39 results for “Alfred Adler”.
Alfred Adler was one of the first supporters of Sigmund Freud's theories of psychoanalysis in Vienna in the eraly-20th Century, although the two psychiatrists had a particularly harsh falling out in 1911 and never reconciled. Adler's basic theories were so distinctive from Freud's that any attempt to combine them would have been impossible, given that he denied the existence of the id, ego and superego. In general, Adler minimized the role of genetics, sexuality and unconscious drives in human personality formation is favor of conscious goal-setting that overcame the childhood sense of dependence, powerlessness and inferiority and created a mature, competent and self-realized adult. Moreover, humans were social creatures whose purpose in life was not merely to accumulate wealth, power and status, but to improve the condition of society and the world as best they could. Alderian psychology was always a relatively small school compared to the Freudians and behaviorists,…
Burger, J.M. (2007). Personality, 7th Edition. Thomson Wadsworth.
Engler, B. (2009). Personality Theories: An Introduction. Houghton Mifflin.
Mosak, H.H. And M. Maniacci (1999). A Primer of Adlerian Psychology: The Analytic-Behavioral-Cognitive Psychology of Alfred Adler. Brunner-Routledge.
Schultz, D.P. And S.E. Schultz. (2011). A History of Modern Psychology, 10th Edition. Wadsworth Cengage.
" (Adler, Understanding Human Nature, pp. 139, 140)
In Adler's view, society can be a source of strength and comfort -- but also provoke neurosis when the individual feels helpless and inferior, as a result of unresolved issues regarding agency, issues begun in childhood. Adler was interested in overcoming the inferiority complex through positive social interaction. "There are the four main types of people, three out of four are negative. The ruling type tries to control others. The getting type tends to be very passive and goes along with others ideas, rarely inventive. The avoiding types try to isolate themselves to avoid defeat, they are usually very cold. The socially useful type, values having control over their lives and strive to do good things for the sake of society."(Fischer, 2001) These persons have a secure sense of self, and becoming such a socially useful, happy, and secure person is the…
Adler, Alfred. "Adler on Social Feeling." Excerpt from Understanding Human Nature.
A pp.139, 140). Retrieved December 9, 2006 at http://pandc.ca/?cat=alfred_adler&page=social_feeling
Alfred Adler." (2006). Psicafe. Retrieved December 9, 2006. http://www.psy.pdx.edu/PsiCafe/KeyTheorists/Adler.htm
Classical Adlerian Depth Psychology."(2006) Classical Adlerian Society Homepage.
Alfred Adler began his career as a psychoanalyst as part of Freud's inner circle. However, he came to the conclusion that Freud was incorrect to place the source of all personal conflict in our sexual development. (Weider, 1995) So eventually he broke from Freud's philosophy and formed his own theory of personality development. His approach emphasizes the person as a social individual rather than a sexual individual. He put more importance on the values the person holds and the choice he makes.
He saw early childhood as crucial in later personality development. He saw individuals as constantly working for individual perfection, and he believed that as a young child we are profoundly affected by feelings of inadequacy as we compare ourselves to our parents. This has been described as an "inferiority complex," but that is an oversimplification. (Weider, 1995)
Adler emphasized individual psychology. As he looked at the individual, he…
Adler, Alfred. 1936. "On the Interpretation of Dreams." International Journal of Individual Psychology 2(1): 3-16.
Wieder, Rosalie. "Adler, Alfred (1870-1937)." Gale Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence, 1998.
Wilkerson, David. "Alfred Adler & Dream Styles." Dream Library.
Accessed via the Internet 4/4/02. http://www.dreamgate.com/dream/library/idx_dreamwork_forms.htm
hile there is a lot of controversy surrounding Bandura's theories, the psychologist claims that people should be more interested in the social utility of his theories rather than wasting their time challenging their exactness (Bandura).
The debates relating to Bandura's theories can be associated to the divergences between groups of behavioral theorists and groups of humanistic and cognitive theorists. The former support the belief that the individual is mainly influenced by the environment he/she inhabits while the latter consider that he/she acts on account of their own willpower.
I personally believe that people (especially those in the present) are influenced to a large degree by their environments. This is principally because of factors such as the media, the internet, and globalization in general. However, one's individuality is always noticeable, considering that all people are thought to be unique in their character. Thus, even though most people's personalities are presently shaped…
1. Bandura, Albert, "SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY: An Agentic Perspective," Retrieved August 25, 2010, from the Division of Education Studies Website: http://des.emory.edu/mfp/Bandura2001ARPr.pdf
2. Coles, Robert. Anna Freud: The Dream of Psychoanalysis (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1992).
3. Thurstone, L.L. & Jenkins, R.L. (1931). Order of Birth, Parent-Age, and Intelligence. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Therefore, the therapist and counselor should be aware of the subjective view or interpretation of reality of the patient. This has important implications in many fields; for example, in education. Using Adler's theory, "…apparent under-achievement in school is to be understood more in terms of the student subjective interpretations than in terms of standardized test results" (Dunn, 1971, p. 8). This also relates to Adler's emphasis on the uniqueness of the individual. For example he states that, "I have found that each individual has a different meaning of, and attitude toward, what constitutes success. Therefore, a human being cannot be typified or classified ( Adler, 1964, p. 68). This is a crucial aspect of his theoretical stance and the refusal to categorize human beings leads to an open-ended view of personality.
Holism is a concept that has a particularly significant place in the overall meaning of Adlerian theory. This…
Adler a. ( 1964) Superiority and social interest: A Collection of Later Writings. New York: Basic Books.
Dunn, a. (1971) an Introduction to Adlerian Psychology for the School Counselor.
Annual Convention of the Canadian Guidance and Counseling Association, Toronto, Canada.
Ewen Robert B. An Introduction to Theories of Personality. 5th ed. Mahwah, NJ:
Within months after Winfrey took over, the show went from last place in the ratings to overtaking Donahue as the highest rated talk show in Chicago. It was renamed the Oprah Winfrey Show. And the rest is history.
Considering her past, childhood and experiences and positive outlook in life, she didn't let anything deter her from reaching her goal and becoming successful. In fact, she uses them to inspire and reach out to others.
