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Agricultural evolution: The ole of Men and Women
The Neolithic revolution is considered the first agricultural revolution denoting the transition from foraging and hunting and gathering to settlement and agriculture. Foraging for plants that were wild and hunting animals that were also wild is regarded as the most historic form of patterns for human subsistence (Foraging web).
Because there are no written records of the transition
Period between 8000 and 5,000 BC when many animals were first domesticated and plants were cultivated on a regular basis, we cannot be certain why and how some peoples adopted these new ways of producing food and other necessities of life
The Agricultural evolution also marked a significant transformation from the small groups of hunter-gatherers into more stable and sedentary societies that established towns and villages significantly different from operating in their natural environments. The changes from hunting and gathering to irrigation…
"A Medieval Love Story: True Life Romance in the 12th Century," accessed December 9
Bauer, Susan. The History of the Ancient World: From the Earliest Accounts to the Fall of Rome. New York, NY: Norton & Co., 2004.
Childe, V. Gordon. What Happened in History. Baltimore: Penguin, 1942.
Hammurabi, Agricultural evolution, Zoroastrianism
Hammurabi, Agriculture, Zoroastrianism
The Code of Hammurabi
Justice and the law is not a new concept, though throughout the millennia, both have evolved to what is today our modern political system, namely that of the municipal courts and the branches of government involved within nations. It is clear, however, that many of the concepts and ideas that are still being used today have stemmed from a much older doctrine, one that's been imagined around 4,000 years back into our primitive past. Such is the case of the Code of Hammurabi, a doctrine carved in cuneiform around 2200 B.C. In his ancient Babylonian kingdom, Hammurabi devised a rigid class-structure that gave rise to the "series of practical laws to bring about justice (Blaise, J. 2009). The Code has outlasted Hammurabi's life, and the legacy is quite evident in modern society.
From archaeological finds, it has been seen…
Blaise, Joseph (2009). "Hammurabi's Code," Clio History Journal. Web.
Duchesne-Guillemin, Jacques (2006). "Zoroastrianism: Relation to other religions," Encyclopaedia Britannica (Online ed.), retrieved 2006-05-31
Harlan, Jack R. (1992). Crops & Man: Views on Agricultural Origins ASA, CSA, Madison, WI. Web.
Prior to the 18th century, crops were rotated in a three-year cycle. During the 18th century, a four-year rotation cycle was introduced. The potato and the turnip became some of the most important crops during the 18th century agricultural revolution, because the potato could feed large amounts of people and the turnip could also be used for animal fodder. The greater amount of animal fodder increased farm animal yields. Farm technologies also improved: such as the mechanized seed drill.
The consequences of the 18th century agricultural revolution were tremendous and coincided with the social, political, and economic changes taking places concurrently. Population explosions that fueled the agricultural revolution continued to alter the demographics of Europe and enable larger-scale grassroots movements. Populism gradually began replacing the centuries-long feudal aristocracies and monarchies were toppling. These political changes significantly altered land use policies. Moreover, the population explosion occurred alongside urbanization. Not only did…
Rosner, Lilsa & Theibault, John. A Short History of Europe 1600-1815. M.E. Sharpe, 2000
Whited, Tamara L. Northern Europe. ABC-CLIO, 2005
Revolution Through the Lens of Agricultural Industrialization
The revolutions in Cuba, Mexico and Brazil Bahia as described and detailed in the three text From slavery to freedom in Brazil Bahia, 1835-1900 by Dale Torston Graden, Insurgent Cuba race, nation and revolution, 1868-1898 by Ada Ferrer and The Mexican Revolution: 1910-1940 Dialogos Series, 12 by Michael j. Gonzales all tell varied stories regarding the thematic development of revolution and change. Each has a different story to tell about labor, free and slave, politics, race and freedom yet underlying each of these themes is a current that is not only consistent but largely underdeveloped. This theme is agricultural and its changing labor and production practices. This work will analyze and compare the treatment of agriculture as a theme associated with each local. Each nation demonstrates the story of profiteering through agriculture in varied ways, and the rejection of it.
In each work…
Ferrer, Ada. Insurgent Cuba: Race, Nation, and Revolution, 1868-1898. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.
Gonzales, Michael. The Mexican Revolution, 1910-1940. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. 2002.
Torston Graden, Dale. From Slavery to Freedom in Brazil: Bahia, 1835-1900. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. 2006.
" The revolution was also responsible for establishing "conditions for an era of economic development. Capitalist development had begun in Mexico prior to the revolution, but it had been constrained by the power of the large landholders and lacked the sponsorship of an active, development-oriented state (MacEwan)."
During the 1920s and 1930s, the modern Mexican state "came to embody the dual heritage of the Mexican revolution, representing and containing the interests of Mexico's working people and also leading a process of capitalist development by actively intervening in the country's economic life, resulting in a highly nationalist state. The revolution had in part been a reaction to the power of foreign investors, and nationalist policies struck a popular chord (MacEwan)."
In order for the country's economy to experience its total growth potential, it was essential that Mexican capital receive "support for the state and protection from foreign competition (MacEwan)."
MacEwan, Arthur. Banishing the Mexican Revolution. Monthly Review. (1991): 01 November.
The Path to Revolution. (accessed 12 October, 2004). http://www.interknowledge.com/russia/rushis06.htm ).
Unknown. India. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. (2004): 22 April.
Ogburn identifies four social revolutions that have occurred as the result of new technologies. The first was the move from the hunter-gathered model to pastoralism or horticulturalism, where people settled either to raise animals or to grow plants for food. Technologies for hunting or agriculture made such moves possible. As we were able to learn enough about food production to remain in one place for extended periods, we chose to do so.
The next step was the move to an agrarian society. Using both animals and machinery, we were able to make significant improvements in food production, not just for food but for other uses as well. This allowed for much greater population density, as well as excess production for winter months. The third social revolution was the development of the industrial society. Machinery that dramatically increased productivity brought about industrial society, which incorporated a stronger division of labor.…
Boundless.com. (2007). The four social revolutions. Boundless.com. Retrieved April 13, 2013 from https://www.boundless.com/sociology/understanding-social-change/sources-social-change/four-social-revolutions/
Boundless.com. (2007). Ogburn's theory. Boundless.com. Retrieve April 13, 2013 from https://www.boundless.com/sociology/understanding-social-change/sources-social-change/ogburn-s-theory/
What is similar between the Bolivian revolution and the Cuban revolution is the fact that many revolutionaries in Cuba and different groups including the militia, miners and peasants in Bolivia were fighting against each other and for different causes. There lacked consistency of purpose which ultimately affected the economy of each land and resulted in lack of a dedicated leader all could approve of.
The Cuban and Bolivian revolutions also had in common many primary figures of authority that, despite their wrongs or rights, were charismatic enough to capture the support of a great number of people. The Cuban military, much like the revolutionaries in Bolivia, were for the most part ineffective. The United States opposed the leadership of the Cuban government however, during the Cuban war, which separates it from the Bolivian revolution where the United States supplied much in the way of assistance and capital in an attempt…
Latin American Studies.org (2007) "The Bolivian Revolution 1952-1964," LAS.org
Retrieved November 26, 2007:
Fermoselle, R. (1987). The evolution of the Cuban military: 1492-1965. Miami:
Industrial evolution: esult of an Agricultural evolution?
The Industrial evolution which began in Great Britain in the eighteenth century, and still continues in certain parts of the world, is considered by some historians to be the most significant transformation in the economic environment of human civilization after the Neolithic evolution. There are a number of reasons that triggered and sustained the transformation of an agriculture-based economy to an industrial-based economy, but perhaps the most significant was the occurrence of an 'Agriculture evolution' in Britain in the century following 1750. In this essay, I shall discuss why this was so, besides describing the following:
The causes and outcome of the Agricultural evolution
Features of the Industrial evolution
The Social Consequences of the Industrial evolution
Karl Marx and Emile Durkhiem's theories about the Industrial evolution
How an Agricultural evolution in Britain triggered the Industrial evolution?
