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In fact 92% of the world's supply of opium comes from Afghanistan. The Taliban have tapped into this rich resource and it provides them with sufficient cash to pay their soldiers more than the Afghanistan government pays its own troops (Schmidt, 2010, p. 63).
hile he Taliban do not "mastermind" the opium trade, Schmidt explains, they do benefit financially from integrating their radical politics into the marketing of opium. In 1999 Afghanistan poppy farmers -- and those that convert the poppies to opium -- produced forty-five tons of opium, about fifteen times what had been produced in any of the previous 15 years. The Taliban use the millions of dollars from the sale of opium to buy new and better weapons, to sponsor new Madrassas (schools that teach radical Islamic politics to young men) in Pakistan, and to "barter for cars and all manner of consumer goods, including houses" (Schmidt,…
Arfsten, Darryl P., Moralez, Joe F., Chester, Linnes L., Mohamad, Pir, and Weber, Timothy H.
"Drug Use Among the Afghanistan National Police: A National Assessment." Military
Medicine, 177, no. 1, 85-90.
Bowman, Tom. "U.S. Prepares to Redefine Mission in Afghanistan." National Public Radio.
" According to anuri "...the inference drawn here is that since there are no inherent rules (or 'guiding principles') in the international system, states act upon their natural predatory instincts in order to prove the 'initial impetus' for conflict, and therefore the states that are preyed upon must respond to the predator by defending themselves, or indeed counterattacking them." (2007)
The realist view is such that holds that the outbreak of conflict is supported alone by domestic policies and predatory practices." (anuri, 2007)
Garib (2003) writes in the work entitled: "Realism and Liberalism Reconsidered in Post 9/11 American Foreign Policy" that while the liberalism of former President George W. ush is "ostensibly present in the National Security Council's 2002 National Security Strategy, which speaks of America crating 'a balance of power that favors human freedom' and of a new American international outlook which seeks to create political and economic freedom,…
Ahmed, Nafeez Mossaddeq (2001) Afghanistan, the Taliban and the United States: The Role of Human Rights in Western Foreign Policy. Media Monitors Network. 2 May 2001. Online available at: http://www.mediamonitors.net/mosaddeq2.html#_ednref4
Ali, Noor, U.S.-UN Conspiracy Against the People of Afghanistan, Online Center for Afghan Studies, 21 February 1998 in: Ahmed, Nafeez Mossaddeq (2001) Afghanistan, the Taliban and the United States: The Role of Human Rights in Western Foreign Policy. Media Monitors Network. 2 May 2001. Online available at:
Afghanistan has experienced war and lack of infrastructure for over a decade. Ever since the end of the civil war in Afghanistan which began in 1996 and ended in 2001, Afghanistan has had to deal with Taliban (a section of Islamic extremism), and intervention by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization or NATO as well as other allied forces in the War in Afghanistan which (although it is meant to deal with the civil war in Afghanistan) has created its own obstacles in Afghan recovery. Essentially what the three challenges Afghanistan face are: enhancing security, constructing the civil society and infrastructure of Afghanistan, and controlling Islamic extremism. The seeds of each obstacle can be seen in the beginnings of the 1996 Afghan civil war. Here is where the Taliban first formed, and the country started to lose their infrastructure to bombings and missile attacks. Ever since then, only a few places…
Cortwright, D. And Wall, K. (2014). AFGHANISTAN: Afghan Women Speak: Enhancing Security and Human Rights in Afghanistan - Resources - PeaceWomen Portal - PeaceWomen. [Online] Peacewomen.org. Available at: http://www.peacewomen.org/portal_resources_resource.php?id=1762 [Accessed 16 Dec. 2014].
YellowTimes.org, (2002). Afghanistan: Time of transition -- Global Issues. [Online] Globalissues.org. Available at: http://www.globalissues.org/article/393/afghanistan-time-of-transition [Accessed 15 Dec. 2014].
The Karzai government adopted a five-point plan for accountability. It refused amnesty for gross violators of human rights abuses. An action plan was created by Afghan officials and the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission, with the support of the United Nations and the international community. The plan consisted of a five-part strategy for peace, justice and reconciliation in Afghanistan. It contained measures to concretely recognize and remember the sufferings of the Afghan people during the long civil war; to increase public confidence in their State institutions; to promote reconciliation and national unity; and to strengthen the criminal justice system, including the affirmation that amnesty would not be granted to gross human rights violators (ureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor).
The test of these measures, of course, lies in the efficient implementation. Afghan government adopted a controversial amnesty law, which seemed to shield certain groups from legal or judicial pursuit.…
Baute, Nicole. The Man Who Helps Canadian Troops Understand Afghan Life and Culture. Military News for Canadians: MilNewstbay, 2007
Khan, Razullah. A Social Traditional Backdrp[. The Frontier Post: thefrontierpost.com,
Shroder, John Ford. Afghanistan. Microsoft Encarta: Microsoft Corporation, 2007.
Retrieved on November 10, 2007 at http://encarta.msn.com
The majority of the population was left extremely poor, lacking food, clothing, housing and medical care. The economy virtually collapsed..." During this time, any formal financial sector was essentially nonexistent, basic infrastructure was lacking, and a severe drought from 2002-2001 further ravaged the economy (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime).
During this decade, violence and political instability had a tremendous impact on Afghanistan's economy. Inter-regional trade was greatly disrupted, and often brought to a virtual standstill by violent instability. However, the appearance of the Taliban regime saw improvements in inter-regional trade in areas controlled by the regime (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime)
In the last decade, the opium trade played an important role in Afghanistan's economy. In an economy where the monetary system was virtually destroyed by prolonged war, opium "became both the medium of exchange and the only form of saving" (United Nations Office on Drugs…
BBC News. Afghanistan's central banker invited home. Thursday, 6 December, 2001, 17:00 GMT. 05 November 2004. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/1695962.stm
Coutsoukis, Photius. Countries of the World. 15 Years of World Facts from the U.S.A. CIA World Factbooks, the United Nations Statistical Office, the Library of Congress Country Studies and other sources. Afghanistan. 05 November 2004. http://www.theodora.com/wfb/abc_world_fact_book.html
CIA World Factbook. Afghanistan. 05 November 2004. http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/af.html
CountryWatch. 2004. Afghanistan Economic Overview. 05 November 2004. http://www.countrywatch.com/cw_topic.asp?vCOUNTRY=1&SECTION=ECON&TOPIC=MAOVR&TYPE=TEXT
It has been suggested in some quarters that negotiating with the Taliban may be a solution, but at no point has that group ever demonstrated a propensity to negotiate nor has it demonstrated the integrity to follow through on any agreements. Thus, this option is impractical.
Each of these alternatives meets at least one of the objectives, but each comes with an associated cost. The first alternative addresses the first and third objectives, but carries with it a high cost, uncertain time frame and allows for the second objective to fail. The second course of action makes the first and third unlikely to succeed, may not address the second and only partially addresses the fourth objective. It is a compromise, but a relatively poor one. The third option allows for the first option to be addressed, probably the second and maybe the fourth, but it does little to ensure the…
(Cherie Booth, 2001)
MONI BASU (2001) writes, "In every developing nation, the United Nations says, men fare better than women, with the exception of life expectancy (because of biological reasons). In Islamic nations, such as Afghanistan, women not only live in crushing poverty but are subjected to injustices imposed on them in the name of God. The threat of being penniless often forces Muslim women to remain in bad marriages, as it does poor women worldwide."
If the economic conditions improve it can lead to more rights for women in Afghanistan. During the Taliban regime, many professional women were not allowed to participate in economic activity, which deteriorated the economy even further. With economy sliding downwards, women rights also declined continuously, resulting in an extremely oppressed social setup.
The world is now watching closely as Afghanistan went to polls recently. People want to see how America-led government can bring reforms…
1) Larry P. Goodson, Afghanistan's Endless War State Failure, Regional Politics, and the Rise of the Taliban, University of Washington Press: June 2001
2) Afghanistan: "The Biggest Prison for Women in the World." Vol. 27, Contemporary Women's Issues Database, 03-01-1997, pp 12-3.
3) CIA- The World Fact book, 2003 http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/af.html
4) Basics of Afghanistan economy: http://www.afghan-web.com/economy/basics2.html
Master of Arts in Strategic Security Studies
In my quest to serve my country better, I wish to pursue graduate study at the College of International Security Affairs. The threats we face as a nation keep evolving. This effectively means that going forward, the U.S. And the global community by extension will have to contend with a new set of threats that would require a new set of skills to contain. It is with this in mind that I seek to pursue the Master of Arts in Strategic Security Studies (MASSS). This course will equip me with specialized knowledge especially when it comes to issues to do with global security. On completing the course successfully, I will be ready to tap my enhanced understanding of the global threat environment to formulate as well as implement the appropriate strategies to match diverse conditions. This is particularly important to me given that…
Given my track record and experience gained in service, I strongly believe that I have the capability, desire, and passion to successfully undertake and complete advanced studies in international security studies. To tell you a little bit about myself, I am a BS in Liberal Arts graduate from Excelsior College. For the last eight years, I have been serving the nation as an army officer after having joined the military in the year 2004. I have spent the last five years on assignment to the Special Operations Community. I have also diligently served in a number of countries including Iraq, Philippines, and Afghanistan. Currently, I am involved in the planning, execution as well as support of the country's interests in Nepal.
