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Also, opening of exports to foreign markets would improve the balance of payments of the country and increase the revenues for the economic entities involved in export activities. Removing the important constraints would also improve the life conditions of ordinary citizens, offering them a large variety of products at superior quality. The estimates in the economic forum present India as a new force in the international market, so when the market, both commercial and financial, would be fully liberalized, both the Indian people and the international investors seeking new business opportunities will have to win from this situation.
IV. Foreign exchange market
The national currency of India is the Rupee, with the 1000 value as the highest printed denomination and the currency with the lowest value is the 25 paise coin. The majority of the Rupee banknotes present the former political leader and opinion formant, Ghandi. The value and the…
1. Rosser, Yvette. Curriculum as Destiny: Forging National Identity in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh (2003) University of Texas at Austin
2. Geer Hofstede web site: http://www.geert-hofstede.com/hofstede_india.shtml
3. Datt, Ruddar & Sundharam, K.P.M. (2005). "2," Indian Economy. S.Chand, 15-16.
Lands' End: An American Company Gone Global
Identify an American-Based company that has expanded Internationally
Lands' End, Inc. is a direct merchant of traditionally styled casual clothing for men, women, children, accessories, shoes, soft luggage, and home products [www.landsend, com, Investor Relations Home Profile, 2002]. The company offers its products through multiple selling channels. It sells through a series of general and specialty catalogs, mailed directly to its customers. It sells through the Internet, its international businesses and outlet stores. The company has three operating segments, consisting of core, specialty, and international. [Yahoo.com, 2002]
Lands' End was one of the first major retailers on the Internet. Its website www. Landsend.com was launched in 1995, and now accounts for approximately 10% of its yearly sales. [Yahoo.com, 2002]
From its humble beginnings, Lands' End has followed an aggressive expansion plan, keeping place with current marketing trends and technology. In 40 years Lands'…
Author Unknown. Investor's Home/Profile. 2002. Lands' End Website. Accessed February
Comer, Gary. Out Our Way. 2002. Lands' End Website. Accessed February 2002.
Why might an American company want to invest in "your country"?
The African country in consideration is Kenya. Kenya is the biggest economy in East Africa and is ranked as the sixth biggest one in the African Sub Sahara. It is a comparatively big nation with just about 45 million individuals. Its capital city, Nairobi, is one of the most advanced cities in Africa and is home to some of the global businesses and establishments such as the United Nations. One of the key reasons for investing in this nation takes into account its strategic geographic position as a hub for East Africa with a port encompassed by deep waters, and macroeconomic stability. In addition, Kenya has superior skilled labor in relation to its neighboring nations and the boats of being the most developed banking sector in the expanse. Kenya is a suitable area for foreign direct investment owing to…
Foreign and Commonwealth Office. (2017). Overseas Business Risk – Kenya. Retrieved from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/overseas-business-risk-kenya/overseas-business-risk-kenya#politics
Gill, A., Biger, N., & Tibrewala, R. (2010). Understanding and mitigating direct investment risk in the Indian real estate market. Business and Economics Journal, 2010, 1-10. Retrieved from http://astonjournals.com/manuscripts/Vol2010/BEJ-2_Vol2010.pdf
Voorpijl, R. (2011). Foreign Direct Investments in Kenya: The gains and losses of foreign involvement. Radboud University.
He is also an advocate of higher education reform, and believes that the curriculums of many American universities are ignoring some very important aspects of education. In his book, he continues, "Some universities are starting to build e-business into their business management curricula. But what about political science, ethics, or the law schools?" (Gerstner, 2002, p. 353). He supports changes in curriculum and more forward thinking areas of study, and believes ethics, especially the ethics of e-business and new technologies are largely being ignored by most schools.
Finally, Gerstner is a firm believer in a diverse and open workplace. At one point, he notes that when he took over in 1993, all of the highest leadership roles in the company were held by white men, but that changed during his tenure. Today, the senior executives include many nationalities and both genders, and its board of directors include men and women…
DiCarlo, L. (2002). How Lou Gerstner got IBM to dance. Retrieved 5 Feb. 2008 from the Forbes.com Web site: http://www.forbes.com/2002/11/11/cx_ld_1112gerstner.html .
Gerstner, L. Jr. (2002). Who says elephants can't dance? New York: HarperCollins.
Editors. (2003). Louis V. Gerstner, Jr. Retrieved 5 Feb. 2008 from the IBM.com Web site: http://www-03.ibm-com/press/us/en/biography/10153.wss.
Quest, R. (2004). In focus: Lou Gerstner. Retrieved 5 Feb. 2008 from the CNN.com Web site: http://edition.cnn.com/2004/Business/07/02/gerstner.interview/index.html.
Motorola already has established operations in Colombia. The company's subsidiary, Motorola Mobility Colombia SAS markets smart phones in that country, including the DEFY and it also marketed the Razr in that country as well. This means that Motorola already has a distribution network in place in Colombia, in addition to a marketing team that has experience working in the Colombia market. This bodes well for the company's market entry into Colombia. The new phone will essentially just be added to the existing product line and can be marketed through channels that are already established.
It is also worth remembering that Latin America is a focus region for Motorola. This means that the company is willing to spend marketing dollars in the region, and Colombia is an important Latin market. Indeed, one can envision that Motorola's entry into Colombia with this product is basically a test market for launch into other…
Hostip.info. (no date). Motorola -- international expansion and diversification. Hostip.info. Retrieved November 25, 2011 from http://ecommerce.hostip.info/pages/752/Motorola-Inc.-INTERNATIONAL-EXPANSION-DIVERSIFICATION.html
Motorola.com website, various pages (2011). Retrieved November 25, 2011 from http://investors.motorola.com/
Motorola 2010 Annual Report. Retrieved November 25, 2011 from https://materials.proxyvote.com/Approved/620097/20110311/AR_82265/HTML2/motorola_mobility-ar2010_0023.htm
American companies refuse to do business in countries
• a. That do not practice democracy?
• b. That routinely practice discrimination?
• c. That tolerate or even encourage the abuse of children? Explain.
Ultimately, a company can do whatever it wishes and to many companies, profit exceeds all else.
However, the United Nations' Global Compact does ask companies to incorporate
Principles concerning human rights,
labor rights, environment protection, and anti-corruption and this includes even indirectly seeming to support countries that violate basic human rights.
Conducting business with a country that does any of the above is not only indirectly helping that country economically grow but also seems to be sending a message of support that country.
The Universal Declaration of Human ights (UDH) calls on 'every individual and every organ of society' to strive to promote and respect the rights and freedoms it contains and to secure their effective recognition…
Harvard University. The Queen v. Dudley and Stephens, 14 Queen's Bench Division 273 (1884).
European pharmaceutical dispensing customs and laws are significantly different than in the U.S. In Germany, for example, one cannot buy vitamins (above a certain small dosage) or aspirin anywhere but a pharmacy. Most drugs we consider OTC are still limited to the pharmacy in many European countries.
In considering whether to push for DTC advertising in Europe, American pharmaceutical companies will have to tread carefully, and be mindful of the special political clout carried by pharmacies and physicians.
Culture' and the limits of innovation in marketing: Ernest Dichter, motivation studies and psychoanalytic consumer research in Great ritain, 1950s -- 1970s (Schwarzkopf, 2007)
This study from the University of London talks about the attempt of American companies and advertising agencies to bring the results of psychoanalysis to Great ritain in the 1950's to the 1970's, and the difficulties encountered. America pioneered in consumer motivational research, which was popularized by Vance Packard…
Economist. (2007, April 26). Counter-attacking the Kremlin. Economist, p. n.p.
Guthrie, P. (2007). Direct-to-consumer advertising debated. CMAJ, n.p.
Pfanner, E. (2007, March 22). Marketers Have Eyes on the 'Third Screen'. New York Times, p. n.p.
Schwarzkopf, S. (2007). 'Culture' and the limits of innovation in marketing: Ernest Dichter, motivation studies and psychoanalytic consumer research in Great Britain, 1950s -- 1970s. Management and Organisational History, 219-236.
