Online Human Services Class People Counseling Career. Term Paper

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online Human Services class people counseling career. You book paper, therefor I've downloaded Professor's lesson overviews. Please contact . The book "Effective Helping: Interviewing Counseling Techniques" Seveneth Edition By, Barbara F.

Application of helping theories

Creating efficiency and effectiveness in the counseling career is a challenge for every counselor since they are required to apply different theories of helping which emphasize on the behavior, attitude, techniques and methods that are used by the counselor. With each theory having its own set of concepts and ideas, they create a daunting task for the counselor who is required to combine these to devise a technique for counseling the client that varies on the basis of the client's personal counseling needs and bears a cultural awareness that presents effective counseling for the patient Okun & Kantrowitz, 2008.

The patient chosen in this case is one that is suffering from inferiority complex. This means that the individual is suffering from low self-esteem which gives them a feeling of insecurity and that they are unable to measure up to the others in the in their same capacity. Inferiority complex is usually caused by the personality, feelings, emotions and thoughts of the person being self-assessed negatively and intensified through self-discouragement. The person usually looks for a reason which they feel they are unable to measure up to the others and they tend to display their inferiority in various ways such as loneliness and withdrawal.

Summary of selected theories

Adlerian theory

This theory helps the person to overcome their feeling of inferiority in a way that is socially useful to them and creates a sense of belonging in the person being counseled. The theory as described by Adler states that counseling requires a connected and cooperative approach that is holistic in order to create feelings of encouragement, capability and appreciation in the patient. It also eliminates any feeling of discouragement that makes the patient act in unhealthy ways by creating competition, withdrawal or giving up altogether.

Adler emphasized the importance of encouragement which he considered an essential aspect of the development and growth of human beings. This was stated under the assumption that the mind of human beings does not see the actual facts in the situation but rather it sees what is presumed to be the actual facts in the subject matter. To create this theory, Adler looked at the subjective facts in the development and growth of human beings and insisted that Freud in his psychodynamic theory was only looking at the objective facts. Mosak and Maniacci (1999)

argue that Adler's sole interest was not the facts per se rather the way in which the person perceived the facts in question. This subjective method meant that Adler was looking at these facts from the personal point-of-view of the person which was what Adler thought was the case for all human views. Using these assumptions, Adler stated that all perceptions, ideas and feelings in human beings were subjective and that no one would be able to help the person in resolving them.

Adler also made the assumption that people are driven by an innate need of superiority. According to Adler, everyone strives for perfection and they can only cope with inferiority which is inevitable by seeking to master the innate feelings of superiority. Adler also adds that human beings seek to become what they perceive to be their ideal which leads them to take on overwhelming inferiority and leaves them with an inferiority complex that is hard to deal with Corey, 2009()

The Adlerian theory focused on both the past and the present with the main focus being on the present. This created another assumption that in human development and growth people, they develop their personality through a series of processes and events that occur during the first six years of life and by recalling early memories that they encounter, they are able to see a pattern in their lives which continue to develop throughout their lives as adults. This creates a focus in the patient to reshape their present and future from these past events which are the starting point of their understanding and which help them to perceive themselves in the way that they are able to do now.

According to the Adlerian theory, these assumptions align themselves well towards the counselor appreciating the views, history, feelings and perceptions of the individual. The theory also helps the patient undergoing counseling to see where these early events in their lives come in to shape their perceptions and feelings and by understanding these, the person is able to understand their present and know how to change it to shape their future. The counselor thus focuses on changing the subjective ways of the individuals which changes the perception and feelings of the patient. This is the major reason why this theory is chosen.

Existential theory

The existential theory is based on the assumption that a person has the right to make an independent choice and has other freedoms, personal responsibility and is self-determined. The theory emphasizes on respect of the individual and how taking control of one's lives means taking responsibility for the actions that are undertaken. The theory enables the person to create meaning in their lives when they question who they are, where they have been or where they are currently heading. This theory also assumes that loneliness is a natural condition and it is inevitable.

The theory is based on six key concepts. The first is the capacity for self-awareness where the theory asserts that the patient has a capacity for being self-aware and they have the choice of expanding their awareness as a result of their free living. As a result of the patient having full control over this, they are also able to restrict themselves completely. The second concept is freedom and responsibility where the person has complete control over their choices but has to accept all responsibility for their actions. The third concept is personal identity and relationships with others. Here, the theory asserts that though the patient seeks to preserve their identity and uniqueness, they learn about themselves through their interaction and relationships with others. Clients thus strive hard to create their personal identity which encourages them to be courageous and to strive to realize it at all costs. Since the theory assumes that loneliness is a condition that occurs naturally, it is the drive for the creation of personal identity in the person. However, it conflicts with the dependence of the patient on their relationship with other individuals.

The fourth concept is the search for deeper meaning. As the person strives to create their personal identity, they change their goals and objectives and have to find meaning in their activity by engaging the patient in activities that include the creation of a commitment to love, work and build. By searching for this meaning, the patient is able to understand the goals and objectives of their activities and creates the completeness in their lives.

The fifth concept is that anxiety is a condition for living and is an essential part of the development and growth of human beings. This theory differentiates neurotic anxiety from normal anxiety by stating that the former is the anxiety which immobilizes people while the latter occurs when a tough situation occurs. The latter comes as a result of making difficult choices regarding the situation.

The last concept is awareness of death. The theory also makes the assumption that all people are aware of death which is the major fact that gives life its significance. Death become a motivating factor for the human beings who are still living and allows them to make commitments towards ensuring their lives are full of happiness.

This theory is chosen for various reasons. The first reason is that it differs largely from the other theories. This is because it creates an invitation for the patients to recognize ways in which they would live happy lives. The theory also helps the patients and counselor in making choices relevant to the treatment process and to create a realization that the patient has the potential of becoming more than they currently are. Using this theory, the counselor is able to share their reactions to the issues facing the patient using genuine empathy which though may seem to be confrontational, helps the person to make wise choices in their lives.

Behavioral theory

The behavioral theory provides practice for counselors to plan their practice in a way that is highly complementary to the techniques and methods set by the Adlerian theory. This theory focuses on the observable behavior of the patient, the current determinants of their behavior and the learning experiences in the organization which promote change within the patient. The approach that comes from this theory creates a tailored approach and treatment strategy that focuses on the individual client and creates a rigorous assessment and evaluation of the behavior of the patient.

The theory also places several assumptions with the first being…

Sources Used in Document:


Corey, G. (2009). Theory and practice of counseling and psychotherapy. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

Mosak, H., & Maniacci, M. (1999). The analytic~behavioral~cognitve psychology of alfred adler New York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.

Okun, B.F., & Kantrowitz, R.E. (2008). Effective Helping: Interviewing and Counseling Techniques. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

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