Self-confidence is an attitude which allows individuals to have positive yet realistic views of themselves and their situations. Self-confident people trust their own abilities, have a general sense of control in their lives, and believe that, within reason, they will be able to do what they wish, plan, and expect.
Surprisingly, lack of self-confidence is not necessarily related to lack of ability. Instead it is often the result of focusing too much on the unrealistic…
Self-Confidence. Retrieved April 27, 2007 from http://www.couns.uiuc.edu/New_Site/defaultwinter.html
Dr. C. George Boeree. (2006). B.F. Skinner, Personality Theories. Retrieved May 5, 2007 from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/skinner.html
Oprah Winfrey. (2007). Retrieved May 5, 2007 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oprah_Winfrey
Alfred Adler, Core of Personality. Retrieved April 26, 2007 from http://psych.eiu.edu/spencer/Adler.html
Psychosocial Development Theory
In the history of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud was the first to delve into the unknown recesses of the human mind to identify reasons for neuroses. As such, he identified infantile sexuality to lie at the heart of most problems in the relationship with the self and others and used the three-dimensional model of the id, the ego, and superego to describe the various ways in which these neuroses manifested themselves. Today, many theorists use Freud's theories to build their own derivative theories. Even though many today reject some or most of the early philosopher's ideas, it is thanks to him that these theories have a reason for existence in themselves. Today, the theory known as psychosocial development bases many of its concepts on the early ideas conceptualized by Freud. As such, theorists like Erik Erikson, Alfred Adler, and Karen Horney have developed their own concepts of what…
Adler Graduate School. (2014). Alfred Adler: Theory and Application. Retrieved from: http://www.alfredadler.edu/about/theory
Beyers, W. And Seiffge-Krenke, I. (2010). Does Identity Precede Intimacy? Testing Erikson's Theory on Romantic Development in Emerging Adults of the 21st Century. Journal of Adolescent Research. 20(10). Retrieved from: https://biblio.ugent.be/input/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=941691&fileOId=967467
Davis, D. And Clifton, A. (n.d.) Psychosocial Theory: Erikson. Retrieved from: http://www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/p109g/erikson.stages.html
Goodman, S.H., Connell, A.M., and Hall, C.M. (2011). Maternal Depression and Child Psychopathology: A Meta-Analytic Review. Clinical Child Family Psychological Review. 14. Retrieved from: http://psych.colorado.edu/~willcutt/pdfs/Goodman_2011.pdf
Ellis' belief was that individual who could take charge of their emotions would be rational thinkers and thus would approach conflicts confidently, working towards compromises, minimalizing risks and willingness to sacrifice immediate needs for the more important long-term benefits.
Skinner also provides insight into the issue of individual self-confidence. According to Skinner, individual's act in accordance to their heredity and environment. In other words, underlying all behavior is the assumption that individual behavior is predetermined by learning and reinforcement. In order to acquire new skills, one has to be taught. Thus, individuals can be taught self-confidence through positive reinforcement. For example, if an individual's action results in a positive outcome, they will be more likely to continue to repeat this behavior because it builds confidence. On the other hand, if the outcome is negative, self-confidence is decreased and that individual is less likely to repeat the behavior.
According to Skinner,…
He can then be influenced to live what he now understands but has yet to do. The therapist or doctor must encourage the patient or awaken his social interest and raise his level of energy along with it. y developing a genuine human relationship with the patient, the therapist or doctor can re-establish the basic form of social interest, which the patient can use in transferring it to others. oth therapist and patient must realize that the latter's ultimate cure can come only from him.
Adler's approach has similarities with that of Socrates (Stein 1991). Socrates exhorted others to "know thyself," while Adler urged that people should think for themselves (Meyer 1980 as qtd in Stein 1991). Like Socrates, he would lead the person or patient through a series of questions to a contradiction within himself as revealed by his own answers. oth philosophers were committed to the search for…
Adler, A. (1932). Mind and Body. What Life Should Mean to You. Unwin Books. http://www.marxists.org/references.org/subject/philosophy/works/at/adler.htm
Boeree, G. (1997). Alfred Adler. Shippensburg University. http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/adler.htm
Holmes, L. (2002). Clinicians' Personal Theories Influence Diagnosis of Mental Disorders. Mental Health Resource: Vanderbilt University. http://mentalhealth.about.com/library/sci/1202/blscdx1202.htm
Center for Existential Depth Psychology. (2004). Philosophical Forerunners of Existential Psychotherapy. Louis Hoffman. http://www.existential.therapy.co/Key%20Figures/Philosophical_Forerunners.htm
Adler (2009) notes "jealousy is merely an especially well-marked form of the striving for power."
The Jante Laws warns people that they should not try to become individuals and Sandemose's creation of the laws in the novel was done as criticism for the types of societies that produce these kinds of principles that make collective efforts the norm and the only acceptable way to be in society. "The gulf between an individual and his unreachable goal expresses itself in the form of an inferiority complex." Espen's jealousy and consequent murder is symbolic of his own lack of individuality as he sees this other man as being better than he is since he was able to steal something that he loved so dearly. This was Espen's way of making sure that he was not put into a lesser position (subordination) whether it was only for the sake of his ego or…
Adler, Alfred. Understanding Human Nature: The Psychology of Personality. OneWorld
Publications; Reprint edition, 2009.
Durbin, Paul G. "Alfred Adler's Understanding of Inferiority." The Infinity Institute.
1996. Retrieved on June 19, 2010, from the Web site:
online Human Services class people counseling career. You book paper, therefor I've downloaded Professor's lesson overviews. Please contact . The book "Effective Helping: Interviewing Counseling Techniques" Seveneth Edition By, Barbara F.
Application of helping theories
Creating efficiency and effectiveness in the counseling career is a challenge for every counselor since they are required to apply different theories of helping which emphasize on the behavior, attitude, techniques and methods that are used by the counselor. With each theory having its own set of concepts and ideas, they create a daunting task for the counselor who is required to combine these to devise a technique for counseling the client that varies on the basis of the client's personal counseling needs and bears a cultural awareness that presents effective counseling for the patient Okun & Kantrowitz, 2008.
