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Vinyard's allegiance to the swastika is an allegiance to an idea that the America of today is perhaps not as equal, peaceful or harmonious as the average American would like to believe. The image is a shattering of the idea that the past was terrible, but the present is better. Rather, Vinyard's right hand pressed against his swastika-inscribed heart both repels and evokes revulsion. Iconic photographs stir a sense of nationalism and pride "they also illustrate the ways that visual communication can underwrite polity by providing resources for thought and feeling that are necessary for constituting people as citizens and motivating identification with and participation in specific forms of collective life" (Hariman & Lucaites, 2002). An iconic photograph can invoke a sense of inspiration and a commitment to collective ideals, and a sense of history, perhaps bloody and unjust a one time, but now reformed, improved and all together better.…
Hariman, R., & Lucaites, J. (2002). Performing Civic Identity: The Iconic Photograph of the Flag Raising at Iwo Jima. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 363-392.
Wrage, E. (1947). Public Address: A Study in Social and Intellectual History. The Quarterly Journal of Speech, 451-457.
American History, 1820-1920
Five positive events that influenced the history of the United States between 1820 and 1920.
One of the most important processes that influenced the development of the United States is the process of industrialization that took place after the end of the Civil War. The United States had to undergo an increased process of modernization after the Civil War largely due to the fact that the country was divided between two different types of countries: one based on agricultural processes and another one on the industrial practices. Therefore it was extremely important that a unity be created among the two parts of the United States. This industrialization process from 1860s to the 1920s was essential because the North was able to advance its technology in terms of industrial power whereas the South would be able to break away from the agricultural traditional means of existence. The results…
Jenkins, Philip. A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave, 1997.
Katers, N. "Industrialization of America 1860-1900." Associated Content. 2006. Available at http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/28613/industrialization_of_america_18651900.html
The aftermath of the World War II from 1945 to 1965 was a period of intense change in the United States that changed socially, politically, and economically. This period was characterized by the rebuilding of various aspects in the country since the war was destructive on political, social, and economic fronts. Socially, there was the need to return to normalcy in the United States as the dislocations that resulted in the war were put aside for some time. As many men and women returned from the war and women returned home, a new generation began in the country. Since the United States was the only industrial power that was undestroyed during the war, the country experienced extraordinary economic growth after the war. America's economy was greatly stimulated by the war as new industrial complexes were developed across the country with the decisive end of depression ("Effects of World…
"Assess the Effectiveness of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal." (n.d.). UMSL -- University of Missouri. Retrieved from University of Missouri -- St. Louis website: http://www.umsl.edu/~hurleya/Samout.htm
"Chapter Summary: Frank D. Roosevelt and the New Deal." (n.d.). America Past and Present.
Retrieved November 30, 2011, from http://wps.ablongman.com/long_divine_appap_7/23/5931/1518562.cw/index.html
"Effects of World War II." (n.d.). HS -- 102 Readings. Retrieved from Suffolk County
c. High railroad rates
d. Rising interest rates
14. Which issue led to the organization of the Populist Party?
a. The desire to lift the burden of debt from farmers and other workers
b. The collapse of the Second Bank of the United States
c. An increase in immigration
d. Limited availability of land in the West for use by new farmers
15. Which factor contributed most to the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882?
a. Lack of mining jobs
b. Economic war in Asia
c. Overcrowded neighborhoods
d. Rise of nativism
16. What was the impact of westward expansion on American Indians during the Jacksonian era?
a. Most American Indians were forced to move to Canada
b. Most American Indians were assimilated into U.S. society
c. Most American Indians were relocated to lands west of the Mississippi River
d. Most American Indians were able…
American History Final Exam
Stages of the American Empire
Starting in the colonial period and continuing up through the Manifest Destiny phase of the American Empire in the 19th Century, the main goal of imperialism was to obtain land for white farmers and slaveholders. This type of expansionism existed long before modern capitalism or the urban, industrial economy, which did not require colonies and territory so much as markets, cheap labor and raw materials. It was also a highly racist type of policy that led to the destruction of Native Americans and the enslavement of blacks, as well as brutal counterinsurgency campaigns in overseas colonies like the Philippines and Haiti. Northeastern capitalists in the United States, dating back to the nascent period in the late-18th Century, were not particularly enthusiastic for this type of territorial expansion to the West or the growth of the agrarian sector of the economy. The…
3) Conclude the anthology with a short statement in which you explain which text or reading assignment or movie was most important for your education for the second half of the semester. Explain how and why it changed, altered, expanded, or reconstructed your vision of American history, literature, culture or the "American character."