Most historians are in agreement that the…
Ashton, T.S. (1997). The Industrial Revolution, 1760-1830. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
The Four Field System." (2004) Open Door Website. Retrieved on September 14, 2004 at http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/IR/003f.html
Jones, R.A. (1986) Emile Durkheim: An Introduction to Four Major Works. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Marx, Karl and Engels, Friedrich. (1894) "The Communist Manifesto." The Project Gutenberg Etext. Retrieved on September 14, 2004 at http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext93/manif12.txt
Industrial evolution was one of the momentous eras in history. The Industrial evolution had an impact on all levels of society as it instigated the change from an agriculture-and-handicrafts focused economy to one replaced by industries, machines, and large-scale manufacturing. The positive impacts are evident in the manner the goods and products are manufactured and the improvements in the way of living in all classes of societies across the world. However, it is important to point out is that the Industrial evolution has had negative influences as well. To begin with, the level of pollution increased in magnitude never seen before, affecting the environment adversely. Another shortcoming was the decrease in earnings along with significant deterioration in working conditions. There was also a proliferation of the number of working children and women, which negatively affected family structures.[footnoteef:2] The positives, on the other hand, include great advances in technology, increased level…
Hobsbawm, Eric. Age of revolution: 1789-1848. Hachette UK, 2010.
King, Steven., Timmins, Geoferry. Making Sense of the Industrial Revolution: English Economy and Society 1700-1850. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2001.
Overton, Mark. Agricultural Revolution in England: The Transformation of the Agrarian economy 1500 -1850. Canbridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
Scheina, Robert L. Latin America's Wars: The Age of the Caudillo, 1791-1899. 2003: Washington: Brassey's, Inc.
The history of modern human civilization reflects the gradual evolution of thoughts, ideas, political reform, and technological progress. At various times, specific periods of change were important enough to have been recorded as revolutions. Some of the most significant of these revolutions contributed to human history and societal development individually as well as in conjunction with other simultaneous or nearly simultaneous changes.
The Scientific evolution was responsible for fundamental changes in the understanding of the physical world, chemistry, biology, and of human anatomy and physiology. The French evolution represented the recognition of the fundamental rights of citizens to fairness and humane consideration on the part of their respective monarchical governments. The Industrial evolution increased the availability of information and provided new modes of transportation and mechanical processes that radically changed the lives of large numbers of people throughout Europe and the North American continent.
The Scientific evolution
Bentley, Jerry H. Traditions & Encounters: A Global Perspective on the Past (4th
Edition). McGraw-Hill: New York. 2005.
Kishlansky, Mark; Geary, Patrick; and O' Brien, Patricia. Civilization in the West.
Penguin Academic Edition (Combined Volume) Penguin: New York. 2009.
History Industrial Revolution
What impact did the Industrial Revolution in England have on the American colonies?
During the mid-eighteenth century, the Great ritain had started the Industrial Revolution; meanwhile the American colonies had not yet begun their journey towards industrialization. The main reason why the American colonies lagged behind the ritish was that the former had abundance of land and at the same time scarcity of labor. However, it should be note here that the Industrial Revolution in England impacted the American colonies in terms of economy and society; both positively and adversely.
In this paper, we shall discuss the positive as well as the negative effects of Industrial Revolution on America.
It should be noted here that the framework of Industrial Revolution that was implemented in the American colonies was borrowed from England after the American industrialists saw that the Great ritain's economic position improved significantly after…
Bianchetti, Ann, "Teaching History in a Post-Industrial Age," Academic journal article from Social Education, 68 (2002): 5.
Welsh, Jim, "The Machine in America: A Social History of Technology," Journal of American Culture, 31 (2007): 1.
He became a virtual dictator which saw his government making peace with Germany, distributed land and nationalized industry.in 1918 there was a devastating civil war against the anti-Bolshevik white forces.in 1920 the anti-Bolsheviks were defeated which saw the formation of the Union of oviet ocialist Republics (UR) in 1922 (A&E Television Networks, LLC, 2014).
During the Civil war between 1917 and 1921 the Bolsheviks adopted the war communism that led to the breaking up of landed estates as well as forcible seizure of agricultural surpluses.in the cities there were intense food shortages as well as a break down of monetary system. City dwellers fled to the countryside to tend to the land which Bolshevik break up of the lands estates had transferred of peasants. Early 1921 there was a lot of public discontent with the state of economy resulting to numerous strikes and protests. The Kronstadt rebellion was…
Stalin had suffered a major stroke on March 1st 1953 but there was delayed treatment due to his actions over the previous decades. he slowly died in the course of the few days that followed apparently in agony and ended up dying of brain haemorrhage.it still remains unclear whether Stalin would have been saved if medical help would have arrived shortly after he suffered from the stroke.
A&E Television Networks, LLC.(2014). Russian Revolution.Retrieved May 9,2014 from http://www.history.com/topics/russian-revolution
This became a reality with the killing of the tsar in 1918. The death of the tsar was the visible reaction to a series of underlining causes that would eventually encourage the raise to power of a political ideology that addressed these issues and offered political and propagandistic solutions.
The social situation of the populations was rather grim during the tsar's regime. ussia had been engaged in the First World War effort and the condition of the soldiers was disastrous. Similarly, the peasants often were subjected to oppressive taxes in order for the regime to be able to financially support the war effort.
Aside from the social causes of the revolution, there were also political aspects that determined the fall of the tsar and the subsequent establishment of the communist regime. Thus, the authoritarian imperial rule opposed the visions of politicians such as the Bolshevik leader Trotsky. He was seen…
Carroll, J., and George Herring. (1986) Modern American Diplomacy. Scholarly Resources Inc. Wilmington, Delaware.
Fairbank, J.K. (1986). The great Chinese Revolution: 1800- 1985. London: Pan Books.
Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
Rauch, Basil. (1963). The history of the New Deal. New York: Capricorn Books.
It has been called the "Western Miracle" and the "European Miracle," but it is commonly known as the Industrial Revolution. During the later half of the 1700's and to the beginning of the 20th century, The European continent and North America went through some amazing changes. These changes did not involve politics, but centered on economics and a new way of business in the U.S. They would also bring a new way of life for the middle and lower classes. These changes are no referred to as the Industrial Revolution, and it brought forth a new way of producing goods. It changed the face of our nation from and agricultural emphasis to one of industry and mass production of processed goods, which in turn changed how the country would look at work places and how workers were treated.
Great Britain gave birth to this whole concept of industry…
TRANSPORTATION REVOLUTION IN THE UNITED STATES ETWEEN 1815 AND 1830?
This paper argues that, even prior to the advent of the railroads, a transportation revolution had taken place in the United States in the early nineteenth century. It argues that two developments were most important: steamboat navigation and the construction of the great canals. In particular, the building of the Erie Canal constituted a revolution in its own right. It was on account of the transportation revolution of the 1815-30 period that the American economy was decisively transformed in a capitalist direction.
In 1800, the United States did not lack a transport infrastructure, but it was a very poor one. With the exception of cities and towns located on the Atlantic coastline or along navigable waterways, there was literally no means of transporting agricultural produce and manufactured items to or from market centers other than country roads. These roads were…
Boyer, Paul S. et al. The Enduring Vision: A History of the American People. 4th edition. Houghton Mifflin, [YEAR?]
Cornog, Evan. The Birth of Empire: De Witt Clinton and the American Experience 1769-1828. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Frost, James Arthur. Life on the Upper Susquehanna 1783-1860. New York: King's Crown Press, 1951.
Majewski, John. A House Dividing: Economic Development in Pennsylvania and Virginia Before the Civil War. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
For example, Krishan Kumar of the University of Kent at Canterbury11 states,... "in sum, a fine piece of properly political sociology, of which there are in truth very few examples. Society gets its due share of attention; but as is fitting and absolutely essential in any discussion of revolution, it is the peculiar nature of and crisis of the state that occupies the centre of the stage."