The patient chosen in this case is one that is suffering from inferiority complex. This means…
Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Mosak, H., & Maniacci, M. (1999). The analytic~behavioral~cognitve psychology of alfred adler New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
Okun, B.F., & Kantrowitz, R.E. (2008). Effective Helping: Interviewing and Counseling Techniques. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Adlerian TheoryName and brief description of key figure (s) (Drout, Harback, & Rule, n.d.)The 20th century Austrian psychologist, educator, and physician Alfred Adler was an early disciple of Freudian psychology, but gradually broke with his mentor in several distinct ways. In stark contrast to Sigmund Freud, Adler emphasized the social rather than sexual aspects of human personality development. Freudian hard determinism of the human character is starkly contrasted with Adlers soft determinism, as Adler believed in the possibility of the individual avoiding some of the influences of heredity and the environment, with proper counseling and self-awareness. Adler has been called the founder of individual psychology and has had a profound influence upon a number of later branches of psychology, including gestalt and humanistic psychology. For Alder, the self is fundamentally relational and personality is expressed in relation to other human actors and social dynamics. The individual is an indivisible unit…
Equity theory recognizes that individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amount of rewards they receive for their efforts, but also with the relationship of this amount to what their peers receive (amlall, 2004). Adams (1963, 1965) posits that individuals are motivated by the perception of inequality, as measured by "input" and "outcome" ratios in comparison to others. Equity theory draws from multiple empirical theories and is utilized to make predictions about how individuals manage their relationships with others (Huseman, et al., 1987). If equity exists, the individual is at peace with the exchange and therefore not moved to action. If the individual perceives that his or her outcome/input ratio is less than that of a referent individual, then inequity exists, and motivation to restore equity arises (Chhokar et al., 2001).
Perception of inequity
Behavioral response (define)
Individuals may respond by choosing a behavioral response by reducing their inputs…
Byrne D.E., Lindgren H.C. 1971. Psychology: an Introduction to a Behavioral Science.
Wiley: New York.
Drillings M., O'Neil H.F. Jr.
Motivation: Theory and Research. Contributors: - editor,. - author. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Hillsdale, NJ. Publication Year: 1994. Page Number: 14.
One weakness of obert G.L. Waite's classic work of psychobiography and psychohistory, The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler (1993) is that no written evidence exists today from any psychologist or psychiatrist who actually examined Hitler, although his political opponents in Germany allegedly had reports from military psychiatrists in the First World War that Hitler was no promoted above private first class because of mental and emotional instability. In spite of the lacunae of evidence, Waite offered a convincing medical and psychological portrait of Hitler, and he has gathered considerable evidence to demonstrate the irrationality of his subject, who he diagnosed as a borderline psychotic. George Victor asserted in Hitler: The Pathology of Evil (2007) claimed that he had a depressive nervous breakdown in 1909 and a schizophrenic breakdown in 1918, when he was in the Pasewalk military hospital in Berlin. In A First-ate Madness, Nassir Ghaemi found that Hitler…
Ghaemi, N. (2011). A First-Rate Madness: Uncovering the Links between Leadership and Mental Illness. Penguin Press.
Housden, M. (2000). Hitler: Study of a Revolutionary? Routledge.
Kershaw, I. (2008). Hitler: A Biography. NY: Norton.
Rosenbaum, R. (1998). Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil. NY: HarperCollins.
An Adlerian approach to the case of B.A., the 14-year-old Guatemalan-American boy whose case was described by Layla, should primarily focus on B.A.'s feelings of inferiority and his sense of community and social being. Adlerian therapy generally concentrates on these two areas, and it is worth examining each specifically for B.A.
We can probably act from the assumption that B.A.'s feelings of inferiority are largely related to his family environment. Alfred Adler held that early childhood contains a lot of clues for how to interpret subsequent behavior -- in Corey's words, the Adlerian view is that "at around 6 years of age our fictional vision of ourselves as perfect or complete begins to form into a life goal." (Corey 99). In the case of B.A., he has had no physical contact with his mother from the age of five months -- too young to have any memories at…
Corey, G. (2008). Theory And Practice Of Counseling & Psychotherapy, 8th Edition. Belmont, CA: Brooks / Cole.
Mannoni's belief that colonial racism is different than other kinds of racism Fanon dismisses as utterly naive: "All forms of exploitation are identical because all of them are applied against the same 'object': man" (88). He next turns to Mannoni's statement that a minority can only have experiences of dependency or inferiority toward the majority (92-93). Fanon spends the remainder of the chapter disproving this claim by engaging with various aspects of Mannoni's argument. He concludes that Mannoni's lacks foundation for his claims.
Fanon focuses this chapter on the observation that only in interaction with the white man is the black man compelled to "experience his being" (109). He argues that, contrary to other claims, this condition is not reciprocal; only the black man suffers from a 3rd person view of himself. Fanon strives to find an identity for the black man outside the parameters of the white man's view.…
The key to flexibility of motivation is intrinsically conflicting motivational structures. The self as defined by Jung is the core or central component that keeps these opposing forces operating as an integrated whole. To what closing stages does this process manage? It was formed by evolution and so survival is the architect but it is survival not just of the next generation but into an unclear future. The self as described by Jung is the psychic image of this limitless potential for prospect development. For itself it focuses on the various dimensions of human functioning that put in to survival including ingenuity in all its forms.
Sensing the self as something irrational, as an impalpable existent, to which the ego is neither opposed nor subject, but simply attached, and about which it spins very much as the earth does round the sun, accordingly the goal of individuation is reached. The…
Cavell, M. (1993). The Psychoanalytic Mind: From Freud to Philosophy. Cambridge, MA:
Deigh, J. (1996). The Sources of Moral Agency: Essays in Moral Psychology and Freudian
Theory. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press,
Geller, L. (1984). Another look at self-actualization. Journal of humanistic psychology, 24:100
The major criticisms of Freud's Theory thought that it was difficult to test and there was too much emphasis on Biology.
Humanistic Theory- was developed by Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow and emphasizes the internal experiences such as feelings and thoughts and the individual's feelings of worth. It believes that humans are naturally good and have a positive drive towards their own self-fulfilment. Rogers was most interested in the interaction between mental health, self-concept and self-esteem. Maslow believed that every person has an in-born drive to develop all their talents and capacities and calls this self-actualization. The critics of this theory felt that it is naive to assume that all people are good and think it takes a narrow view of personality.
