39+ documents containing “alfred adler”.
Alfred Adler was one of the first supporters of Sigmund Freud's theories of psychoanalysis in Vienna in the eraly-20th Century, although the two psychiatrists had a particularly harsh falling out in 1911 and never reconciled. Adler's basic theories were so distinctive from Freud's that any attempt to combine them would have been impossible, given that he denied the existence of the id, ego and superego. In general, Adler minimized the role of genetics, sexuality and unconscious drives in human personality formation is favor of conscious goal-setting that overcame the childhood sense of dependence, powerlessness and inferiority and created a mature, competent and self-realized adult. Moreover, humans were social creatures whose purpose in life was not merely to accumulate wealth, power and status, but to improve the condition of society and the world as best they could. Alderian psychology was always a relatively small school compared to the Freudians and behaviorists,….
Burger, J.M. (2007). Personality, 7th Edition. Thomson Wadsworth.
Engler, B. (2009). Personality Theories: An Introduction. Houghton Mifflin.
Mosak, H.H. And M. Maniacci (1999). A Primer of Adlerian Psychology: The Analytic-Behavioral-Cognitive Psychology of Alfred Adler. Brunner-Routledge.
Schultz, D.P. And S.E. Schultz. (2011). A History of Modern Psychology, 10th Edition. Wadsworth Cengage.
" (Adler, Understanding Human Nature, pp. 139, 140)
In Adler's view, society can be a source of strength and comfort -- but also provoke neurosis when the individual feels helpless and inferior, as a result of unresolved issues regarding agency, issues begun in childhood. Adler was interested in overcoming the inferiority complex through positive social interaction. "There are the four main types of people, three out of four are negative. The ruling type tries to control others. The getting type tends to be very passive and goes along with others ideas, rarely inventive. The avoiding types try to isolate themselves to avoid defeat, they are usually very cold. The socially useful type, values having control over their lives and strive to do good things for the sake of society."(Fischer, 2001) These persons have a secure sense of self, and becoming such a socially useful, happy, and secure person is the ultimate….
Adler, Alfred. "Adler on Social Feeling." Excerpt from Understanding Human Nature.
A pp.139, 140). Retrieved December 9, 2006 at http://pandc.ca/?cat=alfred_adler&page=social_feeling
Alfred Adler." (2006). Psicafe. Retrieved December 9, 2006. http://www.psy.pdx.edu/PsiCafe/KeyTheorists/Adler.htm
Classical Adlerian Depth Psychology."(2006) Classical Adlerian Society Homepage.
Alfred Adler began his career as a psychoanalyst as part of Freud's inner circle. However, he came to the conclusion that Freud was incorrect to place the source of all personal conflict in our sexual development. (Weider, 1995) So eventually he broke from Freud's philosophy and formed his own theory of personality development. His approach emphasizes the person as a social individual rather than a sexual individual. He put more importance on the values the person holds and the choice he makes.
He saw early childhood as crucial in later personality development. He saw individuals as constantly working for individual perfection, and he believed that as a young child we are profoundly affected by feelings of inadequacy as we compare ourselves to our parents. This has been described as an "inferiority complex," but that is an oversimplification. (Weider, 1995)
Adler emphasized individual psychology. As he looked at the individual, he maintained that….
Adler, Alfred. 1936. "On the Interpretation of Dreams." International Journal of Individual Psychology 2(1): 3-16.
Wieder, Rosalie. "Adler, Alfred (1870-1937)." Gale Encyclopedia of Childhood and Adolescence, 1998.
Wilkerson, David. "Alfred Adler & Dream Styles." Dream Library.
Accessed via the Internet 4/4/02. http://www.dreamgate.com/dream/library/idx_dreamwork_forms.htm
hile there is a lot of controversy surrounding Bandura's theories, the psychologist claims that people should be more interested in the social utility of his theories rather than wasting their time challenging their exactness (Bandura).
The debates relating to Bandura's theories can be associated to the divergences between groups of behavioral theorists and groups of humanistic and cognitive theorists. The former support the belief that the individual is mainly influenced by the environment he/she inhabits while the latter consider that he/she acts on account of their own willpower.
I personally believe that people (especially those in the present) are influenced to a large degree by their environments. This is principally because of factors such as the media, the internet, and globalization in general. However, one's individuality is always noticeable, considering that all people are thought to be unique in their character. Thus, even though most people's personalities are presently shaped by….