Similarly, Michael Kimmel of the University of California -- Santa Cruz,12 states that "Theda Skocpol is perhaps the most ambitious and exciting of a new generation of historical-comparative sociologists who have focused their attention squarely on the big issues of social change that once preoccupied the classic sociologists."
The difficulty that some reviewers had about this book is because of some of the misinformation. For example, George Yaney 12 of the University of Maryland states it is based almost entirely on secondary sources…
Kimmel, Michael. "States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China. By Theda Skocpol." http://www.jstor.org.libdb.fairfield.edu/browse/00029602 " the American Journal of Sociology. 86 No.5 (1981): 1145-1154
Kumar, Krishan. States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France,
Russia and China by Theda Skocpol" the British Journal of Sociology. 31, no. 2
Consequences of the Industrial Revolution on English Society
The ninety years between 1760 and 1850, commonly regarded as the "First Generation" of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, were to bring about sweeping changes: technological, economic, philosophical and social. Previously, technology was low. Manufactured goods were produced by hand, often in the home or in small workshops, by skilled artisans who generally specialized in making one type of goods or one component of an item. The economy was dominated by agriculture, and the majority of the population was rural. ealthy families who owned the land rented it to tenant farmers; these tenants, while mostly illiterate, had the opportunity to grow their own food and live in somewhat appealing and healthful surroundings. They were almost a cashless society, paying their rents and buying goods largely through their produce and exchange of labor. Their diversions often centered around fairs and saints' days, and…
Chadwick, Edwin. "Report from the Poor Law Commissioners on an Inquiry into the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population of Great Britain." London, 1842, pp. 369-372. http://22.214.171.124/victorian/history/chadwick2.html
Gaskell, P. The Manufacturing Population of England. London, 1833 http://126.96.36.199/victorian/history/workers2.html
Hartwell, R.M. "History and Ideology," Modern Age, Vol. 18, No. 4, Fall, 1974.
Hartwell, R.M. The Industrial Revolution and Economic Growth. London: Methuen and Company, 1971.
The expansion meant progress and it implemented the idea of progress into the minds of the new people. As Thomas Jefferson noted, the permanent moving forward of the boundaries and the idea of growth and multiplication enhanced the feeling of unfailing progress: "However our present interests may restrain us within our limits, it is impossible not to look forward to distant times, when our rapid multiplication will expand itself beyond those limits, and cover the whole northern, if not southern, continent, with a people speaking the same language, governed in similar forms, and by similar laws; nor can we contemplate with satisfaction either blot or mixture on that surface." (Peterson, Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation, 1970, p. 746) Turner was the one who has actually laid the basis for a theory of the frontier in American history in the nineteenth century. Before him however, Jefferson, long before he came…
Donald McQuade, Robert Atwan et all. (1999) Harper American Literature, Single Volume Edition. Third Edition. New York: Harper.
Peterson, Merrill D. 1970. Thomas Jefferson and the New Nation. New York: Signet
Smith, Greg. (2001) "Supernatural Ambiguity and Possibility in Irving's 'The Legend of Sleepy Hollow'." The Midwest Quarterly 42.2: 174.
The Frontier and the West.(2001)" Encyclopedia of American Cultural and Intellectual History. 3 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons.
Other employment prospects in fields such as petty trading, retailing, transportation and domestic service also developed simultaneously in urban areas. In the nineteenth century, when the industrial working class became much larger and more important in the social structure they begin to assert themselves socially, politically and economically, evolving into the social order we see today.
Growth of Cities
According to Jeffery G. Williamson (1990) Britain grew at an unusually rapid growth rate during the first part of the nineteenth century. Census data of the period indicates that some nineteenth-century cities grew at rates "that would bring cold sweat to the brow of twentieth-century housing committees" (p.2). Glasgow grew at 3.2% annum in 1830's, Manchester and Salford at 3.9% in the 1820's; Bradford at 5.9% in the 1830s, and Dukinfield nearly tripled in size the 1820's. These were the fast-growing cities and towns in the industrializing north.
The British population…
Comanor, W.S. (2005). Life during the Industrial Revolution. World book. irthebest.com. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.irthebest.com/industry_Industrial_life.html
Emsley, C., Hitchcock, T., & Shoemaker, R. (2011, March). Communities -- Irish London. Old Bailey proceediongs online. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/static/Irish.jsp
"Industrial revolution: The industrial revolution in Great Britain." (2006) The Columbia electronic encyclopedia. Pearson Education Publishing as Infoplease. Retrieved November 16, 2011, from http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0858818.html
Kreis, S. (2001). The origins of the industrial revolution in England. The history guide. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture17a.html
Technology and Social Change
The Industrial evolution completely changed the way that human beings live and work. Before the Industrial evolution, society was dominated by agrarian economies. The Industrial evolution created a new way of life in which an increasingly large percentage of the population either owned or worked in factories involved in mass production. Populations became increasingly concentrated in urban areas; fewer people worked on farms or owned farms. Instead of making their own goods and services, people now bought the majority of the items they needed in stores.
The current Knowledge evolution is technologically driven, just like the Industrial evolution. It is fueled by the Internet and radically expanded accessibility of information to everyone who has an Internet connection. In some ways, like the Industrial evolution, it is extremely democratic -- just as many people made their fortune through capitalism, the knowledge economy of World Wide Web has…
Gouras, M. (2003). Bulking up for a hardware battle. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved:
How women use the web. (2013). Mashable. Retrieved:
American evolution: A History" by Gordon S. Wood. Specifically, it will contain a narrative review of the book. Wood's book is a modern look at history, and at the results of the American evolution. While there are numerous books on the subject, this one is relatively easy to read and understand, and short enough not to put off the reader. It is an excellent reference for anyone interested in American history.
The author's thesis is set in the Preface of the book, where he notes, "The evolution, in short, gave birth to whatever sense of nationhood and national purpose Americans have had" (Wood 26). In addition, author Wood believes that as history moves on, the true meaning and how historians view the American evolution has altered, and this book is an attempt to illustrate these new views of a more than 200-year-old revolt. More than anything else, Wood wants modern…
Wood, Gordon S. The American Revolution: A History. New York: The Modern Library, 2002.
The universe viewed through a telescope looked different, and this difference in itself played into the Protestant argument that received truths may be fallible. In fact, the notion of truth outside empirical evidence became unsteady:
For most thinkers in the decades following Galileo's observations with the telescope, the concern was not so much for the need of a new system of physics as it was for a new system of the world. Gone forever was the concept that the earth has a fixed spot in the center of the universe, for it was now conceived to be in motion…gone also was the comforting thought that the earth is unique (Cohen 79)
However, while the telescope was transforming ideas about the shape of the cosmos and the relationship between science and faith, the microscope essentially remained a toy through much of the early modern era. If anything, the revelation of the…
Cohen, I. Bernard. The Birth of a New Physics. Rev. ed. New York: Norton, 1991. Print.
Fermi, Laura, and Gilberto Bernarndini. Galileo and the Scientific Revolution. New York: Basic Books, 1961. Print.
Hooke, Robert. Micrographia. Charleston, SC: BiblioBazaar, 2008. Print.
Konnert, Mark. Early Modern Europe: The Age of Religious Warfare, 1559-1715. North York, on: Higher Education University of Toronto Press, 2006. Print.
But it certainly was a crucial step in he legitimation of free labor" (141).
eligion in general and revivals especially eased the pains of capitalist expansion in the early 19th century U.S. After Finney was gone, the converted reformers evangelized the working class; they supported poor churches and built new ones in working class neighborhoods. Finney's revival was effective since it dissected all class boundaries and united middle and working class individuals in churches. The middle class went to church, because of the moral obligation to do so; the working classes went, because they were concerned about losing their. Workers who did not become members of churches had more difficulty keeping their jobs. To succeed in ochester, it was astute for the employees to become active churchgoers.
