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y the late 1600's, there were about 750,000 "civilized" inhabitants, i.e. Negro slaves from Africa, working the plantations and by the turn of the century, many of the plantations owners had grown extremely wealthy as a result of slave labor.
During the last half of the 17th century, there were a number of efforts to normalize the slave trade or, in other words, to make it appear legitimate and necessary for the growing economies of Europe. Part of this normalization involved the plantations, due to their overwhelming need for a large labor force. efore this normalization, "indentured servants (i.e. slaves) were freed every few years," but with the introduction of permanent servants, this situation was done away with. Also, as permanent slaves were brought to work the plantations, this gave plantation owners "a greater degree of control over the life of slaves," such as being able to sell off the…
Clark, George N., Ed. The New Cambridge Encyclopedia of Modern History. MA: Cambridge University Press, 1987.
Gustaitis, Joseph. "Special Feature: Slavery in the Americas." The World Almanac. Internet. February 2007. Retrieved at http://www.worldalmanac.com/newsletter/200702WAE-Newsletter.html
Langer, William L., Ed. The Rise of Modern Europe. New York: Macmillan, 1965.
Nevins, Allan and Howard M. Ehrmann, Eds. A History of the Modern World. MI: University of Michigan Press, 1990.
Analysis of William Bradford's and Samuel de Champlain's Narratives of the life of native American-Indians in the Americas in the 17th century
Early accounts of native life in North America were well-documented with through the experiences of navigators representing European countries, particularly Spain, England, and Portugal in the 17th century. This period was identified as the "Age of Discovery," for new civilizations were found, which provided opportunities for these voyagers to take advantage of a new-found territory to make use of its natural resources and expand its political territory and powers in the process.
Famous works of early narratives of discoveries of new land territories in the North American region were from William Bradford and Samuel de Champlain, voyagers who had been sent by England and France, respectively, to explore the prospects of a new politico-economic territory in the geographic area now known as North America. Narrated in…
This neurological disorder or disease discovered and first described in 1966 by an Austrian physician, Dr. Andreas Rett
A paper published on the disorder in an English medical journal in 1983 by Dr. engst Hagberg and associates. Global awareness established and thengrew. First diagnoses of unidentified cases made.
Disorder initially observed to affect only girls of different races worldwide
Mutations in an X chromosome gene called MeCP2.
First discovered at the laboratory by Dr. Huda Zoghbi, a neurogeneticist, in October 1999
Primarily affects girls but recently found to affect boys as well
Condition between 6 to 18 months and progresses in stages
A developmental, not a genetic or nutritional, disorder
Affects 1 in 10,000 to 23,000 females worldwide
Apparently normal pregnancy and delivery for the mother and normal development of voluntary movements to the affected person
Deceleration of head growth between 6 and 18 months
Baker, O (1999). Faculty Control Gene Underlines Retardation (Rett Syndrome).
Science News, Science Service, Inc.
Gene Today ... Gone Tomorrow (October 1999). Nature Genetics
Lewis, Jackie and Debbie Wilson (1998). Pathways to Learning in Rett Syndrome.
The information starts with warm-up activities and ends with cool-down exercises. This logical or chronological order and progression helps with ease of understanding the topics as well. As far as using it to help train clients, this information can be useful in every stage of exercise. Also, the clients should expect to receive credible, useful information with traceable resources. This site provides these things and helps to detail exercises for specific populations as well, like people with diabetes or other limiting diseases or disabilities. The page is devoid of any misleading information and does not contain any information for marketing purposes either, which makes the information much more credible as it comes from a place of wanting to inform instead of wanting to sell a product.
Website used for research: http://www.unm.edu/~lkravitz/Article%20folder/age.html
This website is based at the University of New Mexico's homepage and is relatively credible given the fact that it comes from an educational resource. Also, the site is written by a professor with a Ph. D. This person is familiar with citation and referencing the resources used to make specific arguments on the page. The information is very credible compared with other sites and I would be comfortable having older clients read and understand this information. As far as the usefulness of the information provided, the page is broken down into different types of training. This helps make it more useful to people looking for specific exercises or information relative to aging and exercise. The page also includes information that is useful to professionals as well as older adults, adding to the usefulness of the information it contains.
The author, also a UNM professor, seems to have an excellent grasp on dividing the information up in a way that allows it to be useful as well as easy to read and digest. The information starts with warm-up activities and ends with cool-down exercises. This logical or chronological order and progression helps with ease of understanding the topics as well. As far as using it to help train clients, this information can be useful in every stage of exercise. Also, the clients should expect to receive credible, useful information with traceable resources. This site provides these things and helps to detail exercises for specific populations as well, like people with diabetes or other limiting diseases or disabilities. The page is devoid of any misleading information and does not contain any information for marketing purposes either, which makes the information much more credible as it comes from a place of wanting to inform instead of wanting to sell a product.
Cultural and Construction History of the Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age is also known as the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic Renaissance. The term refers to a system of political, cultural, and religious authority derived from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed in the early sixth century AD. At its high point under the Abbassid Dynasty (eighth to thirteenth centuries AD), Islamic civilisation experienced a flourish of art and culture that blended Arab, Persian, Egyptian, and European elements (Kraemer). The result was an era of incredible intellectual and cultural advancements (Wiet). At the height of its power, the Caliphate controlled all of the present-day Middle East, all of northern Africa and into Spain, and as far east as the Indus Valley, making it among the largest empires of all time and one of the few states ever to extend direct rule over three…
Age and Age Discrimination on an Organization
We hear so much about race, gender and sexual orientation discrimination on the job. And this is with good reason. America, unfortunately, has a long and torrid history of racial and gender discrimination, and the last 20 years have added sexual orientation discrimination to the list, especially given stories of gays being banished from the military.
African-Americans, in particular, were long barred from certain jobs, and even when they were fully integrated into the workforce during the 1980s, they faced the very low glass ceiling, as do women. oth African-Americans (and minorities in general) and women face challenges on the job in getting promotions and raises that white male Americans do not even dream of.
Today, the newest frontier in discrimination on the job is age discrimination. In reality, though, age discrimination has been around forever; it is only now getting some attention…
AFLCIO. 2004. Discrimination: Age. http://www.aflcio.org/yourjobeconomy/rights/rightsatwork/disc_age.cfm
EEOC. 2001. http://www.eeoc.gov/employers/smallbusinesses.html
Employment Practices Solutions: 2004. Westinghouse and Northrop settled 2 age discrimination lawsuits for $14 million.
Gallagher, John. 2005. Class action suits likely to increase as companies cut older workers. Columbus Ledger-Enquirer, Jan. 15, 2005.
Mental therapy using non-intense video games and how it affects brain health among the aged population showing early symptoms of dementia.
The deterioration of cognitive abilities and brain tissue due to age could have several adverse effects on mental systems and could even lead to dementia. Thus, researchers are trying to discover methods which could help keep brain function, independence, health and cognition among aged people in its best shape. Usually, with age, the white and gray matter of the brain shrivels with this action seen more in its prefrontal cortex than other regions. Other affected brain parts are the cerebellum, the prefrontal cortex on the side as well as the central temporal lobe structure which includes the hippocampus. Despite this, the occipital cortices and the entorhinal do not experience any form of shrinkage (Ballesteros et al., 2015). Common symptoms of this shrinkage include reduced memory strength, lower mental processing…
Yet the Obama Administration has also vigorously pursed the war in Afghanistan against the Taliban.
The discovery of an offensive Iranian nuclear program combined with the suppression of dissenting voices after a corrupt election made adopting a conciliatory and more open position to Iran difficult, despite Obama's stated willingness to open talks with that nation. "I would say to those people who put so much hope and energy and optimism into the political process, I would say to them that the world is watching and inspired by their participation, regardless of what the ultimate outcome of the election was" (Solomon & Spiegel 2009). Even his tenuous statement that America supports all impulses towards freedom was controversial -- Iranian hard-liners used it as evidence of American interference in their internal affairs, while the president's right-wing critics at home said that it was not sufficiently strident. "Any push by Mr. Obama to…
"Obama's speech in Cairo." The New York Times. June 4, 2009.