Social-Cognitive Theory- by Albert Bandura believes that personality comes from the person's history of interaction with the environment. He believes that self-efficacy comes from having a strong belief…
Another person reading this information might think, "Well, this sounds good but I don't think I can do it." This person feels sad and discouraged. So it is not a situation which directly affects how a person feels emotionally, but rather, his or her thoughts in that situation. When people are in distress, they often do not think clearly and their thoughts are distorted in some way (eck).
Cognitive therapy helps people to identify their distressing thoughts and to evaluate how realistic the thoughts are. Then they learn to change their distorted thinking. When they think more realistically, they feel better. The emphasis is also consistently on solving problems and initiating behavioral change (eck).
Thoughts intercede between some sort of stimulus, such as an external event, and feelings. The motivator (stimulus) brings out a thought -- which might be a weighted judgment -- which turns into to an emotion. In…
American Heritage Dictionary. "Medical Dictionary: "mind." 2009. TheFreeDictionary.com. 15
May 2009 .
Beck, J.S. "Questions About Cognitive Therapy." n.d. Beckinstitute.org. 15 May 2009 .
Biggs, D. And G. Porter. Dictionary of Counseling. Charlotte, N.C.: IAP, 2000.
Not all humans exhibit the same jealously levels, behaviors, etc.); and, 2. Today, instinct theory has a more biological emphasis for specific motives and not all (like aggression and sex). but, there is still a strong instinct perspective in the study of animals (ethology) (p. 2).
Notwithstanding this lack of consensus, there have been much attention directed to the relationship between instinct theory and the various dimensions of the human experience, which are discussed further below.
elationship of Instinct Theory to Dimensions of Human Experience.
A) Paradoxes in Human Experience. Indeed, in their book, Psychologies of 1925: Powell Lectures in Psychological Theory, Madison Bentley (1928) asked early on, "By what theory can it be explained how it comes about that an individual can exhibit so many and such extreme and even seemingly paradoxical phases, or alterations of his character, and such contrasting contradictory traits and behavior?" (p. 259). The duality…
Adler, a., Bentley, Boring, E.G. et al. (1930). Psychologies of 1930. Worcester, MA: Clark University Press.
Alic, M. (2001). McDougall, William (1871-1938). In Gale encyclopedia of psychology, 2nd ed. Gale Group.
Alvarado, C.S. (2003). Reflections on Being a Parapsychologist. The Journal of Parapsychology, 67(2), 211.
Arieti, S. (1974). The foundations of psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.
The case surrounds Carlos, a man in his late 30s with a growing tumor that will not respond to radiation or chemotherapy. Carlos has been fighting this cancer for about a decade, but it is now to the point in which medical science can do no more for him. Carlos was referred to therapy by his oncologist, and responded somewhat to individual therapy but became combative and confrontational in group therapy. Carlos is a classic narcissist and misogynist. He has few friends, is estranged from his children, and is, at best cynical and sarcastic. However, through individual therapy, Carlos was able to come to some conclusions about the walls he built around himself, and the tremendous insecurity he harbored; typically using sex and sarcasm to cover up his need to belong. He eventually revealed that he had come up with two insights about himself and his relationship to…
Corsini, R., Wedding, D. (2011). Current Psychotherapies, 9th ed. Mason, OH: Cenage.
Yalom, I. (1989). Love's Executioner & Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Harper
Both types of reflection are ways to restructure cognition. Dynamic reflection focuses on problems and problem solving, while existential reflection seeks to discover meaning in life. In either case, the helper's role is to facilitate the reflection process.
Congruence with Social Work Values and Ethics
To determine the congruence between cognitive therapy and social work values and ethics, the writer consulted the National Association of Social Worker's (NASW) Code of Ethics (NASW, 2008). NASW's ethical principles are based on its six core values of service, social justice, dignity and worth of the person, importance of human relationships, integrity, and competence. The overriding purpose of cognitive therapy is service to the client -- helping her identify, challenge, and change the cognitive misconceptions that result in unhealthy emotions and dysfunctional behavior. Perhaps the most obvious congruence is between the values of dignity and worth of the person and social justice. The former…
Lantz, J. (2007). Cognitive theory and social work treatment. In M. Mattaini & C. Lowery (Eds.), Foundations of social work practice: a graduate text (4th ed.), 94-115. Washington D.C. NASW Press.
National Association of Social Workers. (2008). Code of ethics of the National Association of Social Workers. Retrieved from http://www.socialworkers.org/pub/code/code.asp .
In this regard, Demorest concludes that, "Together these and other theorists have provided accounts of what it means to be a person that all fit within the psychodynamic paradigm, a perspective that holds a vision of people as at their core driven by dynamic forces in their unconscious minds" (2005, p. 3).
Freud's influence on psychoanalytic thought, though, required some time to take hold and many of his methods were rejected outright by the contemporary medical establishment, particularly in the United States. For example, following Freud's only trip to North America in 1909, one psychiatrist believed that, "Many patients were psychotically disturbed and deemed to be beyond the reach of Freud's intellectual 'talk therapy'" (Beam, 2001, p. 94). Not only did others think that Freud's methods were not appropriate for some patients, Freud himself acknowledged their limitations. In fact, Beam points out as well that, "Freud himself thought most schizophrenics…
Beam, A. (2001). Gracefully insane: The rise and fall of America's premier mental hospital.
New York: Public Affairs.
Cherry, K. (2010). Freud's patients and therapy. About.com: Psychology. Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/sigmundfreud/ig/Sigmund-Freud-Photobiography/Freud-s-Patients-and-Therapy.htm .