In 1791, not much before the Native Americans began their trek across the country and ochester, New York, was changing its employee/merchant system,…
Gilje, Paul a., ed. The Wages of Independence: Capitalism in the Early American Republic. Madison, WI: Madison House, 1997
Johnson, Paul E. A Shopkeeper's Millennium: Society and Revivals in Rochester, New York, New York: Hill and Wang, 2004.
McCusker, J.J. And Menard, R.R., the Economy of British America, 1607-1789, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1985.
Slaughter, Thomas. R. Whiskey Rebellion: Frontier Epilogue to the American Revolution, New York, Oxford Press, 1986.
It has been argued that GMOs are needed in order to supply the world's food needs. However, cautionary positions by environmental groups must be heeded as well. Technology must move forward and concentrate on underserved areas of the world. However, technology must be cautious in its actions and make certain that what they produce is safe. This issue has extremists on both ends of the spectrum. hat is needed is a union between these two philosophies. More productive crops and production methods are needed, but this development must proceed with even more caution than the green revolution due to the ability to defy nature and combine plant material in a way that is not possible using green revolution methods.
Dietsch, T., Philpott, S., Rice, R., Greenberg, R., Bichier, P., O'Brien, T., and Kinnaird, M. Conservation Policy in Coffee Landscapes. Science Magazine. Vol. 303 (5658), p. 625b.
Dietsch, T., Philpott, S., Rice, R., Greenberg, R., Bichier, P., O'Brien, T., and Kinnaird, M. Conservation Policy in Coffee Landscapes. Science Magazine. Vol. 303 (5658), p. 625b.
Evenson, R. Assessing the Impact of the Green Revolution. Research Seminar on Knowledge for Development. October 14, 2003. Center for International Development. Harvard University. http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/sed/docs/k4dev/evenson_semrpt_031014.pdf .
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. (FAO) Crop breeding: the Green Revolution and the preceding millennia. 2003. www.fao.org/english/newsroom/focus/2003/gmo2.htm. Accessed December 6.
Taylor, J. Founder of 'Green Revolution' Lauds GM Crops. June 1, 2004. Environment News. Heartland Institute. http://www.heartland.org/Article.cfm?artId=14989 . Accessed December 6, 2007.
This strategy also permitted the more speedy management of local dealings. Basically the purpose of this strategy was to centralize of colonial affairs; however, it simply solidified the idea that the colonies needed a system of self-governance that was not inclusive of the British government. Because of the behavior of the British government, the English colonies that revolted in 1776 had in common: "representative assemblies and this institutional affinity laid the foundations for the concerted resistance without which the American evolution would have been impossible."
It was under the auspices of the English government's attempt to control the colonists that the idea of American independence began to be viewed as necessary. The colonist felt that they had the right and the wisdom to rule and to develop a governmental structure that would be conducive with meeting the needs and the goals of those living within the colonies. The structure of…
Becker, Carl Lotus Schlesinger, Arthur M. The History of Political Parties in the Province of New York, 1760-1776. University of Wisconsin Press: Madison, WI. 1960.
Declaration of Independence. Online Available at http://www.archives.gov/national-archives-experience/charters/declaration_transcript.html
Miller, John C. Origins of the American Revolution. Boston: Little, Brown, 1943.
Priest, Claire. "Currency Policies and Legal Development in Colonial New England." Yale Law Journal 110, no. 8 (2001): 1303.
Social Revolution 1945 to 1990
Eric Hobsbawm's writing style was that of a historian. Nevertheless, his objective was always: adding to political action and thought, which he accomplished more effectively through this book than all his other works. Retrospectively, the author discovered that global socialism's challenge to the capitalist idea had a strength which was its opponent's weakness. Also, in truth, a large number of individuals who backed socialism sincerely to the very end held a belief, for long, that socialism's political yzantinism, bureaucratic rigidities, and mass murders would eventually be overcome, and that the above horrors were responsible for ensuring capitalism remained afloat. The weaknesses of the socialist theory were underrated, while those of the capitalist theory were overvalued. In effect, the world was convinced in its belief that capitalism was unable to solve issues, while socialism could tackle their own issues. However, the latter issues were deep-rooted rather…
Araghi, F. A., 1995. Global Depeasantization, 1945-1990. The Sociological Quarterly, 36(2), pp. 337-368.
Berman, S., 2011. Understanding Social Democracy. Columbia University, pp. 2-38.
Freedman, L., 1997. Review of The Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century, 1914-1991. [Online]
Available at: http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/28
Merchants and Traders of the American Revolution
The American Revolution occurred during the 1700's as the early settlers underwent a period of change. During this time, settlers in the Americas gained religious freedom, became prosperous merchants, and established a more democratic government. However, during this time, the settlers were also controlled and taken advantage of by England.
The American War was fought from 1776 to 1778 yet the American Revolution started much before the war. John Adams summed up the sentiment of the American Revolution when he stated, "ut what do we mean by the American Revolution? Do we mean the American war? The Revolution was affected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people...This radical change in the principles, opinions, sentiments, and affections of the people, was the real American Revolution."
The American Revolution was fought by the colonists, many of whom…
American Revolution. World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago:World Book Inc. 1997, pp. 270-274.
Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1967.
Goldfield, David etal. The American Journey: A History of the Untied States. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1998, pp. 130-153.
Gorn, Elliot J., Roberts, Randy and Blizhar, Terryt. Constructing the American Past: A Source Book of a People's History - Volume I. 3rd ed. New York: Longman, 1999.
He uses numerous quotes from source docs, and he does not imply his conclusions, he spells them out. He also writes in a relatively easy to read style that is academic but not too pedantic, and so it is easy for the student to follow and understand.
In the context of the course, this book ties in quite well. It explains a part of American history that has often been questioned, but not answered so effectively. The author uses his research to debunk some of the well-known myths of this time, such as the fact that South Carolina and Georgia were the main foes of abolition, and they had enough power to create animosity towards abolition. In fact, the author writes, "In fact, Georgia and less so South Carolina, were precariously situation in 1787 and had far greater need of a strong federal government than the rest of the states…
Nash, G.B. (1990). Race and revolution. Madison, WI: Madison House Publishers.
Navies in American Revolution
For hundreds of years, maritime expansion represented the only way to reach distant shores, to attack enemies across channels of water, to explore uncharted territories, to make trade with regional neighbors and to connect the comprised empires. Leading directly into the 20th century, this was the chief mode of making war, maintaining occupations, colonizing lands and conducting the transport of goods acquired by trade or force. Peter Padfield theorized that ultimately, ritish maritime power was decisive in creating breathing space for liberal democracy in the world, as opposed to the autocratic states of continental Europe like Spain, France, Prussia and Russia. The Hapsburgs, the ourbons, Hitler and Stalin all failed to find a strategy that would defeat the maritime empires, which controlled the world's trade routes and raw materials. Successful maritime powers like ritain and, in the 20th Century, the United States, required coastlines with deep…
Black, Jeremy, "Naval Power, Strategy and Foreign Policy, 1775-1791" in Michael Duffy (ed). Parameters of British Naval Power, 1650-1850. University of Exeter Press, 1992, pp. 93-120.
Black, Jeremy. European Warfare in a Global Context, 1660-1815. Routledge, 2007.
Dull, Jonathan R. A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution. Yale University Press, 1985.
Kelly, J.K. "The Struggle for American Seaborne Independence as Viewed by John Adams." PhD Dissertation, University of Maine, 1973.
As to the climate, as a result of huge factory smokestacks belching out black smoke from the burning of coal, the atmosphere slowly began to change and severely affected rainfall patterns and created variations in the temperature of the air. This was the beginning of what we now call acid rain, a combination of water and carbon dioxide which slowly pollutes everything it comes in contact with, such as aboveground water sources (lakes, rivers and wells) and even the land itself in the form of run-off which eventually ends up in agricultural areas where food is grown and harvested.