I believe that this particular course will largely complement my experience as highlighted above while at the same time equipping me with the necessary skills and knowledge required to serve my country better. In regard to my research interests, I have an inclination towards the emerging threats (non-traditional) to both national and international security. My other research interests lie in armed conflict, its causes and conduct. These are issues I could explore further in my thesis.
I regard myself focused, outgoing, dedicated, and hardworking. In addition to enhancing my current career, this course will also prepare me for more challenging roles going forward. To achieve my long-term goals, I need to have an enhanced understanding of the various security challenges (existing and emerging) facing not only our country but also the global community. I also need to further sharpen my skills in critical and strategic thinking. A Master of Arts in Strategic Security Studies (MASSS) will come in handy in my resolve to further enhance my knowledge and understanding of issues revolving around international security.
While it might seem counter-intuitive to the average American, it would be beneficial to the United States to remain allies with Afghanistan. The most passionate argument against this opinion is generally one which recounts the events of September 11th, and which argues that given the pure evil that was waged on U.S. soil and the lives that were lost, not to mention the sense of safety and security that was forever damaged, no possible alliance could ever be possible between the U.S. And Afghanistan. Such an opinion does have its validity in some perspectives, but more than anything, such a perspective fails to keep in mind that it was not the nation of Afghanistan which condoned such savage attacks on the U.S.; it was renegade forces within this country known as the Taliban. A brief history of Afghanistan is useful at this point.
Afghanistan is a country the…
Breede, C. (2008). A Socio-economic profile of Afghanistan. Retrieved from army.forces.gc.ca: http://www.army.forces.gc.ca/caj/documents/vol_11/iss_3/CAJ_Vol11.3_09_e.pdf
Harvey, K. (2003, June 5). Afghanistan, The United States, and the Legacy of Afghanistan's Civil War. Retrieved from Stanford.edu: http://www.stanford.edu/class/e297a/Afghanistan,%20the%20United%20States.htm
Merrill, L., Paxson, D., & Tobey, T. (2006). An Introduction to Afghanistan Culture. Retrieved from Ucdavis.edu: http://afghanag.ucdavis.edu/country-info/culture-and-working-locally/Man_Afghan_Culture_CWTI.pdf
Pfaff, W. (2013, January 8). Continued American Presence in Afghanistan a Recipe for More Disaster. Retrieved from truthdig.com: http://www.truthdig.com/report/item/continued_american_presence_in_afghanistan_a_recipe_for_more_disaster_20130/
U.S. And Afghanistan emain Allies?
After the infamous September 11 attacks, the U.S. launched a massive war campaign in Afghanistan to topple the Taliban government which was at the time believed to be supporting terrorist activities. This campaign was dubbed Operation Enduring Freedom. It is important to note that at the time of the September 11 attacks, Osama Bin Laden, the key architect behind the attacks was residing in Afghanistan. After the Taliban government was overthrown, the two countries, i.e. The U.S. And Afghanistan, sought to resume their diplomatic ties. The enhancement of diplomatic ties between the two countries is beneficial to both countries from a number of fronts. In that regard, the two countries should remain allies.
The Afghan government is headed by a president who serves for a maximum of two five-year terms. The current president is Hamid Karzai. According to the Central Intelligence Agency --…
Central Intelligence Agency -- CIA (2013). The World Fact Book: South Asia -- Afghanistan. Retrieved March 1, 2013, from the CIA website: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ geos/af.html' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Afghanistan should be considered more than a war and conflict area that has much more to offer, especially in textile. If education is institutionalized in the region, many sectors will start developing, and the country can become self-sufficient in the textile field in no time. By making valuable use of its human and social capital, the country can move on from its war problems and provide a source of happiness and contentment for its citizens if proper educational opportunities are established.
There is currently no formal textile education in Afghanistan; however, there have been opportunities for Afghani textiles and their popularity worldwide that could be capitalized on if textile education is formally given to the students. The degree holders could directly use the textile degree here in fields like cloth coloring, textile designers depicting Afghanistan's cultural heritage, fashion designers using the culturally famous clothing pieces and artwork, and clothing technologists…
Asian Development Bank. (2003). A new start for Afghanistan\\'s education sector. Retrieved from https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/27935/new-start-education-sector-afg.pdf
Bittlingmayer, U.H., Grundmeier, A., Kobler, R., Sahrai, D. & Sahrai, F. (2019). Education and development in Afghanistan: Challenges and prospects. Transcript Verlag.
Faqiri, F.M., Shams, M.S. & Gul, S. (2019). Small and medium enterprises in the garment sector of Afghanistan: Challenges and prospects. Kardan Journal of Economics, 2(4), 70-82. https://kardan.edu.af/Research/ CurrentIssue.aspx?j=KJEMS
International Trade Centre. (2020, February 25). Fashion and sewing professionals in Tajikistan learn the latest techniques. Retrieved from https://www.intracen.org/news/Fashion-and-sewing-professionals-in-Tajikistan-learn-the-latest-techniques/
Sherzad, A.R. (2017). Education in Afghanistan: Challenges and suggestions for improvement (Report no. 45, ISSN 1619-3660). Herat University. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/315810717_Education_in_Afghanistan_Challenges_and_Suggestions_for_Improvement
Yeniseyev, M. (2019, April 11). Uzbekistan offers to help develop Afghanistan textile industry. Caravanserai. Retrieved from https://central.asia-news.com/en_GB/articles/cnmi_ca/features/2019/04/11/feature-01
However, it is tempting to overstate the importance of Bin Laden's death. While he was a high-ranked person in his terrorist organization, Al Qaeda operates in cells. There are an untold number of men with the same amount of power as Bin Laden currently plotting against the United States. Killing Bin Laden most certainly did not eliminate the terrorist threat faced by the United States. In fact, it may have provided additional motivation to young terrorists throughout the Arab world. Killing Bin Laden did nothing to increase domestic security from terrorism. Therefore, his death had very little significance for national security. To understand how Bin Laden's death could be important politically and figuratively while having very little literal value, it is important to understand these two distinctions.
Legitimacy of the U.S. Led War on Terror
The War on Terror is, like its predecessor, the War on Drugs, an unwinnable war.…
ar in Afghanistan
After the terrorist group al Qaeda attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, the American military was sent to Afghanistan to attack the Taliban, and destroy their governing position. The Taliban became the target of the U.S. because they had allowed Osama bin Laden to use their country as a training ground for terrorist activities directed against the United States. However, the U.S. is now bogged down in what seems to be an unwinnable war against Taliban insurgents that cross the border from Pakistan. Moreover, there are militants in Afghanistan who object to foreign troops being in their country, and they have apparently joined with the insurgents and continue fighting the American and NATO forces in Afghanistan. This paper reviews the historical and contemporary causes of the war in Afghanistan, and critiques the positive outcomes as well as the negative outcomes of the U.S. engagement in…
Associated Press. (2011). Suicide Bombers Kill Worshippers In Afghanistan. Retrieved November, 2011, from http://www.npr.com .
This is an article that brought to light the ongoing violence in Afghanistan, in specifics the proverbial suicide bomber situation, where an radical Islamic terrorist is willing to blow himself up in order to kill others. In this case the people killed with fellow Muslims -- worse yet, he killed people exiting a mosque following their worship services -- but clearly the message to the world was this: the NATO and U.S. presence in Afghanistan will never stop terrorists from doing whatever they want to do whenever they wish to do it.
Baktash, Hashmat, and Magnier, Mark. (2011). Suicide bombing in Kabul kills as many as 13
Americans. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.latimes.com
S. forces were made to operate on ground and targeted operations were planned against the Taliban and Al-Qaeda fighters. There were significant individually planned battles and skirmishes between the U.S. army and Taliban often resulting in heavy losses to both sides. A tactic that Taliban often used in such conditions was the suicide attacks and planting improvised explosive devices (IEDs) that left the soldier carrying vehicles destroyed. The U.S. utilized an Iraqi style counter insurgency operations in the Afghan region that resulted in some strengthening of the conditions.
3.1.3 Power sharing agreements
In order to enhance the effectiveness of the U.S. presence in Afghanistan the U.S. forged agreements with many warring tribes and factions of the Northern Alliance to enhance the unity of these groups that were to be pitched against the Taliban. These agreements were aimed at removing the support base of Taliban and Al-Qaeda from the Afghan society…
Coll, S. (2005). Ghost wars: The secret history of the CIA, Afghanistan, and Bin Laden, from the Soviet invasion to September 10, 2001. Penguin.
Dreyfuss, R. (2005). Devil's game: how the United States helped unleash fundamentalist Islam. Metropolitan Books.
Giustozzi, a. (2008). Koran, Kalashnikov, and laptop: the neo-Taliban insurgency in Afghanistan. Columbia University Press.
Jones, a. (2013, Jan). Only Three Choices for Afghan Endgame: Compromise, Conflict, or Collapse: Counting down to 2014. TomDispatch.com. Retrieved from: [ http://www.commondreams.org/view/2013/01/28-3 ]
War in Afghanistan from a Liberal Pluralist Perspective
The term "liberal" has taken on a specific meaning in Western politics that is somewhat different than the actual stated definition of the word. The word truly means "favorable to progress or reform" (Liberal, 2012) and is seen as the opposite of conservative which is being "disposed to preserve existing conditions" (Conservative, 2012). These terms have become politicized and the groups which carry the two labels may be better described by the opposite literal use of the word at any given time. However, another term, liberal pluralist, is something else again.