October 31, 2009.
Solomon, Jay & Peter Siegel. "Obama says Iran must pick its own leaders."
Brands, H.W. The Age of Gold. New York: Doubleday, 2002.
Get rich quick. This philosophy or fantasy can be seen everywhere today. It is seen in the eyes of the person who turns the slot machine in Atlantic City. It is seen in the sight of people lining up in front of a 7-11 several states away because the 'Power ball' jackpot has hit record highs. It can even be seen in the example of those ordinary investors who lost their shirts in the 1990's heady stock boom and bust. And it was seen, and originates in the Gold Rush of the 19th century, says author and historian H.W. Brands in his book The Age of Gold.
America has always been a place of freedom, a lack of pretension, and thus of easier enrichment, in the eyes of many. But the traditional American dream and Puritanical work ethic held that…
When asked about their relationship with the county sheriff, the Pruetts were not surprised at Vague's comments, but insisted that the evidence they discovered was clear and suggested that the sheriff might be in on the whole conspiracy to keep information about aliens secret. Said Ms. Pruett, "That Vague has been sheriff for over 10 years and even though he hasn't caught a single alien, he keeps getting reelected. He must be in on the secret" (Bad Analogy). Mr. Pruett nodded in agreement and pointed out that, "We didn't have many alien sighting before Vague got elected sheriff but now we see them more and more. He's got to be part of it" (False Cause).
Attempts to gain access to Area 51 itself were unsuccessful, but this reporter managed to contact Airman James V. Fallacious at Nellis Air Force Base near Las Vegas who agreed to comment on the alleged…
If the U.S. armed forces are seeing an increasing number of servicemen and women being deployed for wartime responsibilities, why aren't these military personnel also seeing all of these aliens? If just makes sense that if they are seeing one thing, they should be seeing the other, too." Despite the Pruetts' intentions to contact the National Inquirer first, in a major scoop, this reporter managed to gain access to a copy of the picture of the aliens taken by the Pruetts which is reproduced for the first time in the national media here. National Inquirer, eat your heart out!
Picture of strangely clad aliens taken by Seymour G. And Selma Pruett, May 2, 2008 [Source: http://www.republicanvoices.org/mexican_immigrants.jpg].
The Pruett picture is proof positive that aliens are here today and they wear funny-looking clothes. Whether they mean us good or ill remains to be seen, but the Pruetts and countless other Americans have seen these aliens and it is time for the U.S. government to step up to the plate and admit that aliens are real and let the chips fall where they may.
religion in our age. The writer takes the reader on an exploratory journey through the current stresses of the world and the ways that religion helps us deal with that stress. It also explores our need to believe there is more after we leave this life. There were three sources used to complete this paper.
The Critical Importance of eligion in Our Age
Throughout history religion has played an important role in the lives of its followers. Whether it was the era in which the church had a hand in every aspect of the parishioners' lives, or in more modern times when the religious faith serves as a blueprint for how people live their lives, spiritual faith has remained strong. eligion remains an important aspect of this age as well. The world is faced with terrorist threats, worldwide famine, and snipers picking off innocent women and children. These things are…
July 14 -20, 2002
The Pledge of Allegiance
Paul V.M. Flesher
He exemplifies the expansion of the middle class and commercialism during the era. The book is a kind of inventive biography -- little is known for certain of hakespeare's life but Greenblatt uses the skeleton of hakespeare's plays to fill in details of common concerns of many figures of the period.
Long, William J. "The Elizabethan Age: 1550 -- 1620." From Outlines of English and American
Literature. April 4, 2009. http://www.djmcadam.com/elizabethan-age.html
This is an excerpt from a survey book on literature that is well-reputed in the field, although somewhat out of date. It examines the philosophy and history of the Elizabethan age and how it affected the literature of the period. It suggests the patriotic zeal and cultural vigor that resulted from the defeat of the Armada, scientific discoveries, and foreign travel and exploration were the reasons for the substantial literary output of this period's authors. It covers pencer, hakespeare,…
Shakespeare, William. "The Tragedy of Julius Caesar." From the Language of Literature.
Edited by Arthur N. Applebee. New York: McDougall Littell, 2006.
"Julius Caesar" is one of Shakespeare's 'Roman plays.' It reflects the Elizabethan reverence of the classical age. However, it also reveals anxieties over succession and usurpation of royal authority. It exemplifies the Elizabethan fascination with the supernatural's influence upon world events. And the contrast between Brutus' nobility and the political fallout from his assassination -- or political naivete in the face of Mark Anthony -- highlights Shakespeare's ambiguous characterization.
The Middle ages were quite fruitful in inventing a number of discoveries that include the invention of the wheels, the invention of the plow, the harnessing the power of animals to pull wagons and plows and make their use for transportation, using the power of wind for sailboats, and the invention of writing and calendar (Ashcroft et al., 1989). These innovations collectively transformed the conditions of life for societies in the middle ages. These innovations had great effect in increasing the wealth of the population and developing complex social organizations. Although all of the innovations mentioned above were important, the plow was considered as the greatest potential for transforming social and cultural change (Duerr et al., 1985). It made the use of the permanent cultivation possible in a greater variety of soils, and thereby led to the widespread replacement of horticulture by agriculture. It also facilitated the harnessing…
1. Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin, The Empire writes Back. Theory and Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures. London, New York 1989.
2. Duerr, Hans Peter, Dreamtime. Concerning the boundary between wilderness and civilisation. Translated by Felicitas Goodman. Oxfod: Basil Blackwell 1985
3. Eckholm, Erik, "Two greybeards race against time to preserve a culture that few people can understand." In: The Sunday Independent, Johannesburg, 16.1.2000, p.12.
4. Fabian, Johannes, Time and the Other. How Anthropology makes its Object. New York: Columbia University Press 1983.
The age of the universe
A good way of estimating the age of the universe is dating the oldest objects in the Milky Way Galaxy. Being that the age of the universe varies directly with the Hubble constant, the cosmological constant and the average density of the universe, the direct estimate of the age of the universe can be used to define cosmological models. The metal-poor stars found within the spherical halo of the Milky Way are some of the oldest objects in the universe. As we speak, there are three main methods used to date the stars. These are nucleochronology, main sequence turn-off gases and white dwarf cooling curves. This paper seeks to outline the age of the universe, the technologies related to this field, and the astronomical importance.
NASA used their Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy probe in 2012 to estimate the age of the universe as 13.772 billion years.…
To that end, throughout the course of his life "he remained convinced that the drug had the potential to counter the psychological problems induced by 'materialism, alienation from nature through industrialisation and increasing urbanisation, lack of satisfaction in professional employment in a mechanised, lifeless working world, ennui and purposelessness in wealthy, saturated society, and lack of a religious, nurturing, and meaningful philosophical foundation of life'." (Telegraph, 1) To Hofmann's view, many of the psychological problems associated with the detachment imposed by modernity could be addressed by guided use of a substance that caused reflection, insight and self-awareness otherwise largely inaccessible.
It was through what was for Hofmann an unwanted combination of premature commercialization and the proliferation which this allowed into the underground market that would cause LSD to earn its dubious reputation and its relationship to recreational rather than psychiatric users. Accordingly, Sandoz would immediately jump on the opportunity to…
Hofmann, A. (1979). LSD-My Problem Child. MAPS.
Hofmann, A.; Wasson, R.G.; Ruck, C.A.P.; Smith, H. & Webster, P. (2008). The Road to Eleusis: Unveiling the Secrete of the Mysteries: 30th Anniversary. North Atlantic Books.
Hofmann Foundation (HF). (1999). The Albert Hofmann Foundation. Hofmann.org.