Terminology and Concepts
American companies have suffered in recent years. In their efforts to reduce cost, restructuring and downsizing have affected almost every organization either directly or indirectly. These attempts to 'right the ship' so to speak will cause problems for these organizations in the terms of their ability to perform in the long-term. Organizational behavior has been cast aside in too many areas which entails that these companies have shown poor leadership by trying to capitalize on technological breakthroughs as opposed to building the human resource aspects of their businesses. This paper is a summary of some organizational behavior concepts and terminologies that are affected by the quest for profits. Through readings, articles, and my personal experiences, I have summarized what I feel can be construed as organizational behavior, culture, diversity, communication, effectiveness, efficiency and learning. I have been blessed by the fact that I hold a…
Personally, the practice of offshoring is abhorrent and to be avoided. It takes jobs away from qualified American workers simply for a company to save money. Many companies pay their offshore employees extremely low wages that lead to sweatshop like working conditions for many in the manufacturing industry. Companies are entitled to make a profit, but when it is at the expense of the workers who create their products, then massive profits are simply wrong. In addition, the globalization of many major companies has the potential to affect worldwide economies if something goes wrong, and that could have disastrous results in the U.S. And around the world. The practice of offshoring may be cost effective, but in the end, it seems that it could be very detrimental to the United States and the world.
In conclusion, offshoring may have some benefits, as in keeping the prices of some manufactured items…
Bivens, L.J. (2006). Offshoring issue guide. Retrieved from the Economic policy institute Web site: http://www.epi.org/content.cfm/issueguide_offshoring21 May 2007.
Brown, S.P., & Siegel, L.B. (2005). Mass layoff data indicate outsourcing and offshoring work. Monthly Labor Review, 128(8), 3+.
Jones, G. (2005). Multinationals and global capitalism: From the nineteenth to the twenty-first century. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ramstack, T. (2004, June 10). Union shielding sought from 'offshoring'; Ranks of organized labor swell as workers struggle to keep their jobs. The Washington Times, p. C10.
Company Mission, Vision, Stakeholders Strategic management starts vision mission. It consists analysis, decisions, actions organization undertakes order create sustain competitive advantages. For project, pick a company ( Harley Davidson), preferably, modules, work understand strategy .
Ducati -- passion leading from bankruptcy to success
Ducati is a name that most motorcycling enthusiasts are likely to associate with passion and brute force. The Italian bike manufacturer is known for making motorcycles designed for a particular type of people and the motorcycles it produces induce intense feelings in individuals riding them. Regardless if they are moving or if they stand still, Ducatis always manage to make heads turn and have succeeded in remaining an important player in a global market involving companies that are much larger than the Italian enterprise. This is also shown by the fact that Ducati has experienced a series of victories in the MotoGP and the Superbike orld Champions…
McIerney, Claire Regina, and Day, Ronald E., "Rethinking Knowledge Management: From Knowledge Artifacts to Knowledge Processes," (Springer, 01.01.2007)
Wit, Bob, and Meyer, Ron, "Strategy: Process, Content, Context, An International Perspective," (Cengage Learning EMEA, 2010)
American Vacation Time/Holidays
In the United States, people live to work while in other areas of the world people work to live. Or at least, this is a common stereotype about Americans and people who live in other parts of the world. The average working American gets two weeks (sometimes three if they're lucky) of vacation time a year while it isn't uncommon for individuals living in Spain, Italy and other parts of Western Europe to have the entire summer off, which is something that shocks Americans when they visit Madrid or ome in the middle of the summer. In the news we've heard about workers in Western Europe facing a cut in their social benefits, however, their vacation time is never touched (Geoghegan 2010). Meanwhile, American workers employed during this desperate financial time are not taking their vacations in fear of losing their jobs if they do or of…
Geoghegan, T. (2010, August 4). Why don't Americans have longer vacations? The New
York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2010/08/04/why-dont-americans-have-longer-vacations
Parker-Pope, T. (2010, February 18). How vacations affect your happiness. New York
Times. Retrieved from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/02/18/how-vacations-affect-your-happiness/
On the whole, American students are sympathetic to the difficulties faced by some foreign students such as in connection with the expense of living in the U.S. without a family support system close by and in connection with language and cultural barriers and prejudices they sometimes face. American students also believe that many foreign students bring a more serious work ethic to school and that they are better educated in their home countries than their American counterparts. Angela Angelov (Biology, 19) said that she believed "Most of the international students have learned all of the prerequisite courses more in depth than I did here…"According to Joe Engle (Chemistry, 21), "They bring a higher work ethic because they have traveled so far to reach their goals." Ben (Engineering, 34) echoed that observation: "Foreign students seem to appreciate the opportunity more" and also that in comparison, "American students seem lazy." Some American…
American and Chinese Business Cultures
Though there is no universally accepted definition, culture denotes a set of values, beliefs, traditions, practices, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a given group of people (odrigues, 2009). Culture defines a people's way of life -- how they do things, communicate, behave, relate with one another, and so forth. Culture theory, especially Geert Hofstede's cultural dimensions theory, illustrates that cultures tend to vary from country to country or region to region (Hofstede, 2001). These differences imply that norms, behaviors, attitudes, and other elements of culture differ across countries or regions. For instance, the culture of Americans tends to differ from that of the Chinese, Africans, or Arabs.
Culture permeates every aspect of society -- from organization and social relationships to communication and business. Business is especially influenced by culture. Culture affects how organizations are structured and managed, how employers relate with employees, how decisions are…
Alon, I. (2003). Chinese culture, organizational behavior, and international business management. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing.
Althen, G. (2003). American ways: A guide for foreigners in the United States. 2nd edition. US: Intercultural Press.
Cook, G. (2012). The influence of national culture on American business people -- managerial implications for central Europe. Central European Business Review, 1(2), 46-51.
Geert-hofstede.com. (n.d.). Country comparison. Retrieved from https://geert- hofstede.com/united-states.html
The tragic events of 9/11 revealed a strong economy, capable of regaining from a blast. After it however, the Bush administration fought hard to eliminate terrorism and most of the state funds went to the military; as a result, the United States is now struggling with its highest federal debt. Natural phenomena, such as tornados and hurricanes, have also had negative impact upon the economy.
Effects first effect upon the American population has been that of increased unemployment rate. Agreements of international cooperation, such as NAFTA, have only managed to open the borders to cheap labor force; as a result, American multinationals outsourced their operations to Mexico or other cheap regions, throwing the U.S. citizen into unemployment.
A second effect, at a global scale this time, is that the purchasing power of the American population will decrease significantly. As a result, they will be unable to consume as they were…
Beams, N., August 18, 2006, Warnings of a U.S. Recession and Global Slowdown, World Socialist Web Site, http://www.wsws.org/articles/2006/aug2006/usec-a18.shtmllast accessed on July 16, 2008
Roberts, P.C., September 11, 2007, American Economy: R.I.P., Online Journal, last accessed on July 29, 2008
VanAlkemade, R., 2006, What Would Jesus Buy?, Warrior Poets
2008, the World Factbook - United States, Central Intelligence Agency, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/us.htmllast accessed on July 29, 2008
American economy was growing at an exponential rate with unlimited job opportunities available in almost every industry. With the stock market breaking record highs, new upstart "dot.com" companies making millions in their first year and doubling of jobs in the service sector, a bright and stable future seemed almost a guarantee for many high school students who would soon be entering the job markets. This growth, however short lived, is now in a downhill progression with the plummeting stock market, many computer companies in bankruptcy, and American companies laying people off in record numbers and downsizing nationally. Combine this recession with globalization and American high school students are now facing fierce competition nationally and internationally for jobs. The question is whether or not your average American high school graduate is scholastically prepared to compete for these sought-after jobs? Unfortunately, I don't think so and I hope to provide valid evidence…
"Korea, North," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2001
http://encarta.msn.com © 1997-2000 Microsoft Corporation 17 Feb 2002
"Education," Life in Korea. (LIK) http://www.lifeinkorea.com/Informatino/education.cfm 17 Feb 2002
"Korean School System," Korean Family Living. http://www.geocities.com/Tokyo/Ginza/7978/school.html 17 Feb 2002
The cultural practices are evolved and based on the financial, social and moral understanding and capabilities of the local population, and it has been observed that Americans, Asians and Africans share extremely different perspectives and understanding on these issues, therefore the cultural adoption has been intense in countries where the technological revolution has been of the same intensity as in North America (Zelli, 1993). In some of the cases, the Americans companies has attempted to nullify the concerns and shortcomings of the American culture, by incorporating the cultural values of the local region, and has therefore evolve a different taste for the customers to avail, this has further delighted and fascinated the local population of different regions towards the American culture, for example the American culture has major differences with the Islamic culture adopted in Arab countries, therefore to compensate for such difference the American companies introduced the concept of…
David W. Noble. Death of a Nation: American Culture and the End of Exceptional-ism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 2002
Tafarodi R., Swann W. Individualism-collectivism and global self-esteem: Evidence for a cultural trade-off. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 1996
Trubisky P, Ting Toomey S, Lin S. The influence of individualism collectivism and self-monitoring on conflict styles. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. 1991
Huesmann, Zelli, Fraczek, Upmeyer. Normative attitudes about aggression in American, German and Polish college students. Presented at Third European Congress of Psychology. Tampere, Finland. 1993
European countries have absorbed a great deal in the way of material and culture from the United States, they have not become "Americanized," and that each country has incorporated what it takes from the United States into its own nationalism. In addition, the author argues that American culture has been influenced by European countries, although our culture has remained distinctly American. Finally, he makes the point that "Europe" is not one culture -- and that the United States is made up of many cultures as well. While European countries are "not like us," Europe and the United States have the presence of multiple cultures in common.