The book "The Practice of Liberal Pluralism" discusses introduces the topic of how liberal democracy has changed from it original meaning into something that is wholly different, at times, from the origins of the term (Galston, 2005,1). Democracy is a government which is focused on the people being served rather than…
Bajoria, J. (2011). The Taliban in Afghanistan. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved June 17, 2012 from http://www.cfr.org/afghanistan/taliban-afghanistan/p10551
Conservative. (2012). In Dictionary.com. Retrieved June 16, 2012 from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/conservative
Galston, W.A. (2005). The practice of liberal pluralism. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Liberal. (2012). In Dictionary.com. Retrieved June 16, 2012 from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/liberal
The Taliban have many sympathizers in the tribal areas of Pakistan and it is suspected that bin Laden and his lieutenant, and his lieutenant, Ayman al-Zawahiri, may well be in Pakistan (Ibid.) it has also been alleged that the powerful ISI (the Pakistan army's intelligence wing) still has links with the Taliban and elements within the agency are sympathizers of Islamic extremists, who may be surreptitiously helping the Taliban. The U.S. has also been accused of carrying out attacks on alleged hideouts of militants across the Pakistan side of the border by drone and missile attacks that have caused a number of civilian deaths. This has further inflamed anti-American sentiment in Pakistan, where the majority of public opinion was never in favor of the United States, in any case. The U.S. support for Musharraf has also emboldened him to perpetuate his rule as he has recently imposed Emergency, suspended the…
Analysis: Who are the Taleban?" BBC News. December 20, 2000. November 23, 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/144382.stm
Chapter I: Purposes and Principles." Charter of the United Nations: UN.org. November 23, 2007. http://www.un.org/aboutun/charter/chapter1.htm
Hassan, Sulman. "The legality of the United States intervention in Afghanistan."
American Studies Today Online. July 15, 2004. November 23, 2007. http://www.americansc.org.uk/Online/Forum/Afghanlegality.htm
Meanwhile the Soviets and its Afganistan government forces brace for the complete deterioration of the nation
Soviet newspapers report that some Afghan army units have begun looting their strongholds and abandoning them to guerrillas. (VOA)the last Soviet troops fly out of Kabul, ending a nine-year occupation of Afghanistan ahead of schedule. Moslem rebels launch rocket attacks on Kabul hours before the final withdrawal. (BBC)
The value of the early assumptions proved very real, though the soviet controlled government was able to hold the nation until 1992, despite many rebel attempts to take over the nation, and especially Kabul. Again on February 16th the U.S. pledges to continue to support the rebels, stating that the ultimate goal of the support is, "...Afghan self-determination. Secretary of State James Baker says the Soviets should assist in the reconstruction of Afghanistan. (NYT)"
Defections of government troops to rebel forces continues, unabated. In one…
Chipman, Don. "Air Power and the Battle for Mazar-E Sharif." Air Power History 50, no. 1 (2003): 34.
Corwin, Phillip. Doomed in Afghanistan: A UN Officer's Memoir of the Fall of Kabul and Najibullah's Failed Escape, 1992. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2003.
Edwards, David B. Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.
Rogers, Tom. The Soviet Withdrawal from Afghanistan: Analysis and Chronology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992.
S. combating the current Taliban threat? David Kilcullen is the chief strategist in the "Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism" at the U.S. Department of State in ashington, D.C. In a 2006 ashington D.C. speech, Kilcullen stated that "insurgency, including terrorism," will be America's enemies' "weapon of choice" against the "unprecedented superiority" of U.S. military firepower (Kilcullen, 2006, p. 1). Citing Bill Murray's iconic film Groundhog Day, Kilcullen notes that until the U.S. masters a form of counterinsurgency that truly is effective, "we are going to live this day over, and over, and over again -- until we get it right."
Granted, Kilcullen offered his remarks nearly 5 years ago, but his context is fully up-to-date when one reviews the current lack of effectiveness of the United States' counterinsurgency strategy. For one thing, trying to institute "democratic processes" in Afghanistan without the "foundation of a robust civil society" tends to…
Ackerman, Spencer. (2010). From Kandahar, a View of a 'Counterproductive
Counterinsurgency'. The Washington Independent Newspaper. Retrieved March 6, 2011,
Jones, Seth G. (2008). The Rise of Afghanistan's Insurgency. International Security, 32(4),
The current opium irradiation program in Afghanistan is failing to address the long-term challenges impacting the country (i.e. poverty, a lack of economic opportunities and corruption). This is resulting in the Taliban and organized crime utilizing it as an avenue to create greater amounts of instability. In the ten years, seizures of opium and heroin have declined by 57 and 77% respectively. This is problematic, as it is making it difficult for the country to move forward beyond the decades of civil war. (Ackerman, 2014)
To address these issues, a new approach must be used that are showing the way forward. This will be accomplished by providing policy recommendations and suggesting a future course of action which can reverse key trends. Together, these insights will enhance stability and decrease the influence of the Taliban / organized crime elements.
The opium trade and poverty are directly related…
Drug War? American Troops are Protecting Afghan Opium. (2014) Global Research. Retrieved from: http://www.globalresearch.ca/drug-war-american-troops-are-protecting-afghan - opium-u-s-occupation-leads-to-all-time-high-heroin-production/5358053
The Most Addictive Drugs. (2014). Rehabs. Retrieved from: http://luxury.rehabs.com/drug-addiction/most-addictive/
National Drug Policy. (2001). Canadian Parliament. Retrieved from: http://www.parl.gc.ca/content/sen/committee/371/ille/library/dolin1-e.htm#3 .
Ackerman, S. (2014). Afghan Opium Production Explodes. The Guardian. Retrieved from: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/apr/30/afghan-opium-production-explodes - billions-spent-us-report
Q8. Talk briefly about the nature of the war, types of weapons used, and is terrorism a weapon in this conflict?
Terrorism is a weapon in this conflict, as is guerrilla warfare; the U.S. has attempted to train the Afghani forces to take over the nation's defense but has had difficulty training the native population in the strategies of modern warfare.
Q9. How many people have been injured or killed?
2,443 U.S. fatalities and 10468 wounded (iCasualties, 2011, OEF)
Q10. Should the U.S.A. play a role with respect to global peacekeeping and has the U.S.A. had a negative or positive effect?
In the world as a whole, there is little question that the U.S. had a positive effect, particularly when acting as a part of joint coalitions, such as with the UN and NATO. In the past, there was strident criticism that the U.S. did not intervene soon enough in…
Afghanistan-profile. (2010, August 16). Geneva Academy of International Law and Human
Rights. ADH-Geneva. Retrieved May 4, 2011 at
Mulrine, Anna. (2011, April 29). Pentagon's rosy report of Afghanistan war raises questions.
CS Monitor. Retrieved May 4, 2011 at
A section of commentators have taken issue with the manner in which the federal government denied suspected terrorist the due process of law as stipulated under the constitution. The government even commissioned the establishment of a torture chamber in Guantanamo Bay. This amounts to gross violation of human rights and civil liberties. There is another clause in the patriot act dubbed "enhanced surveillance procedures," which allows federal authorities to gather foreign intelligence by breaching firewalls of 'terrorist nations.' This controversial foreign policy clause damaged the relationship between America and the Middle East.
A section of scholars argues that key players in the oil industry manipulated the United States to wage war against Afghanistan. According to an article published on the BBC World Service in December 2007, the execution of Saddam Hussein was unwarranted. Political scientists reckon that a cartel of multinational oil companies wanted to control the oil in…
Van Bergen, J. (2003) "In the Absence of Democracy: The Designation and Material Support Provisions of the Anti-Terrorism Laws." Cardozo Pub. [?] Law Policy & Ethics Journal 2 (2003): 107.
Luca, B (2004). American foreign policy and global governance, in A. Gobbicchi (ed.), Globalization, armed conflicts and security (Rubbettino/CEMISS, Roma) 112-127
Fawcett, L. (2009) International Relations of the Middle East (2nd ed.) Oxford University Press
Soon U.S. invasion Afghanistan 2001, Bush administration developed a plan holding interrogating prisoners
Niday, I.A. (2008). "The War against Terror as War against the Constitution." Canadian Review of American Studies, 38(1), 101-117.
There are a number of essential elements that make up the article written by Jackson A. Niday, "The War against Terror as War against the Constitution." The principle point of this article is to explore the question of whether or not the civil rights of Yaser Esam Hamdi, who was a United States and Saudia Arabian citizen detained at Guantanamo Bay during 2002 after being captured in Afghanistan in the initial stages of the War on Terror, were violated. While seeking to answer this question, the author examines the 2004 Supreme Court lawsuit Hamdi v. Rumsfield in which legal counsel on behalf of Hamdi alleged that his rights were violated as a U.S. citizen -- particularly his right…
One of the fundamental questions I have after thoroughly reading this article is a point that was made in the abstract and was not quite sufficiently explained in the rest of the body of the paper. Specifically, it has to do with the legal philosophy known as pragmatism. I do not understand what this concept is and could not find a sufficient explanation in the remainder of the paper. I would like to know why the author claims that pragmatism was forsaken for "judicial and constitutional coherency" (Niday, 2008, p. 101).