With earth's landforms, the excavation and removal of coal in such places as England and the Eastern United States greatly devastated the natural landscape by leaving behind immense sections of land stripped bare and left wide open to further erosion by rain and wind. Since iron ore, copper and tin were…
Pursuing the Ideal Society." (2007). Ricoh. Internet. Retrieved at http://www.ricoh.com/environment/management/earth.html .
The Industrial Revolution and Its Environmental Impacts." (2007). Learning Space. Internet. Retrieved at http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/mod/resource / view.php?id=94548.
factory owners during the Industrial Revolution. You are having trouble recruiting and retaining workers, and getting them to do what you want them to do. What techniques would you use to accomplish your goals of achieving efficient and profitable production?
oday, because of the apparently unjust conditions of workers during the early days of industrialization, modern sympathies tend to lie with the factory workers in their efforts to unionize and secure their rights during the early days of the Industrial Revolution. However, even from the capitalist's perspective, unmotivated employees were not as productive as loyal and motivated laborers, thus it was perhaps mistaken to be blatantly unconcerned about workers rights. In fact, at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the capitalist factory owners were often frustrated by the need to impose discipline upon workers who were used to agricultural methods and rhythms of labor. his began, initially, by paying workers…
Take a look at the three organizational charts at the websites below. How do these charts represent bureaucracy? How are they similar, and how are they different?
Bureaucracy is a word that has become almost synonymous with red tape and poor and inefficient procedures based not upon reality but upon protocols. However, some bureaucracy is necessary for large organizations to function. For example, for the Argone National Laboratory ( http://www.ipd.anl.gov/anl_org_chart/ ) the organization in question demonstrates the series of bureaucratic channels, with one large organization enveloping several smaller departments of specific areas of equal expertise. The U.S. Department of Energy is technically in charge, overseeing the University of Chicago's operation of the lab in question. The university lab's official head has ultimate control over the smaller cell organizations, while each laboratory beneath the director acts as a department in and of itself, although still under official administrative control. Thus, smaller, but still crucial organizational hubs that serve different but equally necessary functions under the larger, official bureaucratic heads and within a larger bureaucracy.
The functional chart for Argone stands in contrast to the human-focused organizational chart offered by the U.S. Department of Health and Human services. Although both charts show top-down hierarchies, there is an emphasis on personality as well as function in the Heath and Human services diagram, and thus the chart is more complex -- it is both more specific, but also, because it contains more information a bit more difficult to understand for a layperson from the outside, about the many different functionaries within each individual cell of the bureaucracy. (http://www.os.dhhs.gov/about/orgchart.html)
Generally, the European economy was characterized by the following aspects:
The development of the economic activity's industrial side, not only in Western Europe but also in other countries previously considered to be exclusively agrarian. The industry and services presented the highest increases, and the gap between labor productivity in agriculture and the one in industry significantly increased
The Eastern and South-Eastern European countries' economic evolution suffered important transformations, with quantitative and qualitative restructurings
Maintaining the inequalities between European countries, given their distinct evolution
The heterogeneity of options regarding European development strategies
It is considered that the war delayed the European economy's evolution with approximately 8 years, which means that the 1929 production quantum might have been attained in 1921 if it had not been for the war and if the growth rates before 1913 would have been maintained (Kennedy, pp 361).
2.2. The Great Depression and European Economy's Post-crisis situation…
1. Perry, K. Modern European History. Made Simple. London, 1976.
2. Heaton, Herbert. Economic History of Europe. Harper & Row, London, 1966.
3. Kennedy, Paul. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. Economic Change and Military Conflict from 1500 to 2000. London, 1989.
4. Kindleberger, C.P. The World Depression 1929-1939. University of California Press, 1973.
Industrialization After Civil War
The author of this report has been asked to identify and fetter out a number of short lists as a means to answer questions. The questions all relate to the history of the United States after the Civil War as the country entered the period of industrialization. There will be three major aspects of industrialization that changed the United STtaes from 1865 to 1920 in terms of society, economy and politics. Issues that could arise include geography, entrepreneurship and so forth. The next answer will be a list of three groups that were affected by industrialization and there will also be two examples of how each group was affected. Examples include immigrants, children/women and famers. How industrialization affected the life of the average American during this period will be covered. While some may deemed them to be heroes and icons, the actions of people like Andrew…
HBS. (2015). Women at Work: Manual Labor. Library.hbs.edu. Retrieved 6 May 2015,
PBS. (2015). American Experience . The Richest Man in the World: Andrew Carnegie .
Timeline | PBS. Pbs.org. Retrieved 6 May 2015, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/carnegie/timeline/f_timeline.html
The World Health Organization estimates that at least 15% of the world human population in non-developed countries lacks access to potable water. Because of this, at least 1/2 of the world's poor populations are infected with one or more of the main viral or parasitic diseases associated with rank or polluted water (Briscoe, Postel and de Villiers) . Changes in global population growth, unwise agricultural policies, and rapid and unchecked overdevelopment have skewed this balance to the point where almost 1 billion people lack access to safe water, resulting in almost 4 million deaths due to water related diseases annually. Ironically, less than 1% of the total fresh water globally is available for daily and direct human consumption. This is quite dramatic when one considers that a single American who takes a 5-minute shower uses more what than an individual in much of the developing world uses in an entire…
"Atlas of a Thirsty Planet." July 2002. Nature.com. Cited in: .
Houghton, J. (2009). Global Warming: The Complete Briefing. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lovelock, J. (2010). The Vanishing Face of Gaia: A Final Warning. New York:
role of government in the Industrial Development of the West?
The Industrial Revolution in the West began in Britain in the early eighteenth century and then spread to France, Germany, Belgium-most of the rest of Western Europe, Eastern Europe and the United States.
The speed and success by which each country became industrialized depended on various factors, one of the most significant of which was the role that the government played in encouraging the move from agricultural-based production and manual production to using machine power to manufacture goods.
A stable government was one of the basic elements in ensuring successful industrialization. Britain, at the time of its transformation, had a very steady government, as opposed to the political instability of France, which led to industrialization becoming prolonged.
Another advantage Britain had was the availability of coal which was used in abundance in factories and forms of transportation. France, on the…
A Greek man's male friends served this purpose.
Ancient Rome followed the patterns in male-female roles as set by the Greeks for most of their history. Like the Greeks, love was generally not an element of most male/female relationships and prostitution was a major industry. For the Romans, the natural order of things was that men were better suited to labor outside the home while women were considered better equipped for handling matters within the home. Unlike Greek women, however, who were relegated to operating in the background even with the home, Roman women were afforded a much larger role in the home but were still not allowed to participate in affairs that occurred in public. In both Greek society and Roman society it must be remembered that they were societies in which under-population was a concern and not over-population as it is today. As a result, the primary function…
Kevin Reilly, "Men and Women: Hunters and Gatherers" in The West and the World: a history of civilization from the ancient world to 1700. Kevin Reilly (New York: Harper & Row, 1989).
Kevin Reilly, "Men and Women: Hunters and Gatherers" in The West and the World: a history of civilization from the ancient world to 1700. Kevin Reilly (New York: Harper & Row, 1989), 12.
ritish agricultural revolution and English settlement patterns in their colonies in New England. It is the authors contention that the world view of the English influenced their agricultural practices and the way that these practices changed the ecology of the land in New England. While largely a failure as a commercial enterprise in New England, it did however have commonalities with the Middle and Southern colonies, a relentless drive West and a decimation of Native American cultures and populations. Needless to say, there were huge differences between this English world view and English agricultural policies and the Native American world view, agricultural practices and approach to the environment.
While agriculture was largely a failure as a commercial enterprise in New England, the idea in the English settlers mind to keep pushing West to find arable land was alive and well and continued throughout the colonial period. Surprisingly enough, this English…
Canterbery, E. Ray. The Making of Economics: The foundation. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific
Publishing Company, 2003.
Cochrane, William W. Development of American Agriculture: A Historical Analysis . Rochester, MN:
Univ Of Minnesota Press, 1993.