The book is organized into two sections. In the first three chapters, the author gives an overview from prior to World War II and continuing through the end of the Cold War. Then the author looks at specific cultural components affected by American influences…
Nevertheless, the American influence on other countries should not be diminished. In the 1990's, over 50% of McDonald's income came from foreign countries (303). Some American concepts did not translate well to Europe. Euro-Disney struggled at first, partly because Paris has a winter not present in either southern California or central Florida. But in addition, European vacation practices differed: Europeans tended to take long vacations, sometimes as long as a month, rather than the shorter 4 -- 5 day trips often preferred by Americans. Europeans tended to be more rigid about their schedules, causing bottlenecks for park admission and meals. In addition, Disney followed its policy of no alcohol on the premises to the dismay of Europeans accustomed to having a beer or glass of wine with a meal (311). So while it may have at first looked as if Euro-Disney was attempting to force Americanism on the French, in reality, such tactics simply didn't work. Disney had to adjust in major ways in order to make a success of Euro-Disney.
Pell's book takes a long and careful look at the interchange of cultures between the United States and Western Europe, and presents a picture that is far more complex than whether, for instance, the French might have been affronted to see a McDonald's in the heart of Paris. Instead, the author shows an inexorable process of influence flowing at least to some degree, both ways. In retrospect the reader should not be surprised by this. Greece and Rome both influenced each others' culture. The Phoenicians sailed around their known world and had profound influences on the cultures they met with, but that cultural exposure did not cause the loss of the other cultures. Perhaps it is the nature of human beings to meet, compare notes, notice how practices differ, and absorb and modify what is useful from the other culture.
Pells, Richard. Not Like Us: How Europeans have Loved, Hated and Transformed American Culture since World War II. New York: Basic Books, 1997.
They have high standards for themselves and their employees, and it shows in how they do business and their corporate responsibility.
This corporate responsibility has continued throughout the company's history. The Corporate esponsibility Web site notes, "From the earliest days, our company staked out a territory few corporations were willing to approach in that time, the idea of the corporation as partner, citizen, neighbor and participant in the world's affairs" ("About IBM"). For example, in 2005, IBM partnered with the National Geographic Society to create a research project called the Genographic Project that will research the migration history of humans on Earth. IBM takes their corporate responsibility seriously, they also fund a series of educational, philanthropic, and community projects around the world. IBM wants the world to be a better place, and their corporate policies back up this corporate ideal.
In conclusion, IBM has maintained and improved their global…
Author not Available. "About IBM." IBM.com. 2005. http://www.ibm.com/ibm/us/
Covey, Stephen R. Principal Centered Leadership. New York, Fireside Books, 1991.
Editors. "Leading Change When Business is Good." Harvard Business Review. Dec. 2004. 1-12.
Jackson, Brad. Management Gurus and Management Fashions: A Dramatistic Inquiry. London: Routledge, 2001.
United States became one of the most industrialized nations and sought to grow its industries at an alarming rate. For this purpose, the western part of United States, which had not yet been discovered, was subjected to massive development, economic growth, formation of industries and allowing settlers to move towards the west. Railroads played a significant role in contributing towards the development and urbanization of America's est. The goal of this paper is to analyze the impact of railroads on America's est in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources.
Railroads in America est
Railroads had been developed in United States during the nineteenth century and start of twentieth century. They owe their existence to Industrial Revolution. During the nineteenth century, Industrial Revolution promoted technological and industrial development and thus, laid down the foundations of railroads in United States. During this time, United States became one of…
Bain, David Haward. Empire Express; Building the first Transcontinental Railroad. Viking Penguin. 1999.
Banerjee, A.E.D. a. N.Q. "The Railroad to Success: The Effect of Infrastructureon Economic Growth," Providence, Brown University. 2006.
Beebe, Lucius. The Central Pacific & The Southern Pacific Railroads: Centennial Edition. Howell-North. 1999.
Bianculli, A.J. The American Railroad in the 19th Century: Locomotives. University of Delaware, Newark. 2001.
As Margaret Atwood points out, Americans have as much to be ashamed of as to be proud of.
When Barbara Kingsolver claims "The values we fought for and won there are best understood, I think, by oil companies," she refers to the way the American flag has been distorted. The issues the flag symbolizes, such as freedom and liberty, are myths for many people. As Kingsolver points out, the American flag has been used to justify many evils including wars like Vietnam and Iraq. Instead of delivering true freedom, liberty, and democracy, the American flag really brought economic dependence. Instead of associating the American flag with negativity, death, and intimidation, Kingsolver suggests that Americans reclaim it. The red stripes do not need to symbolize war. They can also symbolize "blood donated to the ed Cross."
The American flag is a flexible symbol that is often used in ways that manipulate…
Atwood, Margaret. "A Letter to America." Published on Friday, April 4, 2003 by the International Herald Tribune. Retrieved July 29, 2008 at http://www.commondreams.org/views03/0404-07.htm
Kingsolver, Barbara. "And Our Flag Was Still There." Published on Tuesday, September 25, 2001 in the San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved July 29, 2008 from Common Dreams at http://www.commondreams.org/views01/0925-08.htm
Streufert, Duane. "Evolution of the United States Flag." Evolution of the United States Flag. Retrieved July 29, 2008 at http://www.usflag.org/history/flagevolution.html
Americans are reminded incessantly these days that slavery was a terrible thing. In today's politically correct society, some blacks are challenging reparations for slavery because their remote ancestors were slaves. Slavery is routinely used to bash the South, although the slave trade began in the North, and slavery was once used in every state in the Union. Today's historians assure people of America that the War for Southern Independence was fought first and foremost if not exclusively over slavery, and that by winning that war, the North put an end to the peculiar institution once and for all. However, in today's modern society, if people are legally bound to hand a certain percentage of their income (the fruits of their labors) over to federal, state and local governments, then from the legal standpoint they only have some percentage ownership of their person and labor which could be considered a form…
The relationship they had with one another included a fair division of land, and a good balance of trade. Unfortunately, after the settlers learned what they needed from the Native Americans and took what they could from them, they no longer had any use for the proud people whose land they had invaded.
The relationship between the settlers and the Native Americans began to change as settlers learned to do things for themselves, grow their own crops and breed their own animals for food. With the settlers being able to survive on their own, there was no longer any need for the Native Americans to help. The population of settlers was also growing, and new villages were being built on land that used to belong to the Native Americans.
The settlers kept expanding the areas that belonged to them, and this made the areas belonging to the Native Americans smaller…
An Outline of American History. 2002. From Revolution to Reconstruction. http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1954uk/chap4.htm.
This Web site gives a timeline and outline of many of the things that took place throughout the history of the United States and ensures that individuals who are studying history are aware of the good and the bad that occurred.
Foreigners in our own country: Indigenous peoples in Brazil. 2005. Amnesty International. http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR190022005.
Brazilians are struggling today because they are still losing land to foreign development. Because of that they are being forced to move into smaller and smaller areas and their resources are diminishing.
The development of the American automobile industry is one of the best examples of this interplay: "Unlike European manufacturers, who concentrated on expensive motorcars for the rich, American entrepreneurs early turned to economical vehicles that could be mass-produced," (Jackson 159). The fact that so many Americans then became capable of purchasing a car both fed the notion of the American dream, and also served to expand American cities and suburbs; people who could afford to commute were not forced to live in the stifling and often impoverished inner-city. This trend tended to make inner cities in America decreasingly desirable places to live. Yet, in places like New York, with the creation of central park, wealthy neighborhoods came to crowd around such desirable locations and push the impoverished sects of society away: "By the time the park's founding generation passed away, the political, aesthetic, and cultural unity they valued had already…
Cronon, William. 1991. Nature's metropolis: Chicago and the great West. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.