Demorest, A. (2005). Psychology's grand theorists: How personal experiences shaped professional ideas. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
The third level up the pyramid is the need for affection, belonging and love. This is the need state area were people are who want to alleviate feelings of loneliness, isolation or alienation (Hoffman, 1988). This level is also critically important for the development of trust in the workplace and within workplace teams and the sense of identity that comes from being part of a group (Harris, Kleiner, 1993). Fourth there is the need for esteem and while it often connotes the esteem from others as a layer of the model, it encompasses self-esteem as well. This is the level where the critical aspects of self-worth, self-confidence and self-discipline come into how a person approaches their life and their goals (Bazigos, Burke, 1997). The top layer of the Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Model is self-actualization. This is the level of where people are who have found their innate strengths and…
Michael N. Bazigos, & W. Warner Burke. (1997). Theory orientations of organization development (OD) practitioners. Group & Organization Management, 22(3), 384-408.
Cangemi, J. (2009). Analysis of an Adversarial Labor/Management Situation in a Latin American Industrial Setting: A Case Study using Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Organization Development Journal, 27(1), 37-47.
Harris, Chris, & Kleiner, Brian H. (1993). Motivational practices at America's best managed companies. Management Research News, 16(9,10), 1.
Hoffman, Edward. (1988, September). Abraham Maslow: Father of Enlightened Management. Training, 25(9), 79.
psychodynamic counselors facilitate change?
In order to understand how psychodynamic counselors facilitate change through a therapeutic relationship with their client, it is worth discussing what psychodynamic therapy is, how it is used, how it originated, and who some of its most notable founders were. Towards the end of this document, in the description of how psychodynamic therapy is used, descriptions of recent psychodynamic therapy sessions that the author undertook in a triad setting will be described.
The mind, personality, and psyche are terms that refer to the interrelationships of a person's mental, emotional, or what could be termed psychological characteristics. Another way to think of this is that the psyche, mind, and personality are the forces that drive a person to think what they do, to act out how they choose, the way a person relates to themselves and how they relate to the world around them particularly the role…
Bowlby, John 1999, Attachment and Loss: Vol I, 2nd Ed. Basic Books, New York.
"Depth Psychology" Stepping Stones: bringing depth psychology to everyday life [online] viewed March 23, 2011, www.depthpsychologytoday.com.
Gay, P 1989, The Freud Reader, W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., New York.
Hall, CS 1954, A Primer in Freudian Psychology. Meridian Books, New York.
Seeking therapy is a good first step, but given Frank's stunted emotional life, having concrete behavioral goals might be helpful, especially at the beginning of the therapeutic process.
Q2: Integrationist point-of-view
No single personality theory can heal all individuals: every person presents the therapist with unique challenges. Some patients, for example, with personality disorders such as bipolar disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or schizoid personality disorder may benefit from having clear, concrete behavioral goals that they must perform, to help wean them from ineffective coping mechanisms (such as self-injury, obsessive rituals, or isolation). More searching types of 'talk' therapy alone may encourage patients to stall rather than to actively change their life in proactive ways and will not address some of the root, habitual causes of the patient's behavior.
Other patients who feel unfulfilled but have a more structured and healthy lifestyle might benefit from more exploratory types of therapy, including Rogers'…
Alfred Dreyfus was born in Alcace in 1959, a period of time tumultuous for both Germany and French. When Germany acquired the Alsace region, Alfred's father moved his family to Paris, feeling allegiance to that country. Alfred was commissioned as an artillery officer in the French Army in 1882 (Adler, 2002).
While Dreyfus was growing up France went through tome dramatic changes. The French thrown was abolished in 1871 and the Third Republic formed. Religious leaders were afraid their power would diminish, and multiple factions lined up against each other. Anti-Prussian sentiment was high because of a humiliating defeat in the Franco-Prussian war (Adler, 2002), and all these factors led to a huge wave of extreme nationalism. Those opposed to the new Republican government needed a target and found it in the Jews after the collapse of a major bank. The director of the bank named "Jewish capitol…
Adler, Joseph. 2002. "The Dreyfus affair.(Alfred Dreyfus)." Midstream, Jan.
Braziller, G. The affair: the case of Alfred Dreyfus by Jean-Denis Bredin. Translated from the French by Jeffrey. New York: Mehlman, 1986.
Cavendish, Richard. 1999. "Dreyfus Pardoned." History Today, Sept.
Editor. 1998. "Framed by his words The Big date." The Scotsman, Feb. 21.
Mass politics in Europe at the end of the 19th Century had turned away from the liberalism of the intellectual and capitalist elites in the direction of populist movements that described themselves as socialist, social democratic or nationalist. Frequently they rejected liberal rationalism and science as well in favor of emotion, mystical symbols, charismatic leaders and demagogues. Among these were the Christian Social Party of Karl Lueger in Austria, which Adolf Hitler admired as a young man and later imitated, and the Action Francaise in France, led by Charles Maurras, Maurice Barras and Eduard Drumont. This early fascist movement thrived in after a Jewish officer in the French Army, Alfred Dreyfus, was falsely convicted of espionage and sentenced to prison on Devil's Island. For Emile Zola and the French Left, overturning this unjust conviction was the most important cause of the era, but for the nationalist and anti-Semitic Right it…
Burns, Michael. France and the Dreyfus Affair: A Documentary History. Bedford/St. Martin's, 1999.
Schorske, Carl E. Fin-de-Siecle Vienna: Politics and Culture. NY: Vintage Books, 1981.
4). This idea has since been abandoned. The mythology of the Amazons, a matriarchy of warrior women, has been discounted as no more than a myth, one deriving from the deep-seated fear on the part of males that they might lose their power and authority. In matrilineal societies, men tend still to monopolize the rights of power. Some Chinese anthropologists believe the stories of true matriarchal societies in some regions of China in the past, but this is uncertain. A matriarchy would be presumed to be less warlike and more nurturing as a social order and would not subordinate men in the way men have done to women in the patriarchal society.
The formulation and operation of power in the largely patriarchal social order in the world today divides along other line than gender, with political action influenced most by ideology, religion, divisions of power, and other aspects of group…
Adler, F. (1983). Nations Not Obsessed with Crime. Littleton, Colorado: Fred B. Rotham and Co.
Berry, J.M. (1997). The interest group society. New York: Longman.
Crapo, R.H. (1993). Cultural anthropology. Sluice Dock Guilford, Conn.: Dushkin.
El-Awa, M.S. (1982). Punishment in Islamic Law. Indianapolis, Indiana: American Trust Publications.