1. Bandura, Albert, "SOCIAL COGNITIVE THEORY: An Agentic Perspective," Retrieved August 25, 2010, from the Division of Education Studies Website: http://des.emory.edu/mfp/Bandura2001ARPr.pdf
2. Coles, Robert. Anna Freud: The Dream of Psychoanalysis (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1992).
3. Thurstone, L.L. & Jenkins, R.L. (1931). Order of Birth, Parent-Age, and Intelligence. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Therefore, the therapist and counselor should be aware of the subjective view or interpretation of reality of the patient. This has important implications in many fields; for example, in education. Using Adler's theory, "…apparent under-achievement in school is to be understood more in terms of the student subjective interpretations than in terms of standardized test results" (Dunn, 1971, p. 8). This also relates to Adler's emphasis on the uniqueness of the individual. For example he states that, "I have found that each individual has a different meaning of, and attitude toward, what constitutes success. Therefore, a human being cannot be typified or classified ( Adler, 1964, p. 68). This is a crucial aspect of his theoretical stance and the refusal to categorize human beings leads to an open-ended view of personality.
Holism is a concept that has a particularly significant place in the overall meaning of Adlerian theory. This refers to….
Adler a. ( 1964) Superiority and social interest: A Collection of Later Writings. New York: Basic Books.
Dunn, a. (1971) an Introduction to Adlerian Psychology for the School Counselor.
Annual Convention of the Canadian Guidance and Counseling Association, Toronto, Canada.
Ewen Robert B. An Introduction to Theories of Personality. 5th ed. Mahwah, NJ:
Within months after Winfrey took over, the show went from last place in the ratings to overtaking Donahue as the highest rated talk show in Chicago. It was renamed the Oprah Winfrey Show. And the rest is history.
Considering her past, childhood and experiences and positive outlook in life, she didn't let anything deter her from reaching her goal and becoming successful. In fact, she uses them to inspire and reach out to others.
Self-confidence is an attitude which allows individuals to have positive yet realistic views of themselves and their situations. Self-confident people trust their own abilities, have a general sense of control in their lives, and believe that, within reason, they will be able to do what they wish, plan, and expect.
Surprisingly, lack of self-confidence is not necessarily related to lack of ability. Instead it is often the result of focusing too much on the unrealistic expectations or standards….
Self-Confidence. Retrieved April 27, 2007 from http://www.couns.uiuc.edu/New_Site/defaultwinter.html
Dr. C. George Boeree. (2006). B.F. Skinner, Personality Theories. Retrieved May 5, 2007 from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/skinner.html
Oprah Winfrey. (2007). Retrieved May 5, 2007 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oprah_Winfrey
Alfred Adler, Core of Personality. Retrieved April 26, 2007 from http://psych.eiu.edu/spencer/Adler.html
Psychosocial Development Theory
In the history of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud was the first to delve into the unknown recesses of the human mind to identify reasons for neuroses. As such, he identified infantile sexuality to lie at the heart of most problems in the relationship with the self and others and used the three-dimensional model of the id, the ego, and superego to describe the various ways in which these neuroses manifested themselves. Today, many theorists use Freud's theories to build their own derivative theories. Even though many today reject some or most of the early philosopher's ideas, it is thanks to him that these theories have a reason for existence in themselves. Today, the theory known as psychosocial development bases many of its concepts on the early ideas conceptualized by Freud. As such, theorists like Erik Erikson, Alfred Adler, and Karen Horney have developed their own concepts of what it….
Adler Graduate School. (2014). Alfred Adler: Theory and Application. Retrieved from: http://www.alfredadler.edu/about/theory
Beyers, W. And Seiffge-Krenke, I. (2010). Does Identity Precede Intimacy? Testing Erikson's Theory on Romantic Development in Emerging Adults of the 21st Century. Journal of Adolescent Research. 20(10). Retrieved from: https://biblio.ugent.be/input/download?func=downloadFile&recordOId=941691&fileOId=967467
Davis, D. And Clifton, A. (n.d.) Psychosocial Theory: Erikson. Retrieved from: http://www.haverford.edu/psych/ddavis/p109g/erikson.stages.html
Goodman, S.H., Connell, A.M., and Hall, C.M. (2011). Maternal Depression and Child Psychopathology: A Meta-Analytic Review. Clinical Child Family Psychological Review. 14. Retrieved from: http://psych.colorado.edu/~willcutt/pdfs/Goodman_2011.pdf
Ellis' belief was that individual who could take charge of their emotions would be rational thinkers and thus would approach conflicts confidently, working towards compromises, minimalizing risks and willingness to sacrifice immediate needs for the more important long-term benefits.
Skinner also provides insight into the issue of individual self-confidence. According to Skinner, individual's act in accordance to their heredity and environment. In other words, underlying all behavior is the assumption that individual behavior is predetermined by learning and reinforcement. In order to acquire new skills, one has to be taught. Thus, individuals can be taught self-confidence through positive reinforcement. For example, if an individual's action results in a positive outcome, they will be more likely to continue to repeat this behavior because it builds confidence. On the other hand, if the outcome is negative, self-confidence is decreased and that individual is less likely to repeat the behavior.
According to Skinner, proper….
