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'You're never too old to learn.' However, much as we cherish this cliche, our society does little to support the value of adult education, often assuming that learning stops when someone is in their early twenties. This is not only limiting for the individual -- it is also depriving our economy of workers with critical skills, skills necessary to see our nation into the coming millennium.
Government push to educate adults
Despite the fact that the unemployment rate is unacceptably high, many positions are going unfulfilled because of a skills gap. "As many as 39% of people under 25 are either unemployed or underemployed" yet "49% of employers struggle to fill jobs" and only 42% feel that workers are qualified to fulfill the types of positions they need filled (Yang 2012). The solution to this problem is a return to the workforce of struggling employees so that…
Greer, J. (2013).What makes an executive MBA different. U.S. News and World Report.
Nursing shortage. (2013). Nursing World. Retrieved:
The first instance is correctable, with no real harm done. The second instance could cost a life; the procedure cannot be re-done. The instructor should design for students the situations that will provide the most authentic experiences possible and reasonable.
oessger looked at five theoretical models of motor learning, based on theories developed in disciplines including behavior analysis, kinesiology, sport psychology, and cognitive psychology.
In chaining, the student completes a sequence, or chain, of individual responses that together achieve a reinforcing outcome. The motor program is an abstract memory structure where actions are performed without feedback, such as pulling a nail gun. It is a muscle activity that lasts a fraction of a second. Actions that take more than a split second -- even actions that may take only slightly more than 200 milliseconds -- are under the learner's control; he/she is able to monitor the motor program as it…
Roessger, K.M. (2012). Toward an interdisciplinary perspective: A review of adult learning frameworks and theoretical models of motor learning. Adult Education Quarterly 62(4),
Adult Learners Ages 40-50
More adults are going back to college and learning new things, and these adults have different challenges than younger students. For example, many of them have been working, have become parents, or have delayed their college entrance by at least one year. A large group of these students are still under 40, but increasingly greater numbers of students aged 40-50 are entering the classrooms at colleges, some for the first time. Some of these individuals have also come from other colleges, since many of these students will attend more than one college in their lifetimes and cycle between various colleges taking classes that they need for a particular job without obtaining any kind of degree. One of the most important things about these adult learners is their persistence in continuing to obtain higher education when, where, and how they can. This persistence pays off for some,…
Donaldson, J.F., & Graham, S.W. (1999). A model of college outcomes for adults. Adult Education Quarterly, 50, 24-40.
Justice, E.M., & Dorman, T.M. (2001). Metacognitive differences between traditional-age and nontraditional-age college students. Adult Education Quarterly, 51, 236-249.
Adult Education Professionalized
How has the adult education field professionalized so far?
Adult education has professionalized in any number of ways. First, most of the public and adult learners (and even educators), take it much more seriously than they did in the past. In the past, people thought "correspondence schools" were places where little old ladies took art classes; they were nor really looked at as educational institutions. The professionalization of the field has helped it grow, but it has also helped it become much more like traditional classroom education, and has helped many adult education departments become respected in their own right.
The fact that professional organizations and graduate studies in the field are also helping to make it more professional and well thought of at the same time. A profession is much more than just a "job." A profession is something you're interested in, that commands your attention…
310). This seems entirely true, but I believe that it is seldom put into effect. The institution that was most relevant here was, of course, the hospital and the health system as a whole. Learning in a hospital is very different from learning in school. This is something that we failed to attend to with sufficient care as we worked with our adult learners.
One of the key differences between adult and young learners (as described above) is the distinction between problem finding and problem solving. We focused on problem solving without ever realizing how frustrating such a focus was to our patients. In the future I will present material in a way that encourages adult learners to begin to ask their own questions about (for example), what health means to them, how they personally deal with the issue of change, what they believe to be the ongoing goals that…
Arlin, P.K. (1984). Adolescent and adult thought: A structural interpretation. In M.L. Commons, F.A. Richards, and C. Armon (Eds.), Beyond formal operations: Late adolescent and adult cognitive development. New York: Praeger.
Child, J. & Heavens, S.J. (2003). The social constitution of organizations and its implications for organizational learning. In M. Dierkes, A. Berthoin Antal, J. Child & I. Nonaka (Eds.), Handbook of organizational leadership and knowledge (pp. 308-326). New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.
Clark, S., & Mirabile, R. (2004). Knowledge mapping: An application model for organizations. In M. Goldsmith, H. Morgan & A.J. Ogg (Eds.), Leading organizational learning (pp. 113-120). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. New York: Basic Books.
2. How does this particular author support his/her claims?
The author uses several means to argue and support her claims. First of all, she bases most of her assertions of learning theories as the starting base of her descriptions and assumptions. For example, the learner-driven curriculum is drawn from the constructivist theory, a theory of learning. Building upon the basic premises of constructivism, she is able to create the claims on which her own framework for defining a curriculum is built.
On the other hand, she is also keen to structure her conception around the two fundamental elements in a learning process: the subject of the learning process and the participants in the learning process. Basing her assumptions on these elements means that she needs to look very closely at these elements and draw the initial claims.
3. Based on your analysis and experience, how valid and applicable are the…
Managing Time as an Adult Learner
In several occasion different individuals wonder on the way they will manage to fit everything they would like to accomplish into their day and sometimes even left figuring out how the rest of the people fit their responsibilities into their day, for example multitasking school, work, family, and friends in a day. This especially happens and becomes harder to people as they become adults, for this reason it is of importance for an excellent time management skills, particularly for the adult learner.
Adult learners do face several challenges in daily basis starting with going to school, to work, and to make sure that they devote enough time for their friends and particularly their family. In several occasion these adults end up dropping out of college feeling that they cannot keep up with working long hours with school having a massive amount of work everyday:…
John Steely (2010) "How to Be a Successful Adult Student - Managing Your Time" ezine article Retrieved July 28, 2012 http://ezinearticles.com/?How-to-Be-a-Successful-Adult-Student-Managing-Your-Time&id=5100425
Lisa Ruffino,(2010) "Adult Learner Survival Guide: How to Be a Successful Nontraditional Student" CourseAdvisor Retrieved July 28, 2012 http://resources.courseadvisor.com/education-trends/adult-learner-back-to-school
Meg Keeley (1997) "Managing Your Time and Study Environment" Bucks County Community College. Retrieved July 28, 2012 http://faculty.bucks.edu/specpop/time-manage.htm
Victoria Douglas (2012) "Managing Time As an Adult Learner" Ezine article Retrieved July 28,2012 http://ezinearticles.com/?Managing-Time-As-an-Adult-Learner&id=7129403
Managing Time as an Adult Learner
There might not be a better decision than going back to school as an adult. This is particularly because one has the opportunity of enhancing their career and accomplishing their lifelong goals. The choice of going back to school as an adult is thus an easy decision. Despite the fact that reaching this decision is easy, following through the decision is the most difficult part. Difficult. This is because of the challenges that adult learners face in their day-to-day lives as students. The challenges they face range from work to schooling to ensuring that the have adequate time available in their day for their family and friends. Finding the time to ensure that adult learner's educational dreams are realized can be quite an enormous challenge. The adult learners feel that they can not support their family while working and attending classes every day. This…
Douglas, V.(2010. Managing Time as an Adult Learner. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://ezinearticles.com/?Managing-Time-As-an-Adult-Learner&id=7129403
UNSW. CRICOS. (2012). Time Management for Adult Learners. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://www.lc.unsw.edu.au/firststeps/nsl_time.html
Dumbauld, B.(2010). 8 Time Management Tips for Adult College Students. Retrieved April 17, 2013 from http://www.straighterline.com/8-time-management-tips-for-adult-college-students
William, H. (2003). Adult learning and social change: Thirteenth National Conference on Alternative and External Degree Programs for Adults, October 7-9, 1993, the Village at Breckenridge Resort, Breckenridge, Colorado.. London: an Association for Alternative Degree Programs.