Cumings, Dominion from Sea to Sea: Pacific Ascendancy and American Power -- A+
I really like the work of Bruce Cumings, including his earlier book about the Korean War, so I gave this one an A+. I agree with him that America is a highly aggressive, expansionist empire, and that the Manifest Destiny variety of expansionism was mainly about control of land and territory -- and control over slave labor in the South. America was not really a global power or capitalist hegemon until 1945, when all its former rivals and competitors were badly damaged or destroyed, but it had already begun its overseas expansionism in the 1890s. By that time, though, I think that Wall Street and industrial, corporate capitalists were really in charge of the government and politics -- and indeed that they still are today. Their needs in foreign policy were not lands, territories and slaves, but markets, labor supplies and raw materials, so their version of imperialism was different from the Manifest Destiny type. They also had to work to develop new policies for a global capitalist empire, which was not really a problem that had confronted their predecessors in the 19th Century.
These five natives and their tribes are significant because they all fought against the white settlers in one way or another; even though there were times when they attempted to make peace with them. Eventually, they all lost land and lives to the whites, and today they represent the resiliency of the Native Americans, and the ruthlessness of the colonists who overran the natives and took their lands, their livelihoods, and their people as if they did not matter at all. They show a dark side of American history that many people would like to overlook, but cannot.
Indentured Servants. Shay's Revolt. Bacon's Revolt
Salem. Alien & Sedition Act
All of these items have to do with another part of American history that a lot of people overlook. Indentured servants were a long-standing tradition that helped form the new colonies, and they were essentially slaves that had to work to…
The Reconstruction exacerbated the regional differences between the northern and southern states. The exact conflicts that led to the Civil War in the first place remained for decades after General Lee surrendered at Appomattox, and shortly after President Lincoln was shot dead. The Reconstruction project illuminated the still-existing conflicts between Lincoln's successor Andrew Johnson and the Republican congress. Johnson attempted to straddle the fence and simultaneously appease the South while banishing slavery. In so doing, Johnson supported the so-called Black Codes, which perpetrated the practice of slavery under a different name. Although the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments marked major improvements for former slaves, the Radical Republicans in Congress hoped for a stricter attitude toward the rebel states. Thus the Reconstruction conflict weakened the credibility of the federal government and thwarted progress for African-Americans.
The overall tone of the Reconstruction period in American history closely mimics that of…
It was a give and take society of inherent fairness and justice as each individual stood forth to do their part in the interest of all concerned....for the sake of America. While freedom should have meant for one and all, it is unfortunate, but as well expected in the human condition that the standards and beliefs of the Founding Fathers as to freedom failed to consider independence and its' meaning in reality to women in the country, to black slaves and poor white farmers, and the Native American individual. Yet, the standard of belief held by the Founding Fathers was superior than the standard held in England, at least to some extent.
Consider the statement of Thomas Jefferson (1790):
Every man, and every body of men on earth, possess the right of self-government."
Surely this statement did not intend to leave out the independence of the black slaves, poor white…
Hoffert, Robert W. A Politics of Tensions: The Articles of Confederation and American Political Ideas. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1992.
Jensen, Merrill. The Articles of Confederation: An Interpretation of the Social-Constitutional History of the American Revolution 1774-1781. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1970.
Jensen, Merrill. The New Nation: A History of the United States during the Confederation, 1781-1789. New York: Knopf, 1950.
Wood, Gordon S. The Creation of the American Republic, 1776-1787. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1969.
ecause of the loss of so many men during this war, the country suffered economically. With the abolishment of slavery, the south's economics suffered tremendously. lacks could no longer be force to work the cotton and agricultural fields for free and many migrated north for better opportunities. This left the south with limited economic opportunities as they were not quick to become industrialized like the north was. Many immigrants settle in the northern region of the United States were job opportunities were much better. The cotton industry of the American south not only affected the economy of the southern states, it also affected countries overseas. Scotland is one of those countries. ecause of the American Civil War and the loss of slave labor, Paisley, a city in Scotland suffered a major loss to its economy (Peters, 2001).
Since the Union won the American Civil War, it stands to reason that…
Foner, Eric. (2008). Reconstruction lessons. Nation, 286(4), 4-6.
Peters, Lorraine. (2001). Paisley and the cotton famine of 1862 -- 1863. Scottish Economic & Social History, 21(2), 121-139.
The book, American Past and Present, which recounts U.S. history up to 1877, begins with nine pages (xxv-xxxiii) of very succinct summary material, taking 50 years at a time and offering, at a glance, American history from post Ice Age to 1995. This is good information to digest prior to reading through the book itself, as it offers a glimpse and taste of what is to come, and important points to look for and focus upon.
As one should expect, the peoples (Native Americans) who lived on the continent prior to the arrival of the Europeans are described in some specific detail. Also of interest to readers of this U.S. history book is the fact that (page 7) "Ethnocentric Europeans tried repeatedly to 'civilize' the Indians" by insisting they dress like the colonists, that they go to colonists' schools and "accept Christianity." In hindsight, the fact that the…
Divine, Robert A.; Breen, T.H.; Fredrickson, George M.; & Williams, R. Hal. American Past
And Present: Volume One to 1877. New York: HarperCollins, 1995.