Kenneth M. Jackson. 1985. Crabgrass Frontier: The suburbanization of the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Rosenzweig, Roy and Elizabeth Blackmar. 1992. The park and the people: A history of Central Park. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
aid Mr. Harris: "We are always looking at new ways to reach our customers through innovative digital platforms." Mobile works well since "There is rapid growth in mobile devices supporting more and more of the everyday tasks that people want to perform."
Another highly successful mobile application has been that of American Express' Android version of its free mobile app, which has had more than 1 million views since 2011. The mobile apps are free as are the apps that AE has implemented via social media (ibid.)
The American Express (AE) Credit Card Company markets itself in various ways. avvy with its promotional and publicity performance, it has put together a variety of tools -- some of them innovative -- that it uses for its own promotional ends. These include extensive featuring of celebrities, innovative media campaigns, cause activity promotional ends, innovative use of social media, as well as…
CNN Money "World's Most Admired Companies 2011." Fortune. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/fortune/mostadmired/2011/full_list/
Facebook Members Project from American Express
Gillin, Stephen (September 7, 2011) Altruism drives AmEx small-business strategy http://www.btobonline.com/article/20110907/SOCIAL05/309079998/altruism-drives-amex-small-business-strategy#seenit
American Civil ight Movement
Compare and contrast the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) on the basis of their leadership, philosophy, and tactics.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) was a civil rights organization that was initiated by African-Americans in 1957 (Fairclough, 2001). The movement was primarily aimed at ending the segregation and discrimination against the black African population in the U.S. The core philosophy of SCLC revolved around to seek civil rights and economic justice for the people of Southern States having majority of African-Americans.
Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) actually aimed achieving same objectives as those of SCLC but through non-violent sit-in and defiance of segregated dining and lunch services. The core philosophy of SNCC was also eliminating segregation but the mission statement was narrower compared to SCLC.
The most prominent leader of SCLC was Martin Luther King, Jr. Other prominent…
Dyson, M.E. (2009). April 4, 1968: Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Death and how it Changed America. Basic Books.
Fairclough, A. (2001). To Redeem the Soul of America: The Southern Christian Leadership Conference and Martin Luther King, Jr. University of Georgia Press.
Johnson & Johnson (2013). Annual Report & Proxy Statements: J&J. Retrieved from: [http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/JNJ/2770950354x0x644760/85FD0CFF-2305-4A02-8294-2E47D0F31850/JNJ2012annualreport.pdf]
Sundquist, J.L. (1968). Politics and Policy: The Eisenhower, Kennedy and Johnson Years. Brookings Institution Press.
Company's Compensation And Benefit Package
A number of factors determine how a company compensates its employees. These factors may include economics, psychology and even sociology. To an economist compensation is viewed as a labor market determinant (Filer, Hammermesh, & ees, 1996). As a human resource manager for Vanguard Industries I have been entrusted with the responsibility of explaining to the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) that guided my development of the company's compensation and benefit plan. I will specify economic factors I considered while coming up with the company's compensation and benefit packages, the manner in which they do so and the relative and absolute importance of each. Before coming up with a compensation and benefit scheme, it is imperative that matters pertaining employees' skill level, age, gender and minority and majority status are factored as they affect an individual's reward preferences and their view on what they contribute to an…
Filer, R., Hammermesh, D., & Rees, A. (1996). The Economics of Work and Pay 6th ED., New
York: Harper Collins.
Landes, W.M. (1968). The Economics of Fair Employment Laws. Journal of Political
Economy, 76: 507-52.
Short-term wins creation
In this case, the insistence is on the enhancement of credibility for change through demonstrating gains made. In the case of News Corp, those who excel in change related initiatives could be rewarded and recognized going forward.
Building on Change/Consolidation of Gains
Here, quick wins should be taken as a beginning and not as an end. Hence in a way, victory must not be declared before the whole change process is over. When it comes to News Corp, efforts could be undertaken to ensure that each success or failure is taken as an opportunity to learn.
Institutionalization of New Approaches
Lastly, change should and must be made to stick. Hence effectively, change should be made part and parcel of the organization by anchoring the same on the corporate culture. In regard to News Corp, to embed change on the culture of the organization, efforts may be undertaken…
Hiatt, J. & Creasey, T.J. (2003). Change Management: The People Side of Change. Prosci.
Mills, H., Dye, K. Mills, A.J. (2008). Understanding Organizational Change. Taylor and Francis.
Pulley, B. (2011, May 5). News Corp. Profit Drops 24% as Film Sales Fail to Measure UP to 'Avatar'. Retrieved October 20th, 2011, from Bloomberg website: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-05-04/news-corp-s-third-quarter-earnings-decline-24-on-falling-movie-revenue.html
Shapiro, A. (2010). Creating Contagious Commitment: Applying the Tipping Point to Organizational Change, (2nd Edition). Andrea Shapiro.
American Investment ecovery Act
Throughout American history there has been an emphasis on maintaining a balance of power between different branches of government. This is from the belief that concentrating too much authority in one area will lead to inevitable abuses in others. To prevent this, the federal government and states have always practiced these basic principles. As a result, there are varying interpretations as to the overall scope of power given to particular branch. (McNeese, 2001)
In 2009, these issues were continually being brought to forefront with the American ecovery Act and einvestment Act of 2009. This law was designed to provide the economy with additional amounts of stimulus to address the lingering challenges from the financial crisis. However, the process of enacting this legislation, there were increased amounts of controversy surrounding the balance of power between the President and Congress. This is because the Democrats had an overwhelming…
The American Investment and Recovery Act. (2009). Fiscal Accountability. Retrieved from: http://www.fiscalaccountability.org/index.php?content=cog09-13#
The American Investment and Recovery Act. (2009). GPO. Retrieved from: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-111hr1enr/pdf/BILLS-111hr1enr.pdf
Estimated Impact of American Investment and Recovery Act. (2012). CBO. Retrieved from: http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/05-25-Impact_of_ARRA.pdf
Wickard v. Filburn. (2012). Case Briefs. Retrieved from: http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/constitutional-law/constitutional-law-keyed-to-stone/the-powers-of-congress/wickard-v-filburn-2/
American Association of Advertising Agencies was founded in 1917 as national trade association in the United States that represents advertising agency business the American Association of Advertising Agencies, 2013a ()
The association is management-oriented, and it offers expertise, broad services, and information to its members in regards to advertising agency business. Its members contribute an approximate of 80% in the total advertising agencies revenue worldwide. Not all the larger multinational advertising agencies are members of the 4A, but their members have a billing of less than $10 million per year. Since it is a national trade association, it is bound by its own by-laws and constitution, which strengthen the association. The association has been credited with been one of the associations that helped in regulating advertising in the United States. The association has its headquarters in New York City.
Membership to the association is by election after interested members fill…
http://www.aaaa.org/about/association/Pages/default.aspxThe American Association of Advertising Agencies. (2013a). About the Association, from The American Association of Advertising Agencies. (2013b). Mission of the AAAA, from http://www.aaaa.org/about/association/Pages/mission.aspx
Why Did American Express succeed in the U.S.A. And Internationally?
It succeeded because the company established an outstanding reputation in its core businesses very early in its lifetime. It also took advantage of the competition during both World Wars to support its customers with financial assistance when they needed it. Its business decisions, all told, were solid. It divested itself of non-profitable segments when necessary, and put the emphasis always on its core businesses -- travelers' checks, its travel business, and credit cards. AmEx has maintained flexibility as well in adapting to consumer's demands and the needs of its business, such as issuing the revolving credit card when that segment might have failed.
oday it is one of Forbes Magazine's top 100 companies.
How is American Express surviving the 2008-2009 Economic Crisis?
Diversification of its business. he American Express credit card business in the U.S. dropped 96% from early 2007…
Though, because of the poor economic times, AmEx has had to sell a significant quantity of its stock in one of China's main banks, there is no discussion of its pulling back from China. The layoffs, budget cuts and gathering together of cash is just something most smart companies do in times like these, according to American Express management.
In March, 2009, American Express reaffirmed its intent to expand its business in China and the Asian continent, and to build an even stronger credit card presence in that region.
Only the length and depth of the current worldwide economic crisis will determine when (if) that will happen. It is American Express' desire and the Chinese financial institutions support the AmEx' efforts there. However, in the end, business is business, and the financial bottom line will determine the scope of the AmEx presence in the most populous continent in the world.
