developmental in nature. One possible way of reconciling the difference between Brookfield and Knowles is to propose a stage theory of learning that shows progression from childhood to adolescence to adulthood, incorporating different theorist's ideas about the relationship between learner and teacher at different developmental, emotional, and experiential stages.

Stage 1: Childhood. Child is eager to learn but not certain of how to go about it. Learns to please self 'in the moment' of experience, but without…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Smith, M.K. (2002) 'Malcolm Knowles, informal adult education, self-direction and anadragogy.' The encyclopedia of informal education, www.infed.org/thinkers/et-knowl.htm.
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Diversity in Adult Education the

Words: 488 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66778441



The benefits of this study will be both to adult learners and to their educators. The benefits to the students should be obvious; though it will take time and further research to evaluate and implement the suggestions made by this study on a large scale, the needs of the students in a multicultural setting will be better met by educators who better understand the diversity of needs and styles that multiculturalism helps to propagate and condense in the classroom.

4) the theoretical frameworks of multiculturalism and teaching theories are best suited to the study proposed. The varying degrees of assimilation and resistance to it need to be both respected and understood for effective teaching to take place, as well as an understanding of specific practices and behaviors of other cultures. Multiculturalism, though now a disputed framework, still provides the clearest and most readily applicable insights into these areas, and will…… [Read More]

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Teaching Considerations The Adult Learning Environment

Words: 731 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68768725

Teaching in an Adult Learning En Vironment

This study will set out thoughts on teaching class in an adult learning environment. Included will be influential variables including classrooms, teachers, and students. The adult learning environment involves a great diversity of individuals from various backgrounds, racial groups and ethnicity as well as being differentiated by their life experience in terms of career background and academic achievement background. The adult learning environment is likely to have individuals whose first language is other than English and these individuals are in various stages of mastering the English language. In addition, the learning environment will be characterized by individuals whose ages are in a wide range from individuals in their early twenties to individuals who are senior citizens as more baby-boomers will stay in the workforce far past retirement age. Added to this the adult learning environment will be inclusive of individuals who are technology…… [Read More]

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Transformational Learning Theory in the Context of Adult Learning

Words: 2173 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90860423

Transformational Learning

More than twenty-five years ago, Jack Mezirow initiated a profound movement in the field of adult education, that of transformative learning theory. Since this time, the concept of transformative learning has been a topic of much research and theory building in the field of adult education as described in more detail in this research paper. Although Mezirow is considered to be the major developer of transformative learning theory, other perspectives about transformative learning have emerged and are still emering, indicating that Mezirow's work was just a beginning.

Today there are four major models of transformative learning: the cognitive-rational approach of Mezirow, Freire's social transformation, the concept of development by Daloz and spirituality dimensions advocated by Dirkx and Healey. And, critics such as oyd, and Clark and Wilson have criticized Mezirow's theory as too rationally driven. Even so, Merizow's theory still serves as a widely-used foundation to explain or…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Boyd, R.D., and Myers, J.G..(1988, October-December). Transformative education. International Journal Of Lifelong Education 7, no. 4, 261-284.

Clark, M.C., & Wilson, A.L. (1991). Context and rationality in Mezirow's theory of transformational learning. Adult Education Quarterly, 41(2), 75-91.

Cranton, P.(1994). Understanding and promoting transformative learning: a guide for educators of adults. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Daloz, L. (1986). Effective teaching and mentoring. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
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Personal Philosophy of Adult Education

Words: 456 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43963094

philosophy that best reflects my opinion of adult education. Google "philosophy of adult education" and you will find essentially personal essays and thoughts about the philosophy of how and why adult education exists.

My personal philosophy of adult education is a result of my personal awareness of the essential purpose of education. From my view, education should be an empowering tool, which enables adults to attain their full potential and realize their objectives throughout their lives. In this example, education should offer adults the opportunity to augment their employment skills so that they can pursue the career they really want to succeed in life. I believe it is the goal of adult education to be able to identify the candidates of adult learners who can benefit from adult education and realize their dreams.

One of the main purposes of adult education is to enable adult learners to make the most…… [Read More]

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Adult Literacy Program Plan Adult

Words: 403 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58426243

Also, the privacy of the venue, outside of a workplace or family setting, would encourage participation and attendance amongst fellow learners undergoing the same struggle.

c. How can finding a solution result in significant changes/improvements?