The Mechanical Clock has been invented in Europe in the 13th century, and, despite of the fact that it had been obvious that it would bring benefits to the world, it received little to no recognition from outside of Europe.
Printing has been invented by the Chinese in the ninth century and later perfected by the Europeans, as the Chinese did not seem interested in the act. The Europeans became fond of printing and millions of books had been printed in just a short amount of time. The Islam did not seem to be interested in having the Koran printed, nor did it seem interested in having printing present in their territory. The Asian world also appeared to be reluctant from accepting printing for the important technological advancement that it had been. The Chinese apparently treated every European invention with lack of enthusiasm because of the fact that they did…
The Partido Revoluationario Institucional Party was an "enormous social network that reached the most remote parts of the country..." (Aerni, 2001) the PRI Party is accredited with having created "the largest public interest groups such as Unions, Farmer Organizations and Consumer Organizations and it somehow managed to keep the political influence of the powerful Catholic Church under tight control." (Aerni, 2001) in order to assess agricultural biotechnology and the environment from the view of developing countries it would also be necessary to asses the traditional crops grown in developing countries. For instance, Mexico begin modernizing its agriculture following World War II and established a research center CIMMYT which was an international research center for the improvement of corn and wheat and later added was high-yielding corn varieties. The agricultural revolution in the Philippines began when the International Rice Research Institute was established in the 1960s.
Stakeholder Perception of Domestic Problems…
Dunlap, Riley E. (1994) International Attitudes Towards Environment and Development. In Helge Ole Bergesen and Georg Parmann (eds) Green Globe Yearbook of International Cooperation on Environment and Development 1994. Oxford University Press. 115-126. Online available at http://www.fni.no/YBICED/94_09_dunlap.pdf
Holl, Karen D. et al. (1999) Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Population Growth and the Environment: University Students in Costa Rica and the United States. Environmental Conservation Journal 1999. Cambridge University Press 10 May, 2002.
Aerni, Phillip (2001) Public Attitudes Toward Agricultural Biotechnology in Developing Countries: A Comparison Between Mexico and the Philippines. STI Research Report. 2001 July. Harvard University. Online available at http://www.botanischergarten.ch/debate/AerniHarvard20010710.pdf
30-Country Poll Finds Worldwide Consensus that Climate Change is a Serious Problem (2006) Concern Growing Sharply 25 Apr 2007. World Public Opinion Organization. Online available at http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/articles/btenvironmentra/187.php?lb=bte&pnt=187&nid=&id=
It involves the replacement of rule of thumb gradually with science for the mechanical arts.
The existence of the two rivers i.e. Euphrates and Tigris gave this name Mesopotamia which means the land between rivers to the region. Agricultural revolution was begun by the people of this region in about ten thousand years ago. They domesticated animals and plants instead of hunting and gathering as was common in the time. Their crops were tended in houses built of mud-brick or reeds and clustered in villages (Hyman 138). Their grains were stored in the granaries that they built and their trade and account were recorded in a token system that they developed. There was a sudden change and growth in the civilization of the southern Mesopotamia between 3000 and 3500, with the main focus being in the cities of Ur and Uruk. Rendering of the old ways of agriculture less…
Badiru, Adedeji, Triple C. Model of Project Management: Communication, Cooperation, and Coordination. Oxon: CRC Press, 2008.
"History of Greece." History World. 5 Jun. 2000. 22 March. 2010.
Hyman, Kavett. "Mesopotamia, A Difficult but Interesting Topic." Social studies 70.3 (1979):
Cultural and Construction History of the Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age is also known as the Caliphate of Islam or the Islamic Renaissance. The term refers to a system of political, cultural, and religious authority derived from the teachings of the Prophet Mohammed in the early sixth century AD. At its high point under the Abbassid Dynasty (eighth to thirteenth centuries AD), Islamic civilisation experienced a flourish of art and culture that blended Arab, Persian, Egyptian, and European elements (Kraemer). The result was an era of incredible intellectual and cultural advancements (Wiet). At the height of its power, the Caliphate controlled all of the present-day Middle East, all of northern Africa and into Spain, and as far east as the Indus Valley, making it among the largest empires of all time and one of the few states ever to extend direct rule over three…
In a capitalist economy, production is encouraged by the profit motive, not necessarily need. Prior to the capitalist economy, in the agrarian economy, production was roughly in line with need. The reason for this was the high costs -- capital, time and labor -- that were associated with the production of goods. These high costs ensured that production was largely limited to what was needed, or for what there was a known market. There were trading markets throughout Europe and the East, and so there was the potential for overproduction, but overproduction came at a high enough price that discouraged it. Finding suitable markets for an undesirable good was not necessarily easy, and there may have been associated disposal costs.
With the agricultural and industrial revolutions, the costs of production declined. Marx outlines in the Communist Manifesto that the agricultural revolution and the decline of the old social structures…
Marx, K. (1848) The Communist Manifesto
Aristotelian influence predominated together with the wisdom and learning of other ancient writers, while the former was often used as a framework for intellectual debates which readily expanded both philosophy and other areas of knowledge (Grant 127-131). The European university system was established alongside monasteries as centres for the propagation of knowledge. Scholars like Robert Grosseteste, Albertus Magnus, and Roger Bacon wrote about natural science to a growing audience. While Christianity did not recede as a dogmatic cultural system, it was not entirely determinative. Scholars could explore natural phenomena with an openness to past views, although often the learning acquired was purely rational rather than experimental, and was fused with a biblical worldview. In other words, the renaissance of the twelfth century played an integral part in transmitting scientific methodology within a predominantly religious environment that required thinkers to harmonise science with religion.
Other significant achievements took place in less…
Further, Diamond's argument that agriculture inherently provides less nutrition is less valid today, when a greater variety of food choices are available. hile he is correct in noting that there are global disparities in health in today's agricultural society, he also fails to note that this issue could be relatively easily remedied through better food distribution.
Essentially, the disparities in nutrition boil down to issues of political will and wealth, and these issues are not necessarily explained by the growth of agriculture, as Diamond suggests. It could just as easily be argued that the creation of the wheel (which allows for the movement of the military) or of gunpowder (which allows for the suppression of people and societies) is the root cause of such fundamental inequalities between societies.
In conclusion, Diamond's argument that domestication is the biggest mistake in the history of humankind is overly simplistic, and potentially incorrect. It…
Diamond, Jared. The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race. Discover Magazine, May 1987, 64-66. 11 October 2004. http://www.agron.iastate.edu/courses/agron342/diamondmistake.html
During an intense period of social and political unrest among the western civilizations (roughly 1843-1853) it was a religious infiltration in China that created social and political turmoil, "the movement that finally overshadowed all other disturbances was really of a religious character." (illiams 279) the conflict is known as the Tai ping Rebellion and was in part spurned on by Protestant missionary teaching of rebels in China, yet another example of western infiltration of China.
illiams 278-280) the rebellion effectively replaced the Manchu dynasty, ending thousands of years of dynastic rule, asserting the capital at Nanking and creating an even more corrupt cruel government than had ever been present before.
Education in China was even influenced heavily by western powers, as adoptions of what was thought of as superior progress, clearly created the education system in China, as well as many other locations.
Since near the…
Albertini, Rudolf von, and Albert Wirz. European Colonial Rule, 1880-1940: The Impact of the West on India, Southeast Asia, and Africa. Trans. John G. Williamson. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982.
Blue, Gregory. "One the British Connection." Opium Regimes: China, Britain, and Japan, 1839-1952. Ed. Timothy Brook and Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2000. 31-47.
Cubberley, Ellwood P. The History of Education: Educational Practice and Progress Considered as a Phase of the Development and Spread of Western Civilization. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1902.
Porter, Jonathan. "Herbert S. Yee. Macau in Transition: From Colony to Autonomous Region." China Review International 9.1 (2002): 294.