Nosowitz, D. (2009). LSD Creator Albert Hofmann to Steve Jobs: 'How Was LSD Useful To You?" Gizmodo. Online at http://gizmodo.com/5310549/lsd-creator-albert-hofmann-to-steve-jobs-how-was-lsd-useful-to-you
Again, we see a strong, confident woman in Janie. She is also mature. Hattenhauer maintains that we can see this in they way Janie understands certain truths about life. She states that the "tragic truth, Janie has learned, is something no one could have told her, and something she cannot tell anyone" (Hattenhauer). hile Janie may be in denial of her immediate death, it is clear that she knows it will come to her sooner or later. hen she tells Phoeby that so many individuals never see the light at all, we know that "she sees the light at last: her fate is to wait and see if God's will is to take her life" (Hattenhauer). This is proof that Janie has emerged a strong, independent woman.
Their Eyes ere atching God is a glorious and painful story of one woman's discovery of her own voice. Janie evolves as a…
Hattenhauer, Darryl. "The Death of Janie Crawford: Tragedy and the American Dream in 'Their Eyes Were Watching God.'" GALE Resource Database. Site Accessed April 05, 2008.
Hurston, Zora Neale. Their Eyes Were Watching God. New York: Harper Collins Publishers. 1998.
Soon after, an Aztec general murders several Spaniards from Cortez's band and prove that Cortez and his companions are frauds. Cortez takes Montezuma prisoner and compels him in surrendering the entire empire. The Aztec people choose to disobey their master and than kill Montezuma after he attempts to calm the spirits of the rebellion.
Hearing the news of Cortez's success in Mexico, Velasquez sends an army to arrest the deserter, but most of the men sent to capture Cortez join him after a clash between Cortez's forces and Velasquez's men.
Following several days of skirmish, Cortez enters the capital of the Aztecs once again, with the cost of thousands of lives of native people. After two years of attacks from the Spaniards and their allies, on the 13th of August, 1521, the Aztec king of Guatemoc surrenders his country before Hernan Cortez.
For the following seven years, Cortez remained in…
Marc Ferro, Colonization: A Global History [book online] (London: Routledge, 1997, accessed 11 November 2008), 114; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109075460;Internet .
Schmal, John P. 2004. The RISE of the AZTEC EMPIRE. Houston Institute for Culture. Available from Internet, http://www.houstonculture.org/mexico/aztecs.html , accesed 10 November, 2008.
William H. Prescott, History of the Conquest of Mexico, ed. Kirk, John Foster, Revised ed. [book online] (Philadelphia J.B. Lippincott, 1891, accessed 11 November 2008), 4; available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9012160;Internet .
Cortes, Hernan: Introduction." Literary Criticism (1400-1800). Ed. Jennifer Allison Brostrom. Vol. 31. 1, 1996. eNotes.com. 2006. http://www.enotes.com/literary-criticism / cortes-hernan, accessed 10, November, 2008
As they share a common bond in the underlying struggles and challenges that they are wrestling with. This is significant, because it shows how the ice age would force people to work together, to overcome the various weather related issues that are having an impact upon their lives. ("Paleolithic")
The use of various types of tools / technology would change the way humans would live their lives. This is because, the ice age would force everyone to utilize new survival techniques that were often not focused on. Prior to the ice age, most humans were considered to be hunter and gathers. This meant that they would often rely on killing various types of animals, as their way of providing food and clothing for themselves. At the same time, humans would often gather various fruits and berries to consume. Once the ice age began this would all change, as the total…
"Amblin to Alaska." Why Files, n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2010
"Ice Ages." Science Clarified, 2010. Web. 16 Nov. 2010
"Paleotlithic." Wikipedia, n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2010
Frith, Naill. "Humans Survived the Ice Age by Sheltering. Daily Mail, 2010. Web. 16 Nov. 2010.
A significant amount of the early cross-sectional studies with the DI examined the developmental indexes of age and education (Rest, et al., 1999). Based on this prior research resulting in 5,714 participants, Rest (1979) reported that the typical DI score increases every time the level of education increases. In fact the author concluded that Moral judgment was more highly correlated to education than was age. As such, with prior research as a foundation involving large samples of adults, it is logical to anticipate that DI P scores will be drastically and completely linked to education.
In their study, Rest et al. (1997) studied moral judgment by comparing a composite sample of 992 students at different education levels. hese education levels included junior high, senior high, and college students in the United States and indicated that education is positively correlated with DI scores.
Additionally Bay (2001) conducted a study involving 45…
Taking from Maharishi Vedic Science, the Unified Field chart described above asserts that because pure consciousness, the home of all the Laws of Nature, is the most fundamental level of all material creation, including human psychology development, the integration of pure consciousness into all aspects of the individual should maintain the moral development. This phenomenon is confirmed in previous research studies on the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs. This section describes another chart, called a Richo Akshare chart, which provides further illumination of this phenomenon.
In Maharishi Vedic Science, Richo Akshare charts show how the essence of all the disciplines of modern science are located within the structure of the Richo Akshare verse of Rk Veda. Maharishi (1995) explains that the fundamental Laws of Nature comming from the self-interacting dynamics of consciousness are accountable for the whole material creation.
According to Maharishi (1997), the Richo Akshare verse explains that all knowledge exists in Transcendental Consciousness, the Unified Field of all the Laws of Nature, responsible for everything in the universe. Individuals who lack access to Transcendental Consciousness do not get support from the Laws of Nature. Those who can practice Transcendental Consciousness gain enlightenment and full supported by Nature Law.
distinguishes the Renaissance from the Middle Ages lies in the sociological movements that defines each era. While there are certainly differences in almost every aspect of life - from art to theology - the two eras share common ground in that without one, there would not exist the other.
The era of feudalism that dominated the Middle Ages formed civilizations, communities and bonded like-minded families together. Territorial boundaries were drawn and each nation began creating it's own identity. Identities that were largely dependent upon location which determined agricultural capabilities, architecture, religion, and to some extent, leadership structure.
From this sense of community and working for the good of the people and the government that oversees that community, came the individuality and the humanistic values that dominated the Renaissance. With roots well-planted and generations of families growing up in the same house, in the same country, doing the same thing their…
It also widened her female audience much further than the small group of upper-class women with whom she was acquainted (ibid).
Overall, this work represented Lanyer as a complex writer who possessed significant artistic ambition and "who like other women of the age wrote not insincerely on devotional themes to sanction more controversial explorations of gender and social relations" (Miller 360).
In her work, Lanyer issued a call to political action by noting several Old Testament women who changed the course of ancient Jewish history through their bravery, humor and valor, and she recalled the favor Christ demonstrated to women in a variety of actions and by electing them as custodians of his salvational message (ibid 362). The story covered Christ's betrayal by male apostles, the arraignment before male authorities to whom Lanyer addressed complaints, and the account of Christ's procession to Calvary, the crucifixion and the drama of the…
Barish, Jonas. Ben Jonson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1963.
Braun, Lily, and Meyer, Alfred. Selected Writings on Feminism and Socialism. Gary: Indiana University Press, 1987.
Castiglione, Baldassare. "The Courtier." In Three Renaissance Classics. NY: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953, 242-624
De Vroom, Theresia. Female Heroism in Thomas Heywood's Tragic Farce of Adultery. NY: Palgrave, 2002.
noble savage..." etc.