The biggest challenge however over the long-tern is the lack of acceptance of foreign cards by Chinese merchants. There are an estimated 20 million businesses in China, and of these, 414,000 accept credit cards, and of those, 150,000 accept foreign credit cards (Worthington, 2003). At the infrastructure level this fact illustrates how pervasive the sociological factors that limit debt continue to influence the Chinese culture specifically and the Asian culture overall. As with every Asian culture, there is tremendous pride in not losing "face" or stature in ones' community. As a result, cash is king in the more conservative cities and regions of the country. The generation of 25 to 40-year-olds will change this, however it may take a generation or more to significantly increase American Express credit card use in Asia and China as a result.
Bayot, J (2004, March 30). American Express to Issue Cards in China.…
Bayot, J (2004, March 30). American Express to Issue Cards in China. New York Times,
Retrieved June 8, 2009, from http://www.nytimes.com/2004/03/30/business/american-express-to-issue-cards-in-china.html
Owen Brown. (2004, December 9). China Banks Add Credit Cards With Help From AmEx and Visa. Wall Street Journal (Eastern Edition), p. C.2.
David A Von Emloh, Emmanuel V Pitsilis, Jeffrey Wong. (2003). Credit cards come to China. The McKinsey Quarterly: Special Edition,20-23.
Company treasurer option strategies developed due future foreign currency transactions occur contract Italian high-tech firm finalized. The treasurer construct a memo hedging strategies including a bull spread, a butterfly spread, and a ratio spread.
Memo: Options spreads
egarding the recently-negotiated contract with Company X, one of the most important issues to consider is how to mitigate our risk as a company. Given that Company X is based in Italy, the economic instability of the European Community (particularly its Southern European countries) and the Euro is of paramount concern. A bull spread would likely be unsuitable given that it is "used by option traders who believe that the price of the underlying security will remain stable in the near-term but will eventually rise in the long-term" (Bull spread, 2013, The Options Guide). Neither of these are likely scenarios to be characteristic of the firm given that it is located…
Bull spread. (2013). The Options Guide. Retrieved:
Butterfly spread. (2013). The Options Guide. Retrieved:
This report is an analysis of the American Express company.
Founder, date incorporated -- "Established in 1850 in New York, American Express Company was among the first and most successful express delivery businesses to arise during the rapid westward expansion of the United States." (American Express)
Initial source of Capital -- "Although in its early years American Express was not itself a financial services company, its largest and most consistent clients were banks. Delivering the banks' typically small parcels -- stock certificates, notes, currency and other financial instruments -- was considerably more profitable than transporting larger freight. Soon the company would scale down its parcel and freight delivery business in favor of creating and selling its own financial products." (American Express)
Key innovations -- "In 1882, American Express launched the money order business, which proved an almost instant success. The company introduced the world's first traveler's…
6-Month Forecasts. Ed. financial forecaster. neatidea.com. Retrieved on 12/17/2004, from .
American Express. History. American Express. Retrieved on 12/17/2004, from .
Yahoo Finance. American Express. Retrieved on 12/17/2004, from Yahoo Finance at .
In addition to a lightened burden of proof and broader definition there were two additional changes resulting from the amendment which served to positively affect the impact and ultimate effectiveness of the legislation. This amendment clarified the fact that judges are not allowed to assess possible mitigating factors such as medication, corrective surgery, or specialized equipment in the determination of whether or not an individual is disabled. This change is directly related to the Sutton case. Further the amendments clarified the definition of major life activities. This amendment relates directly to the Williams case in which a judge deemed that Carpal Tunnel wasn't in fact a significant impairment to major life activities, it merely precluded her from successfully completing specific tasks in the work place. Though the language of the Act is still quite ambiguous, these changes help to clarify and protect the intention of the act.
1. Disability Discrimination Act 1995. (c.50), London: HMSO.
2. Schall, C., 1998. The Americans with Disabilities Act -- Are we keeping our promise? An analysis of the effect of the ADA on the employment of persons with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 10(3), pp.191-203.
3. Stowe, M., 2000. Interpreting "place of public accommodation" under Title III of the ADA: A technical determination with potentially broad civil rights implications. Duke Law Journal, pp. 297- 329.
4. Grabois, R., Nosek, M., & Rossi, D., 2005. Accessibility of primary care physicians' offices for people with disabilities: An analysis of compliance with the American with Disabilities Act. Archives of Family Medicine, 8, pp. 44- 51.
American Superconductor Case Study
Founded in April 1987 with $4.5 million in seed capital from an investment consortium (Google imeline. American Superconductors. 2010); American Superconductor has grown into a "global leader in renewable energy, providing proven, megawatt-scale wind turbine designs and electrical control systems" (American Superconductors: Investors. 2010). he company works to "develop solutions and manufacture products to dramatically improve the cost, efficiency and reliability of systems that generate, deliver and use electric power" (AMSC. Annual Report 2003). hroughout its two decades of operation the company has needed capital to expand its operations, develop innovative technologies, and invest in capital projects with a design on profitability for the company and its shareholders; a feat the organization achieved for the first time with "$16.2 million, or $0.36 per diluted share, in net income for full year fiscal 2009" (AMSC. Annual Report 2010). he long road to profitability though is marked by…
The advantages and disadvantages of debt and equity are fairly straightforward however, their implications are critical to business success. In understanding the choice of American Superconductors it is necessary to look at the core differences between debt and equity: ownership of the business, assumption of debt load and required repayment or expected return, and tax deductibility of interest (Kansas Technology Enterprise Corporation. N.D.). These three pieces can then be analyzed in the context of the CEO Gregory Yurek's three factors leading to the decision to use an equity capital strategy: revenue momentum, profitability of the temperature superconductor motor and generator business unit, and the national energy grid upgrade debate (Esposito, A. August 26, 2003).
Ownership of the business is perhaps the most critical component in the differences between debt and equity financing. The public offering of 4,975,000 shares of common stock is the sale of a portion of company ownership held by the majority stock owners to potential buyers (MarketScreen. October 3, 2003). The stock issuance has two effects. First a reduction of the majority's percentage ownership of the firm and second a dilution of existing common stock outstanding as a result of the 4,975,000 increase in total issued shares to 26,359,920 (MarketScreen. October 3, 2003). Management "estimates the net proceeds to us of this offering to be approximately $44.0 million based on the public offering price of $9.50 per share" (MarketScreen. October 3, 2003). With expanded ownership of the business by additional shareholders, management will necessarily have to consider organizational decision making in the context of increasing shareholder value. Counter equity and its ownership position with debt which constitutes no ownership stake for the lender, and therefore the business owners are responsible only for repayment of the loan or bond offering according to the terms of the agreement.
Assumption of debt load underscores the financial liability which a firm undertakes with a loan or bond commitment in contrast to a scenario of no new debt if the firm pursues the equity route. With a debt transaction the borrower is legally obligated to pay the bank, lender, or bondholder an agreed upon sum, with interest, over a specified amortization period until the loan or bond is paid in full, called in, or refinanced. American Superconductor would consider whether their operating cash flow would cover the interest generated by the borrowing agreement. A particularly useful analytical tool for this purpose is times interest earned "a metric used to measure a company's ability to meet its debt obligations. It is calculated by taking a company's earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) and dividing it by the
American Express is a global, diversified financial services company headquartered in New York. The company is over 150 years old, founded in 1850. It is best known for its credit card, charge card, and travelers check business, but has numerous ancillary operations that are profit centers. Analysis's rank American Express as the fourteenth most valuable brand in the world, estimating the worth of the brand at over $21 billion dollars (AXP, 2009). Despite this length of time in the marketplace and service level, American Express remains vulnerable to the machinations of the economy, and thus any additional product lines must be carefully considered.
Problem Statement- American Express using Quality Management to Excel in a Highly-Competitive Niche Market. Business Executive Exclusive Perks Card from U.S. Express (The BEEP Card) -- Do we launch with current levels of Business commitment in the field?
Organizational Background - American Express is a diversified global…
American Meat Packing Corp., 362F.3d 418 (7th Cir. 2004).