Motivating the Adult Learner
eing educated through conventional mode of educational process involving the classroom and teacher motivated approaches, adult learners are perceived as unreceptive learners. Society is characterized by more of adults in comparison to the youths and with more number of matured adults the society as a whole is visualized as more educated and exhibits variety of culture and racial milieu. In order to maintain the current status of American Society amidst revolutionary changes in the knowledge bases, necessities for new capabilities and economic integration is felt highly essential to educate the human resource. The development of supporting technology facilitating provision of education at home and worksites attracted more number of adults to the formal education and pursuit of education through out the life has become their coveted goal.
forecast about the transformation of American Workforce during the 90s was made by Loden and Rosener. At the…
Brockett, R. Facilitator roles and skills: Lifelong Learning. The Adult Years, 1983;
Volume: 6; Number: 5; pp; 7-9.
Brookfield, S.D. Understanding and Facilitating Adult Learning. San Francisco,
CA: Jossey-Bass, 1986
Computer Adult Learner
An employee is terminated after 23 years of service. Suddenly thrust into the work arena without the skills to make a smooth transition. In order to make a transition into the computerized workforce it will be necessary to get educational skills up to speed. (The employee has never had the need to learn the basics such as the use of a mouse, word, excel, power point or even basic e-mail.)
The employee now finds that in order to obtain a job it is necessary to get the skills that will get the job. This task will be completed through the use of Educational Interactive Technology. The employee will be able to learn from home how to use the basic software packages. Or even through an employment agency or with a new company there may be the possibility to take interactive classes in order to get the skills…
Teaching Video-Journal to Adult Learners
It is a widely-accepted fact that the process of reflection is a fundamental construct of transformative learning, allowing learners to make deeper meaning of their life experiences, attitudes, and assumptions by linking the same to the conceptual models and theories of their actual practice (Lamb, Lane & Aldous, 2013). esearchers contend that the developmental process of having to nurture the abilities of learners by exposing them to tons of new knowledge in their areas of practice has consistently been a challenge for trainers and supervisors, particularly because of the different learning styles that exist in the classroom setting. There is consensus, however, that the best way to instill new knowledge is to let learners engage the theoretical concepts presented in their practice in the context of their own life experiences. Journaling has conventionally been used to facilitate this process. Written journals have been commonplace in…
Barbier, J. Cevenini, P. & Crawford, A. (2012). Video Solves Key Challenges in Higher Education: Video Solutions Help Universities Improve Instruction and expand Reach Without Straining Tuitions or Budgets. Cisco Internet Business Solutions Group. Retrieved 21 September 2014 from http://www.cisco.com/web/about/ac79/docs/re/Video-in-Higher-Education.pdf
Brandt, E. & Hillgren, P.A. (2005). Self-Produced Video to Augment Peer-to-Peer Learning. In J. Attewell & C. Savill-Smith (Eds.), M-Learning, Learning with Mobile Devices: Research and Development (pp. 27-34). London, UK: Learning and Skills Development Agency.
Clarke, L. (2009). Video Reflections in Initial Teacher Education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 40(5), 959-961.
Karns, G.L. (2006). Learning Style Differences in the Perceived Effectiveness of Learning Activities. Journal of Marketing Education, 28(1), 56-63.
Adult Learning: Facilitation Observation Paper
Adult learning involves adults engaging in systematic educational activities so as to gain new skills, values, attitudes and knowledge. This is normally done after the years of traditional schooling have passed. The adults may have never had the opportunity to undertake learning in their early stages of life, or a number of circumstances may have forced them not to go to school. Thus, the adults engage in such to fulfill personal long-term literacy goals (Sharan & Brockett, 2007). The art and sciences by which adults are assisted to learn is referred to as andragogy. This is quite different from pedagogy, in that it perceives adults as potential learners in search of learning opportunities, for particular reasons to attain certain goals (Wilmarth, 2010). For adult learning, the learners are free to choose educational activities of their liking, unlike formal learning where the syllabus is kind of…
Bhola, H.S. (1994). A Source book of literacy work: Perspectives from the Grassroots. London: UNESCO.
Boeren, E., Nicaise, I. & Baert, H. (2010). Theoretical models of participation in adult education: The need for an integrated model. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 29, 45-61.
Calder, J. (1993). Disaffection and diversity: Overcoming barriers of adult learners. London: The Falmer Press.
Cross, K. (1981). Adults as learners: Increasing participation and facilitating learning. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass.
Dench, S. & Regan, J. (2000). Learning in later life: Motivation and impact. Nottingham: DfEE Publications.
Nuwagaba, E.L. (2005). Adult learners’ perceptions of functional adult literacy provision in six centres in Kampala city- Uganda (A master’s thesis). Durban: University of Kwa Zulu Natal.
Palis, A. G., Quiros, P. A. (2014). Adult learning principles and presentation pearls. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol, 21(2), 114-122.
Maslow, A. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper.
The problem facing students in college is that many of them are not being educated as adults. There is a significant difference in the way an adult approaches education and the way a child approaches education (Forrest & Peterson, 2006). Adult learning is an important concept because it focuses on realizing that adults are not children and so they should not be taught the same way. This is a crucial concept for teachers to understand so that they can be more impactful with adult learners. The problem for university students is that they are not being evaluated in a way that is conducive to adult learning. This problem is significant because university students may be unnecessarily and unfairly struggling with classes because university teachers fail to use evaluations that are conducive to adult learning. The research question this paper poses is this: What are some ways to evaluate adult…
Pedagogical and Andragogical Learning Approaches in Adult Learners
There are a number of fundamental differences between pedagogical and andragogical approaches to both instruction and learning. However, the principle point of distinction between the two is this: the former is designed for young learners (Miemstra and Sisco, 1990) and for those who have a circumscribed amount of information and life experience to bring to a particular subject, whereas the latter is designed for adults and for individuals who can substantially enhance a discussion or points of education about a topic. In the use case in which a senior supervisor or manager of an organization asked an individual to design a program to increase employee awareness of sexual harassment and train workers in the appropriate ways to deal with harassment or complaints, one would obviously favor the andragogical method because it caters more towards adult learners. However, there are still some basic…
Barton, R. (2007). Pedagogy vs. andragogy. Robmba.blogspot.com. Retrieved from http://robmba.blogspot.com/2007/09/pedagogy-vs.-andragogy.html
Gibbons, H.S., Wentworth, G.P. (2001). Andrological and pedagogical differences for online instructors. www.westgate.edu Retrieved from http://www.westga.edu/~distance/ojdla/fall43/gibbons_wentworth43.html
Hiemstra, R., Sisco, B. (1990). Moving from pedagogy to andragogy. www-distance.syr.edu. Retrieved from http://www-distance.syr.edu/andraggy.html
I remember almost nothing from the history class, but I still use information that I learned in the art class.