Possessing the skills that make one literate means an individual is less likely to need government assistance, is better able to be promoted and to find a secure job, and can feel more meaningfully engaged with society. Also, recruiting teachers and even properly trained volunteers from the community will enable more people to see that illiterate adults are often not lacking in intelligence, but simply in opportunities. Special volunteer campaigns could be created soliciting teachers with specializations in learning disabilities and ESL to treat the needs of these populations. To educate adults with more foundational skills, teenage volunteers and members of the community could provide tutoring services. This would create greater community connections between different…… [Read More]

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Creative Community Building

Words: 2192 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46951520

Adults, especially seniors need a place where they can learn new things and express themselves. Sometimes seniors go to a senior community arts program where they learn to paint and create things for themselves and for their loved ones. Art theory in the field of physical therapy is a very helpful and useful way of integrating varied learning and complex tasks all while promoting growth and renewal. For anything to flourish, especially a program like a senior community arts program, it needs to integrate lessons and objectives that promote the growth and learning of its participants.

Therefore, it is important to understand and analyze prior and current research that not only offers a different perspective, but also assures the teacher that what they are instructing has been proven to succeed and assists the people learning, to achieve certain pre-planned objectives. This paper is a literature review of six scholarly research…… [Read More]

References

Conlan, J., Grabowski, S., & Smith, K. (2003). Adult Learning - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology. Retrieved December 10, 2013, from  http://epltt.coe.uga.edu/index.php?title=Adult_Learning 

Dzubinski, L., Hentz, B., Davis, K.L., & Nicolaides, A. (2012). Envisioning an Adult Learning Graduate Program for the Early 21st Century A Developmental Action Inquiry Study.Adult Learning, 23(3), 103-110. doi:10.1177/1045159512452844

Edwards, C., Gaden, C., Marchant, R., Coventry, T., Dutton, P., & Scott, J.M. (2011). Delivering extension and adult learning outcomes from the Cicerone Project by comparing, measuring, learning and adopting'. Animal Production Science, 53(8), 827-840. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AN11322

Longenecker, C., & Abernathy, R. (2013). The eight imperatives of effective adult learning: Designing, implementing and assessing experiences in the modern workplace. Human Resource Management International Digest, 21(7), 30-33. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=17100953&show=abstract
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Adolescent Learner Unique Needs the

Words: 2696 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88845591

Matching students' interests with learning objectives will increase the chances of students' learning. They tend to use it and remember it long after. Using literature relevant to adolescents, for example, will raise their literacy and capacity to address contemporary issues affecting them. Reading materials about adolescents and for adolescents are another window into their world that teachers should be looking into. This is the time when they should read about themselves rather than simply sitting down for an hour and taking notes (Chckley).

Applying Learning in the Community through Projects

Projects, which give meaning to learning in the classroom, will leave an impression in adolescents' mind (Checkley, 2004). Learning about Veterans Day as a service-learning project, for example, demonstrates this. Students may be asked to identify a veteran in their family or among their acquaintances or friends. They may be asked to write the veteran a letter of appreciation or…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Checkley, K. (2004). Meeting the needs of the adolescent learner. Vo. 46 # 5 Education

Update: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Retrieved on July

21, 2012 from http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/ed_update/ecc200408.checkley.pdf

Cherry, K. (2012). Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. About.com: The New
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Education and the Teacher-Learner Relationship From a

Words: 2523 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87176749

education and the teacher-learner relationship from a Christian-informed philosophical perspective. It begins with an explanation of the author's personal worldview, and then explores the various philosophical schools of education. Combining the two, the author explains how they have helped shape the author's approach to education. ather than relying on a single educational philosophy, the author intends to combine multiple philosophies in the classroom environment.

Describing the purpose of education is an interesting prospect because education is a cultural construct, and, as a result, what constitutes an education is dependent upon the surrounding culture. In a broad sense, an education is the instruction and learning that a person receives, in both formal and informal environments, which is aimed at preparing that person to live as an adult within the surrounding culture. When one views education as a means of adapting the individual to adult life in his or her own culture,…… [Read More]

References

Brekelmans, M., Wubbels, Th., & Brok, P. den. (2002). Teacher experience and the teacher-

student relationship in the classroom environment. In S.C. Goh & M.S. Khine (Eds.),

Studies in educational learning environments: an international perspective

(pp.73-99). Singapore: World Scientific.
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Acculturation of ESL Learners in