An examination of a number of sources regarding various facets of the domestic and foreign policy propagated by the U.S. government unequivocally reveals that there is a definite incongruence with the values of liberty and justice that is reserved for conventional U.S. citizens, and that which is reserved for people from other parts of the globe. Quite simply, many of the notions that the U.S. contends to champion and preserve for its own people, it directly violates for the citizens in other parts of the world.
Opium Can Be Described as "a Cancer" In Afghanistan
In 2014, an estimated 224,000 hectares (or between 200,000 and 250,500 hectares) of land in Afghanistan was utilized for cultivation of opium poppy -- a 7% increase from the previous year. Also, as per 2014 estimates, 98% of all opium farms in the country were found in Eastern (9%), Western (22%) and Southern (67%) Afghanistan. Southern Afghanistan's opium farms were concentrated in the provinces of Kandahar, Day Kundi, Zabul, Hilmand, and Uruzgan; Western Afghanistan's farms were concentrated in the provinces of Badghis, Nimroz, Farah, and Hirat; and Eastern Afghanistan's opium farms were concentrated in the provinces of Laghman, Kapisa, Nangarhar, and Kunar. The aforementioned provinces are the most vulnerable, with high to extreme security risk, according to the UNDSS (United Nations Department of Safety and Security). Furthermore, they are also largely inaccessible to non-government organizations and the UN. Day Kundi represents…
AHMED, A. (FEB. 15, 2016). Tasked with Combating Opium, Afghan Officials Profit from It. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2016/02/16/world/asia/afghanistan-opium-heroin-taliban-helmand.html?_r=0 on 5 March 2016
Azami, D. (26 February 2013). Why Afghanistan may never eradicate opium. BBC World Service. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-21548230 on 5 March 2016
Buddenberg, D. & Ruttig, T. (11 January 2016). On the Cultural History of Opium -- and how poppy came to Afghanistan, Afghanistan Analysts Network (AAN). Retrieved from https://www.afghanistan-analysts.org/on-the-cultural-history-of-opium-and-how-poppy-came-to-afghanistan / on 5 March 2016
CHELALA, C. (MAR 1, 2013). Opinion: Afghanistan's legacy of child opium addiction. The Japan Times. Retrieved from http://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2013/03/01/commentary/world-commentary/afghanistans-legacy-of-child-opium-addiction/#.VtsHc1R96M9 on 5 March 2016
How should allied operations in Afghanistan be pursued?
In order for the operation in Afghanistan to be effective, there are several ways that can be opted for. The allied forces should be trained aptly for the terrain that is in Afghanistan, the training should as well cover the entire insurgents possible pockets. This however may prove difficult since the insurgents have their protected areas that they would not allow the allied forces to intrude into.
The allied forces should as well try as much as required to penetrate the Taliban and know each plan they make, never to underestimate the Taliban however trivial or temporary their plan may be. It should be noted that the Islamic policy that the Taliban have is way more long-term focused that immediate action and stopping. The allied troops should have a long-range plan of dealing with the Taliban. A plan which will possibly stretch…
Gopal & Anand (2009 December 1).Karzai Aides, Tribal Leaders Say Surge is Wrong Strategy.
The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from online.wsj.com/article/SB125960550353170023.html?mod=WSJ_hpp_MIDDLENexttoWhatsNewsTop.
Robert G, (2009). Rethink Afghanistan. Retrieved April 1, 2010 from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/23/movies/23gree.html .
Robert, (2008, August, 26). Taliban was "Underestimated." Retrieved April 2, 2010 from www.jihadwatch.org/2008/08/taliban-was-underestimated.html
With only one front these tensions should be lessened and a more cohesive effort should be expected by the various forces comprising the Coalition.
Jones acknowledges that America is stuck in Afghanistan for some time and, therefore, must take a special effort to effectuate changes that will be long-lasting. The key to any lasting change in Afghanistan, Jones believes is to build it from the bottom-up. This requires that America abandon any attempts to build entirely from the top down. It would be more prudent to develop a bottom up strategy. The window to do so is there. Many Afghans detest the Taliban for trying to impose their ideology on them and are open to change. Obtaining the support of the local population is the key to the success of this program, Jones believes, and soliciting tribal, religious and other local leaders to assist in this process is crucial and…
US Aid to Afghanistan
The issue of United States' aid to Afghanistan is a topic of interesting consideration given the current U.S. budget deficit and ongoing economic uncertainty. Over the years the United States has spent billions providing money and food aid to help build strength and confidence in Afghanistan's rising new government. Unfortunately, the results of this have not been entirely positive nor have they been driven by the purest of motives; there is some level of profiteering occurring using aid money, and there is also a practical U.S. interest in the stability and viability of the Afghan nation and people. If the United States were providing purely humanitarian aid without military or political involvement and requirements, the situation would be quite different. As it is, U.S. aid in the country is a complex and controversial issue.
Since Afghanistan was taken over by the Taliban, the country has been…
Agnieszka, Flak. "INTERVIEW-Afghanistan Food Aid at Risk as Donors Trim Support |
Agricultural Commodities | Reuters." Reuters.com. 24 Dec. 2011. Web. 04 Feb. 2012.
Unconventional Warfare: The Mujahidin of Afghanistan
esistance is not futile. It was one of the lessons learned from the Soviet Union's invasion of Afghanistan: that any resistance force can counter effectively against a powerful aggressor. esistance - with the proper tools, strategy, and determination - can countermeasure any unwanted entity. The anti-Soviet forces in Afghanistan not only pushed the invaders out of their country, but it helped precipitated the eventual fall of the U.S.S.. As a world power. The question on the table is: what happened in that poor Southwest Asian country? How did the Soviets lose that war, or how did the mujahidin - the soldiers of God - win? First and foremost, the Soviet political and military leaders made strategic and tactical errors. The Afghan rebels employed unconventional warfare in Afghanistan: it was their only possible means in defeating the Soviets. Eventually, though too late, the ussian troops…
Bonosky, Phillip. Washington's Secret war against Afghanistan. New York: International Publishers. 1985.
Isby, David C. War in a Distant Country Afghanistan: Invasion and Resistance. New York: Sterling Publishing Company. 1989.
Kakar, M Hassan. Afghanistan: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982. Berkley: University of California Press. 1995.
Kaplan, Robert D. Soldiers of God: With Islamic Warriors in Afghanistan and Pakistan. New York: Vintage Books. 1990.
The ed Army lost numerous men and machinery, and ultimately, the cost was too much for the Soviets to bear. The Soviets finally began to withdraw troops in the spring of 1988, and removing all troops by early 1989. They left the country in political and personal chaos, with infighting between ethnic groups and religious sects. Author Esposito continues, "Within a brief period after the Soviet withdrawal, the great Islamic victory had collapsed into interethnic and sectarian warfare, fueled by foreign patrons. The net result was chaos and the devastation of Afghanistan as various warlords vied to set up their own fiefdoms."
The country disintegrated into Civil War, with some of the mujahidin factions of the Northern Alliance surviving to fight against the Taliban with U.S. forces in 2001. The Taliban took control of Afghanistan in 1996, controlling every aspect of life from dress to worship and commerce. The Taliban…
Editors. 2007. The Soviet-Afghan War. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press. Online. Available from Internet: http://www.kansaspress.ku.edu/grasov.html , accessed 11 June 2007.
Esposito, John L. 2003. Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. New York: Oxford University Press.
Joes, Anthony James. 1996. Guerrilla Warfare: A Historical, Biographical, and Bibliographical Sourcebook. Edited by Robin Higham. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Strmecki, Marin. 1986. Can the Afghan Rebels Win?. National Review, 4 July, 32+.
Psychological aspects of combat
Extreme high-stress incidents can trigger a number of possible experiences and responses including intrusive thoughts slow-motion time, sharper focus, dissociation, visual clarity and temporary paralysis. The occurrence of 'dissociation,' which is a disconnection from emotional and physical reality, might be a sign of danger for the start of post traumatic disorder or PTSD. One of the common and seldom discussed matters is the loss of bowel and bladder control that occurs during intense moments and it's also used as an exemplification by Grossman of the reluctance that people feel in talking about their natural reaction towards the fight against their condition (Grossman and Christensen, 2007).
According to some studies, there were far number of psychiatric calamities as compared to the physical casualties during the Second World War. 98 per cent of the individuals participating in the war would emotionally breakdown after no more than 60 continuous…
Grossman, D. And Christensen, L.W. (2007). On Combat: The Psychology and Physiology of Deadly Conflict in War and Peace. 2nd ed. PPCT Research Publications. Retrieved from: http://www.beyondintractability.org/bksum/grossman-on-combat
Hoge, C.W., Castro, C.A., Messer S.C., McGurk, D. Cotting, D.I. & Koffman, R.L. (2004). Combat duty in Iraq and Afghanistan, mental health problems, and barriers to care. New England Journal of Medicine, 351, 13-22. Retrieved from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa040603#t=articleTop
Litz, B.T. (2006). A Brief Primer on the Mental Health Impact of the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. A National Center for PTSD Fact Sheet. Retrieved from: http://www.ptsd.ne.gov/pdfs/impact-of-the-wars-in-afghanistan-iraq.pdf
Williamson, V. And Mulhall, E. (2009). Invisible Wounds: Psychological and Neurological Injuries Confront a New Generation of Veterans. Iraq and Afghanistan veterans of America. Retrieved from: http://iava.org/files/IAVA_invisible_wounds_0.pdf
Ethnic Conflicts in Kosovo and Afghanistan: Why a "One-Size-Fits-All" Analytical Approach Will Not Work
Today, Kosovo is recovering from decades of ethnic violence, and the same came be said of Afghanistan to some extent as well as the American military presence continues to draw down. Although both countries have experienced their fair share of such ethnic-based violence over the years, there is no "one-size-fits-all" analytical approach to examining the multifaceted problems that are being experienced by these countries because of the fundamental differences that exist between them and these issues are discussed further below.