Houle's Classification Criteria for Continuing Education
According to Houle (as cited by Conner, 2004), learners can be classified as goal oriented, involving people who use their education to accomplish goals, activity-oriented, which includes those who learn because they enjoy the social contact, and learning-oriented, which embodies those who learn information for its own sake. I fall into more than one category. I am definitely goal oriented, and I have pursued a formal education because education is the only way to advance in our society. On the other hand, I also enjoy learning for its own sake. My learning-oriented activities, however, are not formal. I spend a lot of my own time reading and researching topics that interest me, but I do not normally attend classes to learn about these topics.…
Connor, M. (2004). Andragogy + pedagogy. Ageless Learner. Retrieved April 25, 2010 from http://agelesslearner.com/intros/andragogy.html
Connor, M. (2004). Introduction to motivation styles. Ageless Learner. Retrieved April 25, 2010 from http://agelesslearner.com/intros/mstyleintro.html
Knowles, M., Holton, E. & Swanson, R. (2005). The Adult Learner (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Elsevier. Retrieved April 25, 2010 from http://books.google.com/books?id=J6qGsHBj7nQC&pg=PR1&dq=The+adult+learner+6th&cd=1#v=onepage&q=The%20adult%20learner%206th&f=true
Wirth, K. & Perkins, D. (2008, September). Learning to learn. Retrieved April 25, 2010 from http://www.macalester.edu/geology/wirth/learning.pdf
This model views literacy as woven into the person's identity, based in turn from his acculturation and participation in his socio-cultural community. Spoken or written communication is understood and appreciated according to who is reading or writing and the context and purpose of the communication. Learners come to the educational setting with individual experiences, perspectives, values and beliefs. They perform tasks subjectively. Their cultural background is, therefore, an essential requirement to teaching functional literacy.
The U.S. Department of Education through the Department of Adult Education and Literacy implements the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act. This legislation provides support money for adult literacy and basic education programs. It perceives adult education as that falling below post-secondary level for persons 16 years old and older. Statistics say there are about 51 million American adults in this category. Eligibility was adjusted from 18 to 16 in 1970; approved funding to non-profit organizations…
Guy, T. (2006). The adult literacy education systems in the United States. Literacy for Life. Education for All Global Monitoring Report. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 from http://unedoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001462/146281e.pdf
Onwuegbuzie, a., et al. (2004). Reading comprehension among African-American graduate students. The Journal of Negro Education: Howard University. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200410/ai_n13506807?tag=content;col1
Newsline. Adult literacy classes improve lives in California communities. Issue 4.
Office of Multifamily Housing Programs: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
Adults ith Learning Disabilities
It has been estimated (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 that 50-80% of the students in Adult Basic Education and literacy programs are affected by learning disabilities (LD). Unfortunately, there has been little research on adults who have learning disabilities, leaving literacy practitioners with limited information on the unique manifestations of learning disabilities in adults.
One of the major goals of the (Adult with Learning Disabilities) 1 National
Adult Literacy and Learning Disabilities Center (National ALLD Center) is to raise awareness among literacy practitioners, policy makers, researchers, and adult learners about the nature of learning disabilities and their impact on the provision of literacy services. This fact sheet provides: a definition of learning disabilities in adults; a list of common elements found in many useful LD definitions; and a list of areas in which LD may affect life situations of adults.
In 1963, the term "learning…
Author Unkown. Adult with Learning Disabilities
Corley, Mary Ann & Taymans, Juliana M. Adults with Learning Disabilities:A Review of Literature
Second, it suggests that once an appropriate curriculum has been compiled -- one that produces the appropriate results -- then this very same curriculum should produce the same results every time it is employed properly. And third, it suggests that language itself cannot be conceived of as anything other than a response to an external stimulus; therefore, we, as teachers, should not be concerned with the internal, conceptual aspects of learning a language, and only with the observable, verbal responses that our teaching techniques produce. Of course, these stand as direct consequences of accepting the theory of behaviorism within the context of teaching ESL; however, my experience has shown that, if anything, the version of behaviorism that allows for consciousness is the most beneficial for developing an efficient and successful approach towards teaching.
Unfortunately for the theory of behaviorism, this phenomenon is not easily explained without the existence of internal…
Cain, M.J. (2002). Fodor: Language, Mind and Philosophy. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Chomsky, N. (1975). Reflections on Language, New York: Pantheon.
Cole, David. (2004). "The Chinese Room Argument." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, March. Available:
As such, I then find myself truly understanding the concept as opposed to forgetting or misunderstanding the information if I don't have a relationship or something to hook the concept onto. The other factor that is especially relevant to me is that I truly need to feel like I have some control over the learning which is why I enjoy taking online courses which allow me to choose when to study and how to study. Lastly, I am much harder on myself as an adult learner than I was as an adolescent. When I was younger, I did not bother to even look at a teacher's painstaking commentary in my essays whereas now I cannot wait to obtain feedback and I feel an immense amount of passion toward pleasing the instructor, putting forth my best effort, and obtaining the best grade possible.
2. According to the Whole-Part-Whole learning theory, learners…
Adult Learning: Andragogy
Adult learning as a concept was first introduced in Europe in the 50s (QOTFC, 2007). ut it was in the 70s when American practitioner and theorist of adult education Malcolm Knowles formulated the theory and model he called andragogy. He defined andragogy as "the art and science of helping adults learn (Zmeryov, 1998 & Fidishun, 2000 as qtd in QOTFC)." It consists of assumptions on how adults learn, with emphasis on the value of the process. Andragogy approaches are problem-based and collaborative as compared with the didactic approach in younger learners. It likewise emphasizes the equality between the teacher and the learner (QOTFC).
Adult Learning Principles
Knowles developed these principles from observed characteristics of adult learners. They have special needs and requirements different from those of younger learners (Lieb, 1991). Adults are internally motivated and self-directed. They bring life experiences and knowledge into their learning experiences. They…
Chen, I. (2008). Constructivism. College of Education: University of Houston. Retrieved on June 6, 2011 from http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichn/ebook/et-it/constr.htm
Corley M.A. (2008). Experiential learning theory. California Adult Literacy Professional
Development Project. CALPRO: California Department of Education. Retrieved on June 13, 2011 from http://www.calpro-online.org/documents/AdultLearningTheoriesFinal.pdf
Kolb, D.A. et al. (1999). Experiential learning theory. "Perspectives on Cognitive
Within Human esources Development
The literature which describes and analyzes the important aspects of adult education - within the Human esources Development genre - is vitally important in relating to today's employees who seek - and deserve - learning opportunities within their workplace environment. It provides a point of reference, it offers stimulating ideas for digestion and analysis, and it zeros in on the issue at hand, which is that learning should be encouraged and facilitated by employers, and it should be done in such a way that gains in individual learning and knowledge will transfer to competency on the job, and ultimately, profitability for the employer.
An exceptionally useful article by Theodore J. Marchese, entitled, "Insights from Neuroscience and Anthropology, Cognitive Science and Work-Place Studies": e.g., the brain is "remarkably plastic across the lifespan..."
Early experiences and genetic inheritance are very important," Marchese writes in his piece,…
Glastra, Folke J; & Hake, Barry J.; & Schedler, Petra E. "Lifelong Learning as Transitional Learning." Adult Education Quarterly 54 (2004): 291-306.
Hodkinson, Phil; & Hodkinson, Heather; & Evans, Karen; & Kersh, Natasha; & Fuller,
Alison; & Unwini, Loma; & Senker, Peter. "The significance of individual biography
In workplacelearning." Studies in the Education of Adults 36, (2004): 6-26.
This can be exploited to encourage the adult students to get into adult education and continue from one stage to another.
Secondly nowles poses that experimental or pragmatic education is the most effective form of adult education. This involves allowing the learners to make mistakes and continue learning from the same. This, as a practitioner, I can use as a very effective tool of assisting the adult learners. It is worth encouraging them to try what they can especially in class participation, assignments, co-curricular activities without reservations and pointing out the shortfalls as I tell them how they can use the same to learn.