Words: 3390 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3248697

, notes at that there has been a "paucity of studies" on the effectiveness of video in teaching culture through foreign-language programs. Herron investigated whether students retain more ("little c") cultural "practices" or ("big C") cultural "products" by watching video in a second-language program (Herron, 1999, p. 522). Thirty-eight students were given a pretest before watching the 10 videos that were part of the French-language curriculum. Immediately afterward they were given a post-test. Interestingly, in terms of their evolving understanding of French culture, in 8 of the 10 total post-video quizzes, the students gave higher scores to their "little c" (understanding cultural practices) than to "big C" (cultural products). And 84.2% of the 38 students believed that the 10 videos showed "a lot or a vast amount" of little c (cultural practices in France) presented and 42.1% believed that "a lot or a vast amount" of big C (cultural products…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Herron, Carol, Dubreil, Sebastien, Corrie, Cathleen, and Cole, Steven. (2002). A Classroom

Investigation: Can Video Improve Intermediate-Level French Language Students' Ability

To Learn about a Foreign Culture? The Modern Language Journal, 86(i), 36-53.

Herron, Carol, Cole, Steven P., Corrie, Cathleen, and Dubreil, Sebastien. (1999). The
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Motivational Strategies to Support ADHD Learners in the Classroom

Words: 1546 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29266343

Motivational Strategies to Support Learners in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Classrooms

Motivational strategies in the classroom in general represent a challenging enterprise, but the need for such effective strategies in classrooms with young learners suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is particularly pronounced. The condition affects the ability of students to learn in a number of ways that can detract from the most thoughtful motivational strategies, though, and teachers in crowded classrooms may find themselves as a distinct disadvantage trying to satisfy the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act as a result. To determine what motivational strategies have proven effective in classrooms with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder learners, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

eview and Discussion

The prevalence of attention deficit…… [Read More]

References

American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders

(4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.

Burcham, B. & L. Carlson. 1999 'Promising Practices for Serving Students with Attention

Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.' School Administrator, vol. 51, no. 10, p. 32.
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Mentoring Multicultural Approach to Adult Mentoring Disadvantaged

Words: 1165 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87635414

Mentoring

Multicultural Approach to Adult Mentoring

Disadvantaged adults take place in the community and need special attention to enhance their life. The disadvantaged adult population mostly comes from various cultural background; many of them also belong to the low-class society, work in blue collar occupation scheme, unable to finish high or middle school, and sometimes have problem with literacy.

The government works hard, collaborating with educational foundations, NGO, and volunteering professionals to provide continuing education for those people, to build them better future. Through series of integrated educational programs, the disadvantaged groups learn how to read, write, and express themselves, and go through learning process for basic lessons.

ith enough pressure from the job and family, learning process may not be the only task to fulfill. Developing motivation, building concentration, and enhancing self-esteem sometimes demand greater attention for people who work in this group, both teachers and learners. In order…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ascher, Carol. The Mentoring of Disadvantaged Youth. ERIC/CUE Digest No. 47.

1988. ERIC Clearinghouse on Urban Education New York NY. ED306326

Kerka, Sandra. Strategies for Retaining Adult Students: The Educationally Disadvantaged. ERIC Digest No. 76. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult Career and Vocational Education Columbus OH. 1988. ED299455. 30 Apr. 2004. http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed299455.html

Ziegahn, Linda. Considering Culture in the Selection of Teaching Approaches for Adults.
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Does Using Auditory Computer Files Assist College Level ESL Learners

Words: 1609 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78530032

Auditory Computer Files Assist College Level ESL Learners

The objective of this study is to examine whether auditory computer files assist college level ESL learners.

Linda Dwyer writes that text-to-speech readers are not generally available "outside of the disability community and may be prohibitively expensive when obtainable." (Dwyer, nd, p.1) In addition, Dwyer reports that ESL instructors are often not aware of the research or the resources that are available. Dwyer states that reading pens that are able to read line-by-line and other assistive devices that can copy and article and then paste it to the computer for text-to-speech support are useful to students who are ESL students. According to Dwyer, "ESL instructors in higher educational settings have worked primarily with high achieving international students. As such, these instructors have occupied a niche treated as short-term remedial support rather than an academic sub-field within the academy. Many positions in both…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Casidy (1996) in: Kurzweil Educational Systems (2005) Scientifically-Based Research Validating Kurzweil 3000: An Annotated Review of Research Supporting the Use of Kurzweil 3000 in English Language Learner Classrooms. Oct 2005. Retrieved from:     http://www.vocalinks.com/site/vocalinks/assets/pdf/K3000_ELL_Research.pdf    