On November 15, 2001, 350 workers at the American Meat Packing Corporation (AMPC) showed up for work and were told they had been terminated. Because they were not notified 60 days prior to termination, the Worker Adjustment and etraining Notification Act, U.S.C. § 2101-2109, the WAN Act, did not apply. The purpose of the 1989 WAN Act was to create a buffer for workers who anticipate mass layoffs or plant closings that have been unanticipated. Under the WAN Act, the 60 day notice of plant closings or any mass layoffs may be waived or reduced if a business closure is "caused by some sudden, dramatic, and unexpected action or condition outside the employer's control." 20 C.F.. § 639.9(b)(1).
The fundamental issue of this case is that of foreseeability. Business situations that are likely to cripple or close a firm may be…
partnerships (8th ED), Thomson Retrieved http://esl.rutgers.edu / graduate_writing_program courses/academic_writing_II/media/b_paper.pdf
Internet sources assessed.
American International Group Inc. (AIG) is a world leader in insurance as well as, financial services that serves more than 70 million clients across the world. The company for many years has managed to remain confident in their strategy to leverage their financial strength and global franchise that continue to enable growth in both emerging and developing markets. The vision of the company is to be the world's first choice provider of insurance and financial services, in every corner of the world, whereas its mission is achieved through innovation, world citizenship, partnership and integrity (AIG, 2007).
AIG Kenya Insurance Co. Ltd. has custom made products and serves commercial, institutional, and individual customers through widespread international property-casualty networks of its kind. In addition, AIG companies are principal providers of life insurance and retirement services in the United States. Its products and services are divided into Individual products and Business products.
AIG, (2007). AIG 2007 Annual Report. Retrieved September 24, 2014 from http://www.ezodproxy.com/aig/2008/ar2007/images/AIG_AR2007.pdf
American International Group, (2014). Asset Management. Retrieved September 24, 2014 from http://www.aig.com/asset-management_3171_441984.html
Buhayar N., (2013). AIG Sets Bonus Plan to Reward Executives After Repaying Bailout. Retrieved September 24, 2014 from http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-03-27/aig-sets-bonus-plan-to-reward-executives-after-repaying-bailout.html
Glassdoor, (2014). AIG Salaries. Retrieved September 24, 2014 from http://www.glassdoor.com/Salary/AIG-Salaries-E40.htm
The Act is not adaptable, it is not distinct in nature and it is costly to implement (eynolds, 1995). These factors have allowed the public to disregard the members of the society that were supposed to be protected by the Law. It has been difficult to distinguish the groups that are protected by the Act, to ensure the Act is understood and applicable, the Act should be refined, reworded and simplified to ensure that it is easily understood and adapted (Lande, 1998).
Employers have in a greater way been able to deny disabled people employment although the disabled person may be in a position to perform most of the responsibilities; they are not given the opportunity to prove their ability to perform. The employer refuses to hire the person not on the basis of inability to perform but because they are physically disabled (Shaw, 2008). Whenever an employee is terminated…
Shaw, K. (2008). The Disability Rights Movement -- The ADA Today. Academic Search Premier 4(2), 20-25.
Meneghello, R., & Russon, H. (2008). Creating a Movement: The First 18 Years of the ADA. Academic Search Premier. 4, 21-25.
Hermes, J. (2008). Attempt to Broaden Disabilities Act Concerns Some College Officials. Chronicle of Higher Education. 40, A23-A23
Lande, R. (1998). Disability law: Problems and proposals. Southern Medical Journal, 6, 518.
American Elections Have ecome Undemocratic
The American electoral process has been criticized on several points. This paper addresses some, though not all, of the ways in which the American political process has been criticized. Starting with campaign finance and whether expensive advertising exerts an influence on the outcome of elections out of proportion to its importance, I discuss the difficulty faced by potential candidates in getting their names on ballots when they are not the candidate being promoted by either the Democrats or Republicans. I then address whether the idea of plurality in national elections is a rational one and conclude with a discussion of the Electoral College and whether its presence and influence in the outcome of the presidential race runs contrary to the expressed democratic spirit of the United States.
First, there is the issue of campaign finance. Essentially, the uncomfortable question is this: is the American system…
1. "Abolish the Electoral College" The Rest of Us.Org 2005. 29 April 2005
2. "Frequently Asked Questions." U.S. Electoral College 2005. National Archives & Records Administration 30 April 2005.
3. "Quick Answers to Candidate Questions" U.S. Federal Election Commission. 2005. 1 May 2005.
4. Kinsley, Michael, "Sitting Pretty." CNN Time September Edition CNN.com 29 April 2005
American Ethnic Culture
What is an American?
It is clear that Progressive era Americans from different backgrounds differentially defined precisely what being an American actually meant. Stephen Meyer wrote in the work entitled "Efforts at Americanization in the Industrial Workplace 1914-1921 that Americanization
"…involved the social and cultural assimilation of immigrants into the mainstream of American life…" but that the process was of the nature that was comprised of "a unique and distinctly American method for the resolution of a key industrial problem -- the problem of work-discipline and of the adjustment of new workers to the factory environment." (p.323)
The Americanization campaign is stated by Meyer to have been one that was "voluntary, benevolent and educational." (p.323) However, the programs emerged from within the factories and had negative connotations as well. It was not so much an issue of the diversity represented by the national or ethnic cultures but…
Gjerde, J. (1998) Major Problems in American Immigration and Ethnic History, 1998.
Takaki, R. (2008) A Different Mirror: A History of Multicultural America, 2008
Meyer, Stephen (nd) "Efforts at Americanization in the Industrial Workplace, 1914-1921"
Gerstle, Gary (2000) American Freedom, American Coercion: Immigrant Journeys in the Promised Land. Social Compass 47(1), 2000, 63-76. Online available at: http://www.pineforge.com/healeystudy5/articles/Ch2/Americanfreedom , Americancoercion.pdf
American National Character (history)
The Ongoing Search for an "American National Character"
This assignment asks the following pertinent and challenging questions: Is it possible to find trends amongst so much diversity? What characteristics are distinctly American, regardless of class, race, and background? What is problematic about making these generalizations and inheriting the culture? What have we inherited exactly? What problems arise with our ideals - and are we being honest with ourselves? Discuss individualism and the "American Dream." Are these goals realized and are they realistic? This paper seeks solid answers to these often elusive questions.
The search for a national character should be never-ending, and the pivotal part of the search that should be enlightening and enriching for the seeker of that knowledge may just be the inspiration from the books and authors springing into the seeker's mind along the way to discovery.
Who is presently engaged in a…
Bellah, Robert. Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life.
New York: Harper & Row, 1985.
Cochran, Thomas Childs. Challenges to American Values: Society, Business, and Religion. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
Geertz, Clifford. The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books, 1973.
Since inception, the Amex Composite Index has shown an increase of 57.3%, as compared to the NASDAQ Composite's gain of 26.6%, the S&P 500's gain of 7.1%, and the NYSE composite's gain of 14.3% (American Stock Exchange).
Values and volumes of stocks and options at the AMEX are significant. Closing values as of 10/11/2004 at 5:07 PM ET show significant activity. As of this date, the total volume was 44,288,030, with 1,359 block trades. Total options volume was 576,653, and bond volume was 102,000 (American Stock Exchange).
Like other stock exchanges, the AMEX is run by a number of officials. Officers of the AMEX include Chairman and Chief Executive Officer SALVATOE F. SODANO, the President Peter Quick, Executive Vice President alph . afaniello, and Chief Financial Officer and Controller MICHAEL T. D'EMIC. The AMEX also has a Board of Governors, trustees, a nominating committee, exchange officials, floor officials and a…
American Stock Exchange.
Welcome to the American Stock Exchange, 2004. 11 October 2004. http://www.amex.com/
CCH Incorporated. American Stock Exchange (AMEX), 2004. 11 October 2004. http://wallstreet.cch.com/AmericanStockExchangeAMEX/
Investorwords.com. American Stock Exchange. WebFinance, Inc., 2004. 11 October 2004. http://www.investorwords.com/197/American_Stock_Exchange.html
Almost all the main media groups now have an online edition of their communication content at no cost to Internet clients, making it complicated for companies to evidently be acquainted with some of their clients.
Tactical Information Management
To attain organizational objectives, corporations supervise their memo substance, covering and distribution. Deficient in a comprehensible perceptive of the target addressees causes information blueprint, covering and distribution complicated.