Thirdly, Andragogy presumes that for adults to be truly ready to learn new ideas, they need to feel the assurance that whatever they are due to learn or are learning is straightforwardly pertinent to their daily lives. This helps practitioners develop a learning curriculum that is…
Knowles also posed that adults learn things from the perspective of actively solving problems, rather than acquiring new content and ideas passively. Adults have a wide range of experiences that form the basis of their learning. When teaching adults, it is crucial to use their divergent experiences to help them learn the applied skills in particular. Their experiences can be used to be a pivot from which the teacher or instructor introduces new ideas o them. Ralph and Roger (1991), says that adult learner will, "Identify his learning need when he finds a problem to be solved, a skill to be acquired, or information to be obtained. He is able to articulate his need in the form of a general goal, differentiate that goal into several specific objectives, and define fairly explicitly his criteria for successful achievement. In implementing his need, he gathers the information he desires, collects ideas, practices skills, works to resolve his problems, and achieves his goals. In evaluating, the learner judges the appropriateness of newly acquired skills, the adequacy of his solutions, and the quality of his new ideas and knowledge." This is proof enough that adult learners are equally active in their quest for knowledge and its application.
There has been significant scientific research made in the field of adult learning, one of them being on the general fallacy that human beings lose the brain cells everyday. It is however s established that
Adult education [...] advantages and disadvantages of returning to school as an adult.
Returning to school as an adult has many advantages. Many times, adults returning to school have discovered that they really do not like the career they chose to major in as a teenager, and their interests and thoughts have changed. They return to school to study a new discipline. For example, a lawyer discovers they really do not enjoy practicing law, and they return to school to get a degree in education, so they can teach. These adult learners are often extremely motivated, and so they finish school more quickly. Many adult learners I have talked with also say they get more out of school the second time around. The first time they are not so interested, and the second time, they are.
In addition, most adult learners have already completed their basic education, if…
Adult Learning Theory: Applications to Non-Traditional College Students" presents a number of important factors that are intrinsic to the propagation of adult education. The authors take a decidedly comprehensive approach to characterizing key distinctions between adult learners and those who are non-adults. As such, the pair make a number of astute observations that directly affect the way that the curriculum and program content should be facilitated for these learners, in order to maximize the didactic process. A thorough review of this article reveals that by choosing to emphasize various aspects of the adult learning experience, the curriculum can be significantly tailored in order to curb the rate of attrition and help adult learners thrive.
The first several pages of this article are concerned with identifying and discussing the ramifications of attributes that are intrinsic to adult learners. Oftentimes, these learners are distinct from others in the fact that the former…
Kenner, C., Weinerman, J. (2011). "Adult learning theory: applications to non-traditional college students." Journal of College Reading and Learning. 41(2) 87-96.
For countries such as the U.S. And France, these needs can be reasonably expected to relate to the respective national cultures involved. For instance, in their book, Education in France, Corbett and Moon (1996) report, "An education system needs to justify itself constantly by reference to the values which underpin a nation's culture. In a democracy it is expected to transmit a range of intellectual, aesthetic and moral values which permeate the curriculum and approaches to teaching and learning" (p. 323).
Just as the United States has been confronted with a number of challenges in recent decades in identifying the best approach to providing educational services for an increasingly multicultural society, France has experienced its fair share of obstacles in this regard as well. According to Corbett and Moon, "In societies forced to come to terms with change, values are always challenged. French society, like others, had to adapt to…
Atkinson, R.D. (2006, May-June). Building a more-humane economy. The Futurist, 40(3), 44.
Blanchard, E. & Frasson, C. (2005). Making intelligent tutoring systems culturally aware: The use of Hofstede's cultural dimensions. Montreal, Quebec Canada: Computer Science Department, HERON Laboratory.
Bryant, S.M., Kahle, J.B. & Schafer, B.A. (2005). Distance education: A review of the contemporary literature. Issues in Accounting Education, 20(3), 255.
Calder, J. (1993). Disaffection and diversity: Overcoming barriers for adult learners. London: Falmer Press.
The writer also creates a new perspective when exploring different arguments. This new perspective creates a foundation for enhanced critical thinking and psychological skills. Finally, journal writing is also a self-directed activity that prepares students to critically understand and evaluate books and articles.
According to Muirhead (2002), the Journal riting approach relies on a student-centered assessment philosophy. In this model, students are not empty vessels to be filled up with knowledge. Instead, students and instructors are seen as academic partners. The adult students are autonomous and independent, and much of their studying depends on innovative assignments and assessment tools.
Because much of the learning is student-centered and done independently, it is even more important for the instructor to provide clear feedback. Towards this, Muirhead (2002) recommends the development of a rubric that allows an instructor to effectively grade and render evaluation. Developing such a tool takes time, and must be…
Muirhead, B. (2002, Feb). Relevant assessment strategies for Online Colleges & Universities. USDLA Journal, 16. Retrieved Oct 26, 2004, at http://www.usdla.org/html/journal/FEB02_Issue/article04.html .
obert, T.E., Pomarico, C.A. & Nolan, M. (2011). Assessing Faculty Integration of Adult learning needs in second-degree nursing education. Nursing education perspectives, 32(1), 14-17.
obert, Pomarico and Nolan (2011) have presented a model for assessing the learning needs of second-degree nursing education. The study was essentially designed In a way that assessment of interactive teaching model was made possible. The second-degree BSN students were taken as the sample of study. The main research question being investigated was that whether or not the teaching strategies being used at the second-degree nursing education level met the needs of nursing students. The literature review being conducted by the authors is somewhat precise and short and identifies the existing gap that exists in the learning need assessment of nursing students. It was identified in the start of study that for program development for this student segment in nursing, it is essential to evaluate the…
Cabaniss, D.L. (2008). Becoming a school: Developing learning objectives for psychoanalytic education. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 28(3), 262-277.
Dhara, R. (2002). Advancing public health through the assessment initiative. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 8(4), 1-8.
Jo Brixey, M., & Mahon, S.M. (2010). A Self-Assessment Tool for Oncology Nurses: Preliminary Implementation and Evaluation. Clinical journal of oncology nursing, 14(4), 474-480.
Jones, S., & Watty, K. (2010). Vignette 6 Pluri-disciplinary learning and assessment: Reflections on practice. International Perspectives on Higher Education Research, 5, 195-207.
Adult Education and the Internet
Higher Education, the Internet, and the Adult Learner
The concept of using the Internet in the pursuit of higher education is not exactly new. Indeed, the institution of "distance learning," has been in full swing since the heyday of late night Sally Struthers correspondence-school commercials. What has changed, however, is the increasing legitimacy and widespread use of the Internet in the pursuit of higher education -- from the research of traditional college students, to the complete education of students enrolled in "online universities" and courses.
Adult students face unique challenges when they utilize the Internet as part of their education in ways that mirror the issues they face within other instructional modalities.
In seeking to understand just how adults learn, these issues must be viewed collectively, for general adult learner/adult education studies must be considered as a whole along with the added factors arising out…
Kerka, Sandra. Distance Learning, the Internet, and the World Wide Web. http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed395214.html
Imel, Susan. Ethical Practice in Adult Education. http://www.ericfacility.net/databases/ERIC_Digests/ed338897.html
Brockett, R.G. "Ethics and the Adult Educators." In ETHICAL ISSUES IN ADULT EDUCATION, edited by R.G. Brockett. New York: Teachers College Press, 1988a.
Adult Learning Assessment
Adult learners comprise one of the fastest-growing segments of students today, and adult learners typically have needs that differentiate them from the younger learner. There is already much scholarship devoted to how the adult student learns new information. This understanding of the different learning styles has been taken into consideration in the design of courses and curricula for adult learners.
However, teaching tools are only part of the equation. Educators must also be able to assess if the adult learner is indeed retaining the information at both a critical and analytical level. Thus, in addition to the development of curricula, Cooledge et al. (2000) discussed the need to develop proper assessment tools for adult learners. In particular, Cooledge et al. (2000) focuses on the validity and reliability of portfolio assessment, one of the most popular tools in adult education.
The first part of this article is a…
Coolege, N.., Coolege J., Weihe K.. (2000). Thorny issues of reliability, validity and fairness when evaluating portfolio assessment. Retrieved Oct 30, 2004, at http://www.ahea.org/Thorny_Issues.htm .