The Noble, Savage Age of Revolution
When Europeans first came to America, they discovered that their providentially discovered "New World" was already inhabited by millions of native peoples they casually labeled the "savages." In time, Europeans would decimate this population, killing between 95-99% of the 12 million plus inhabitants of the Northern Continent, and as many in the south. efore this genocide was complete, however, the culture of the natives would significantly influence the philosophy and politics of the nations that conquered them. The native societies, with their egalitarian social structures, natural absence of disease, communal sharing of resources, and their lifestyles in which work was easily balanced with art and play, seemed like something Europeans had lost when Adam and Eve left Eden. "Native societies, especially in America, reminded Europeans of imagined golden worlds known to them only in folk history. . . Created of European…
Grinder, Donald & Johansen, Bruce. Exemplar of Liberty: Native America and the Evolution of Democracy, 7th draft. Los Angeles: UCLA, 1990. [nonpaginated ebook available from: http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/EoL/index.html#ToC ]
Johansen, Bruce. Forgotten Founders: Benjamin Franklin, the Iroquois and the Rationale for the American Revolution. Boston: Harvard Common Press, 1982. [nonpaginated ebook format from: http://www.ratical.org/many_worlds/6Nations/FF.txt ]
computer forensic offense. ecommendations for investigation will be addressed. Further, an example of an industrial espionage case will be cited.
This lawsuit entailed contract violation cross-claims, with the dispute between the two parties chiefly revolving around events that had transpired during the latter half of 1998. esidential Funding Corporation (FC) was requested to salvage and present related emails dated from October to December 1998, from its backup drives. The corporation's internal legal consultant discovered that the company didn't possess requisite internal resources for email retrieval from backup source in the time period allowed. Therefore, the company retained Electronic Evidence Discovery's services, for support with email retrieval. Many weeks into employing established recovery techniques, the corporation was able to present a total of 126 emails (dated between January and August 1998) as well as 2 emails dated September of the same year (Computer Forensic - Computer Forensic Case Studies…
(n.d.). Computer Forensics Services & Electronic Discovery by ACE Data Group . Computer Forensic - Computer Forensic Case Studies -- ACE Data Group. Retrieved December 16, 2015, from http://legalforensics.com/case-studies.html
(n.d.). Electronic Discovery Law -- Legal issues, news and best practices relating to the discovery of electronically stored information. Court has Broad Discretion to Fashion Sanctions for Breach of Discovery Obligations -- Electronic Discovery Law. Retrieved December 16, 2015, from http://www.ediscoverylaw.com/2004/12/court-has-broad-discretion-to-fashion-sanctions-for-breach-of-discovery-obligations/
Country combines a coming of age story with personal insights into the psychological effects of war. Haunted by her father's and uncle's experiences in Vietnam, seventeen-year-old Sam Hughes continually seeks to understand and to make real the facts surrounding her father's death. Set during the crucial summer after high school graduation, Bobbie Ann Mason's novel traces the development of its protagonist over a relatively short period of time, but offers great character insight. As her nickname suggests, Sam is a tomboyish, spunky teen who both acts and feels older than her chronological age. One of her closest friends and confidants is her veteran uncle, who she suspects suffers from Agent Orange. Sam's concerns about Emmett's health border on the obsessive, but her attempts to unearth the past equal a deeper investigation into her father. Because he died before she was born, and not much older than Sam herself, Dwayne Hughes…
However, there simply does not seem to be sufficient evidence for the disease hypothesis. First, there has been no evidence of disease found. Next, even extremely virulent diseases, like the plague or West Nile Virus, do not have the kill rates necessary to cause the extinction of an entire species. In addition, one has to realize that the extinction of large mammals coincided with the extinction of other animals, like birds, marsupials, placentals, testudines, and crocodilians. It is unlikely that a disease would be lethal in such a wide-variety of animal populations, especially when it did not destroy all species of certain animal genus.
The final theory is that a meteor killed the large mammals. There is evidence that meteor impacts caused earlier extinctions like the Permian-Triassic extinction and the extinction of the dinosaurs. Meteor impacts can interfere with food sources, because the resulting dust in the air interferes with…
unlike the way the 'race for the moon' became the driving force of American scientific exploration during the 1950's and 1960's, the race to control the trade routes to the far reaches of the globe and to expand its technological knowledge of navigation became the driving force of Spanish foreign and domestic policy during the period of world history from the 15th to the 17th centuries. This period is also commonly called "The Age of Discovery" by European historians. The economic impact of Spain's forays into the New orld or worlds ultimately changed the face of European knowledge of the world and the economic structure of Europe. Both the residents of Spain and Europe as a whole, however, experienced both positive and negative effects of this exploration. However, the effects upon Europe were on the whole largely beneficial, because of the increased exposure to new goods and the expansion of…
The Age of Discovery. http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Flats/3795/port2.htm. Website Accessed June 20, 2002.
American Spice Trade Organization -- The Age of Discovery. http://www.astaspice.org/history/history_04.htm . Web site Accessed June 20, 2002.
Learning Network: Exploration -- The European 'Age of Discovery'
http://ad.doubleclick.net/adi/ln.infoplease/;!category=xmain;ch=world;site=www.infoplease.com;test=no;pos=pop;slot=1;sz=1x1;tile=1;ord=1024585600 . Website Accessed June 20, 2002.
ichter and Gardiner in Bach's Canata ecordings
The Baroque was a style expressed in art, music, architecture and even literature from the Age of Discovery in the 16th century until the early 18th century. Most describe it as more dramatic, florid, embellished and a move away from the total religiosity of the Middle Ages and into a more secular and emotional, time frame. However, the spread of the Baroque in music, art and architecture was certainly tied to the spread of Catholicism and how art was used in the Church to help express emotion and tell the Biblical stories through painting or music for those not literate. Later in the era, the idea of music and art being reflective of religiosity became even more important with the split between Catholics and Protestants. Just like the philosophical materials that arose, the Baroque in music tending to use the past as a…
Cantata BWV4. (2008). Bach Cantatas Website. Retrieved from: http://www.bach-
Buelow, G., ed. (2004). A History of Baroque Music. Bloomington, IN: University of Indiana
Charles Van Doren has concluded that the Copernican Revolution is actually the Galilean Revolution because of the scale of change introduced by Galileo's work.
The technological innovation of the Renaissance era started with the invention of the printing press (the Renaissance). Even though the printing press, a mechanical device for printing multiple copies of a text on sheets of paper, was first invented in China, it was reinvented in the West by a German goldsmith and eventual printer, Johann Gutenberg, in the 1450s. Before Gutenberg's invention, each part of metal type for printing presses had to be individually engraved by hand. Gutenberg developed molds that permitted for the mass production of individual pieces of metal type. This permitted a widespread use of movable type, where each character is a separate block, in mirror image, and these blocks are assembled into a frame to form text. Because of his molds, a…
religion on world events cannot, and should not be underestimated in its importance in dictating the events of history. The Protestant eformation is one such historic event or epoch that seemingly altered the way religion and society intermixed. The 16th century was a time of revolution and revolt and this modification of the church helped exposed many of the problems that the church had in maintaining a control over its subjects.
A the time shortly before Martin Luther's edict of worms, many were having problems with the Catholic church and an opportunity for a new sect to break off was ripe. The main problem with the church at this time was its ineffectiveness in dealing with personal salvation. The pomp and bloviated rituals apparently had lost their folk values and growing numbers were despondent and unsatisfied with the Catholic church's stance on many issues.
The main issue with the Catholic…
Arnold, J. (1999). The Causes and Results of the Reformation. IIIM Magazine Online, 1,2, 14 Mar 1999. Retrieved from http://old.thirdmill.org/newfiles/jac_arnold/CH.Arnold.RMT.2.html
Goetzmann, W.H. (1995). New lands, new men: America and the second great age of discovery. Texas State Historical Association.
Kreis, S. (2009). The Protestant Reformation. The History Guide, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.historyguide.org/earlymod/lecture3c.html
Manteufel, T. (1994). Churches in America. Concordia Publishing House 1994.
This is an important historical communication, noted seventy years after Vespucci's discovery. Columbus indeed landed in the est Indies (San Salvador in the Bahamas), and on Gutierrez' map the cartographer wrote: "This fourth part of the world remained unknown to all geographers until the year 1497, at which time it was discovered by Americus Vespusius serving the King of Castile, whereupon it also obtained a name from the discoverer."