Chisholm and Beckett (2003) in: Kurzweil Educational Systems (2005) Scientifically-Based Research VAliding Kurzweil 3000: An Annotated Review of Research Supporting the Use of Kurzweil 3000 in English Language Learner Classrooms. Oct 2005. Retrieved from:
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Psychological Capital and Learners K-12

Words: 4962 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33447575

Physical and mental disorders are often comorbid, reflecting an entire system that is out of balance. A healthy state, both physically and mentally reflects a state of equilibrium and stability that every organism wishes to achieve (Wallace, 2008).When one portion of the system is out of balance, the entire system can be out of balance. The degree to which the system is out of balance determines the degree of the disturbance.

A child that has greater resilience skills can recover from a greater disturbance than a child with little resiliency. Everyone has heard stories of the rich and famous who rose up from situations of poverty and despair to become something great. This is exactly what this research is about. Eriksson's psychosocial model sets up the situation that the person must overcome. Wallace's theory on resiliency provides an understanding of what the child needs to overcome these circumstances to become…… [Read More]

References

Anthony, E., Alter, C. & Jenson, J. (2009). Development of a Risk and Resilience-Based Out-of-

School Time Program for Children and Youths. Social Work. 54 (1): 45+. Retrieved from Questia Database.

Brendtro, L. & Larson, S. (2004). The Resilience Code: Finding Greatness in Youth. Reclaiming Children and Youth. 12 (4): 194 +. Retrieved from Questia Database.

Brown, W. (2006). The Value of Role Models in Inspiring Resilience. Reclaiming Children and Youth. 14 (4): 199+. Retrieved from Questia Database.
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Opportunities to Help Young Learners

Words: 3322 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65494691

An orthographic definition is one which is formalistic in the sense of being bound to the form of a word in a particular medium. It is not sensitive to distinctions of meaning or grammatical function. To this extent it is not complete" (1998, p. 4). Therefore, in an effort to help complete the definition, a reference to Webster's advises that a word is simply "something that is said" (1999, p. 2633).

Unfortunately, this formal definition does little to clear the muddied waters with respect to what a word is, and Carter (1998) suggests that, "It may be more accurate to define a word as the minimum meaningful unit of language. This allows us to differentiate the separate meanings contained in the word fair in so far as they can be said to be different semantic units" (p. 5). Furthermore, this definition fails to embrace the polysemous nature of many words.…… [Read More]

References

Carter, R. (1998). Vocabulary: Applied Linguistic Perspectives. London: Routledge.

Cervatiuc, A. (2007). "Assessing Second Language Vocabulary Knowledge." International

Forum of Teaching and Studies, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 40-42.

Flippo, R.F. & Caverly, D.C. (2000). Handbook of College Reading and Study Strategy
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Use of Technology to Support ADD and ADHD Learners K-8

Words: 1498 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51163306

nology to Support ADD and ADHD Learners (K-8)

Research Paper

November 6, 2005

Use of Technology to Support ADD and ADHD Learners (K-8)

Abstract

The student with AD/HD is one that requires more specialized and individualized instruction. Technological possibilities present great potential in providing these instructional needs for the AD/HD learner. Technology implemented in the school and in the classroom is critically dependent upon collaboration in development and implementation which is inclusive of the participation of students, teachers, parents and the community at large. Some of these technological methods that are included in the curriculum are use of video, networking, PDAs, email, Internet access and other various technologies. The objective of this work is the research and review of technologies that have been effective as well as ineffective and finally the technologies that offer new promise to the teaching and learning initiative for students with disabilities in learning such as…… [Read More]

Works Cited 00- [HIDDEN] -291 4-01 2M.

ADHD: Interventions for Elementary School Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (2005) ADDinSchool.com Online available at: http://www.addinschool.com/elementary.htm

SNR Network Resources Copyright 2005
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Teaching Philosophies Adult Education Has

Words: 1569 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11834969

This type of education has worked best within societies that contain large amounts of oppressive practices, where the oppressed need to learn some autonomy. More developed countries however tend to favor the more traditional types of education (Werner, 2000).