As can be seen from the breakdown of Kosovo and Afghanistan language, population and ethnic groups, Kosovo is populated mostly by Serbians (92%) with two official languages (Albanian and Serbian) and one main religion (Islam) while Afghanistan is comprised of several primary ethnic groups and dozens of others, all with their own languages. Furthermore, the populations…
Archer, S.E. (2003). Kosovo present and future. Military Review, 83(6), 31-33.
CIA world factbook. (2012). Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/ .
Jalali, A.A. (2009). Winning in Afghanistan. Parameters, 39(1), 5-7.
WARFARE RULES OF ENGAGEENT (EDIT CUSTOER'S DRAFT)
One of the most contentious issues in contemporary warfare is the concept of rules of engagement (ROE). Just as the Vietnam War highlighted the concept in the 1960s, America's current involvement in Afghanistan provides the contextual background in the early 21st Century. In principle, ROI ensure that combat troops comply with the international conventions of warfare, even if our enemies are not. The Commander-in-Chief strongly supports ROI concept at both the philosophical and practical level, aiming to balance military objectives and politics. Nevertheless, problems have emerged, with the application of the primacy of rules of engagement in the field.
ost significantly, military leaders sometimes focus so much on ROE that soldiers in the field are handicapped operationally. Pausing to consider rules of engagement is less practical in the field than it is in theory. Sometimes, the cloud of ROE results in soldiers' become…
Michael Jenkins is a decorated combat veteran who has received the Department of the Army's highest award for his service. According to Jenkins (2013) "the Rules of Engagement in Afghanistan created an unwanted psychology in our soldiers (and) the fear of retribution and the fear of being court-martialed pre-destined the forces to lose against the nation's enemies." Jenkins understands what the ROE dilemma and how ROE-manipulation generates more of a hindrance than a help to the soldier in the field: "the ROE have become an enemy, soldiers are afraid to take risks" (Jenkins, 2013).
It can be argued that soldiers, under the duress of combat, need the ability to react in sometimes unstructured manners; they need authority and autonomy to take certain risks without fear of reprisal or retribution from superiors. At a minimum, they should have the right to protect themselves from direct threats to their lives instead of being burdened with guidelines that "can be entangled with political agendas and philosophies" (Vallely, 2013, para 3).
According to Zinke (2014), the ROE in Afghanistan seem to be making "Afghan dwellings virtual safe
Internal support, within Canada, is also needed for success. If Canadian citizens don't believe in the mission, then resources are going to be even more difficult to receive. Lastly, and most importantly, support within Afghanistan is necessary, otherwise as soon as forces have left the country, it will simply revert back to their old ways.
I don't believe any media source is ever 100% completely unbiased, in today's world. The media industry is far too competitive to simply 'report the news', as journalists once did. Today, as the Internet continues to cut painfully into more traditional news sources' bottom lines, it's all about readership and viewership. Magazines, newspapers, and news channels know who their demographic is. To report something completely contrary to what this demographic expects is a sure way to reduce subscribers and viewers. Each media source has an identity -- an image. Even when the news is clearly…
Hitchens, C. (16 Mar 2009). Terrorists, dissidents, and copy editors. Slate. Retrieved November 22, 2009, from http://www.slate.com/id/2213867 / .
Opposition to same-sex marriage is strong and vocal, while support for same sex marriage is equally strong and vocal. An understanding of constitutional arguments will be helpful in determining whether or not federal or state government should have the right too define marriage.
The overturn of a statute prohibiting homosexual sodomy, in Lawrence vs. Texas, opened the constitutional debate over same sex marriage in the United States. Lawrence vs. Texas, however, left prohibitions on same-sex marriage. At the same time, Lawrence vs. Texas may "the door wide to challenges of the same-sex ban on due process and equal protection grounds" (Thomas, 2003). In time, suggests Thomas (2003), arguments of due process and equal protection will likely make their way to the Supreme Court.
Given this eventuality, opponents of same-sex marriage are proposing a constitutional amendment to limit marriage to same sex couples (Thomas, 2003). Gerstmann (2004) argues that such an…
Gerstmann, Evan. 2004. SAME-SEX MARRIAGE and the CONSTITUTION. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Thomas, George. 2003. Law & Politics Book Review, Vol. 13 No. 12 (December 2003). http://www.bsos.umd.edu/gvpt/lpbr/subpages/reviews/Gerstmann1203.htm
U.S. Department of State. DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT. http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/whatsdem/whatdm7.htm
Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia. 2008. Checks and Balances http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761585772/Checks_and_Balances.html
United States military has helped in the attempt to establish self-sufficient countries. Its primary mission in this regard has been to defend the inhabitants of particular countries, such as Vietnam in the 1960s, and more recently Afghanistan. Conflicts between countries have usually focused on resources and politics.mmHowever, perceived disparities between the allocation of resources and political power has often inspitred insurgents. Examples of such occastions are the Vietnam War and the current war in Afghanistan. On both occasions U.S. forces have confronted insurgents. Counterinsurgency remains the number one priority in Afghanistan and in order to accomplish this mission, it is vitally important to maintain sight of lessons learned from the past, and particularly during the Vietnam War.
Similarities exist between various insurgencies. Certain facets of the Vietnam War are remarkably similar to the ongoing war in Afghanistan. For example, the counterinsurgency strategy in both conflicts demanded that military and political…
Hammond, William M. "The Tet Offensive and the News Media." Army History 70 (Winter 2009): 6 -- 16.
Heinl, Robert D. Jr. "The Collapse of the Armed Forces." Armed Forces Journal (June 1971): 30 -- 38.
Lomperis, Timothy J. "Giap's Dream, Westmoreland's Nightmare." Parameters (June 1988): 18-32.
Pike, Douglas, "Conduct of the Vietnam War: Strategic Factors, 1965 -- 1968." The Second Indochina War: Proceedings of a Symposium Held at Airlie, Virginia, 7 -- 9 November 1984. Edited by John Schlight, 99 -- 119. Washington, DC: U.S. Army Center of Military History, 1986.
Winning the Hearts and Minds in Afghanistan
It has been a common belief among military strategists ever since the time of Clausewitz in the early 19th century that gaining the support of the people is necessary for the success of any military endeavor. (Clausewitz 1873) Modern strategists call this idea "winning the hearts and minds of the people," and generally perform this mission by providing aid to the local people in an effort to win approval for the presence of military troops to conduct counterinsurgency (COIN) operations. However, the recent military conflict in Afghanistan has called into question the validity of this assumption.
One common assertion among military strategists is that there three elements in conflicts: the people, the military, and the government. In order to gain the support for the military to conduct operations the government must gain the support of the people. Without winning the hearts and minds…
Clausewitz, Carl. 1873. On War. Edited by James John Graham. London: N. Trubner.
Accessed 19 February 2014.
"Winning the Hearts and Minds In Afghanistan: Assessing the Effectiveness of Development Aid in Coin Operations." Report on Wilton Park Conference 1022,
However, the cost of construction in areas without adequate roads would be astronomical. This being said, it is not without precedent that a nuclear power facility, under the strict guidelines of the United Nations, might be set up to provide power to the major cities. Public attitudes towards nuclear power remain ambivalent, and issues with Chernobyl, etc. still sting, but the simple fact is that the technology is there (Dittmar, 2010).
What does Afghanistan have in abundance, though? Not really enough sunlight to make solar profitable in all seasons, but certainly that could work in major cities and for certain applications. Based on the Copenhagen Climate Conference, there are four major ways to finance new energy options in countries like Afghanistan that actually benefit global climate initiatives (Brown, Bird, and Schalatek, 2010). Afghanistan, like much of Central Asia, is ideal for the development and robust exploitation of wind power technology.…
Brown, J., Bird, N. And Schalatek, L. (July 2010). Climate Finance Additionality: Emerging Definitions and Their Implications. Overseas Development Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/details.asp?id=4931&title=climate-finance-additionality-definitions-implications
Dittmar, M. (August 18, 2010). Taking Stock of Nuclear Renaissance that Never Was. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from: http://www.smh.com.au/business/taking-stock-of-nuclear-renaissance-that-never-was-20100817-128ky.html
Elliott, D. (2005). Wind Resource Assessment and Mapping for Afghanistan and Pakistan. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Retrieved from: http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADO338.pdf
break out of war in Afghanistan and Iraq propelled alarming forecasts about its most likely psychiatric effects. he chief of recuperation or readjustment therapy services at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) asserted that as high as 30% of soldiers deployed to Iraq may establish posttraumatic tension ailment (PSD) (Dentzer, 2003), a disorder that can arise following experience of gruesome, dangerous occasions, such as battle, natural catastrophes, and rape. PSD patients do not simply remember their injury; they reexperience it as vibrant sensory recollections (flashbacks), horror stories, and invasive ideas. hey feel reduced or small and mentally detached from the family, friends and loved ones, yet likewise stressful, cranky, and hyper-vigilant as if risk were permanently present.