In a more globalized society, competition has become as ubiquitous as it is contentious. Companies, customers, and governments continue to expand and move, irrespective of geographic boundaries. The information age, has allowed the seamless and cost effective exchange of goods services and information. As the information age, along with more interconnected societies continue to grow, so too will the need for effective job training. Unfortunately, adult education has not become a paramount interest to society. This is apparent with the overall lack of adult education and training mechanisms within the community. In order to better compete in a more globalized society, the constituents within society must be properly trained. America in particular, has fallen behind its Asian counterparts as it relates to both math and science. These two subjects are critical to the new found information transfer currently underway. Consequently, the adult population is not properly trained to…
1) Merriam, Sharan, B. & Brockett, Ralph, G.. The Profession and Practice of Adult Education: An Introduction. Jossey-Bass, 2007, p. 7-19.
2) Bohonos, Jeremy Appreciating the Experiences and Expertise of Adult Students, Journal of College Orientation and Transition 2002, p. 20-34
3) Phipps, S.T.A., Prieto, L.C., & Ndinguri, E.N. (2013). Teaching an old dog new tricks: Investigating how age, ability and self-efficacy influence intentions to learn and learning among participants in adult education. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 17(1), 13-25.
4) Kunga, K., & Machtmes, K. (2009). Lifelong learning: Looking at triggers for adult learning. The International Journal of Learning, 16(7), 501-511
Learner autobiography [EFLECT] Like most children, when I was very young I did not experience learning as a punitive exercise. Learning was fun and natural. While I was learning how to read I enjoyed how the teacher would read aloud to us; I remember learning about the multiplication tables using various piles of colored M&Ms. Unfortunately, around middle school there is often a period of resistance to learning, as students try to establish their own identities and view directions from the teacher in a negative light because they do not want an adult telling them what to do. Students are also aware enough that they are being 'taught' something but often question the applicability of that learning to what they consider real life.
[IDENTIFY] In college, I became more intellectually curious although I was still not 100% certain about what I needed to know for my future career. Still, I…
Knowles, M.S. (1980). The modern practice of adult education, from pedagogy to andragogy. The Journal of Technology Studies, 26(2). Retrieved from http://www.hospitalist.cumc.columbia.edu/downloads/cc4_articles/Education%20Theory/Andragogy.pdf
McLeod, S.A. (2010). Zone of Proximal Development. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/Zone-of-Proximal-Development.html
As is stated by Bennett "When teachers accept the goal of developing competencies in multiple systems of standards of perceiving, evaluating, believing and doing, it becomes obvious that knowledge about multiple dialects and languages is part of becoming educated" (p. 297).
While neither educators nor parents can magically erase all cultural and ethnic barriers and inequities, any more than they can resolve all of the communication problems created associated with an increasingly diverse classroom, they can achieve significant results by making a conscious and concerted effort to ensure that every student is treated fairly and in a manner that respects rather than ignores their cultural heritage.
Allen, S.F. & Tracy, E.M. (2004) evitalizing the role of home visiting by school social workers. Children and Schools, 26, 197-208
Baker, M.L., Sigmon, J.N., & Nugent, M.E. (2001). Truancy reduction: Keeping students in school. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, 1-14
Bennett, C. (1995). Comprehensive…
Allen, S.F. & Tracy, E.M. (2004) Revitalizing the role of home visiting by school social workers. Children and Schools, 26, 197-208
Baker, M.L., Sigmon, J.N., & Nugent, M.E. (2001). Truancy reduction: Keeping students in school. Juvenile Justice Bulletin, 1-14
Bennett, C. (1995). Comprehensive multicultural education: Theory and practice (3rd ed.). Massachusetts: Allen & Bacon
Goodman, J.F., (1998, December) Moral descriptors and the assessment of children, Journal of Moral Education 27, 475-487
adult learner, including statistics, and self-directed learning. Adult education has seen dramatic growth since the introduction of online and self-directed courses, and the numbers show it. As noted, in 1991, approximately 58 million adults participated in adult education courses, while in 1999; the number grew to 90 million. The latest figures show an even more dramatic rise in numbers. The National Center for Education Statistics indicates that by 2005, 53.9% of adults aged 16 to 64 had participated in adult education, for either business or pleasure, jumping to 133 million people (Editors, 2009).
Adult learning has taken off in the Internet age, and it is very interesting to note that the very highest percentage of adult learners returning to school, for various reasons, is the group who has already completed at least a bachelor's degree. Sixty-five percent of these adults have participated in adult education classes for business or pleasure.…
Editors. (2009). Participation. Retrieved 4 Dec. 2009 from the National Center for Education Statistics Web site: http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d08/tables/dt08_370.asp .
Smith, C.B. (2009). Self-directed learning. Retrieved 4 Dec. 2009 at the University of Indiana Web site: http://www.indiana.edu/~reading/ieo/digests/d169.html .
Learning Objectives for Adult Education
Managing and Exploiting the Impact of Classroom Diversity in Adult Arts Education
As the American population becomes increasingly diverse, so goes classroom diversity (Cooper, 2012). By the end of the current decade, a White majority will no longer exist among the 18 and under age group. This rapid progression towards a plurality has already impacted primary schools, but the trend toward increasing diversity is beginning to affect adult education classrooms as well. If educators simply ignore this trend, not only will the academic success of students be harmed, but also the professional skills of educators. The solution, according to Brookfield (1995), is not the adoption of an innocent or naive attitude towards the diverse needs and abilities of racially and ethnically diverse students, but to engage in a process of critical self-reflection. Such a process would help educators uncover their own hidden motives and intentions,…
Berry, J.W. (1971). Ecological and cultural factors in spatial perceptual development. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 3(4), 324-36.
Brookfield, S.D. (1995). Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Brookfield, S.D. (2012). Teaching for critical thinking: Tools and techniques for helping students question their assumptions (1st ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Brookfield, S.D. (2013). Powerful techniques for teaching adults. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishing.
Sociology and Adult Education
Many believe that vessel education and training that that the very foundation of success. A strong educational background can help any individual branch into new opportunities, where individual goals and community goals are intimately intertwined. In addition to traditional education facilities, the United States has a prominent adult education industry which helps bring academic practices and continuous learning to individuals already within a working environment. Essentially, adult education helps empower both the individual and the community through a continual closure to new and useful information that continuously pushes the individual towards more progressive action.
There is a wide variety of types of adult education offers within mainstream American society today. Essentially, what sets adult education apart from traditional educational program is the fact that adults are already within the workforce are returning to an educational civility in order to train on some potentially lucrative…
Brookfield, Stephen. (1993). Self-directed learning, political clarity, and the critical practice of adult education. Adult Education Quarterly, 43(4). Web. http://www.nl.edu/academics/cas/ace/facultypapers/StephenBrookfield_Learning.cfm?RenderForPrint=1
Farmer, Lesley S.J. (2010). Gender impact on adult education. Information Communication Technologies and Adult Education. IGI Global. P 377-394.
Hopey, Christopher. (1999). Technology and adult education: Rising expectations. Adult Education, 10(4), 26-27.
Jarvis, Peter. (2004). Adult Education and Lifelong Learning. 3rd ed. Routledge Falmer.
Learner-centered curriculum' in TESOL
The most important learning processes in any school anywhere in the world involve the use of several different means of communication. The communication methods may be verbal or non-verbal. Verbal communication involves the use of oral and written symbols that can communicate a message to the student, and non-verbal involves the use of, primarily, among other means, body language. Without communication there can be no means of telling the other person what one person wants or needs, and communication is used between teachers and parents, between groups, between the parents and the community, and also for the formation of interpersonal relationships and as the medium of instruction in a school. Any sort of behavioral problems in school would be dealt with by effective means of communication, and it can be stated that without communication there would be no education.