Hieronymus Cock, a Flemish artist, engraved the map in a collaborative effort with Gutierrez, Hebert explains; in fact Cock is believed to be one of the "most important engravers and printmakers in Europe in the sixteenth century."
Maps not only communicated important information - and still do - but, according to an article in the journal Americas, they are witnesses. Authors J.B. Harley and D. oodward write that maps "...may be called the light or eye of history" (the quote they…
Casa de Contratacion (2005). La Casa de Contratacion (the House of Trade), Retrieved May 26, 2007 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casa_de_la_contracion .
Harley, J.B., & Woodward, D. (1991). An alternative route to mapping history. Americas, 43(5),
Hebert, John R. (2002). The 1562 Map of America by Diego Gutierrez, Library of Congress,
Retrieved May 25, 2007, at http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/gutierrz.html .
Dr. David Livingstone seemed to epitomize this view, "These privations, I beg you to observe, are not sacrifices. I think that word ought never to be mentioned in reference to anything we can do for Him….Can that be a sacrifice which is simply paid back as a small part of a great debt owing to our God, which we can never repay… it is a privilege."
With this attitude of sacrifice for the greater glory, and it was certainly that for many who endured pain, pestilence, disease, hunger and bodily harm, also came a certain attitude about modernizing and bringing the native populations into the modern world through Christ. In places as diverse as Hawaii, the Philippines, central Africa, and even the Muslim world, these well-meaning missionaries invariable also brought with them cultural baggage and xenophobia. While wishing to save the population from the fires of Hell through Christianity, there…
Smith, E. (1834). Missionary Researches in Armenia: Including a Journey Through Asia Minor. London, J.S. Hudson. Cited in: http://books.google.com/books?id=-c0NAAAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Eli+Smith&hl=en&ei=e0Y9TN3FG4rCsAP3xLjaCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CFYQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q&f=false
Hallote, 2006, p.12.
Williams, J. (1999). The Times of Edward Robinson: Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature.
The British Empire gained significant land share within North America through its conquests and emigration. From the founding of Jamestown to the growth of the greater New England region, the North American territories represented a significant portion of the British Empire. Following the Seven Years War, England won the entire territory of New France and doubled the territory possession within North America. Although from a trade perspective North America was not the furtive economic zone that Britain originally envisioned, it did become a several exporter of tobacco, cotton and rice to the British Empire, as well as naval material and furs from the northern region. The American Revolution affected the British Empire in several different ways, it proved to be a symbolic blow the largest empire of the European Continent, and it provided a model for liberation and freedom throughout the rest of the colonial territories. The American Revolution occurred…
Spices Tea impacted global trade. eference Book: A History World Societies, Eighth Edition, Volume 1 by: McKay, Hill, Buckler, Ebrey, Beck, Crowston, & Wiesner-Hanks
Discuss why and how spices and tea impacted global trade
Given the fact that almost every person in the developed world today has coffee, tea, and spices in his or her pantry, the obsession with travel to the Near East to obtain such spices and beverages during the Age of Discovery seems mysterious in retrospect. While the desire to find gold and silver was also a factor, "most of the explorers had the immediate task of finding a direct route to India and the Far East in order to obtain spices such as pepper, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger and cloves. There are over 250 varieties of spices native to the East" (Lecture 2: The age of discovery, 2012, History Guide). Finding spices was difficult because of the…
Farrington (2002). Trading places: The East India Company and Asia. British Library.
Lecture 2: The age of discovery. (2012). History Guide. Retrieved:
The term "enaissance" means "to be reborn," or "rebirth," and as a cultural movement in Europe, the enaissance is generally accepted to have begun in Florence Italy in the late 13th century. Some claim that it was the result of the fall of Constantinople and the many Greek scholars and texts which found their way to Italy soon after bringing with them not only the knowledge of the classical world, but the new Islamic knowledge that was derived from it. This influx on knowledge started a cultural revival which sought to recapture the glorious past of the classical world, but soon exploded into the creation of an entirely new cultural identity based on the classical past but transformed into something completely unique. The ideas of the enaissance spread throughout Europe completely transforming European nations artistically, economically, politically, socially, technologically, and in virtually every other aspect of culture. One can…
Gundersheinmer, Werner. (1993). The Italian Renaissance. Canada: Renaissance
Society of America. Print.
Saliba, George, (2007). Islamic Science and the Making of the European
Renaissance. Massachusetts; Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Print.
Thomas Bender is qualified in telling the story of America as he sees it given that he is a professor of history, the University Professor of Humanities, and director of the International Center for Advanced Studies at New York University. He is also the author and editor of many books, has been awarded prizes and scholarships, and is a renowned historian of American culture. In this way, well acquainted with the history of America, he is able to critically asses the fashion of its narration as well as recommend the way that it should be told, and its narration, he informs, us does not cohere to the way that American history actually occurred in reality.
According to Bender, we are apt to view American history as autonomous and independent events that signaled the rise of an autonomous and independent nation, but the country's history, he tells us, is really part…
Oracle Bone Script and Modern Design
In today's domain of alphabetic scripts, the Chinese system of writing is a one-of-a-kind phenomenon. ather than using a number of letters, the Chinese have come up with several thousand complicated characters or signs denoting words and morphemes. The Japanese, Korean and other similar writing systems, despite having a few characters in common with the Chinese characters, are able to work completely as solely phonetic scripts. Further, though the Chinese writing system isn't the lone-surviving logographic scripttoday, it is definitely the only such script that functions as the principal script for several hundred million individuals. The earliest recognizable Chinese writings can be traced back 3,500 years; however, there are several historians who contend that the script is actually much older. Irrespective of its true age, the language has undergone considerable evolution with time, but continues to maintain its archaic core, thus becoming one among…
Aylmer, C. (1981). Origins of the Chinese Script. London.
Beyond calligraphy. (2016, November). Oracle Bone Script- Part 1. Retrieved from beyondcalligraphy.com: http://www.beyondcalligraphy.com/oracle_bone_script.html
Cambridge University Library. (2016, November). Chinese Oracle Bones. Retrieved from Cambridge University Library: http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk/mulu/oracle.html
Chalfant, F. (1939). The Hopkins Collection of Inscribed Oracle Bone. New York.
According to Henry a. Millon, the sparkling gaiety of this style "was cultivated by a new age associated with the regency that followed upon the death of Louis XIV and then with the reign of Louis XV," meaning that these two French kings and their opulent lifestyles highly influenced the art that came about during the beginning and middle years of the 18th century in Europe (156).
Essentially, the Rococo is an interior style or, in other words, pertains mostly to the decoration of objects designed for the interior of palaces and royal residencies. As compared to the art of the aroque Era, that of the Rococo style is far removed from religious and national influences. Architecturally, one of the best examples of the Rococo style can be found in the Rococo room of the Salon de la Princesse at the Hotel de Soubise in Paris, decorated by Germain offrand…
Millon, Henry a. Baroque and Rococo Architecture and Art. New York: Doubleday, 1975.
Tapie, Victor L. The Age of Grandeur: Baroque Art and Architecture. New York: Phadeon Books, 1966.
Nathaniel's Nutmeg: The True and Incredible Adventures of the Spice Trader who Changed the Course of History" by Giles Milton. Specifically, it will discuss the main theme of the book. The world was a different and much more profitable place after spices were discovered in the East, and spices changed Europe especially. Spices encouraged exploration, created vast fortunes, encouraged European colonization on far away shores, and changed global trade forever. The world could not live without spice, and spice created a new world.
Spices were an important part of living in medieval Europe. They were said to have medicinal properties, and they were used in many recipes. However, they were expensive, and Venice owned a monopoly on their trade. The author notes, "spices had become so popular that demand had long since outstripped supply" (Milton 21). The Portuguese initially had a stronghold on the Spice Islands in Indonesia, but before…
Milton, Giles. Nathaniel's Nutmeg: The True and Incredible Adventures of the Spice Trader who Changed the Course of History. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1999.