Psychiatry ratified the PSD medical diagnosis in 1980, mainly in feedback to the belated awareness of its signs in Vietnam veterans whose troubles had actually long been improperly comprehended and dealt with. Undoubtedly,…
Trochim, W. (2006). The Research Methods Knowledge Base, 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: Atomic Dog Publishing.
Vogt, Dawne S.; Samper, Rita E.; King, Daniel W.; King, Lynda A.; Martin, James A. (2008). Deployment stressors and posttraumatic stress symptomatology: Comparing active duty and National Guard/Reserve personnel from Gulf War I. Journal of Traumatic Stress. Vol. 21 Issue 1, p66-74. 9p.
Yin, R.K. (2008) Case study research: design and methods. 4th ed. London: Sage Publication Inc.
Rules of Engagement (ROE) are necessary to a certain degree during wars and skirmishes in order to determine what actions military personnel can take when confronted with immediate and personal dangerous or violent situations. Determining a correct ROE, however, is the key to successfully addressing the overall mission and purpose for military interventions in the first place. As one recent author states "these rules are in place for reasons that both protect the military and respect the international conventions of war" (Vallely, 2013). hat is interesting about this subject is the fact that in the same report, Vallely goes on to state "ROE can be conveniently manipulated by the political objectives and military mission limitations essential to the construction and application of ROE" (Vallely, 2013). That is what seems to be happening in the current war situation in Afghanistan if what experts are saying is to be believed.
Bobbitt, P.; (2010) The new rules of engagement, Newsweek, Vol. 155, Issue 2, pp. 42-43
" It seems perfectly apparent that this was the original policy of the U.S. In Afghanistan specific to the Soviet Union. The CSR Report for Congress entitled: "Afghanistan: Current Issues and U.S. Policy" Kenneth Katzman, Specialist in Middle Eastern Affairs writes that the policy objectives of the United States in Afghanistan have: "...long gone beyond establishing political stability and combating terrorist groups operating in Afghanistan." (Katzman, 2005)
IV. PRESENT U.S. INVOLVEMENT in AFGHANISTAN
Some of the areas targeted by the United States include: "...ending discrimination against women and girls, the eradication of narcotics production, and alleviating severe humanitarian difficulties, and promoting long-term economic development...with varying degrees of intensity." (2005) Further reported is landmine eradication and retrieval of some U.S. Stingers that are in the country. In relation to long-term economic development in the country of Afghanistan the $2.5 billion Central Asia Gas Pipeline immediately became a focus after the U.S.…
Threat from the East? Soviet Policy from Afghanistan and Iran to the Horn of Africa
2007) Democratization and Security in Central Eurasia - ARI Movement 9th International Security Conference Istanbul 14-15 June 2007. Online available at http://www.ari.org.tr/english/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=86&Itemid=2
Kuczewski, Andre (1984) Threat from the East? Soviet Policy from Afghanistan and Iran to the Horn of Africa - Book Reviews. Nov. 1984. Online available at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1132/is_v36/ai_3496626 .
Savranskaya, Svetlana (2001) the Soviet Experience in Afghanistan: Russian Documents and Memoirs - Volume II: Afghanistan: Lessons from the Last War. Online available at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB57/soviet.html .
Kabul is a cosmopolitan center and demonstrates a willingness to modernize but outside Kabul old traditions remain strong and there is little interest in these rural areas for any change.
III. Social Factors
The rural nature of Afghan society cannot be over-emphasized. The population of the country is estimated at 24 million but it is highly fragmented into a variety of ethnic groups that are further broken down into tribal groups. This tribal fragmentation has been encouraged by the countries bordering Afghanistan that have, in order to promote their own political agendas, disturbed any efforts by the Afghan central government from uniting these tribes. hat has developed is a system of ethnically-based rivalries supported by localized Islamic religious sects.
Tribal traditions inside Afghanistan tend to be more powerful than either Islamic theology or political philosophy and these traditions can be harsh toward women (Rohde). Gender roles under tribal traditions are…
Bickers, Robert. The Scramble for China: Foreign Devils in the Qing Empire, 1832-1914. New York: Penguin Global, 2011.
Cleary, Thomas. The Essential Confucius: The Heart of Confucius' Teachings in Authentic I Ching Order. New York: Book Sales, 2000.
Countries and Their Cultures. Afghanistan. 2011. 4 May 2011 .
Ellis, Deborah. Women of the Afghan War. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger, 2000.
Military Draw-Down from Afghanistan
hen terrorists attacked the United States on September 11, 2001, there was very little hesitation on the part of then President George . Bush -- and the United States Congress -- to mount a retaliatory military campaign in Afghanistan, the place where bin Laden was training terrorists to kill Americans. The Taliban militants were control of Afghanistan at that time and they had provided training camps for bin Laden and al Qaeda to plan their terrorist activities against the United States. Bush gave the Taliban time to either hand over bin Laden (which they were not about to do) or prepare for a bombardment by U.S. military. The American public was fully behind the 2001 military engagement in Afghanistan, but few citizens at that time imagined that more than ten years later American soldiers would still be in Afghanistan, fighting the resurgent Taliban militants.
Aymeen Jawad, al-Tamimi. 2012. Rethinking U.S. Strategy in Afghanistan. Middle East
Quarterly 19 (Winter) 1-15.
Jones, Jeffrey M. 2011. Americans More Positive on Afghanistan After Bin Laden Death.
Gallup Poll. Retrieved January 29, 2012, from http://www.gallup.com .
hile U.S., New Zealand and Denmark have many differences, they are basically capitalist, consumer economies. To combat the corruption inherent in such a system, we need to protect and nurture whistle blowing. Certainly, the more eyes there are on a situation, the more transparent it is, both in government and in business.
The corruption that the recent recession revealed in the U.S. banking system is simply a part of the bigger problem. As the Ferrell, Fraedrich & Ferrell text puts it well, "The ability to recognize and deal with complex business ethics issues has become a significant priority…" (Ferrell, Fraedrich, & Ferrell, 2009). Enforcement takes human observation to fulfill this priority. There is not enough police to go around. However, the common citizen, armed with legal protections, will provide this.
Anti-corruption. (2006, November 8). Retrieved 11 August 2010 from http://www.um.dk/en/menu/developmentpolicy/anticorruption/
Caslon analytics guide secrecy and accountability. (2008, February).…
Anti-corruption. (2006, November 8). Retrieved 11 August 2010 from http://www.um.dk/en/menu/developmentpolicy/anticorruption/
Caslon analytics guide secrecy and accountability. (2008, February). Retrieved 11
August 2010 from http://www.caslon.com.au/secrecyguide10.htm
Coincidental spike? (2010, April 1). The Economist, Retrieved 11 August 2010 from http://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2010/04/heroin_afghanistan
Fundamentally, the insurgents are fighting an enemy with superior weaponry, technology, and resources, so therefore, must seek avenues to mitigate these disadvantages. In other words, insurgent forces out vastly outdone in the traditional aspects of warfare, so they are forced to resort to unconventional modes of attack.
Early in his book, the Army and Vietnam, Krepinevich provides the broad game plan an insurgent force must follow to achieve final victory:
As developed by Mao in China and adapted by Giap in Vietnam, contemporary insurgency is a third world phenomenon comprising three phases: first, insurgent agitation and proselytization among the masses -- the phase of contention; second, overt violence, guerrilla operations, and the establishment of bases -- the equilibrium phase; and third, open warfare between insurgent and government forces designed to topple the existing regime -- the counteroffensive phase."
Primarily, this form of warfare consists of the formation of a political…
Anonymous. 2004. Imperial Hubris. Washington, D.C.: Brassley's, Inc. Page, xxi.
Barringer, Mark. 1999. "The Anti-War Movement in the United States." The Oxford Companion to American Military History. New York: Oxford University Press Available: www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/vietnam/antiwar.html.
Bush, George W. 2002. "The National Security Strategy of the United States of America." Speeches delivered September 17 and June 1.
Butler, Smedley D. War is a Racket. New York: Feral House, 2003.
Predators has led to Decrease in Road-Side ombings in Afghanistan
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) started firing drones missiles in Afghanistan in order to reduce civilian casualties and reduce roadside bombings. These missiles known as Predators incorporate accuracy, wide efficient surveillance and precision target meant to reduce roadside bombings. To minimize civilian casualties, the Predator targets mobile insurgents as opposed to focusing on residential areas. The use of Predator has minimized roadside bombings and civilian as a result of increased surveillance.
Roadside bombing casualties represent a reduction from a 10% casualty level in 2009, 7% in 2011 to almost 3% in 2012. In line with this, rook (2012 ), adds that improvised explosive devices were a major cause of troop deaths untill the introduction of the Predator.
The most important feature of the predator is the detection of all types of improvised explosive devices. Data indicate that from January through…
Abbot, S. Study: Militants, not Civilians, are Primary Victims of Drone Attacks. Associated Press, 2012.
Brook, Tom Vanden. "Drones detection cutting into IEDs in Afghanistan."
www.theleafchronicle.com. July 16, 2012 . (accessed July 22, 2012).