However, the culture or the background of…
Bacon, Suzanne. "Communicative Language Teaching" Retrieved From
http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/comlangteach/index.htm Accessed on 15 November, 2004
Counihan, Gerard. (July 1998) "Teach students to interact, not just talk" The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. IV, No. 7. Retrieved From
http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Counihan-Interaction.html Accessed on 15 November, 2004
They also focus more on institutional support, like the need for appropriate funding for such educational programs, rather than psychological issues attacked to assimilation. Changing demographics in recent years in Canada have forced adult education programs to meet the challenge of doing more with fewer resources, as they fight, for more funding for programs designed to orient immigrants in the language and culture of the area. "As new citizens to Canada, they need educational programs to help them navigate the complex paths that citizenship entails and to upgrade their language, knowledge and skills to fully participate in Canadian society."
Unlike Ferrigno's article on education that accepts community criticism and a critique of society as a whole, Guo and Sork's see "adult education as an agency of social progress" in moving students forward into better economic opportunities. Adult education is "an important forum for building inclusive citizenship" more so than changing…
While commenting on the works of Baldwin & Ford, Detterman (Detterman & Sternberg, 1993) observed that the American enterprises were more likely to lose in case of teaching employers as they diverted lump sum of $100 billion annually to tutor employees. The loss is experienced because whatever is learned in an adult learning session is not practiced at the workplaces.
This problem is indicative of the dire need for combining knowledge with current practical work. The internships of doctors and people doing Ph. D serve as examples to show the link between learning and practical work (Lave & Wenger, 1991). The variations in practical applications and formal learning make it necessary that lifetime learners find out fresh strategies to tackle these variations. These variations comprise of the high work requirements that make the job training mandatory, unavoidable variation in an occupation, tech-literacy and the disparity created between the skilled and…
Detterman, D.K., & Sternberg, R.J. (1993). Transfer on trial: Intelligence, cognition, and instruction. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing,.
Fischer, G. (1991). Supporting learning on demand with design environments. International Conference on the Learning Sciences, pp. 165-172.
Fischer, G. (1998c). Making learning a part of life-beyond the 'gift-wrapping' approach of technology. In P. Alheit & E. Kammler (Eds.), Lifelong learning and its impact on social and regional development. Donat Verlag, Bremen, pp. 435-462.
Gardner, H. (1991). The unschooled mind, New York: Basic Books.
As a result they are often excluded from the mainstream and from being productive members of society.
I feel that it is not only ethically and morally important to help these individuals but that it also makes economic and social sense to assist those who are disadvantaged to receive a better education and advance their potential in life.
I also believe that we should be careful to consider the fact that adult education is an area that requires a very different approach and involves different modes of understanding, as well as the use of appropriate techniques, when dealing with the various categories of disadvantaged adult. For example, in terms of those adults who are disadvantaged with regard to education backlogs, one has to realize that they often face a number of unique and specific problems; such as the fact that many will have families, children and work commitments, which make…
Moore, M.G., & Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance Education: A System's View.
Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Motivating Disadvantaged Adult Learners. Retrieved July 5, 2009 from http://ujop.cuni.cz/page/en/dalsi/presentations/MoDAL-basic%20idea.ppt.
Incidental teaching. Retrieved July 5, 2009 from Incidental Teaching.
Metacognition and Effective Study Strategies Among African-American College and University Students, Bernadette Nwafor discusses the fact that many African-American students have trouble with basic concentration and retention skills and how the implementation of various study techniques could enhance student concentration. Nwarfor purports that those students that try to understand what they are reading through "meaningfulness, collaboration and establishment of relationships between new ideas and old experiences" are more likely to do better on tests than those who learn by merely reading through text or memorization It is her perception that African-American students learn better when they can relate to the material in question. In this article she studies the three kinds of memory (sensory, short-term and long-term memory) as she shows that if a person associates something familiar with new material they are able to retain it better in their long-term memory. She cites for her example a study by…
Teaching disadvantaged adults could be one of the biggest challenges that an educator could face. Adults are already set in their ways. Their brains have already developed to the point where very little will be reshaped and habits are already set in. Not only can this pose difficulty when trying to teach something new to adults, it becomes an even harder task when trying to teach something novel to disadvantaged adults. Situational factors such as poverty, lack of complete grasp of the English language, and cultural factors could come into play and both negatively and positively affect their ability to learn and be taught (Kerka, 2002). A key concept in teaching disadvantaged adults is in the methods and materials chosen to appropriately affect their learning. An educator needs to make sure that these things are appropriate to an adult given their disadvantaged situation and that whatever method is chosen will…
Kerka, S. (2002). Teaching adults: Is it different? Educational Resources Information Center. 21(3): 32-33.
Kozma R. & Wagner. D. (2006). Reaching the most disadvatanged with ICT: What works? Education and Training Policy ICT and Learning. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Chapter 5: 97.
Lyn, T. & Ducklin, A. (1995). Further education colleges and educationally disadvantaged adults. Scottish Educational Review. 27(2): 154-164.
This is the essence of Knowles' self-directed learning.
The last sentence of Stephen Brookfield's Chapter on "Adult Learning: An Overview" states "To understand adult learning we need to know it's connections of learning in childhood and adolescence and to the formation during these periods of interpretive filters, cognitive frames and cultural values."
Brookfield's assertion is somewhat at odds with Knowles concept of the difference between child and adult learning, although it is developmental in nature. One possible way of reconciling the difference between Brookfield and Knowles is to propose a stage theory of learning that shows progression from childhood to adolescence to adulthood, incorporating different theorist's ideas about the relationship between learner and teacher at different developmental, emotional, and experiential stages.
Stage 1: Childhood. Child is eager to learn but not certain of how to go about it. Learns to please self 'in the moment' of experience, but without…
Smith, M.K. (2002) 'Malcolm Knowles, informal adult education, self-direction and anadragogy.' The encyclopedia of informal education, www.infed.org/thinkers/et-knowl.htm.
The benefits of this study will be both to adult learners and to their educators. The benefits to the students should be obvious; though it will take time and further research to evaluate and implement the suggestions made by this study on a large scale, the needs of the students in a multicultural setting will be better met by educators who better understand the diversity of needs and styles that multiculturalism helps to propagate and condense in the classroom.
4) the theoretical frameworks of multiculturalism and teaching theories are best suited to the study proposed. The varying degrees of assimilation and resistance to it need to be both respected and understood for effective teaching to take place, as well as an understanding of specific practices and behaviors of other cultures. Multiculturalism, though now a disputed framework, still provides the clearest and most readily applicable insights into these areas, and will…
Teaching in an Adult Learning En Vironment
This study will set out thoughts on teaching class in an adult learning environment. Included will be influential variables including classrooms, teachers, and students. The adult learning environment involves a great diversity of individuals from various backgrounds, racial groups and ethnicity as well as being differentiated by their life experience in terms of career background and academic achievement background. The adult learning environment is likely to have individuals whose first language is other than English and these individuals are in various stages of mastering the English language. In addition, the learning environment will be characterized by individuals whose ages are in a wide range from individuals in their early twenties to individuals who are senior citizens as more baby-boomers will stay in the workforce far past retirement age. Added to this the adult learning environment will be inclusive of individuals who are technology…
philosophy that best reflects my opinion of adult education. Google "philosophy of adult education" and you will find essentially personal essays and thoughts about the philosophy of how and why adult education exists.
My personal philosophy of adult education is a result of my personal awareness of the essential purpose of education. From my view, education should be an empowering tool, which enables adults to attain their full potential and realize their objectives throughout their lives. In this example, education should offer adults the opportunity to augment their employment skills so that they can pursue the career they really want to succeed in life. I believe it is the goal of adult education to be able to identify the candidates of adult learners who can benefit from adult education and realize their dreams.