Who was Columbus?
This essay attempts to answer the question, "Who was Columbus?" through a comparative analysis of documents discussing the historical context in which Christopher Columbus and his discovery of the "New World" (or Americas) were analyzed. The following discussion argues that Columbus is portrayed differently by different sectors of the society, but is primarily elucidated by members of the scholarly community of early American history. The documents discussed in this paper are Timothy Foote's "Where Columbus Was Coming From" and Joel Achenbach's "Debating Columbus in a New World."
Foote's historical analysis puts Columbus' character in the context of socio-historical changes and dynamics happening in Europe during his (Columbus') time. The author puts into background the development of the Renaissance period and the Dark Ages, two vital events in the history of Western civilization that ultimately determined the kind of society European nations are during these periods.…
Jean Francoise De La Perouse
'Life in a California Mission" by Francois de Laperouse
In the document "Life in a California Mission," navigator and explorer Jean Francois de Laperouse provided a European's insight into the lives of Native Americans during the 18th century. This period marked the influx of explorations in various regions and continents of the world by European explorers/colonizers. Known as the "Age of Discovery," 18th century was a period of discovering the unknown cultures, societies, and peoples that dominate the unexplored territories of the world. In "Life," Laperouse provided an account of his observations and judgment about the Native Americans, as his party set out to create a new colony in the northern territory which would be known as the "New World."
Laperouse's narrative offered an interesting viewpoint about the lives of the Natives of the Americas. Far from depicting the Natives as savages and devoid of…
English military to the year 1688. In order to undertsand the history of the English military, we must first examine the history opf England itself. The military has always been beholden to political and cultural factors and several developments in technology have changed the face of warfare and, by extension, the development of the military.
In the year 1688, King James II was forcibly removed from power and replaced by William of Orange. James II was a Catholic, and determined to reinstate Catholicism in England. After the birth of James' son and heir, a party of elder statesmen officially invited William of Orange, a Protestant, to come to England with a conquering army to save the kingdom from the Catholic rule of James II. This was known as the Glorious Revolution.
efore we can examine the history of the English military, we must examine the roots of England…
Ashley, Mike. 2002. A Brief History of British Kings and Queens. New York: Carrol and Graf Publishers.
Black, Jeremy. 2000. A New History of Britain. Gloucestershire: Sutton Publishing.
Fry, Plantagenet Somerset. 1990. The Kings and Queens of England and Scotland. New York: Grove Weidenfeld.
Grun, Bernard. 1991. The Timetables of History. New York: Simon and Schuster/Touchstone.
Clothing and Culture
Clothing, in the modern definition, is considered to be fiber or textiles that are worn on humans, and one of the anthropological features of human culture and society. The type (color, style, fit) of clothing is typically dependent upon a number of variables -- geography, weather, gender, status, physical state, work activities, and even status symbols. From a practical standpoint, clothing serves as protection from external weather, or for safety reasons (constructing, cooking, hiking, sports); it may protect the wearer from flora and fauna (nettles, bites, thorns); it may insulate against hot or cold conditions; and may even provide a hygienic barrier. Often, studying the aspects of clothing and society tells scholars a great deal about the particular culture -- not just in external appearance but in the technology of textile production, weaving, and adornment (oucher & Deslandres, 1989).
Evolution of Clothing Styles: Scholars are uncertain as…
Blum, S. (Ed.). (1982). Eighteenth-Century French Fashion Plates. New York: Dover Publications.
Boucher, F., & Deslandres, Y. (1989). 20,000 Years of Fashion. New York and London: H.N. Abrams.
Delpierre, M. (1997). Dress in France in the 18th Century. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Doyle, W. (2001). The Ancien Regime. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
My views tend to classify modern societies first by their political system: socialist, democratic, representative, totalitarian, and then move more into demographics and psychographics.
1.2 Political Quarrels -Describe, in a 250-300-word post, one of the quarrels faced by the Britons or the French. Analyze the role of that country's history, geography, political institutions, and its culture in relation to the quarrel.
For centuries, Britain and France have been at odds with one another. This likely goes back to Medieval times, then progressed through the Age of Discovery, claims to colonies -- especially in the new world, and the age old rights to economic development of Europe and the oceans. Historically, in 1066 the Duke of Normandy led and invasion of England, defeating the English at the battle of Hastings. William, the Duke, had himself crowned King of England, but remained a vassal of the French King, which became humiliating to…
Roskin, M. (2008). Countries and Concepts: Politics, Geography, Culture. New York:
In histoy, in most of the Indian families, the inheitance of the estates of the family is left to the lineage of males in the family. Though since the yea 1956, the law in India has always teated females and males as equals in mattes of inheitance whee thee is no legal will witten. Cuently, Indians have become wise and ae using legal wills fo the inheitance and succession of popety. The usage of legal wills at of the yea 2004 stands at about 20%.
The ate of divoce in India is extemely low. It stands at 1% as compaed to 40% which is expeienced in the U.S. These statistics of divoce do not, howeve, give a complete pictue of the divoce situation in India. This is because many maiages that end up being split do so without a fomal divoce. Thee is a eseach gap in the scientific studies…
references. [Article]. Journal of Food Science, 69(4), SNQ191-SNQ192. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2004.tb06362.x
Johnson, H. (2007). 'Happy Diwali!' Performance, Multicultural Soundscapes and Intervention in Aotearoa/New Zealand. [Article]. Ethnomusicology Forum, 16(1), 71-94. doi: 10.1080/17411910701276526
Kurien, P.A. (2006). Multiculturalism and "American" Religion: The Case of Hindu Indian-Americans. Social Forces, 85(2), 723-741.
Mandair, a. (2007). Interdictions: Language, Religion & the (dis)Orders of Indian Identity. [Article]. Social Identities, 13(3), 337-361. doi: 10.1080/13504630701363978
Mintz, S.W., & Bois, C.M.D. (2002). The Anthropology of Food and Eating. Annual Review of Anthropology, 31(ArticleType: research-article / Full publication date: 2002 / Copyright © 2002 Annual Reviews), 99-119.
All too often, the human stories of how and why certain people get involved in such rings are avoided. Tobon looked past this, and has become a valuable person to the Colombian community. The police even call him now, when they find the body of a mule. One way in which to deprive criminals of their unsuspecting dupes is by eliminating backbreaking poverty, by giving individuals a chance to pull themselves up by the bootstraps without having to resort to illegal measures. In the meantime, mules are a different sort of criminal than the ringleaders of these drug trafficking organizations, and so therefore ought to be tried in a court of law differently.
1. PBS (2009). The Border
Accompanying website Last accessed March 2010: http://www.pbs.org/kpbs/theborder/
2. -. Drug Trafficking in the United States DEA Fact Sheet.
Last accessed April 2010: http://www.justice.gov/dea/pubs/state_factsheets.html
3. Altschuler, David & Brounstein, Paul. (1992) Patterns of…
6. Sesin, Carmen. (2004, May 25). Caring for 'drug mules' who perish on the job. MSNBC.
Last accessed March 2010: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5050399/
But you can substitute the myth with the authentic, amazing, wonderful truth. n the end, think the truth would make a far better movie."
Bonanos, C. "Did Pirates Really Say 'Arr'?" Slate Publications. Cited in:
Defoe, D.A General History of the Pyrates. Dover Books, 1999.
McGinnis, R. "The Real Life and Fictional Characters Who inspired J.M. Barre's
Captain Hook." Literary Traveler, 2008. Cited in:
Cordingly, David. Cited in: http://www.davidcordingly.com
____. Under the Black Flag: The Romance and the Reality of Life Among the Pirates. Harvest Books, 1997.
Johnson, C. Pirates: A General History of the Robberies and Murders of the Most
Notorious Pirates. Conway Maritime Press, 2008.
Leeson, P. "An Arrghchy: The Law and Economics of Pirate Organizations."