The previous modes of corporate interaction were one-tracked in character. Corporations had been typically the givers of information and their addressees had been the receivers. For the most part, corporations restricted and controlled means of communication. This gave corporations the prospect to arrange their memo in compliance with corporation's objectives. There was also prospect to create coherent memos across manifold media channels. Conversely, because of the disintegration, difficulty, time restriction and interaction of computer contact, businesses might be powerless to cautiously enclose their memo…
American Pit Bull Terrier
What is the American Pit Bull Terrier? What are its origins and what is its history? The American Pit Bull Terrier has most often been described as the dog that is closest to the human race, in its likeness to the human race. This endearing breed of dog has the most charming and pleasing of personalities, in that it is very individualistic and independent, as well as intelligent and friendly. It has an innate strength, is extremely tenacious, and is also full of beans, and when all these traits are combined with its basically soft and charming nature, this is a breed that is very close to the human race, and it closely resembles an ordinary human being. All the character traits that have been found in the American Pit Bull Terrier not only make it an easy breed to own and train, but also make…
American Pit bull Terrier, Breed and Health Information. Retrieved From
http://www.pupcity.com/dog-breeds/american-pit-bull-terrier.asp Accessed on 2 January, 2005
American Pit Bull Terrier: Bull Dog Breeds.com. Retrieved From
http://www.bulldogbreeds.com/americanpitbullterrier.html Accessed on 2 January, 2005
Company Economic Forecast: Panera Bread
Explain the business you are in. Explain your business and the different industries that would impact your operation.
One new eatery that is still in the process of expanding nation-wide as a franchise of note is that of Panera Bread. As an emerging business, it is an excellent business investment prospect, far from 'bottoming out' as older, more established coffee cup centered franchises such as Starbucks. Unlike Starbucks, Panera is also known for the quality of its sandwiches and pastries as well as for its coffees and other hot beverages. It is especially popular as a lunch and breakfast establishment for eating in or carrying out, rather than for after hours lingering. Its main clientele is often slightly older than Starbucks, that of office workers -- hence its proclamation, upon its website that one ought to impress the boss with an order from Panera. (Official…
Panera Bread. (2005) Official Website. Retrieved 1 Feb 2005 at http://www.panerabread.com/default.aspx
Social capital increases in the presence of the church hence numerous connections and relationships come into existence in the church. In the modern setting of the church, there is extensive application of contemporary technology. Contemporary technology in the church helps bring religious members together as they communicate on the common religion. Church has a significant impact on the political behavior of the nation. Politicians associate with churches in order to solicit votes from the religious members. eligious groups vote in relation to their interest in the political arena thus have a greater say during elections. Churches also have the capacity to produce potential and actual leaders to serve the nation (Putnam, 2000).
Workplace enables the development of bridging social capital. This is to serve the interest of diversity within the workplace. Workers come from different background, thus experience unique cultures. This makes it necessary for companies to initiate social capital…
Putnam, R.D. (2000) Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. (ISBN 0-7432-0304-6)
Wattenberg, M.P. (2008) Is voting for young people? New York, NY: Pearson Longman. (ISBN
10: 0-205-51807-9, ISBN 13: 978-0-205-51807-4)
Winograd, M. & Hais, M.D. (2009) Millennial makeover: MySpace, YouTube and the future of American politics. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Press (ISBN 978-0-8135-4504-2)
President Bush's recent initiatives regarding the environment represent a significant change from the government environmental policies of the past century. Bush, who presents himself as a steward of the environment, believes that conservation and protection are best achieved through a partnership with industry. Instead of relying on strict government regulations, Bush believes that forests would be preserved and rivers would be cleaner if market forces are allowed to run their natural course ("Bush reshapes environmental debate").
This essay examines the evolution of Bush's position in light of the American policies regarding the environment over the past 100 years. It looks at how environment policies have changed, from the time President Theodore Roosevelt established the wildlife preserve in Pelican Island Bay, Florida. This essay also examines the changing perceptions Americans hold regarding their environment -- which has been first been viewed as an infinite natural resource, then as a…
The value of the pound in relation to the euro could be an argument against doing business with Spain.
Concerns about the economic stability of Spain and the viability of doing business in Spain in the near future are even more pressing concerns: recently, the European Community has had to undertake extraordinary measures to save the troubled economy of Greece from defaulting on its debt obligations. Spain's economy is also fragile. Given the role of the Spanish government in the energy industry, and the long-standing partnership that would exist between SSE and any agreement resulting in an expansion effort into Spain, it is essential to have a clear-headed view of the nation's likely economic future and stability when negotiating an agreement (Sullivan 1999).
Said Nobel-Prize winner of economics Paul Krugman: "for a number of years Spain could pay its way within the eurozone by selling assets, mainly real estate, as…
About Us. (2010). Scottish and Southern Energy. Retrieved March 16, 2010 at http://www.scottish-southern.co.uk/SSEInternet/index.aspx?rightColHeader=4&id=272&TierSlicer1_TSMenuTargetID=56&TierSlicer1_TSMenuTargetType=4&TierSlicer1_TSMenuID=6
British Labour MEP relaunches euro debate. (2009, 13 January). Eurobusiness.
Retrieved March 16, 2010 at http://www.eubusiness.com/news-eu/1231866126.22
Krugman, Paul. (2010). 10 questions. Spain Economy Watch. Retrieved March 16, 2010 at http://spaineconomy.blogspot.com/2010/01/ten-new-year-questions-for-paul-krugman.html
Northwest Passage- 1492-1600 when Europeans encountered the new world
After the Portuguese and Spanish took control of the South's sea pathways, the English and French began seeking a northwestern route to Asia. However, by the 17th century, they lost hope of ever making their way across North America's northern part after many generations of sailors failed to find a way. Nevertheless, early 15th and 16th century explorations and colonization increased knowledge regarding the world by a significant amount. Cornelius Wytfliet, the cartographer from Flanders created a world map that continued to depict the mythical "Straits of Anian" -- a province in China connecting the Atlantic and the legendary Northwest Passage, which finds mention in the edition of traveler, Marco Polo's work dated 1559. European powers' endeavors to make their homes in the Americas succeeded, ultimately, in the 17th century, when the English and the French successfully contested the…
Concepcion Saenz-Cambra. (2012). The Atlantic World, 1492 -- 1600. Concepcion.
David W. Galenson. (1984). The Rise and Fall of Indentured Servitude in the Americas: An Economic Analysis. Economic History Association, 1-26.
weli, R. v. (2008). Slave Trading and Slavery in the Dutch Colonial Empi. In Rik van weli. New West Indian Guide.
Investment Sections - 2009 Recovery and Reinvestment Act:
Source: Wikimedia Commons.
The largest grouping in the Act is for tax cuts. As an example of how money in one grouping gets divided, the following shows what is being allotted for tax relief:
$116 billion: Payroll tax credit of $400 per worker and $800 per couple in both 2009 and 2010 (American, 2010).
$70 billion: Alternative minimum tax: a one year increase in AMT floor to $70,950 for joint filers for 2009 (American, 2010).
$15 billion: Expansion of the child tax credit: A $1,000 credit to a larger number of families (including those that do not make enough money to pay taxes) (American, 2010).
$14 billion: Expanded college credit to provide a $2,500 tax credit for college tuition and related expenses for 2009 and 2010 (American, 2010).
$6.6 billion: Homebuyer tax credit: $8,000 refundable credit for all homes bought between 1/1/2009…
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. 2010. Recovery.gov. http://www.recovery.gov/Pages/home.aspx
Dems power stimulus bill through Congress. February 14, 2009. Associated Press. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/29179041/ .
Economists say stimulus won't work. January 29, 2009. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. http://www.stltoday.com/blogzone/mound-city-money/us-economy/2009/01/economists-say-stimulus-wont-work. Retrieved 1 February 2010.
Gross, D. 12 October 2009. The $800 Billion Deception: Conservatives claim the stimulus has already failed. But it has barely started. Slate. http://www.slate.com/id/2232185/ .
A recent artifact that came as a product of this intercultural relationship is an article concerning an American woman's imprisonment -- which included beatings from the police and forcing her to sign false confessions -- simply for being seen eating in public with her male business partner. Even though the woman (who allowed her name to be printed only as "Yara," fearing retribution for telling her story) was wearing the traditional full-length gown and headscarf required of women when in public or in the company of men in Saudi Arabia,
she was approached by several men "with very long beards and white dresses" and told that what she was doing was "a great sin," a statement that reflects the disparity between the two cultures (Dhimmi Watch 2008). Ironically, the event took place at a Starbuck's, a place that has come to be a symbol of America's capitalism, freedom, and to…
Dhimmi Watch. (2008). "American woman jailed in Saudi Arabia for sitting with men at Satrbuck's." Reprinted from Fox News. Accessed 10 May 2009. http://www.jihadwatch.org/dhimmiwatch/archives/019844.php
As was the nature of the Cold ar, the United States responded by quashing new governments that were likely to lead to communism, even where this constituted an undemocratic or even brutal instituted government (Kort 80).