One of the main purposes of adult education is to enable adult learners to make the most…
Also, the privacy of the venue, outside of a workplace or family setting, would encourage participation and attendance amongst fellow learners undergoing the same struggle.
c. How can finding a solution result in significant changes/improvements?
Possessing the skills that make one literate means an individual is less likely to need government assistance, is better able to be promoted and to find a secure job, and can feel more meaningfully engaged with society. Also, recruiting teachers and even properly trained volunteers from the community will enable more people to see that illiterate adults are often not lacking in intelligence, but simply in opportunities. Special volunteer campaigns could be created soliciting teachers with specializations in learning disabilities and ESL to treat the needs of these populations. To educate adults with more foundational skills, teenage volunteers and members of the community could provide tutoring services. This would create greater community connections between different…
Adults, especially seniors need a place where they can learn new things and express themselves. Sometimes seniors go to a senior community arts program where they learn to paint and create things for themselves and for their loved ones. Art theory in the field of physical therapy is a very helpful and useful way of integrating varied learning and complex tasks all while promoting growth and renewal. For anything to flourish, especially a program like a senior community arts program, it needs to integrate lessons and objectives that promote the growth and learning of its participants.
Therefore, it is important to understand and analyze prior and current research that not only offers a different perspective, but also assures the teacher that what they are instructing has been proven to succeed and assists the people learning, to achieve certain pre-planned objectives. This paper is a literature review of six scholarly research…
Conlan, J., Grabowski, S., & Smith, K. (2003). Adult Learning - Emerging Perspectives on Learning, Teaching and Technology. Retrieved December 10, 2013, from http://epltt.coe.uga.edu/index.php?title=Adult_Learning
Dzubinski, L., Hentz, B., Davis, K.L., & Nicolaides, A. (2012). Envisioning an Adult Learning Graduate Program for the Early 21st Century A Developmental Action Inquiry Study.Adult Learning, 23(3), 103-110. doi:10.1177/1045159512452844
Edwards, C., Gaden, C., Marchant, R., Coventry, T., Dutton, P., & Scott, J.M. (2011). Delivering extension and adult learning outcomes from the Cicerone Project by comparing, measuring, learning and adopting'. Animal Production Science, 53(8), 827-840. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AN11322
Longenecker, C., & Abernathy, R. (2013). The eight imperatives of effective adult learning: Designing, implementing and assessing experiences in the modern workplace. Human Resource Management International Digest, 21(7), 30-33. Retrieved from http://www.emeraldinsight.com/journals.htm?articleid=17100953&show=abstract
education and the teacher-learner relationship from a Christian-informed philosophical perspective. It begins with an explanation of the author's personal worldview, and then explores the various philosophical schools of education. Combining the two, the author explains how they have helped shape the author's approach to education. ather than relying on a single educational philosophy, the author intends to combine multiple philosophies in the classroom environment.
Describing the purpose of education is an interesting prospect because education is a cultural construct, and, as a result, what constitutes an education is dependent upon the surrounding culture. In a broad sense, an education is the instruction and learning that a person receives, in both formal and informal environments, which is aimed at preparing that person to live as an adult within the surrounding culture. When one views education as a means of adapting the individual to adult life in his or her own culture,…
Brekelmans, M., Wubbels, Th., & Brok, P. den. (2002). Teacher experience and the teacher-
student relationship in the classroom environment. In S.C. Goh & M.S. Khine (Eds.),
Studies in educational learning environments: an international perspective
(pp.73-99). Singapore: World Scientific.
, notes at that there has been a "paucity of studies" on the effectiveness of video in teaching culture through foreign-language programs. Herron investigated whether students retain more ("little c") cultural "practices" or ("big C") cultural "products" by watching video in a second-language program (Herron, 1999, p. 522). Thirty-eight students were given a pretest before watching the 10 videos that were part of the French-language curriculum. Immediately afterward they were given a post-test. Interestingly, in terms of their evolving understanding of French culture, in 8 of the 10 total post-video quizzes, the students gave higher scores to their "little c" (understanding cultural practices) than to "big C" (cultural products). And 84.2% of the 38 students believed that the 10 videos showed "a lot or a vast amount" of little c (cultural practices in France) presented and 42.1% believed that "a lot or a vast amount" of big C (cultural products…
Herron, Carol, Dubreil, Sebastien, Corrie, Cathleen, and Cole, Steven. (2002). A Classroom
Investigation: Can Video Improve Intermediate-Level French Language Students' Ability
To Learn about a Foreign Culture? The Modern Language Journal, 86(i), 36-53.
Herron, Carol, Cole, Steven P., Corrie, Cathleen, and Dubreil, Sebastien. (1999). The
Motivational Strategies to Support Learners in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Classrooms
Motivational strategies in the classroom in general represent a challenging enterprise, but the need for such effective strategies in classrooms with young learners suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is particularly pronounced. The condition affects the ability of students to learn in a number of ways that can detract from the most thoughtful motivational strategies, though, and teachers in crowded classrooms may find themselves as a distinct disadvantage trying to satisfy the mandates of the No Child Left Behind Act and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act as a result. To determine what motivational strategies have proven effective in classrooms with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder learners, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion
The prevalence of attention deficit…
American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
(4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.
Burcham, B. & L. Carlson. 1999 'Promising Practices for Serving Students with Attention
Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.' School Administrator, vol. 51, no. 10, p. 32.
Physical and mental disorders are often comorbid, reflecting an entire system that is out of balance. A healthy state, both physically and mentally reflects a state of equilibrium and stability that every organism wishes to achieve (Wallace, 2008).When one portion of the system is out of balance, the entire system can be out of balance. The degree to which the system is out of balance determines the degree of the disturbance.
A child that has greater resilience skills can recover from a greater disturbance than a child with little resiliency. Everyone has heard stories of the rich and famous who rose up from situations of poverty and despair to become something great. This is exactly what this research is about. Eriksson's psychosocial model sets up the situation that the person must overcome. Wallace's theory on resiliency provides an understanding of what the child needs to overcome these circumstances to become…
Anthony, E., Alter, C. & Jenson, J. (2009). Development of a Risk and Resilience-Based Out-of-
School Time Program for Children and Youths. Social Work. 54 (1): 45+. Retrieved from Questia Database.
Brendtro, L. & Larson, S. (2004). The Resilience Code: Finding Greatness in Youth. Reclaiming Children and Youth. 12 (4): 194 +. Retrieved from Questia Database.
Brown, W. (2006). The Value of Role Models in Inspiring Resilience. Reclaiming Children and Youth. 14 (4): 199+. Retrieved from Questia Database.
Auditory Computer Files Assist College Level ESL Learners
The objective of this study is to examine whether auditory computer files assist college level ESL learners.
Linda Dwyer writes that text-to-speech readers are not generally available "outside of the disability community and may be prohibitively expensive when obtainable." (Dwyer, nd, p.1) In addition, Dwyer reports that ESL instructors are often not aware of the research or the resources that are available. Dwyer states that reading pens that are able to read line-by-line and other assistive devices that can copy and article and then paste it to the computer for text-to-speech support are useful to students who are ESL students. According to Dwyer, "ESL instructors in higher educational settings have worked primarily with high achieving international students. As such, these instructors have occupied a niche treated as short-term remedial support rather than an academic sub-field within the academy. Many positions in both…
Casidy (1996) in: Kurzweil Educational Systems (2005) Scientifically-Based Research Validating Kurzweil 3000: An Annotated Review of Research Supporting the Use of Kurzweil 3000 in English Language Learner Classrooms. Oct 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.vocalinks.com/site/vocalinks/assets/pdf/K3000_ELL_Research.pdf
Chisholm and Beckett (2003) in: Kurzweil Educational Systems (2005) Scientifically-Based Research VAliding Kurzweil 3000: An Annotated Review of Research Supporting the Use of Kurzweil 3000 in English Language Learner Classrooms. Oct 2005. Retrieved from:
An orthographic definition is one which is formalistic in the sense of being bound to the form of a word in a particular medium. It is not sensitive to distinctions of meaning or grammatical function. To this extent it is not complete" (1998, p. 4). Therefore, in an effort to help complete the definition, a reference to Webster's advises that a word is simply "something that is said" (1999, p. 2633).