He can then be influenced to live what he now understands but has yet to do. The therapist or doctor must encourage the patient or awaken his social interest and raise his level of energy along with it. y developing a genuine human relationship with the patient, the therapist or doctor can re-establish the basic form of social interest, which the patient can use in transferring it to others. oth therapist and patient must realize that the latter's ultimate cure can come only from him.
Adler's approach has similarities with that of Socrates (Stein 1991). Socrates exhorted others to "know thyself," while Adler urged that people should think for themselves (Meyer 1980 as qtd in Stein 1991). Like Socrates, he would lead the person or patient through a series of questions to a contradiction within himself as revealed by his own answers. oth philosophers were committed to the search for….
Adler, A. (1932). Mind and Body. What Life Should Mean to You. Unwin Books. http://www.marxists.org/references.org/subject/philosophy/works/at/adler.htm
Boeree, G. (1997). Alfred Adler. Shippensburg University. http://www.ship.edu/~cgboeree/adler.htm
Holmes, L. (2002). Clinicians' Personal Theories Influence Diagnosis of Mental Disorders. Mental Health Resource: Vanderbilt University. http://mentalhealth.about.com/library/sci/1202/blscdx1202.htm
Center for Existential Depth Psychology. (2004). Philosophical Forerunners of Existential Psychotherapy. Louis Hoffman. http://www.existential.therapy.co/Key%20Figures/Philosophical_Forerunners.htm
Adler (2009) notes "jealousy is merely an especially well-marked form of the striving for power."
The Jante Laws warns people that they should not try to become individuals and Sandemose's creation of the laws in the novel was done as criticism for the types of societies that produce these kinds of principles that make collective efforts the norm and the only acceptable way to be in society. "The gulf between an individual and his unreachable goal expresses itself in the form of an inferiority complex." Espen's jealousy and consequent murder is symbolic of his own lack of individuality as he sees this other man as being better than he is since he was able to steal something that he loved so dearly. This was Espen's way of making sure that he was not put into a lesser position (subordination) whether it was only for the sake of his ego or….
online Human Services class people counseling career. You book paper, therefor I've downloaded Professor's lesson overviews. Please contact . The book "Effective Helping: Interviewing Counseling Techniques" Seveneth Edition By, Barbara F.
Application of helping theories
Creating efficiency and effectiveness in the counseling career is a challenge for every counselor since they are required to apply different theories of helping which emphasize on the behavior, attitude, techniques and methods that are used by the counselor. With each theory having its own set of concepts and ideas, they create a daunting task for the counselor who is required to combine these to devise a technique for counseling the client that varies on the basis of the client's personal counseling needs and bears a cultural awareness that presents effective counseling for the patient Okun & Kantrowitz, 2008.
The patient chosen in this case is one that is suffering from inferiority complex. This means that the….
Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Mosak, H., & Maniacci, M. (1999). The analytic~behavioral~cognitve psychology of alfred adler New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.
Okun, B.F., & Kantrowitz, R.E. (2008). Effective Helping: Interviewing and Counseling Techniques. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Adlerian TheoryName and brief description of key figure (s) (Drout, Harback, & Rule, n.d.)The 20th century Austrian psychologist, educator, and physician Alfred Adler was an early disciple of Freudian psychology, but gradually broke with his mentor in several distinct ways. In stark contrast to Sigmund Freud, Adler emphasized the social rather than sexual aspects of human personality development. Freudian hard determinism of the human character is starkly contrasted with Adlers soft determinism, as Adler believed in the possibility of the individual avoiding some of the influences of heredity and the environment, with proper counseling and self-awareness. Adler has been called the founder of individual psychology and has had a profound influence upon a number of later branches of psychology, including gestalt and humanistic psychology. For Alder, the self is fundamentally relational and personality is expressed in relation to other human actors and social dynamics. The individual is an indivisible unit….
Equity theory recognizes that individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amount of rewards they receive for their efforts, but also with the relationship of this amount to what their peers receive (amlall, 2004). Adams (1963, 1965) posits that individuals are motivated by the perception of inequality, as measured by "input" and "outcome" ratios in comparison to others. Equity theory draws from multiple empirical theories and is utilized to make predictions about how individuals manage their relationships with others (Huseman, et al., 1987). If equity exists, the individual is at peace with the exchange and therefore not moved to action. If the individual perceives that his or her outcome/input ratio is less than that of a referent individual, then inequity exists, and motivation to restore equity arises (Chhokar et al., 2001).
Perception of inequity
Behavioral response (define)
Individuals may respond by choosing a behavioral response by reducing their inputs or increasing their….
Byrne D.E., Lindgren H.C. 1971. Psychology: an Introduction to a Behavioral Science.
Wiley: New York.
Drillings M., O'Neil H.F. Jr.