1939, John Steinbeck published his novel The Grapes of rath, and that same year the film version of the story was released. The film was directed by John Ford and was very popular, and the book and the film together reached millions of people. In writing this novel, Steinbeck reflected many of the social, economic, and political currents of the time. The story is set in the Great Depression era, and the Depression was still have its effect in 1939. hat would bring about the end of the Great Depression was already starting in Europe, meaning orld ar II, which does not impinge directly on the story of the Joad family but which we can see from our standpoint today was about to bring about massive changes in American society. The very nature of the story of the Joads, however, links that story to the Depression and its effect on…
Banks, Ann. First-Person America. New York: W.W. Norton, 1980.Caldwell, Mary Ellen. "A New Consideration of the Intercalary Chapters in The Grapes of Wrath." Markham Review 3 (1973), 115-119.
Ford, John. The Grapes of Wrath. Twentieth Century-Fox, 1939.
The Grapes of Wrath." Contemporary Literary Criticism, Vol. 59. Chicago: Gale, 1989.
Groene, Horst. "Agrarianism and Technology in Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath." Southern Review (9:1)(1976), 27-31.
Sociology and Ecology
Thom Hartmann's "Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight" talks about the issue of increasing degradation of the environment as a result of development in human society. In the book, Hartmann centers his attention on a particular aspect of natural resource that is vital to every human's needs and activities -- the much-needed energy, which come, among others, in the form of sunlight and fossil fuels (reserve carbon energy). One of the author's main ideas and themes in his discussion of this issue (depletion of natural resources) is that human society, through its "dominant culture," played a vital and significant role in furthering the degradation of the state of the planet's physical landscape. Sing history as support evidence, Hartmann illustrates how human actions have indeed affected and caused the destruction of the Earth's environment. A case in point is the use and abuse of human society in its natural…
Hartmann, T. (1999). The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight. Thom Hartmann and Mythical Research Inc.
I guess at this point he is losing me a bit. The core concept is still that privilege is about controlling access to resources and using physical traits (the first rung of the diversity wheel) as the most powerful means of doing that. I just find that it is hard to see the point he is trying to make in this chapter because he is pretending that there is no world outside the U.S. Privilege has existed in every human society. If the arguments he is making here are difficult to understand, it is because they are tangential to a genuine understanding of what privilege is. He needs to stop pretending that the U.S. is the only country in the world if he wants to make sense of privilege. Privilege existed long before slavery.
This chapter probably has less personal relevance for me than some of the other chapters. It…
He thus makes some plants appealing to us and the author calls this determinism: "We too cast evolutionary (deterministic?) votes every time we reach for the most symmetrical flower or the longest French fry. The survival of the sweetest, the most beautiful....proceeds according to a dialectical processes, a give and take between human desire and the universe of all plant possibility." (243-244)
The convoluted histories of plants have been very carefully explored. The author has done a marvelous job in exploiting historical changes to plants and agriculture to support his thesis. However it would have been better to hypothesize that our relationship with the plants falls in the bigger scheme of things instead of presenting plants as some thinking beings. It is interesting but often a little too far-fetched nonetheless. Pollan's premise is definitely original and his histories of apple and tulip are worth reading more than once; if not…
Social Ecology of Health Promotion
Modern day examples of human modification of an ecosystem
Module 01 Question 01: Preservation of the existing ecosystems
Various measures have been put in order to modify and contain the natural state of the ecosystem. Preservation is one of the approaches that have been used to foster equitable management of the ecosystem. Through preservation, it has become evident that the ecosystem has taken a different understanding from the avenue of human perception. For instance, rules and regulations that help to protect the ecosystem have changed the entire perception of the ecosystem globally. Initially before the establishment of preservation approaches, the ecosystem was getting devastated gradually. Nonetheless, modification has come with the introduction of laws and regulations that work towards protection and preservation of the available avenues in the market.
Through the rules and regulations created, the ecosystem has achieved a new state of protection in…
Callan, S., & Thomas, J.M. (2010). Environmental economics & management: Theory, policy, and applications. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Corwin, J. (2009). 100 heartbeats: The race to save earth's most endangered species. New York, NY: Rodale.
FAO/IRRI Workshop on Judicious and Efficient Use of Insecticides on Rice, International
Rice Research Institute. & Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
1770 and 1850, the economy of England became industry based as opposed to agriculture based as it used to be before (Toynbee, 1884). This was due to technological inventions that were ongoing in many spheres that were finally integrated. This led to the development of factories that really never existed before. The development of industries was owed to better transport system that created larger markets. It took the society some time to adjust to the new economic system different from the agrarian economy they were conversant with. This paper seeks to highlight why industrial revolution started in Britain. There were quite a number of factors that led to British Industrial evolution.
One of the major factors that caused industrial revolution in Britain was the expansion of trade save for the mercantile economic policies that had early been instituted. Because of decline of feudalism, farmers were no longer bound to the…
Kreis, S. (2011). Origins of the Industrial Revolution in England. Retrieved March 29, 2013 from http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture17a.html
Mack, P.E. (2005). The British Industrial Revolution. Retrieved 29, 2013 from http://www.clemson.edu/caah/history/FacultyPages/PamMack/lec122/britir.htm
Toynbee, A. (1884). Lectures on the Industrial Revolution in England. Retrieved 29, 2013 from http://socserv2.socsci.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/toynbee/indrev
We will write this law on stellas. There will be a system of police to maintain order and to ensure that trouble does not occur. There will also be a system of judges (and a legal system of sorts) that will not only answer people's questions in terms of the laws but also decide change and legal minutia during cultural changes that warrant it. The judges too will decide conflicts between people according to the minutia of the law.
The classical Mayan system of priests and shamans will be retained. There will be the same titles Ah K'uhun, Ah K'uhul Hu'n, and Ah K'uhuun (namely "he of the holy books," "keeper of the paper/headbands," and "he who worships signifying the various tasks) (Maya culture; Miller & Taube, 1993).
Good sirs, we will establish an elevated educational system based on the highest wisdom of the time and run according to wisdom…
Coe, Michael D. (1999). The Maya (Sixth ed.). New York: Thames & Hudson
Culbert, T.Patrick (Ed.) (1977). Classic Maya Collapse. University of New Mexico Press.
economic and social changes after 1870 are so striking and so qualitatively different from the developments of the First Industrial Revolution that they deserve to be labeled, "The Second Industrial Revolution."
The Second Industrial Revolution
Rapid changes in societies that radically transform the way of life for significant segments of the population are termed revolutions. Such revolutions have occurred frequently in many parts of the world throughout history. However, only a few in the history of mankind have transformed societies in irreversible and profoundly significant ways. Two such significant events that have taken place in the course of human history are -- The Neolithic Revolution and The Industrial Revolution. In the Neolithic Revolution people changed their way of life and social systems based on hunting and gathering to more complex systems dependant on agriculture and the domestication of animals. This led to the development of communities who lived in permanent…
Electricity and Electric Power." The Second Industrial Revolution. Open Door Web Site. October 15, 2002. November 2, 2002. http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/IR/050.html
Lewis, Pat. "Science and the 'Second' Industrial Revolution." Beginner's Guide to Research in the History of Science. Horus Publications Web Site. November 2, 2002. http://www.horuspublications.com/guide/sl103.html
Porter, Glenn. "Industrial Revolution." Article in Micosoft Encarta Encyclopedia, 2002. CD-ROM Version.
Making the Modern World." The Second Industrial Revolution, 1870-1914. The Science Museum Web Site. November 2, 2002. http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/online/mmw/south5.asp
Targets were set by the government on the manufacturing and agricultural sector. Their approach however is heavily labor intensive, with little use of technology, the cost of production increased and wastages abound because human intervention was quite prevalent in the production process. The economy's rise is somewhat slow given the use of little technology as Mao relied too much on manual labor to drive industries and the agricultural sector.
In Mao's term there were debates between members of the Communist Party. The conflicting parties include a group considered as technically sound in administrative and scientific skills and a group who has the ability to mobilize society along ideological lines. Mao is torn between which group should lead the party. The power struggle between these two groups eventually took its toll in government policies.