Drew, C. "Drones Are Playing a Growing Role in Afghanistan ." The New York Times, February
human intelligence particularly in the context of Afghanistan war. Afghanistan is a Muslim Asian state which has been victimised by external forces of USA and ussia. The internal state of Afghanistan is very unfavourable for the development of country and it is most likely that for rehabilitation, it needs the assistance of many other countries.
In the context of human intelligence, it is important to mention that this topic has not been much explored in the literature. The reason can be its possible connection with the car, while the literature mainly casts light upon the causes and outcomes of the war. The strategies are mostly confidential and it takes centuries to explore them.
The paper will explain the concept of human intelligence and its implications in war against the countries. The paper revolves around USA policies and practices maintaining focus on its invasion in Afghanistan in the background of Iraq.…
1. Hastedt, Glenn and Guerrier, Steven. 2010. Spies, Wiretaps and Secret Operations. USA: ABC-CLIO.
2. Holmes, Dave and Dixon, Norm. 2001. Behind the U.S. War on Afghanistan. Australia: Resistance Books.
3. Lansford, Tom. 2003. A Bitter Harvest: U.S. Foreign Policy and Afghanistan. England: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
4. Rothstein, Hy. 2006. Afghanistan and the Troubled Future of Unconventional Warfare. USA: Naval Institute Press.
America's engagement with China, with historic ice-breaking between the two countries carried out by Henry Kissinger, has been complicated. I would suggest that it were the U.S. domestic preoccupations and compulsions that did not allow me to take any bold stance on the issue of Dalai Lama. I disagree with notion that U.S. betrayed the cause of human rights while not choosing to visit Dalai Lama.
It must not be forgotten that unlike ussia, China's geography allows her to exert much more influence than the former. In the words of Kaplan (2010), China is both a land and a sea power. Thus, my foreign policy towards China has been reflective of this potential next power of the world. The U.S. has benefited from the Chinese market significantly in the wake of financial crisis. The author failed to acknowledge the huge compulsions that China faces in meeting its energy and other…
Barber, BR 1992 "Jihad vs. McWorld," the Atlantic Monthly 269, no. 3 (March 1992): 53 -- 65.
Cohen, MA, 2011, 'Think Again: The Two State Solution', Foreign Policy, Viewed on 18 June 2013, [ http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/09/14/think_again_the_two_state_solution ]
Gettleman, J 2010, 'Africa's Forever Wars,' Foreign Policy, 22 Feb 2010.
Gilboy, GJ and Read, BL 2008, 'Political and Social Reform in China,' Washington Quarterly, summer 2008, pg 143-164.
But by doing so, Zia and ilson gained the most powerful ally one could want when it came to appropriations. ith Doc Long's support, ilson was able to obtain $40 million from the Defense Appropriations subcommittee; a group of eleven elected officials who meet behind closed doors and decide how to spend billions of dollars. And since the recommendations from the committee have to be voted on by the full House without the specifics of where the money is being sent, Charlie ilson was able to appropriate the money without any public knowledge. This was important because the participation of the United States in the arming of Afghan mujahideen had to be kept a secret or else it risked direct war with the Soviet Union.
Part of Charlie ilson's ability to convince the other members of the U.S. House of Representatives to vote for his appropriations was the fact that…
Crile, George. Charlie Wilson's War: The Extraordinary Story of the Largest Covert
Operation in History. New York: Atlantic Monthly, 2003. Print.
Grau, Lester, and Michael Gress. The Soviet Afghan War: How a Superpower Fought and Lost. Lawrence, Kansas: University of Kansas, 2002. Print.
Sperling, Godfrey. "Mondale in '84, He May Run if Jimmy Carter Doesn't." the
With the advantage of Afghanistan, the U.S. And Allies will be geographically positioned against Iran, Pakistan, and negative forces in the Southwest Asia and in the Middle East.
U.S. And Allied Objectives in Afghanistan
he first objective for U.S. And allied forces in Afghanistan is to eradicate outside and hostile threats to the country's infrastructure. he threats which currently exist are:
Al Qaeda and aliban terrorists located mainly on the porous border between Afghanistan and Pakistan
Iranian military readiness and proliferation of nuclear armament
hese threats might at first be considered minimal in comparison to those threats that exist in Iraq, since Iraq borders with Syria, Iran, and is generally a South Asia-Middle East corridor. Afghanistan, however, bordering Iran and Pakistan, while its threats from Iran, Pakistan, and internal radical insurgent forces cannot be minimized and must be considered seriously, and our objectives for Afghanistan reflect an aggressive and proactive…
The United States and the Allied forces will help bring about an environment of safety and security that will allow the Afghani people to begin to experience a normal way of life. That, in and of itself, will at first be difficult, because it has been decades since they have been able to do that. But it is also something that they will very quickly adapt to, and I know that they will work hard to maintain what has been won for them.
By the spring of 2010, municipal projects will begin being undertaken. Housing is high on the list of the many things that must be accomplished. We will help them in this too, and our U.S Corp of Army Engineers will be working closely with Afghanistan's own artisans and tradesmen on these building projects.
We expect to see great progress in the next year in rebuilding the infrastructure, and in eliminating the threat from outside forces that would see this country remain in dire economic and social straits. We hope that by this time next year, we can begin to share and discuss with you the many accomplishments that have been made in Afghanistan during the year 2010.
(Harvey, 2003) the suspicion of the United States of the "Soviet Expansionist tendencies" had increased by the 1970s and Harvey states as well that "The pervasive mentality of Washington officials during these years was dominated by the communist domino theory which led many Washington politicians to believe that the Soviet Union sought to take over the entire world." (2003) the United States had always received a safeguard provided by the shah for their Middle East interest of oil and it was this that resulted in the United States perceiving the Soviet-Afghanistan relations as a "considerable threat...before 1979." (Harvey, 2003)
Harvey reports that while Department of State records from the early 1970s report that the United States was indifferent to the relationship that was developing between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan that the truth is that "...Recently declassified ntelligence reports also reveal that the "official history record is false."
Isby, David C. (1999) War in a Distant Country. New York: Arms and Armour Press, 1989. Rashid, Ahmed (2000) Taliban. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.
Terrorism Project. (2001) "Lessons from History: U.S. Policy Towards Afghanistan, 1978-2001." 5 October 2001. Online available at; .
United States Department of State (1976) Annual Policy Assessment, March 9, 1976.
Causes crime & process change): Choose country (*Iraq Afghanistan) crime (*Terrorism) relevant country. Obtain statistics crime show crime trends a period 8-9 years (e.g. 1995-2009). Then explain, criminological theories (*Conflict Theory Lableling Theory), crime relevant country (context), occurred place (causal factors), increased decreased years (change).
There has been much controversy in the last two decades regarding the issue of terrorism in Afghanistan, given that numerous countries have changed their international policies as a result of acknowledging the terrorist threat in the Middle East. ith the Taliban political group holding power for several years before the September 11, 2001, events at the orld Trade Center in New York, terrorism has reached a whole new level. It is difficult to determine the exact factors that fueled the terrorism movement in the country, with some of the most influential of them being the drug industry, the concept of jihad, and biased interpretation of…
Brecher, Irving. "Terrorism, Freedom and Social Justice: the War in Afghanistan," International Journal 57.1 (2002)
Chesterman, Simon. "Tiptoeing Through Afghanistan: The Future of UN State-Building" International Peace Academy. 2002.
Donohue, Laura K. In the Name of National Security: U.S. Counterterrorist Measures, 1960-2000. 2001.
Dunne, Michele Durocher. Integrating democracy promotion into U.S. Middle East Policy. Democracy and the rule of Law Project. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. no 50, October 2004.
Please see "Stake Holder: The Taliban" for more information regarding virtue ethics.
The farmers who are growing poppy plants have a logical stake in this moral dilemma as well. If their crops are destroyed they will have no alternative but to join the Taliban to help settle their debts. They are in a precarious position where they are often forced to grow poppies because they are a very lucrative and traditional cash crop. Their history and culture will be severely affected if their livelihood is destroyed as well. If they functioned as utilitarians, the farmers would look for another alternative to growing poppies or perhaps request a government subsidy since their poppy production kills millions worldwide who abuse their drugs. The farmers likely do not have access to this information however, which makes their position even harder to justify.
The Afghan People
Utilitarianism- Principle. See "Stakeholder: The United States…
The international community can obviously respond by seeking to marginalize the Taliban and similar movements as extremists. However, it has become clear following the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon that western governments have not been effective in infiltrating terrorist networks and pre-empting attacks. It has also become clear that there will be no shortage of people in the Islamic world who are willing to martyr themselves for as long as there are legitimate grievances against the U.S. And other countries. It is therefore in the interest of the Americans that actions are taken by its government that seek to address both the legitimate concerns of moderate elements within the Islamic world and American's own relative ignorance as to what is happening in the world beyond the U.S. (Marsden, 2002 pp. 153-155).
The Afghanistan military action of the U.S. wherein the Taliban regime was overthrown is…
Marsden, P. (2002) the Taliban, War and Religion in Afghanistan. London: Zed Books Ltd.
Rashid, a. (2000) Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia. New Haven CT: Yale University Press.
Roy, O. (1986) Islam and Resistance in Afghanistan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rosenthal, J. (1991) Righteous Realists: Political Realism, Responsible Power and American Culture in Nuclear Age. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University.