There is a definite chance that both parties could resolve the prolonged conflict successfully if they find and act on ways to be in command of their shared lack of trust. On the other hand, if the conflict is seen in terms of a neoliberal point-of-view, Israel's military efficiency and powerfulness is a great threat for Israelis. To cut a long story short, the main goal on which all the main five parties agree is the achievement of peace between Israelis and Palestinians but it is only possible if they give up their most preferred results; Israel giving up its favorite result of unrestricted occupation of Palestinian land and Palestine holding back its preferred outcome of unconditional withdrawal. The conflict could be resolved if both parties could also find some common solutions for complex and convoluted detachable issues including "the degree of sovereignty of a Palestinian state, the distribution of…
Adler, E, ed. Israel in the World: Legitimacy and Exceptionalism. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon.: Routledge, 2013.
Aronoff, M.J. Cross-Currents in Israeli Culture and Politics. New Jersey: Transaction, Inc., 1984.
Asa-El, a. "Israel's Electoral Complex." Azure - Ideas for the Jewish Nation. http://www.azure.org.il/article.php?id=419 (accessed June 9, 2013).
Bard, M.G. & Schwartz, M. One Thousand and One Facts Everyone Should Know About Israel. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.
The foundational ideas of the limits of science and medical ethics goes back a very long way and as it has evolved over the centuries, certain laws, rules, regulations and taboos have been put in place to protect the human race from that sometimes blurred line between scientific discovery and human existence. Medical ethics created a system, bound by the ideals of many that came before them to control this blurring and attempt to stand between sciences desire to discover and the public and individual's desire to remain safe and in control of one's own body. A long time medical ethicist discusses the history of medical ethics as one that was founded on the principles of the ancients, but that has now become one where medical ethicists are demanding concrete answers, even laws to guide and demand decisions regarding medical ethics be enforced. "My new colleagues were polite enough, to…
Adler, Robert E. Medical Firsts: From Hippocrates to the Human Genome. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2004.
Harvey, William. Lectures on the Whole of Anatomy: An Annotated Translation of Prelectiones Anatomiae Universalis. Trans C.D. O'Malley, F.N.L. Poynter, and K.F. Russell. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1961.
Jecker, Nancy S. "Knowing When to Stop: The Limits of Medicine." The Hastings Center Report 21.3 (1991): 5.
Marble, Annie Russell. The Nobel Prize Winners in Literature. New York: D. Appleton, 1925.
(the National Institute of Mental Health, 2008) Though we are able to identify some external factors, like drug use, and development problems in the womb, mainly it is the genes which determine the occurrence of this disease. We may say that it is a biological disorder. The persons suffering by this disease are largely affected by programs on TV, games, bad environments food intake and similar occurrences. It is Genes that have control over the chemicals in the neurotransmitters and the affected child has these chemical output out of balance. The scans conducted reveal that these defects can be noted in the areas of the brain that deals with psycho motor reflexes. This imbalance creates and distorts the functions of the person in changing focus of thought, organization of things and methods, planning out things, memory, and emotion and reasoning and differentiating between the two. They have impairments of speech…
Adler, Lenard. (2007) "Scattered Minds: Hope and Help for Adults with Attention Deficit..."
American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. (2008) "Child and Adolescent Mental
Illness and Drug Abuse Statistics" Retrieved 27 February, 2008 at http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/resources_for_families/child_and_adolescent_mental_illness_statistics
, 93 F. 3d 1358 (CA7 1996) for its statement that "monopsony pricing is analytically the same as monopoly...pricing and is so treated by the law." ased on this determination that the two concepts are analytically similar, the Court thus concludes that therefore "similar legal standards should apply to claims of monopolization and to claims of monopsonization." Reasoning that predatory-pricing is fundamentally an act of monopolization and that predatory-bidding is fundamentally an act of monopsonization, and that both claims involve the deliberate use of unilateral pricing measures for anticompetitive purposes, the Court finds that the logically same legal standard should therefore govern actions brought on both.
ased on this reasoning, the Court concludes that "the general theoretical similarities of monopoly and monopsony combined with the theoretical and practical similarities of predatory pricing and predatory bidding convince us that our two-pronged rooke Group test should apply to predatory-bidding claims." Accordingly, under…
Bolton, Patrick, et. al. (2000): Predatory Pricing: Strategic Theory and Legal Policy. 88 Geo.L.J. 22239.
Brooke Group Ltd. v. Brown & Williamson Tobacco Corp., 509 U.S. 209 (1993).
Hovencamp, Herbert. (1994): Federal Antitrust Law Policy: The Law of Competition and Its Practice. Minneapolis: West Group Publishing.
Khan v. State Oil Company, 53 F.3d 1358 (CA7 1996).
Besides other awards, he was given a special Congressional Gold Medal by the United States Congress in 1986-87. Copland left an endowment from his estate to a Fund for Composers, which gives $600,000/annum to promote new compositions and performances (Congressional Gold Medial eceipients; Trudeau; Pollack, 548; ockwell).
Copland was an active composer of numerous genres from 1925 to the mid-1960s. His works expressed a new semblance of Americana so easily identifiable that even when performed by foreign orchestras there is a sense of the pioneer days, of American patriotism, and even retelling of American mythology. A few seminal examples of this are:
Fanfare for the Common Man was written in 1942 for the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra and was inspired by a speech by Vice-President Henry Wallace called the era the "Centruy of the Common Man." The piece was part of a program supoprting the American entry into World…
"Congressional Gold Medial Receipients." 23 September 1986. artandhistory.house.gov. .
Copland, a. Aaron Copland: Selected Writings: 1923-1972. Ed. R. Kostelanetz. New York: Routledge, 2004.
-- . "Day and Night: Aaron Copland." March 1975. Youtube.com. .
-- . "Fanfare for the Common Man." June 2001. YouTube. .
Neurosis in the workplace and in society in general
This essay discusses with regard to neurosis and to the degree to which it can affect a person. The paper relates to how the contemporary society has a somewhat limited understanding of the concept and concerning how the fact that many mental health specialists consider the matter to be outdated does not help neurotic individuals and people around them. There are a multitude of topics that one can associate with neurosis and by comprehending what it entails and strategies that one can take with the purpose to reduce the influence that its symptoms have on individuals and environments they interact with, one can successfully combat the condition.