It was within this context that Mao's Cultural evolution went into full swing. The Cultural evolution was…
MacFarquhar, R. (2006) Mao's Last Revolution. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Sodaro, M. (2001) Comparative Politics: A Global Introduction. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Tieves, F. (1997) "Establishment and Consolidation of the New Regime" in the Politics of China, 2nd edition, edited by Rhoderick MacFarquhar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hagopian, M. (1995) Ideals and Ideologies of Modern Politics. London: Longman.
Questions On World Regional Geography
Generally speaking, African colonies during the colonial period were seen as expensive liabilities by the great European powers, especially in relation to trading concessions. Toward the end of the 19th century, the attitudes of these powers altered as rival industrial nations like Great Britain, Germany, France and Belgium, attempted to locate and develop overseas markets for their goods. In 1885, the Berlin Conference was convened to resolve conflicts of interest in Africa by allotting areas of exploitation to these colonial powers. As a result, the so-called "scramble for Africa" began in which these powers sought to establish their "rightful" claims to vast expanses of land.
When this conference was convened, most of Africa was under colonial control and was subsequently broken up into numerous states, made up of some fifty separate countries with very irregular geographical boundaries. One major problem linked to this break-up…
The final crisis of the French Monarchy occurred in 1789, with the official beginning of the French Revolution. Although this was the year in which the first official battle of this martial encounter was fought, it is vital to realize that the monarchy had been floundering for some time prior. There were numerous factors that contributed to the disfavor the monarchy found itself in at the end of the 18th century. Some of the more eminent of these political, financial, and environmental causes helped to weaken the French Monarchy's hold over its subjects, as judged by the standards of the present 1. Concurrently, there were military woes that accompanied these factors and which contributed to the mounting unpopularity of this government. However, an analysis of these factors reveals that the most prominent cause of the French Revolution pertained to the zeitgeist of the time in with Enlightenment ideals…
Acemoglu, Daaron, Cantoni, Davide, Johnson, Simon, Robinson, James. "The Consequences of Radical Reform: The French Revolution." NBER Working Paper Series. Retrieved 4/3/2016. http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/jrobinson/files/jr_consequeces_frenchrev.pdf
Davies, Norman. The History of Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Doyle, William. The Oxford History of the French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press,1990.
Langer, William. The Encyclopedia of World History. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1972.
Industrialization in America
The process of industrialization can be categorized as the first step towards a social and economic transformation which affected the whole world in ways beyond comprehension. In a nutshell, the world we live in today was nowhere near what it is today before industrialization changed the face of the world. America too greatly adapted to this change and saw itself changing and advancing in the face of the new inventions and advancements. However, with the benefits of the phenomenon came some drawbacks which could not be ignored. The next sections focus on two ways in which industrialization proved to be a blessing for the Americans as well as two ways that it created problems (Alonso, 1994).
One industry that saw phenomenal changes after industrialization came about was the American agricultural industry. The farming techniques became greatly advanced and mechanization made things much easier and reduced the…
Alonso, I.T. (1994). Trade, Industrialization and Integration in the 20th-Century Central America. Praeger Publications.
Amsden, A.H. (2000). The Rise of the Rest: Challenges to the West from Late-Industrialization Economies. Oxford University Press.
Walker, R. (2004). The roots of American Industrialization. The Geographical Review .
economic basis of American cities change from colonial era to 1860 and why did it change.
here is little doubt that there were a significant amount of economic changes taking place within the fledgling United States of America from its inception during colonial time to the year preceding the Civil War, 1860. hose changes were widely facilitated by advancements made during the Industrial Revolution and those pertaining to the practice of chattel slavery in the southern portion of the country. As such, the economics for American cities reflected these two principle sources of change, which were also underscored by a chief point of division in American social, political and economic life up until the Civil War: the distinction between autonomy and states' rights and circumscribed freedom and a strong federal government. he reality is that the latter of these two choices were good for capitalism and for the U.S. As…
The true way that the economies of American cities changed was along the lines of labor sources. Because the cities in the south were populated by plantations and wanton, ruthlessly exploitative slave labor, the economic power was concentrated in the hands of a tiny few who were able to assert political power (especially at the federal level) to enact legislation that maintained slavery -- in new territories -- to keep them in economic control. In the North, however, the Industrial Revolution had spawned a manufacturing industry in which immigrant workers were able to make a living for themselves largely because they were able to stave off the process of cheap slave labor from populating these areas. What is interesting about these developments is that they conflicted with one another. The South's free labor from the backs of slaves was creating an unfair economic advantage with which the North could not compete. The plight of the Caucasian workers in the South -- in which they were marginalized and destitute because the wealthy plantation owners could forsake them in favor of cheaper slave labor -- was threatening to extend itself to the capitalist system in the country's north. Therefore, it is critical to note that the cutoff period for this assignment ends the year before the Civil War, since this martial encounter was largely fought to transform the collective economy of the nation's cities from one of agriculture to one of industry and to preserve the union in the process.
It is necessary to note the role that transportation played in the economic development of cities in the U.S. within the greater context of the changing labor supplies and their effects on both national and global capitalism. The Industrial Revolution helped to facilitate greater access to and means of transportation, particularly in the form of steam powered ships (which plied up and down the Mississippi River and in other parts of the country) and in terms of the railroad, which progressed increasingly westward. As a result, there were several terminus towns that sprouted up and came to become some of the country's most thriving cities such as Chicago, Cincinnati, and Buffalo. As a result of the railroad's foray into the western portion of the country, rudiments of the American system took place in which the West was used to supply raw materials for the North to refine and make into the finished products.
Essentially, the economies of American cities changed from the colonial period to 1860 due to developments in the Industrial Revolution and slavery which changed the labor supplies in the North and South of the countries. These changes resulted in a capitalist system which advantaged the South (with its free labor) to the disadvantage of the North -- which eventually resulted in the waging of the Civil War.
(Olivia C. Smith, 2002).
One of the leading political Chicana women today is Dolores Huerta; she is the co-founder of the First Vice President Emeritus which belongs to United Farm Workers of America. orn in April 10, 1930, she founded an organization namely Community Service Organization in 1955 and in 1960 she founded Agricultural Workers Association. Later on, she worked with Cesar Chavez and built an organization, National Farm Workers Association which name was changed to United Workers Organizing Committee and afterwards it became UFW in 1966. She made a contract between UFW and Schenley Wine Company for the farm workers who successfully bargained with an agricultural enterprise. Dolores directed a boycott the UFW's national grape for the farm workers to the consumers. In result for this boycott, California table grape industry signed a three years agreement with the United Farm Workers. She is highly politically active and against the…
Jandura, Tereza. Women in the Mexican Revolution. http://www.ic.arizona.edu/ic/mcbride/ws200/mex-jand.htm#Soldaderas
Smith, Olivia C. 2002 Chicana Feminism http://www.english.emory.edu/Bahri/chicana.html
Wikipedia.com Maria Echaveste and Dolores Huerta www.wikipedia.comPath: Maria Echaveste, Dolores Huerta.
Psychological studies have confirmed 'altruistic behavior' can be elicited in people. 'Peer Pressure' could also be utilized as an effective psychological tool in reducing resource consumption and in promoting other healthy environmental practices. [Center for Naturalism] A case in point is the Chinese governments 'Grain to Green' Program that offered cash incentives to farmers to convert marginal farmlands to forests. As Alan Tessier, program director in the National Science Foundation (NSF) says, "Much of the marginal cropland in rural communities has been converted from agriculture to forests through the Grain-to-Green Program, one of the largest 'payment for ecosystem services' programs in the world," "Results of this study show that a community's social norms have substantial impacts on the sustainability of these conservation investments." [ScienceDaily] uilding this collective self-control at the community, national and international level holds the key to the success of an environmentally sustainable future. Motivated and environmentally conscious…
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