Conclusion

It is important to assess the specific needs of one's own educational environment. Some environments, as seen above, would benefit more from the behaviorist philosophy than from the humanist philosophy, and vice versa. It is therefore important to establish an initial focus, determine goals, and assess student needs. When there is for example a need for strongly skill-centered learning, such as a computer-skills course, this would benefit little from a behaviorist methodology. When the course is however more flexible and artistic, it might be better to focus on students' individual needs and concerns. In order to find what would work best in a specific classroom therefore, once should assess needs…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bullen, Mark. (2004) "Andragogy and University Distance Education." University of British Columbia. http://www2.cstudies.ubc.ca/~bullen/bullen1.html

Kett, J.F. (1994) the Pursuit of Knowledge Under Difficulties. From self-improvement to adult education in America, 1750-1990, Stanford, Ca.: Stanford University Press.

Merriam, S.B. And Caffarella, R.S. (1991) Learning in Adulthood. A comprehensive guide, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Smith, M.K. (2002) 'Malcolm Knowles, informal adult education, self-direction and anadragogy', the encyclopedia of informal education, www.infed.org/thinkers/et-knowl.htm.Last updated: January 30, 2005
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Teaching Young Learners Through Art of Drama Under a Climate of Creativity

Words: 4513 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58146084

Climate of Creativity: Teaching English to Young Learners Through the Art of Drama

Several learning and involving learning experiences emerge for the early childhood students when both drama and movement are incorporated in the daily syllabus (Chauhan, 2004). Apart from being "fun" for majority of the kids, kinesthetic activities are capable of assisting the young students, particularly those learning the English language, improve interpretation skills, vocabulary, fluency, speech knowledge, syntactic knowledge, and meta-cognitive judgment (Sun, 2003). When drama and movement are employed in the teaching of language skills, the learners are provided with a framework for listening and significant language production, offers chances for writing and reading improvements (Chauhan, 2004), and engages learners in writing and reading as significant communication procedures. Other than the improvement of resourceful judgment and expression, fine and gross motor organization skills, problem tackling, social dealings, cooperative performance, rhyming, and rhythm skills can be developed (ieg…… [Read More]

References

August, D., Carlo, M., Dressler, C. And Snow, C. (2005). The critical role of vocabulary development for English language learners. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice 20 (1): 50 -- 57.

Brouillette, L. (2012). Supporting the Language Development of Limited English Proficient Students through Arts Integration in the Primary Grades. Arts Education Policy Review, 113(2), 68. doi:10.1080/10632913.2012.656494

Chauhan, V. (2004). Drama techniques for teaching English. The Internet TESL Journal, 10().

Courtney, R. (1980). Dramatic Curriculum. London: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd.
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Competing in the Global Economy

Words: 324 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9532725

Askov points out that many adults returning to the educational system after failing to meet its standards will not succeed in a system that is built upon the same ideals. Race, class, gender, and corresponding power structures also play into how educators approach adult learners. Adult education presents a host of challenges not present in elementary education, problems that refer to the very values upon which the society is formed. Research and theories in psychology and learning present multiple perspectives upon which educators and policy makers can build a more promising future for adult learners. Visions for the future include embedding metacognitive skills into adult learning programs. Adult learners need literacy skills, not so they can score well on standardized testing but so they can reach their highest potential as human beings. Grassroots movements may be the key to promoting adult literacy throughout the country, to making adult literacy and…… [Read More]

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Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation CPR Class Given

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61818477

Still others must actually undergo the experience of trying to perform procedures themselves under guidance to learn effectively.

Looking back at some of my clinical experiences, I can recall instances where I took an approach to patient education that was based mainly on my convenience and preference rather than on an assessment of what teaching approach would be most beneficial to patients. More recently, I have tried to incorporate adult learning theory into patient education in connection with post-surgical follow-up self-care and wound care, among other areas. For example, I have recently begun asking patients whether they would prefer to have informational resources in printed form, or whether they would prefer to observe demonstrations. When patients indicate their desire to observe clinical procedures, I also offer them the opportunity to try the procedures under my guidance, taking advantage of the fact that some of them may learn best from experiential…… [Read More]

References

Brookfield, S. (1995). Adult learning: An overview. In The International Encyclopedia of Education (Ed. A.Tuinjman). Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Cercone, K. (2008). Characteristics of adult learners with implications for online learning design. AACE Journal, 16(2), 137 -- 159.