Unfortunately, this formal definition does little to clear the muddied waters with respect to what a word is, and Carter (1998) suggests that, "It may be more accurate to define a word as the minimum meaningful unit of language. This allows us to differentiate the separate meanings contained in the word fair in so far as they can be said to be different semantic units" (p. 5). Furthermore, this definition fails to embrace the polysemous nature of many words.…
Carter, R. (1998). Vocabulary: Applied Linguistic Perspectives. London: Routledge.
Cervatiuc, A. (2007). "Assessing Second Language Vocabulary Knowledge." International
Forum of Teaching and Studies, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 40-42.
Flippo, R.F. & Caverly, D.C. (2000). Handbook of College Reading and Study Strategy
nology to Support ADD and ADHD Learners (K-8)
November 6, 2005
Use of Technology to Support ADD and ADHD Learners (K-8)
The student with AD/HD is one that requires more specialized and individualized instruction. Technological possibilities present great potential in providing these instructional needs for the AD/HD learner. Technology implemented in the school and in the classroom is critically dependent upon collaboration in development and implementation which is inclusive of the participation of students, teachers, parents and the community at large. Some of these technological methods that are included in the curriculum are use of video, networking, PDAs, email, Internet access and other various technologies. The objective of this work is the research and review of technologies that have been effective as well as ineffective and finally the technologies that offer new promise to the teaching and learning initiative for students with disabilities in learning such as…
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ADHD: Interventions for Elementary School Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (2005) ADDinSchool.com Online available at: http://www.addinschool.com/elementary.htm
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Kolb's model of adult learning explains how learning in adults occurs. According to the model, adult learning occurs in four stages (Kolb, 2015). The first stage is the experience of an event or situation (concrete experience). In the second stage, the learner reflects on the experience (reflective observation). The learner then -- in the third stage -- draws from theories and concepts to gain a deeper understanding of the experience (abstract conceptualization). In the fourth stage, the learner uses the experience as a basis for responding to similar occurrences in future. In this paper, I describe an experience I extremely felt motivated. I then analyze the experience based on Kolb's model.
At my place of work, the department I work in recently got a new manager. The new manager was recruited after his predecessor retired following two decades of service to the organization. The previous manager had over…
This type of education has worked best within societies that contain large amounts of oppressive practices, where the oppressed need to learn some autonomy. More developed countries however tend to favor the more traditional types of education (Werner, 2000).
It is important to assess the specific needs of one's own educational environment. Some environments, as seen above, would benefit more from the behaviorist philosophy than from the humanist philosophy, and vice versa. It is therefore important to establish an initial focus, determine goals, and assess student needs. When there is for example a need for strongly skill-centered learning, such as a computer-skills course, this would benefit little from a behaviorist methodology. When the course is however more flexible and artistic, it might be better to focus on students' individual needs and concerns. In order to find what would work best in a specific classroom therefore, once should assess needs…
Bullen, Mark. (2004) "Andragogy and University Distance Education." University of British Columbia. http://www2.cstudies.ubc.ca/~bullen/bullen1.html
Kett, J.F. (1994) the Pursuit of Knowledge Under Difficulties. From self-improvement to adult education in America, 1750-1990, Stanford, Ca.: Stanford University Press.
Merriam, S.B. And Caffarella, R.S. (1991) Learning in Adulthood. A comprehensive guide, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Smith, M.K. (2002) 'Malcolm Knowles, informal adult education, self-direction and anadragogy', the encyclopedia of informal education, www.infed.org/thinkers/et-knowl.htm.Last updated: January 30, 2005
Climate of Creativity: Teaching English to Young Learners Through the Art of Drama
Several learning and involving learning experiences emerge for the early childhood students when both drama and movement are incorporated in the daily syllabus (Chauhan, 2004). Apart from being "fun" for majority of the kids, kinesthetic activities are capable of assisting the young students, particularly those learning the English language, improve interpretation skills, vocabulary, fluency, speech knowledge, syntactic knowledge, and meta-cognitive judgment (Sun, 2003). When drama and movement are employed in the teaching of language skills, the learners are provided with a framework for listening and significant language production, offers chances for writing and reading improvements (Chauhan, 2004), and engages learners in writing and reading as significant communication procedures. Other than the improvement of resourceful judgment and expression, fine and gross motor organization skills, problem tackling, social dealings, cooperative performance, rhyming, and rhythm skills can be developed (ieg…
August, D., Carlo, M., Dressler, C. And Snow, C. (2005). The critical role of vocabulary development for English language learners. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice 20 (1): 50 -- 57.
Brouillette, L. (2012). Supporting the Language Development of Limited English Proficient Students through Arts Integration in the Primary Grades. Arts Education Policy Review, 113(2), 68. doi:10.1080/10632913.2012.656494
Chauhan, V. (2004). Drama techniques for teaching English. The Internet TESL Journal, 10().
Courtney, R. (1980). Dramatic Curriculum. London: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd.
Askov points out that many adults returning to the educational system after failing to meet its standards will not succeed in a system that is built upon the same ideals. Race, class, gender, and corresponding power structures also play into how educators approach adult learners. Adult education presents a host of challenges not present in elementary education, problems that refer to the very values upon which the society is formed. Research and theories in psychology and learning present multiple perspectives upon which educators and policy makers can build a more promising future for adult learners. Visions for the future include embedding metacognitive skills into adult learning programs. Adult learners need literacy skills, not so they can score well on standardized testing but so they can reach their highest potential as human beings. Grassroots movements may be the key to promoting adult literacy throughout the country, to making adult literacy and…
Still others must actually undergo the experience of trying to perform procedures themselves under guidance to learn effectively.
Looking back at some of my clinical experiences, I can recall instances where I took an approach to patient education that was based mainly on my convenience and preference rather than on an assessment of what teaching approach would be most beneficial to patients. More recently, I have tried to incorporate adult learning theory into patient education in connection with post-surgical follow-up self-care and wound care, among other areas. For example, I have recently begun asking patients whether they would prefer to have informational resources in printed form, or whether they would prefer to observe demonstrations. When patients indicate their desire to observe clinical procedures, I also offer them the opportunity to try the procedures under my guidance, taking advantage of the fact that some of them may learn best from experiential…
Brookfield, S. (1995). Adult learning: An overview. In The International Encyclopedia of Education (Ed. A.Tuinjman). Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Cercone, K. (2008). Characteristics of adult learners with implications for online learning design. AACE Journal, 16(2), 137 -- 159.
Clardy, A. (2005, August 1). Andragogy: Adult learning and education at its best. Online Submission, (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED492132). Retrieved
August 27, 2009, from ERIC database. (ERIC database)
Among the research findings in this regard was the view that field independent student are often more successful in the distance learning environment. Other factors such as introversion and extroversion were discussed and introverted personality types were seen to be more successful in the distance teaching environment. It was also found that extracurricular concerns can have both positive and negative course completion outcomes. Support from family or employer was also found to be a very significant variable that had a positive effect.
Another relevant area of discussion was study skills. It was generally found that good study skills and habits were a central determining factor for the distance students. Furthermore, procrastination was found to be a very negative factor, especially if one takes into account the demands of the distance education.
The difference between the classrooms and the distance learning environment was also discussed, with many students stating that they…