Neurosis in the workplace is a sensible issue, as it would be difficult for a coworker to simply diagnose one of his or her colleagues or to go as far as to…
Parker, S., Dewberry, J., Lloyd, B., & Smith, J.R., "Moving Away, Against and Toward God: Karen Horney's Neurotic Trends and Relationship to God." Journal of Psychology and Christianity 2009, Vol. 28, No. 1, 36-43.
Rubin, J. "KAREN HORNEY AT 125 BUILDING ON SOLID GROUND." The American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 2010, 70, (3 -- 9) © 2010 Association for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis 0002-9548/10
Sugarman, A. "WHATEVER HAPPENED TO NEUROSIS? WHO ARE WE ANALYZING? AND HOW?." Psychoanalytic Psychology Copyright 2007 by the American Psychological Association 2007, Vol. 24, No. 3, 409 -- 428 0736-9735/07/$12.00 DOI: 10.1037/0736-97220.127.116.119.
Industrial Organizational Psychology: Motivation
Applied behavioral science
This is a branch of science that comprises of fields such as sociology, psychology and anthropology that deals primarily with the human actions and seeks to give a general view on human behavior within the society. This is a field which takes an interdisciplinary approach when it comes to the study of human behavior. It explores the activities and interactions among human beings. Applied behavioral science therefore is a process of systematically applying interventions that are based on the behavioral science principles in order to bring an improvement of socially significant behaviors to a meaningful degree and demonstrate that the interventions used are the ones that are responsible for bringing an improvement in behavior. This case study is explored from cognitive psychology which focuses on internal states like motivation, decision making, problem solving and so on.
In this case study Jasmine has to…
Grant, A. (2012). Leading with meaning: Beneficiary contact, prosocial impact, and the performance effects of transformational leadership.
This article is on the impact of transformational leadership in any organization. This article is relevant to the case study since it brings out the advantages of applying transformational leadership within the case study.
Ajang, P. (2011). Assessing the role of work motivation on employee performance. Retrieved July 7, 2014 from http://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:140549/FULLTEXT01.pdf
This article looks at the importance of motivation of employees when it comes to their performance.it is relevant to the case study since we have seen the issue in the case study is the lack of motivation for employees hence it just emphasizes more on the fact that employee motivation is important when it comes to their performance.
Erick Erikson's Theory of Socioemotional Development
Erik Erikson, American psychoanalyst, is known in the field of psychology for his contribution in studying the socioemotional aspect of development among humans. Called the theory of socioemotional development, Erikson posits in his theory that, "people grow and develop "socialized by and socialize others -- parents, siblings, peers, teachers... processes that involve changes in an individual's relationships with other people, changes in emotion, and changes in personality" (Santrock, 2001:338). Erikson identified different dichotomies that specifically delineate positive and negative aspects of socioemotional developments among individuals. These dichotomies are placed at various levels, where different socioemotional characteristics are manifested at each level of the individual's development.
Erikson's theory is an essential tool to understanding human behavior because it serves as a guideline for people to understand the different changes in socioemotional characteristics of people as they grow older. Of course, there are certain exceptions…
Dundy, E. (1976). "Life is all ups and no downs on this carousel." New York Times Web site (NYTimes.com). Available at http://www.nytimes.com/books/99/08/22/specials/erikson-carousel.html .
Santrock, J. (2001). Psychology. Singapore: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Sigmund Freud (1856-1949)
Sigmund Freud is the undisputed father of psychoanalysis. Should this statement seem to contradict assertions regarding the age-old status of psychology, it must be clarified that Freud was the first theorist to formalize the process of analysis, a practice that is not used in all modalities of psychology today. Analysis, specifically the psychoanalysis so often parodied in the cartoon of the tormented patient lying on the couch before the bearded quasi-Freudian father figure of the therapist, presupposes in its theoretical structure the existence of an subconscious element to the human mind, in other words, that how humans think they immediately perceive the world is not all that there is to human consciousness.
Freud used techniques such as free association to elicit reasons for his patient's behaviors. Freud began his treatment upon hysterics. He grew to believe that unresolved childhood traumas rather than physiological causes were at…
Pavlov, Ivan. (2003) Lectures and translations. http://www.ivanpavlov.com last modified: April 14, 2003. Retrieved on September 19, 2004 at http://www.ivanpavlov.com/
Ross, Kelly R. (2002) Karl Jung. Retrieved on September 19, 2004 at http://www.friesian.com/jung.htm
Thorton, Steven P. (2001) "Sigmund Freud." Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved on September 19, 2004 at http://www.utm.edu/research/iep/f/freud.htm#Backdropto his Thought
The author of this report is to answer to two different psychology-related questions. The first question asks the author of this report to speak to how certain career people would tend to fit into the five factor model. The second and final question asks the author of this report to take an online personality assessment and share the results. While making broad generalizations about the first of those two questions would be unwise, there are patterns and trends that would make themselves clear and personality tests like the one taken in the second question would be much more precise.
The five factors of the Five Factor grouping are openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness and neuroticism. The president of a corporation would absolutely tend to have extraversion and neuroticism as the main foci. To be specific, they would tend to be secure and confident as well as…
MBTI. (2014, September 28). The Myers & Briggs Foundation. The Myers & Briggs Foundation. Retrieved September 28, 2014, from http://www.myersbriggs.org/
Rathus, S.A. (2013). PSYCH (3rd ed.). Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth.