Clardy, A. (2005, August 1). Andragogy: Adult learning and education at its best. Online Submission, (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED492132). Retrieved

August 27, 2009, from ERIC database. (ERIC database)
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Moore & Kearsley The Nature

Words: 875 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66188569

Among the research findings in this regard was the view that field independent student are often more successful in the distance learning environment. Other factors such as introversion and extroversion were discussed and introverted personality types were seen to be more successful in the distance teaching environment. It was also found that extracurricular concerns can have both positive and negative course completion outcomes. Support from family or employer was also found to be a very significant variable that had a positive effect.

Another relevant area of discussion was study skills. It was generally found that good study skills and habits were a central determining factor for the distance students. Furthermore, procrastination was found to be a very negative factor, especially if one takes into account the demands of the distance education.

The difference between the classrooms and the distance learning environment was also discussed, with many students stating that they…… [Read More]

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Lesson Plan in Response to a Learning

Words: 1707 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18184397

Lesson Plan

In response to a learning needs assessment at the Samaritan Medical Center, this lesson plan focuses on an educational opportunity for the highest identified opportunity in terms of education needs among the nursing staff at the Center. Staff ranges from Nursing Assistants to egistered Nurses. A sample of 20 Ns and four LPNs were included in the assessment. The target audience for the lesson include Ns, LPNs, and Nursing Assistants at the Samaritan Medical Center.

Educational Need and ationale

While generally useful traits such as leadership and communication were identified among needs for improvement, the focus of this lesson plan is on the more specific needs in terms of procedural knowledge. The majority of surveyed Ns, for example, noted that there was an absence of proper knowledge on orthopaedic and neurological procedures. They identified a high level of need in terms of adequate training to improve their knowledge…… [Read More]

References

Bair, T.B. (2013, Sep. 23). Learning Needs Assessment.

Bourke, M.P. And Ihrke, B.A. (2009). The Evaluation Process: An Overview. Teaching in Nursing: A Guide for Faculty, edited by Diane M. Billings and Judith A. Halstead. St. Louis, Missouri: Saunders.

Hayden, J. (2009). Chapter 3: Motivation and Behavior Change. Teaching Strategies for Nurse Educators edit by Sandra deYoung. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

Vandeveer, M.(2009). From Teaching to Learning: Theoretical Foundations. Teaching in Nursing: A Guide for Faculty, edited by Diane M. Billings and Judith A. Halstead. St. Louis, Missouri: Saunders.
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Educational Experience Teaching a Class

Words: 1101 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88602974

I did not assume that the students were internally motivated, even though they proved to be so, which is why I made sure each student had a clear view of the board and PowerPoint presentation I had created and I kept a 'third eye' on their attention to the material, noting that they were following along with the manual and asking them questions. The fact that I had used the software myself and was quite familiar with it gave me an ease in presenting the material. Not only did I know the material well enough to deviate from a pre-planned script, I could also interweave humorous anecdotes into the presentation, and make the dryer sections of my talk more human and interesting. Combined with the visual reinforcement of the PowerPoint, this created a personal rapport between the students and me.

The class was also frustrated by the requirement placed upon…… [Read More]

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Gaming as an Instructional Strategy

Words: 10150 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29985406

Knowles stated "The richest resources for learning reside in the adult learners themselves" (p. 66). n instructional strategy like gaming may help to facilitate tapping into the adult learner's experience. Through collaboration during the play of a game, learners may discuss prior experiences to aid in discovery of the correct answer. Gaming activities also permit peer feedback to be given to students based on their previous experiences. The millennial student desires immediate feedback and integrates their experiences into their learning (Tapscott, 1998). gain, through group discussion and collaboration, learners share previous experiences with others to confirm or not the correct answer.

By not tapping into the experience of adult learners, negative effects may result (Knowles, 2005). The adult learner identifies their experiences as who they are. In other words, their experiences help to define them as a person. dult learners, who perceive their experiences as being ignored or devalued, perceive…… [Read More]

A somewhat controversial and negative environmental outcome identified from the review of literature was the competitive component to gaming. In an evaluation conducted by Gruendling et al.(1991), some learners (5%) felt threatened by competitive nature of gaming (N = 40) and stated that gaming can cause unnecessary anxiety and stress. Bloom and Trice (1994) stated that too much competition can take the fun out of the process of learning for some and perhaps discourage student participation.