In some ways, the men who practice violence against women and attempt to control them to the degrees that the Taliban has decreed are simply carrying out the violence and the repression that was practiced against them; though it serves no constructive purpose and is indeed highly detrimental both to women and to the country as a whole, the Taliban's action against the women is at least partially a result of the cultural psychological repression that Afghanistan has suffered for thirty years. That, and the fact that a common enemy in women makes the Taliban that much stronger in its operations and control of the government and society as a whole, can be seen as the primary psychological motives for the Taliban's treatment of women.
Women in Islam
According to the Taliban themselves, however, their actions and attitudes towards women simply carry out strict Islamic law, and are necessary for…
Sengupta, Kim. "Abuse of Afghan women: 'It was my decision to die. I was getting beaten every day'." The Independent, 24 November 2006. Accessed 20 February 2010. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/abuse-of-afghan-women-it-was-my-decision-to-die-i-was-getting-beaten-every-day-425580.html .
Skaine, Rosemarie. The Women of Afghanistan Under the Taliban. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2000.
First, the relative quiet produced by the surge permits the United States to withdraw its forces far more safely than if the country were in flames; if this opportunity is seized, the surge will have made an important contribution" (Zelleke & Dujarric 2008). The United States has ultimately striven to bring regional stability to Iraq and to Afghanistan, not to establish a permanent presence, and such stability is to be welcomed by all, particularly those who live in these nations who desire peace.
The means of a just war must be limited by proportionality to the offense.
The offense is a potentially future attack, "one we have good reason to believe is coming, then we can prevent it with what it takes to prevent it in proportion to how reasonably we can expect it and what means would be involved in such a potential attack" (Pierce 2005). Given the extent…
Greenway, HDS. (2005, March 31). Afghanistan, the poor stepsister to Iraq. The Boston Globe.
Retrieved April 12, 2009 at http://www.boston.com/news/globe/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2005/03/25/afghanistan_the_poor_stepsister_to_iraq/
Pierce, Jeremy. (2005). Just war theory and Iraq. Parablemania. Retrieved April 12, 2009 at http://parablemania.ektopos.com/archives/2005/12/just_war_theory_1.html
Principles of just war. (2009). Mt. Holyoke. Retrieved April 12, 2009 at http://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/pol116/justwar.htm
U.S. Approach to Terrorism
U.S Approach to Terrorism Post 2001
The incidence of September 11, 2001 led to an anti-terrorism campaign by the government of U.S. And was called the war or terror. Since 2001, U.S. government has taken several steps to maintain security and counter terrorism by implementing certain strategies at national and international level. These approaches and steps, whether useful or not have been discussed in this paper.
President Bush's Justifications For Invading Iraq Post 9/11
After the September 11, attack in 2001, the Bush government declared "war on terror" which was intended to counter terrorism. Bush also declared in his address on 20th September 2001 that, the "war on terror" will begin from dealing with al Qaeda but it will stop only when terrorism is dealt with properly. According to Bush doctrine, whichever country contained weapon of mass destruction (MD) is a threat for U.S. And therefore…
Chandler, David War without End(s): Grounding the Discourse of 'Global War', 40 Security Dialogue, (2009): 243-244.
Hixson, W.L. The War in Iraq and American Freedom. Arab World Geographer 2003. 6 (1): 27-29.
Huntington, S.P. Who Are We? The Challenges to America's National Identity. New York: Simon & Schuster. (2004): 121-129.
Hastings, Michael. The Drone Wars. Rolling Stone, 0035791X, Issue 1155, (2012): 113-118.
Hidden War: A ussian Journalist's Account of the Soviet War in Afghanistan" by Artem Borovik.
Book report on Hidden War by Artem Borovik
Title of book: "Hidden War: A ussian Journalist's Account of the Soviet War in Afghanistan"
Author's purpose in writing the book: This book contains three documentary stories: "Vstertimsia u Zhuravlei," "Spriatannaia Voina," "Kak I Byl Soldatom Amerikanskoi Armii." The first two stories are about the Afghan war, while the third story is about how the Soviets destroyed the image of the American soldier as an enemy for decades. The theme of the book deals with military conflicts and the wars fought. The writer uses the current political and ideology style of writing.
Borovik was born into the Soviet elite and went to prestigious Moscow English School, then to New York, since his father, Genrikh, who worked as a correspondent for the Novosti press agency, was given a…
Guardian | Artem Borovik, available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/print/0,3858,3979635-103684,00.html , accessed on: April 14, 2004
Artem Borovik, The Hidden War: A Russian Journalists Account of the Soviet War in Afghanistan, published: 10 May 2001
" In the rural areas, Afghan women "are still forced into marriages and denied a basic education" (Qazi, par. 2). It has been said that many school that cater to girls have been burned down and there were girls who "have even been poisoned to death for daring to go to school" (Qazi, par. 2). The struggle still continues up to this day. The Afghan women constitute half of the Afghan population and as such, they are important and should be made equal participants in the rebuilding of the Afghan society. The Afghan women should be empowered in order to do this. The Afghan women do not need to be saved. Instead, equal educational opportunity would help end the Afghan women's social struggle.
Abu-Lughod, Lila. "Do Muslim Women eally Need Saving? Anthropological eflections on Cultural elativism and Its Others." American Anthropologist September 2002: 783-790.
Burke, Barry. "Mary Wollstonecraft on…
Abu-Lughod, Lila. "Do Muslim Women Really Need Saving? Anthropological Reflections on Cultural Relativism and Its Others." American Anthropologist September 2002: 783-790.
Burke, Barry. "Mary Wollstonecraft on Education." (2004). The Encyclopedia of Informal Education. 21 April 2009 .
Dubriwny, Tasha. "First Ladies and Feminism: Laura Bush as Advocate for Women's and Children's Rights," Women's Studies in Communication 28.1 (2005), Questia, 20 Apr. 2009 .
Emadi, Hafizullah. Repression, Resistance, and Women in Afghanistan (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002) iii, Questia, 20 Apr. 2009.
Other Congressional Democrats too are withdrawing their support of the president, including Senator Paul Kirk, Jr. Of Massachusetts. Health care reform too has seen a parting of the ways for some Democrats and the president.
Health care reform was one of the primary issues President Obama focused on during his campaign. The historic vote in the House of epresentatives brought him one step closer to seeing this reform come to fruition. However, the vote revealed a significant decline in the president's support. Whereas all but one epublican voted for the bill, almost 20% of Democrats voted against Obama's flagship piece of legislation, allowing to pass by a very slim 220-215 vote ("Final vote," 2009). The Senate has yet to vote on the bill, but with a similar composition as the House, the vote is certainly to be close. Immigration reform too was a topic Obama espoused to voters along the…
Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA history). (2009). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://www.nyse.tv/dow-jones-industrial-average-history-djia.htm .
Final vote results for roll call [HIDDEN] (10 Oct 2002). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2002/roll455.xml .
Final vote results for roll call [HIDDEN] (7 Nov 2009). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2009/roll887.xml .
Groen, J. & Polivka, A. (Mar 2008). Hurricane Katrina evacuees. Monthly Labor Review Online, 131(3). Retrieved December 1, 2009, from http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2008/03/art3exc.htm .
After the departure of LTC wood the lieutenant colonel that was in command a battalion in the 56th Heavy Brigade Combat Team (HBCT), there was a change of command. There was a new brigade leadership team that assumed responsibility for the period of pre-deployment and train-up. The paper will look at an analysis of the leadership problem that the new brigade leadership had. There will be a proposal on the solving of the leadership problem and finally an analysis of the expected outcome from the solutions that have been proposed.
There was an indication that the leadership performed well within Afghanistan given the circumstances. However there were various leadership challenges that were presented which required attention. First of all there were incompatible communication systems that crippled command and communication throughout the brigade. Due to the varied battlefield, electronic and environmental conditions leaders were often required to carry…
Cherry, K.(2013).What is problem solving? Retrieved July 20, 2013 from http://psychology.about.com/od/problemsolving/f/problem-solving-steps.htm
Sieck, W.(2013). Critical Thinking Skills: What are They and How Do I Get Them? Retrieved July 20, 2013 from http://www.globalcognition.org/head-smart/critical-thinking-skills/
SkillsYouNeed.com.(2013). Problem Solving. Retrieved July 22, 2013 from http://www.skillsyouneed.com/ips/problem-solving.html
University of Kent Careers and Employability Service. (2010). Problem Solving and Analytical Skills. Retrieved July 20, 2013 from http://www.kent.ac.uk/careers/sk/problem-solving-skills.htm
The 56th Heavy Brigade Combat Team is suffering from a shortage of effective leadership, a factor that appears to be impacting nearly every functional aspect of the brigade. Hard-wired coordination has given way to fractured, piece-meal functioning that is particularly in evidence within and across S1, S3, and S4. Several variables appear to be associated with the diminished leadership, including the following issues that I observed or noted during my review.
The Center for Army Lessons Learned (CALL) study conducted for the 56th in Afghanistan indicated that "leadership performed well given the circumstances" but this qualification pointed to several substantive challenges that need to be addressed. Communication was hampered by the number of communication systems in use and the fact that many of them were incompatible; the digital networks were insufficiently robust, causing frequent lost communication between the brigade and subordinate battalion headquarters. The historical unit status reports (US)…