Alfred Adler was one of the first supporters of Sigmund Freud's theories of psychoanalysis in Vienna in the eraly-20th Century, although the two psychiatrists had a particularly harsh falling…Read Full Paper ❯
" (Adler, Understanding Human Nature, pp. 139, 140) In Adler's view, society can be a source of strength and comfort -- but also provoke neurosis when the individual feels…Read Full Paper ❯
Alfred Adler began his career as a psychoanalyst as part of Freud's inner circle. However, he came to the conclusion that Freud was incorrect to place the source of…Read Full Paper ❯
hile there is a lot of controversy surrounding Bandura's theories, the psychologist claims that people should be more interested in the social utility of his theories rather than wasting…Read Full Paper ❯
147). Therefore, the therapist and counselor should be aware of the subjective view or interpretation of reality of the patient. This has important implications in many fields; for example,…Read Full Paper ❯
Within months after Winfrey took over, the show went from last place in the ratings to overtaking Donahue as the highest rated talk show in Chicago. It was renamed…Read Full Paper ❯
Psychosocial Development Theory In the history of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud was the first to delve into the unknown recesses of the human mind to identify reasons for neuroses. As…Read Full Paper ❯
Ellis' belief was that individual who could take charge of their emotions would be rational thinkers and thus would approach conflicts confidently, working towards compromises, minimalizing risks and willingness…Read Full Paper ❯
He can then be influenced to live what he now understands but has yet to do. The therapist or doctor must encourage the patient or awaken his social interest…Read Full Paper ❯
Adler (2009) notes "jealousy is merely an especially well-marked form of the striving for power." The Jante Laws warns people that they should not try to become individuals and…Read Full Paper ❯
online Human Services class people counseling career. You book paper, therefor I've downloaded Professor's lesson overviews. Please contact . The book "Effective Helping: Interviewing Counseling Techniques" Seveneth Edition By,…Read Full Paper ❯
Psychology - Counseling
Adlerian TheoryName and brief description of key figure (s) (Drout, Harback, & Rule, n.d.)The 20th century Austrian psychologist, educator, and physician Alfred Adler was an early disciple of Freudian…Read Full Paper ❯
Equity theory recognizes that individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amount of rewards they receive for their efforts, but also with the relationship of this amount to…Read Full Paper ❯
Interdisciplinary Methods One weakness of obert G.L. Waite's classic work of psychobiography and psychohistory, The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler (1993) is that no written evidence exists today from any…Read Full Paper ❯
Adlerian Therapy An Adlerian approach to the case of B.A., the 14-year-old Guatemalan-American boy whose case was described by Layla, should primarily focus on B.A.'s feelings of inferiority and…Read Full Paper ❯
Mannoni's belief that colonial racism is different than other kinds of racism Fanon dismisses as utterly naive: "All forms of exploitation are identical because all of them are applied…Read Full Paper ❯
The key to flexibility of motivation is intrinsically conflicting motivational structures. The self as defined by Jung is the core or central component that keeps these opposing forces operating…Read Full Paper ❯
The major criticisms of Freud's Theory thought that it was difficult to test and there was too much emphasis on Biology. Humanistic Theory- was developed by Carl Rogers and…Read Full Paper ❯
Another person reading this information might think, "Well, this sounds good but I don't think I can do it." This person feels sad and discouraged. So it is not…Read Full Paper ❯
Not all humans exhibit the same jealously levels, behaviors, etc.); and, 2. Today, instinct theory has a more biological emphasis for specific motives and not all (like aggression and…Read Full Paper ❯
Yalom Analysis The case surrounds Carlos, a man in his late 30s with a growing tumor that will not respond to radiation or chemotherapy. Carlos has been fighting this…Read Full Paper ❯
Both types of reflection are ways to restructure cognition. Dynamic reflection focuses on problems and problem solving, while existential reflection seeks to discover meaning in life. In either case,…Read Full Paper ❯
In this regard, Demorest concludes that, "Together these and other theorists have provided accounts of what it means to be a person that all fit within the psychodynamic paradigm,…Read Full Paper ❯
The third level up the pyramid is the need for affection, belonging and love. This is the need state area were people are who want to alleviate feelings of…Read Full Paper ❯
psychodynamic counselors facilitate change? In order to understand how psychodynamic counselors facilitate change through a therapeutic relationship with their client, it is worth discussing what psychodynamic therapy is, how…Read Full Paper ❯
Seeking therapy is a good first step, but given Frank's stunted emotional life, having concrete behavioral goals might be helpful, especially at the beginning of the therapeutic process. Q2:…Read Full Paper ❯
Dreyfus Affair Alfred Dreyfus was born in Alcace in 1959, a period of time tumultuous for both Germany and French. When Germany acquired the Alsace region, Alfred's father moved…Read Full Paper ❯
Mass politics in Europe at the end of the 19th Century had turned away from the liberalism of the intellectual and capitalist elites in the direction of populist movements…Read Full Paper ❯
Family and Marriage
4). This idea has since been abandoned. The mythology of the Amazons, a matriarchy of warrior women, has been discounted as no more than a myth, one deriving from…Read Full Paper ❯
History - Israel
There is a definite chance that both parties could resolve the prolonged conflict successfully if they find and act on ways to be in command of their shared lack…Read Full Paper ❯
The foundational ideas of the limits of science and medical ethics goes back a very long way and as it has evolved over the centuries, certain laws, rules, regulations…Read Full Paper ❯
(the National Institute of Mental Health, 2008) Though we are able to identify some external factors, like drug use, and development problems in the womb, mainly it is the…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Law
, 93 F. 3d 1358 (CA7 1996) for its statement that "monopsony pricing is analytically the same as monopoly...pricing and is so treated by the law." ased on this…Read Full Paper ❯
Besides other awards, he was given a special Congressional Gold Medal by the United States Congress in 1986-87. Copland left an endowment from his estate to a Fund for…Read Full Paper ❯
ersonality Theory Neurosis in the workplace and in society in general This essay discusses with regard to neurosis and to the degree to which it can affect a person.…Read Full Paper ❯
Industrial Organizational Psychology: Motivation Applied behavioral science This is a branch of science that comprises of fields such as sociology, psychology and anthropology that deals primarily with the human…Read Full Paper ❯
Psychology Erick Erikson's Theory of Socioemotional Development Erik Erikson, American psychoanalyst, is known in the field of psychology for his contribution in studying the socioemotional aspect of development among…Read Full Paper ❯
Timeline Sigmund Freud (1856-1949) Sigmund Freud is the undisputed father of psychoanalysis. Should this statement seem to contradict assertions regarding the age-old status of psychology, it must be clarified…Read Full Paper ❯
Black Studies - Philosophy
Psychology The author of this report is to answer to two different psychology-related questions. The first question asks the author of this report to speak to how certain career…Read Full Paper ❯