Psychosocial Outcomes

Psychosocial outcomes were also identified from the review of literature. Gaming was found to have encouraged and enhanced active participation and communication-social interactions, improve peer relationships, promote teamwork and collaboration, as well as decrease participants fear, tension, stress, and feelings of intimidation (Ballantine, 2003; Bays & Hermann, 1997; Berbiglia et al., 1997; Bloom & Trice, 1994; Cowen & Tesh, 2002; Dols, 1988; Fetro & Hey, 2000; Gifford, 2001;
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Promoting ESL in Work-Based Learning

Words: 8696 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24782649

Learning that is imparted through an educational institution or training company within the workplace setting in known as Work-based learning (WL). WL is administered by an external teacher in professional capacity and supervised by an employee of the company where WL is imparted. An exhaustive literature review indicates that it was only after Moser report's shocking revelations, regarding lack of literacy, language, and numeracy skills in one out every five adults in ritain that U.K took expedited policy actions to introduce WL. WL is relevant for all adult and young learners and more pertinent for instruction of English as a second language (ESL). Since medium of interaction and business transactions in U.K is English, instruction of ESL is essential for empowering vast percentage of population that does not have requisite skills to compete in labor market due to lack of language skills. Increased use of computers and multimedia in teaching…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anderson, RC & Freebody, P 1981. 'Vocabulary knowledge'. In J.T. Guthrie (Ed.),

Beck, IL, McKeown, MG & Kucan, L 2002. 'Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction'. New York: Guilford.

Becker, HJ 2000. 'Pedagogical motivations for student computer use that lead to student engagement'. Educational Technology, Vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 5-17. Viewed on 6 Mar 2013, [http://www.crito.uci.edu/tlc/findings/spec_rpt_pedagogical/ped_mot_pdf.pdf]

Brown, HD 2001. 'Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy'. (2nd ed.). White Plains, NY: Longman.
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Education the Existence of the

Words: 3464 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62804019



While both gender and race are positionalities that are difficult to hide (not that one should need or want to, anyway), sexual orientation is not necessarily something that is known about a person, and its affects on the learning process can be very different. The very fact that sexual orientation can be hidden can create a situation where the learner closes off, hiding not only their sexuality but demurring away from other opportunities of expression and engagement as well. Conversely, if an individual with an alternative sexuality was open about this fact, it could very well cause discomfort in other adult learners who have a marked generational bias against many alternative sexualities and lifestyles (Cain). Both situations could provide useful grounds for personal growth in self-acceptance and self-security, for the learner of a minority sexual orientation and for the other learners in the class, respectively (Cain).

Situated Cognition v. Experiential…… [Read More]

References

Cain, M. "Theorizing the effects of class, gender, and race on adult learning in nonformal and informal settings."

Cranton, P. (2002). "Teaching for transformation." New directions for adult and continuing education 93, pp. 63-71.

Hansman, C. (2001). "Context-based adult learning." New directions for adult and continuing education 89, pp. 63-71.

Isopahkala-Bouret, U. 92008). "Transformative learning in managerial role transitions." Studies in continuing education 30(1), pp. 69-84.
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Pogson and Tennant Which Do

Words: 1046 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44332974

These people can use what they have done in their lives to better understand what they will do in the classroom. This makes sense, and should not be discounted. However, if someone is illiterate and cannot read the material at all, doing well on tests and completely comprehending what is being discussed seems as though it would be an almost impossible task. It would certainly cause a lot of frustration and aggravation on the part of the student, and likely on the part of the teacher, as well. With this being the case, it seems unrealistic for Pogson and Tennant to indicate that adult learners who are not literate can get through education programs that are designed for literate individuals just based on their practical or life experience.

3. What reasons can you think of as to why it might not "fit" you?

This particular idea would not fit me…… [Read More]

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Sork What Does Sork Means

Words: 689 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38840305

The most obvious of these limitations is the fact that not everyone learns in the same way. Many people are visual learners, where they need to see something being done before they understand it. Others feel like they have to read about something and study it that way. There are still other people who learn much better by listening, and they really do not retain everything that they need to know if they only read something or see someone else do it. The point, Sork says, is that every person learns in a different way and at a different speed. Classes cannot always accommodate everyone's individual learning style because they have to move along at a particular pace and be taught in a way that actually has some structure. Despite this, however, there are some changes that can be made and differences that can be addressed, and Sork suggests that…… [Read More]