Democratically elected officials from Brazil, Guyana, and Uruguay were overthrown by internal revolutionaries who were funded and trained by American forces (Parenti 44). These and other leaders and governments in Latin America were targeted by American forced as having communist leanings. Foreign policy followed, with more than two decades of the Cold ar focusing not only on the major publicized events of Korea and the Soviet Union, but on many small, third world countries. These small nations were poised to become players in the larger Cold ar struggle depending on where their allegiance and governments ended up after declaring their independence. ith the Soviet Union attempting to exert force and pressure on the United…
Eisenhower, Dwight D. Inaugural Address. Washington, D.C. 20 Jan. 1953.
Geertz, Clifford. "What Was the Third World Revolution?" Dissent 52.1 (2005): 35-45.
Freidel, Frank. Roosevelt. New York: Little Brown and Company, 1990.
Kort, Michael G. The Cold War. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994.
American Moderns: Fashioning a New National Culture
Literature and historians alike look to the past to define the present. In many ways, one can look at the defining moments in American history to understand the foundation in which today's culture exists. This paper asks one to examine the specific period of time after the Civil ar and how the men and women born of these decades until the First orld ar created a new American culture. This involves looking at the work of historians like Christine Stansell in order to gain a better understanding of the pillars and forces that shaped American culture at the time.
It is apparent that times were changing drastically from the Victorian era to the Modern era. People's morals and values were changing as writers and artists pushed the envelope and introduced new ideas into the mainstream. It can also be assumed that these "new…
"American Moderns." The Journal of American History 88, 3 (2001): 79.
Anderson, Sherwood. Winesburg, Ohio. Free Books Online.
Cohen, Patricia Cline. "Village Voices." The New York Times Online Book Review
Also, it can cause Americans to turn a blind eye to the abuses of industry. If every American's lot is improved by success, then why, for example, should the laborers in the steel mills see their lives as poorer rather than better because of the success of their capitalist employers?
McElroy's analysis is convincing in light of the fact that unions are far less powerful in America than they are in Europe, and how even today, after America adopted some programs to help the indigent, so many successful American corporations like Wal-Mart are still able to avoid unionization, and celebrate the company's success as a gift to society and its employees, as well as the corporation's founders. It also explains the assumption that achievement as the main determinant of social rank in America, rather than birth. This belief is the result of the American creation of a more socially mobile…
Again, the press is not aware of all that goes on in the White House behind closed doors. Just because the matter was not publicly mentioned again in a direct fashion, does not mean that it was dropped. My team and I have continually discussed the best course of action for fostering trade with Tunisia and setting a much stronger precedent in the Middle East. The WSJ has actually zeroed in on the connection between this injection of fiscal support to Tunisia and our intentions to foster free trade with the entire Middle East.
The WSJ thinks that we should strike a trade deal with Tunisia and to also designate as a strategic economic nation. I and the entire White House is flattered that the Wall Street Journal would give us such obvious and prosaic advice on plans that we've already come up with ourselves. Of course the U.S. is…
Bonime-Blanc, a., 2011. The Fight Against Corruption Goes Global. Foreign Affairs, pp. 44-49.
Caldwell, W., 2009 . Learning to Leverage New Media. Military Review, May, pp. 256-260.
Carafano, J., 2011. Mastering the Art of Wiki. Joint Force Quarterly, pp. 266-271.
Clinton, H., 2010. Leading through Civilian Power. Foreign Affairs, pp. 199-209.
American Experience With War
Which historian - David M. Kennedy, or John Shy - best represents the American experience with war?
While reading Kennedy's - and Shy's - essay discussions, it's necessary to put their writings in the context of time. Kennedy penned his essay in 1975, and Shy wrote his in 1971. In terms of world events subsequent to both essays - in particular the advent of terrorism on a colossal and destructive scale, (9/11/01) - veritable light years of military and political change has emerged.
But notwithstanding the tumultuous global changes since the 1970s, the assigned essays are timeless in their intelligent analysis, very important in terms of their forthright accuracy of U.S. history and war, and hence, provide valuable reading for any and all students of the times. However, the essay by Kennedy, in this writer's opinion, best reflects the big picture view of America, its peoples,…
Coser, Lewis A. Sociological Theory: A Book of Readings. Toronto: The
MacMillan Company, 1969.
Kennedy, David M. "War and the American Character." The Nation (1976),
Shy, John. A People Numerous and Armed: Reflections on the Military Struggle for American Independence. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.
Individuals could not grow their own food, given the space and land constraints and therefore were dependant upon the city infrastructure to provide it. This then creates additional industry, and the story goes on to build whole insular and expansive systems within the city to meet the needs of labor and industry. Agricultural support systems, in outlying areas, transportation systems to make logistics of such provision possible as well as markets to bring the goods to consumers and of course the restaurant industry all grew with the population.
Housing, is another example. Housing in newly forming cities is often substandard, as it was in most U.S. cities, and where it existed in this manner, city planning, codes and standards had to be created to respond to concerns regarding safety and other issues. This became substantially more important as industry introduced thinks like electricity, running water and waste removal systems to…
Hommann, Mary. City Planning in America: Between Promise and Despair. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1993.
Kantor, Paul, and Stephen David. The Changing Political Economy of Urban America. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Company, 1988.
Walton, John. "Urban Sociology: The Contribution and Limits of Political Economy." Annual Review of Sociology (1993): 301.
Watts, Sheldon. "The Deadly Truth: A History of Disease in America." Journal of Social History 38.1 (2004): 267.
irst of all, by increasing governmental spending, the Congress would help boost the economy especially by targeting unemployment and providing, with the new projects on which the government would spend, new working places for individuals. This would in turn pick up consumption and, eventually, bring the country out of recession.
urther more, by decreasing taxes, the U.S. Congress would target both individual households and businesses. In terms of individual households, with lower taxes, people will be more likely to spend, because they would dispose of a greater income. This would increase aggregate demand and bring up consumption, which would in turn stimulate the economy out of recession. The businesses would find more income at their disposal to invest in the development of their businesses and would stimulate them to target new projects as well.
Both measures of fiscal policy would thus have as final goal the increase of aggregate demand,…
Further more, by decreasing taxes, the U.S. Congress would target both individual households and businesses. In terms of individual households, with lower taxes, people will be more likely to spend, because they would dispose of a greater income. This would increase aggregate demand and bring up consumption, which would in turn stimulate the economy out of recession. The businesses would find more income at their disposal to invest in the development of their businesses and would stimulate them to target new projects as well.
Both measures of fiscal policy would thus have as final goal the increase of aggregate demand, which would in turn increase GDP growth and take the country out of the recession.
The Federal Reserve did indeed lower its interest rate by 50 basis points to 2-1/2 points on October 2, 2001, after the 9/11 attacks, while the White House announced, on October 11, 2007 that it will keep taxes low to avoid the country entering a potential recession following the mortgage crisis on the market. As we can see, both of these measures are taken a priori in order to counter any potential apparition of an economic recession in the near future, not necessarily because recession exists at that moment (the economic results for the 2nd quarter in 2007 are quite strong, at 3.9%, but the mortgage crisis could trigger a recession).
" Every town now has Thai, Japanese, and Indian restaurants to complement the Chinese and Italian fare. Consider the supermarket shelves that carry multicultural products such as Campbell Hispanic-style Fiesta soup, sushi platters, wasabi and seven different taco salsas. Burger King and McDonald's sell their millions of burritos to somebody!
EXAMPLE OF NEW MAKETING TENDS
In July 2001, Campbell's Soup Company announced a program to recreate the company and restore its growth track. In practice this included introduction of new ethnic product lines. Campbell's new Select Harvest () Mexican-Style Chicken Tortilla Soup was the principal new introduction that followed this reinvention.
It was a smart move. Select Harvest () soups were ranked the top new food and beverage product of 2009, according to a report released by Information esources Inc. (II). II's annual New Product Pacesetters (TM) report showcases the most innovative and successful new products of the year in…
Poverty Status of People by Family Relationship, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1959 to 2006. U.S.
Census Bureau Web site. www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/histpov/hstpov2.html. Accessed March 26, 2010.
Toosi M. Labor force projections to 2016: more workers in their golden years. Mon Labor Rev.