Motivation: Theory and Research. Contributors: - editor,. - author. Publisher: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Hillsdale, NJ. Publication Year: 1994. Page Number: 14.
One weakness of obert G.L. Waite's classic work of psychobiography and psychohistory, The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler (1993) is that no written evidence exists today from any psychologist or psychiatrist who actually examined Hitler, although his political opponents in Germany allegedly had reports from military psychiatrists in the First World War that Hitler was no promoted above private first class because of mental and emotional instability. In spite of the lacunae of evidence, Waite offered a convincing medical and psychological portrait of Hitler, and he has gathered considerable evidence to demonstrate the irrationality of his subject, who he diagnosed as a borderline psychotic. George Victor asserted in Hitler: The Pathology of Evil (2007) claimed that he had a depressive nervous breakdown in 1909 and a schizophrenic breakdown in 1918, when he was in the Pasewalk military hospital in Berlin. In A First-ate Madness, Nassir Ghaemi found that Hitler suffered….
Ghaemi, N. (2011). A First-Rate Madness: Uncovering the Links between Leadership and Mental Illness. Penguin Press.
Housden, M. (2000). Hitler: Study of a Revolutionary? Routledge.
Kershaw, I. (2008). Hitler: A Biography. NY: Norton.
Rosenbaum, R. (1998). Explaining Hitler: The Search for the Origins of His Evil. NY: HarperCollins.
An Adlerian approach to the case of B.A., the 14-year-old Guatemalan-American boy whose case was described by Layla, should primarily focus on B.A.'s feelings of inferiority and his sense of community and social being. Adlerian therapy generally concentrates on these two areas, and it is worth examining each specifically for B.A.
We can probably act from the assumption that B.A.'s feelings of inferiority are largely related to his family environment. Alfred Adler held that early childhood contains a lot of clues for how to interpret subsequent behavior -- in Corey's words, the Adlerian view is that "at around 6 years of age our fictional vision of ourselves as perfect or complete begins to form into a life goal." (Corey 99). In the case of B.A., he has had no physical contact with his mother from the age of five months -- too young to have any memories at all, let….
Alfred Adler was one of the first supporters of Sigmund Freud's theories of psychoanalysis in Vienna in the eraly-20th Century, although the two psychiatrists had a particularly harsh falling…Read Full Paper ❯
" (Adler, Understanding Human Nature, pp. 139, 140) In Adler's view, society can be a source of strength and comfort -- but also provoke neurosis when the individual feels helpless…Read Full Paper ❯
Alfred Adler began his career as a psychoanalyst as part of Freud's inner circle. However, he came to the conclusion that Freud was incorrect to place the source of…Read Full Paper ❯
hile there is a lot of controversy surrounding Bandura's theories, the psychologist claims that people should be more interested in the social utility of his theories rather than…Read Full Paper ❯
147). Therefore, the therapist and counselor should be aware of the subjective view or interpretation of reality of the patient. This has important implications in many fields; for example, in…Read Full Paper ❯
Within months after Winfrey took over, the show went from last place in the ratings to overtaking Donahue as the highest rated talk show in Chicago. It was…Read Full Paper ❯
Psychosocial Development Theory In the history of psychoanalysis, Sigmund Freud was the first to delve into the unknown recesses of the human mind to identify reasons for neuroses. As such,…Read Full Paper ❯
Ellis' belief was that individual who could take charge of their emotions would be rational thinkers and thus would approach conflicts confidently, working towards compromises, minimalizing risks and…Read Full Paper ❯
He can then be influenced to live what he now understands but has yet to do. The therapist or doctor must encourage the patient or awaken his social…Read Full Paper ❯
Adler (2009) notes "jealousy is merely an especially well-marked form of the striving for power." The Jante Laws warns people that they should not try to become individuals and…Read Full Paper ❯
online Human Services class people counseling career. You book paper, therefor I've downloaded Professor's lesson overviews. Please contact . The book "Effective Helping: Interviewing Counseling Techniques" Seveneth Edition…Read Full Paper ❯
Psychology - Counseling
Adlerian TheoryName and brief description of key figure (s) (Drout, Harback, & Rule, n.d.)The 20th century Austrian psychologist, educator, and physician Alfred Adler was an early disciple of Freudian…Read Full Paper ❯
Equity theory recognizes that individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amount of rewards they receive for their efforts, but also with the relationship of this amount to…Read Full Paper ❯
Interdisciplinary Methods One weakness of obert G.L. Waite's classic work of psychobiography and psychohistory, The Psychopathic God: Adolf Hitler (1993) is that no written evidence exists today from any psychologist…Read Full Paper ❯
Adlerian Therapy An Adlerian approach to the case of B.A., the 14-year-old Guatemalan-American boy whose case was described by Layla, should primarily focus on B.A.'s feelings of inferiority and his…Read Full Paper ❯