Journal of Political Economy. 115 no 6 (2007): 1049.
Ossian, R. (n.d.) "Book Review: A General History of the Pyrates." Cited in:
Pennell, C.R. Bandits at Sea: A…
Ibid, 11-14, 97-99, 206. See also Cindy Vallar, "Pirate Treasure." Pirates and Privateers -- the History of Maritime Piracy. n.d. Cited in: http://www.cindyvallar.com/treasure.html
Therefore, dramatic as they were in their own right, the revolutionary changes represented by the Renaissance, the Industrial Revolution, and various wars of independence would likely have transpired, even if at different times and perhaps in different places, had they not occurred when and where they did. Other events, such as the Cold ar, were more important because of events they may have prevented, rather than because of their independent significance in and of themselves.
orld ar I was the first mechanized war in which methods of human destruction
accounted for tens of thousands of battlefield casualties in a single engagement, ultimately accounting for more than 10 million dead after four years of war, in addition to untold human suffering among displaced civilians.4 However, as dramatic as it was, orld ar I never really threatened to change the world beyond the European continent, and despite wartime deprivation among civilians and…
Miller, D.L., Commager, H.S. (2002) the Story of World War II. New York: Touchstone
Nevins, J., Commager, H.S. (1992) a Pocket History of the United States.
New York: Pocket Books
So, too, must Emperor K'ang Hsi have the same issues of balance, and the idea of what would be his legacy. In a bit of humor, he says, "How many white-haired emperors have there been in the past? If my hair and whiskers whiten, won't that be a splendid tale for later generations?
We also tend to think of the Chinese, particularly historically, as rather unemotional and rigid in their thinking. Whether this is from the popular media and our own innate prejudices or not, or whether the previous translations of materials from the European Age of Discovery (1550 onward) are biased, I was amazed at the openness and flexibility that this Emperor had. Some of his ideas, in fact, seemed very similar to the entire debate that was boiling in Europe during the Enlightenment. How can a State be supportive of its citizens without taxation? But how can taxation…
Portugal 16th Century to Present
Portugal: 16th Century to Present
Portugal: 16th Century to Present
Portugal is a country a part of the continent of Europe. It is on the western coast of Europe sharing a boundary with Spain and the Atlantic Ocean. Portugal's independence and king (now there is a president and a prime minister) received formal recognition since the 12th century AD. The language is Portuguese and the people identify as Portuguese or of the Portuguese epublic (epublica Portuguesa). It is a mostly Catholic country and with mostly female citizens. There are nearly 11 million people living in Portugal according to the Central Intelligence Agency (2012). The capital city is Lisbon and most of the population lives in urban areas rather than rural areas. There are archipelagos, Azores, and Madeira, which are additionally a part of Portugal. The paper will provide insight into the country of Portugal,…
Central Intelligence Agency. (2012). Portugal. Available from: https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/po.html . 2012 August 01.
Facts About. (2012) Portugal History and Timeline & Facts. Available from: http://www.facts-about.org.uk/history-and-events-timeline-portugal.htm . 2012 August 07.
HistoryWorld. (2012). History of Portugal. Available from: http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ab46 . 2012 August 04.
Migration Policy Institute. (2002). Portugal Seeks Balance of Emigration, Immigration. Available from: http://www.migrationinformation.org/feature/display.cfm?ID=77 . 2012 August 05.
Political and eligious Boundaries
Byzantium historically was the eastern side of the oman Empire that was the result of the religious, political and cultural schism that occurred between East and West in the 2nd Century AD. The city of Byzantium, or Constantinople, was located in a major strategic trading area between the Adriatic, Black and Mediterranean Seas. As the Western oman Empire declined, the "New ome," or Constantinople, became a blend of cultures and viable for about a millennium. Most scholars agree that it was the only long-term stable state in Europe that protected most of Western Europe from the emerging Islamic Empire. It was the most advanced economy in the Mediterranean area until the enaissance, with trading networks that extended through most of Eurasia and North Africa, as well as the beginning of the Silk oad. Without this economic power, it is unlikely that there would have been funding…
Dursteler, E. (2006). Venetians in Constantinople: Nation, Identity, and Coexistence in the Early Modern Mediterranean. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Jacoby, D. (2007). Review of Venetians in Constantinople. The Sixteenth Century Journal. 38 (4): 1156-7.
King, M. (2007). Review of Venetians in Constantinople. Renaissance Quarterly. 60 (1): 155-6.
See: Diamond, J. (2011). Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed: Revised. New York: Penguin Books; Huntington, S. (2011). Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon and Schuster.
History Through eligion
How can we, as Christians who believe in the inerrancy of the Bible, interact with historians who believe in the theory of evolution? How can Christian teachers, teaching in secular public schools, present the truth without causing offense? Is it possible to do so?
Many people hold that prior to the Origin of Species by Chares Darwin in 1859; Christians believed that the world was created in six days. They believed that the earth was relatively new and that it was only a few thousand years old. Prior to the theory of Origin of Species, Christians had increasingly believed that the earth was several hundred years old. There is yet another fallacy to the effect that the arrival of Darwin's theory of evolution triggered science and theology to differ publicly regarding the origin of the earth. Contrary to popular belief, historical evidence shows that the earliest supporters…
Gills, Barry K., and William R. Thompson. Globalization and Global History. London:
Chronology & Periodization in History. Accessed May 16, 2016.
The growing dominance of the bourgeois class and the growing economic discontent in the society combined to create the atmosphere of dissatisfaction and conflict that eventually led to the development and declaration of the French Revolution.
King Louis XVI's passion for ballet dancing paved the way for ballet to thrive, develop and become rampant during his reign in the late 17th century. Under the leadership of Louis XVI's, ballet was institutionalized not only as an art form, but also as a profession. Moreover, during this period, ballet became a profession and art form no longer dominated by males, but also by females. It was also during this period that the comedie ballet became a popular form of ballet dance, particularly performed in Louis XVI's court ballet.
One of the most distinct characteristics of the Age of Enlightenment from other social and cultural movements that occurred in the history of humanity…
Huntington's disease, also known as HD, is an uncommon degenerative disorder that greatly impacts the central nervous system of the individual. It is often characterized by surplus and unneeded choreatic movements, unusual behavioral patterns, disturbances in the mental level and dementia. (Sheth 2013) As far as the Caucasian population is concerned, the Huntington's disease is prevalent in one out of ten thousand persons. The symptoms start to appear when the individual is thirty to fifty years of age. In a few cases, adolescents start to show symptoms of HD (known as JHD or Juvenile Huntington's disease) before the age of twenty by demonstrating behavioral disorders and learning difficulties at school. However, chorea is the major sign of the onset of HD that spreads to all muscles with the passage of time. The affected individual becomes severely retarded as the psychomotor processes are affected gradually. he/she also suffers decline of cognitive…
DiMaio MS, Fox JE, Mahoney MJ. 2010. Prenatal Diagnosis: Cases and Clinical Challenges [Internet]. 1. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell; [cited 2013 Nov 10] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=Qx2cWaAk2pEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Prenatal+Diagnosis:+Cases+and+Clinical+Challenges&hl=en&sa=X&ei=9jCCUufnNZOrhQfh0YDACg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Prenatal%20Diagnosis%3A%20Cases%20and%20Clinical%20Challenges&f=false
Knowles J. 2007. Huntington's Disease [Internet]. 1. New York: Rosen Pub. Group; [cited 2013 Nov 11] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RX2Er7NpMSUC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Huntington 's+Disease&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ameBUqWBDYjBhAfy9YDQCQ&ved=0CEcQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=Huntington's%20Disease&f=false
Lemiere J. 2004. Huntington's disease: Early Detection and Progression of Cognitive Changes in Patients and Asymptomatic Mutation Carriers [Internet]. Leuven: Leuven University Press; [cited 2013 Nov 11] Available from: http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=vdhgGGgLQSIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Huntington 's+Disease:+Early+Detection+and+Progression+of+Cognitive+Changes+in+Patients+and+Asymptomatic+Mutation+Carriers&hl=en&sa=X&ei=aGqBUqDzJ6XG7AbVz4CIDQ&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Huntington's%20Disease%3A%20Early%20Detection%20and%20Progression%20of%20Cognitive%20Changes%20in%20Patients%20and%20Asymptomatic%20Mutation%20Carriers&f=false
Roos R. 2010. Huntington's Disease: A Clinical Review. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases [Internet]. [cited 2013 Nov 12] 5:40. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1750-1172-5-40.pdf
Finally, the political norms of control by the Ottoman Empire and the reputation of the Ming Dynasty as exploring the world can be overcome with this quest and the establishment of new trade routes.
Current technological barriers make exploration unattractive. However, important navigational tools including the magnetic compass and the cross-staff can help provide guidance on the seas. The caravel will help bring seamen home safely. This journey will test these technological advances and their utility on a long discovery mission. If they are proven to be useful, people will be more willing to go out to sea and funding for these missions is more likely.
Finally, this mission will provide important economic benefits, primarily through trading. Alternate routes to the Indian Ocean without going through Constantinople and into Africa without crossing the Sahara may be discovered. These, subsequent trading posts, and increases in import and export merchandise will be…
Boorstin, D. (1983). The Discoverers. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. Publishers.
Menzies, G. (2002). 1421: The Year China Discovered America. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.
Russell, P. (2000). Prince Henry "The Navigator." Economist, 356(8181), 83.
Sandrone, S. & Wagner, a. (2009). Henry the Navigator and the Moon. Acta Astronautica, 64(4), 484-493.
IV. TESTING ON HUMANS
The only thing that is lacking at this point according to all reports is for testing on humans to be completed. The Time Asia articles states: "The last step for the ace-2 inhibitor, as for any drug, is human clinical trials. ecause the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires such rigorous testing, this is by far the most expensive part of drug development. So for human trials in some cases, Millennium has formed partnerships with large pharmaceutical companies that have the necessary resources and will share in any eventual profits." (2001)
SUMMARY & CONCLUSION
According to the work entitled: "rave New Pharmacy" published in Time Asia (2001) "When the human genome was sequenced...scientists finally gained access to the full text of God's reference manual; the 3 billion biochemical 'letters' that spell out our tens of thousands of genes. These genes, strung out along the 46 chromosomes…
Drug Design in the Fast Lane: Speeding Drug Design (nd)
Elmer-Dewitt, Phillip (2001) The Future of Drugs. Time Asia 22 January 2001 Vol. 57, No. 3 Online available at http://www.time.com/time/asia/magazine/2001/0122/cover1.html .
Lemonick, Michael, D. (2001) Brave New Pharmacy - Time Asia 22 Jan 2001 Vol. 157. No. 3 Online available at http://www.time.com/time/asia/magazine/2001/0122/drug.impact.html
Invention of Gun Powder and the Impact it Had on the Chinese Society and Warfare
The invention of gunpowder was driven by the quest for unending life. Gunpowder, however, ended up being more or less a death potion, responsible for the development of the deadliest war weapon, after the atomic bomb. An invention dating back to the Song and Tang Dynasties, between the 9th and 11th centuries, gunpowder came to be considered one of China's "Four Great Ancient Inventions,' alongside the compass, printing, and papermaking. Due to its explosive nature, gunpowder was first used for fireworks, and later, as an explosive in war. Prior to gunpowder invention, the Chinese military used fire as their main war weapon. Fire, however, had limited coverage, and Chinese strategists sought to develop a weapon with wider coverage.
Gunpowder was employed in warfare in the 15th century. It evolved from the ancient cannon to the…
Black, Jeremy. War: a Short History. Maiden Lane, NY: Continuum, 2009.
Chase, Kenneth. Firearms: a Global History to 1700. West Street, NY: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Gunpowder and Firearms. Washington University. http://depts.washington.edu/chinaciv/miltech/firearms.htm
Panciera, Walter. "Venetian Gunpowder in the Second Half of the Sixteenth Century: Production, Storage, Use." In Gunpowder, Explosives and the State, edited by Brenda Buchanan, 93-120. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2006.
Given the context and the fact that being a convicted criminal and a sex offender could conceivably make the risk of any type of abuse (whether or not of a sexual nature) foreseeable, that defense is unlikely to succeed. However, generally, the knowledge of one Board member who does not disclose that knowledge to the Board will not be imputed to the rest of the Board. In any case, that issue is unlikely to matter because of the school's liability in negligence even without knowledge.
Question # 3
As previously discussed, the school is likely to be found liable to Anna for Title VII discrimination by virtue of her age because it allowed Forester to create a hostile work environment by failing to discipline either Forester or DuFrane, the other male teacher who made the hostile statement. The school will argue that even under those facts, the severity and extent…
Psychology of Hysteria During Sigmund Freud's Era
For a man who dedicated his life's work to furthering humanity's understanding of its own psychological processes, the revolutionary pioneer of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud remained woefully misunderstood during his own era, and has so ever since. Although Freud published a voluminous body of innovative research during his professional career as a neuropathic researcher, studying a wide array of cognitive disorders from addiction to aphasia, it is the Austrian's radical reimagining of the human mind's very structure that has made Freud a household name for multiple generations. By conceiving of the mind as being similar to an iceberg floating in the sea -- with only a small portion of the entire entity ever visible -- Freud's conceptualization of the human psyche as a behavioral balancing act between the id, the superego, and the ego, with thought occurring at both the conscious and subconscious levels,…
Bornstein, R.F. (2003). Psychodynamic models of personality. Handbook of psychology.
Freud, S. (1896). "The Aetiology of Hysteria." The Standard Edition of the Complete
Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. Trans. James Strachey, 24, 1953-1974.
Freud, S., & Breuer, J. (1895). "Studies in Hysteria." The Standard Edition of the Complete
This would become the basis of a profound shift in European knowledge: classical mechanics (Hooker).
Francis acon (1561-1626), added a key element to the genesis of the mechanical universe in his attacks on traditional knowledge. He proposed the Aristotelean model of induction and empiricism as the best model of human knowledge. This model of systematic empirical induction was the piece that completed the puzzle in the European world view and made the scientific revolution possible (Hooker).
The mechanical universe would emerge from Sir Isaac Newton's work (1642-1727). He based his entire view of the universe on the concept of inertia: every object remains at rest until moved by another object; every object in motion stays in motion until redirected or stopped by another object. He argued that all the planets and other objects in the universe moved according to a physical attraction between them, which is called gravity; this mutual…
Hatch, Robert. "Scientific Revolution." August 2002. University of Florida. 3 April 2009 .
Hooker, Richard. "The European Enlightenment: The Scientific Revolution." 1996. Washington State University. 3 April 2009 .
"The Scientific Revolution." n.d. History Online. 3 April 2009 .
Globalization in the economic sense - economic, social and technological process that advocates a constant interdependence at a global level, supporting trade liberalization.
International Monetary Fund (IMF) - an international financial organization that monitors the global financial flows and that offers financial assistance to Third World countries.
African Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC) - cultural festival that promotes and sustains the revival of the lack cultural values and civilization.
1945 - the end of the Second World War and the beginning of the contemporary period. It is also equivalent with the start of the decolonization period, with Indonesia one of the first countries to make this step.
Poverty - lack of the material capacity to finance the basic needs of an individual or a society.
A unfreedom" ref. Sen - according to Sen, these would include, besides lack of political freedom or freedom of the press, forms of unfreedom…
1. Andrew Apter. The Pan-African Nation: Oil and the Spectacle of Culture in Nigeria.
University of Chicago Press (2005)
Only the Introduction and Chapter 1)
2. Frederick Cooper and Randall Packard, eds. International Development and the Social Sciences: Essays on the History and Politics of Knowledge. UC Press (1997)