Thus, the latest influxes of immigrants from Europe prior to the war may have been the worst off. The Revolution shifted the social realities for all indentured servants in the colonies, and only less so for Blacks.
Only war could undermine the social structure that enabled the restrictive hierarchies to exist. The war led to forced migrations of people, the disruption of established avenues and systems of trade, and political upheavals (Fogelman 58). Fewer whites would be employed as servants following the war, even though for Blacks in the new America slavery remained a way of life. Indeed, the Revolution meant freedom and justice for some but not all. Fogelman notes that after the war slave imports temporarily increased, at the same time that indentured servitude for whites became less acceptable (61). The irony would become quintessentially American.
Similarly, Zuckerman points out the tremendous impact that the war would have…
The rise of Progressivism during this era also influenced domestic policy. The threat of Big Business loomed large and Big Government was perceived to be a perfect solution to keep business interests in check (Johnson 634, 636-637).
Industrialization created an enormous working class in the United States, generally impoverished and localized in urban centers. Urban Progressives influenced domestic policy and helped enact new laws and regulations designed to protect the working poor and ensure their well-being. In the short-term, these new policies did have the effect of improving the lot of many in the working class. Over the long-term, these policies helped centralize more power in the hands of the federal government, power which would ultimately be employed in ways contrary to the original Progressive intent.
Foreign policy was no less affected than domestic policy by the social and economic changes that were occurring in the United States at the…
Johnson, Paul. A History of the American People. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 1997.
Reading this piece is particularly interesting, as it is a direct account of the events during that day in 1773. The article describes very clearly the images that could be seen during the "tea party" and its after effects. It is particularly funny to read about things like people trying to take some of the tea for themselves, and then being very "roughly handled." In terms of today's general newspaper articles, the tone of the piece is also interesting. It appears to be both humorous and factual about the event, describing the events surrounding the tea party, as well as the "party" itself. It describes the tea staining the water so clearly that the reader can almost see the remains of the tea and chests, as well as the color of the water for miles around the coast. I really enjoyed reading this, because of the direct descriptions of the…
The Role of Federalism, Foreign Tariffs and the Western Territories:
The period before the American Civil war coincided with the evolution of the modern American federal court system, particularly with respect to the nature of the relationship and the respective authority of the federal government and sovereign state courts (Murrin 2006). Landmark Supreme Court cases had begun chipping away at the rights of states to decide issues related to slavery, but equally serious were the other threats imposed by federal authority on the economic independence of the southern states.
In general, the concept of political democracy and government by the people was embraced much more in the American North than in the South. Specifically, the southern (white) population was largely uneducated poor who owned no land of their own but worked for wealthy plantation owners from whom they leased small parcels of land. The political climate of the South resembled…
Hartshorne, T.L. (2005) the Social Fabric. Longman.
Lakwete, a. (2004). Inventing the Cotton Gin: Machine and Myth in Antebellum America. Johns Hopkins University.
Murrin, J.M. (2006) Liberty, Equality, Power, Vol. 1 Wadsworth.
Nevins, J., Commager, H.S. (1992) a Pocket History of the United States.
American in the New Millennium, American History
The world is in constant change. The civilization that we experience today would have been hardly envisaged by the people living in the beginnings of the 20th century. This is largely due to economic, political, social, and technological advancements. These elements will most likely impact the way in which the world evolves in the new millennium as well. The United States is still considered to be the most important democratic pole of the world and the largest economy. The elements mentioned above are the ones that will influence the development of the United States in the future.
Despite the fact that the U.S. is the most important country in the world by most standards and the "land of all opportunities," given the economic recession, the political and economic life in the country may affect the way in which this millennium starts for the…
Gans, Herbert. "The Age of the Superfluous Worker." The opinion pages. The New York Times. November 24, 2011. Available at http://www.nytimes.com/2011/11/25/opinion/the-age-of-the-superfluous-worker.html?ref=unitedstateseconomy
Ikenberry, John. "The rise of China and the future of the West: can the liberal system survive?" Foreign Affairs, January -- February 2008, available at http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/63042/g-john-ikenberry/the-rise-of-china-and-the-future-of-the-west
To understand the spirit of the econstruction crisis, one must understand the reality of the civil war, recognize that the generation of Americans caught up in the web of econstruction actually lived, actually confronted a situation, today totally alien to us, where countrymen killed countrymen, where political power involved more than the simple control of administration. (Benedict, 1973, p. 1)
Americans were ill equipped to cope with the problem effectively. By 1865 most Northerners, particularly epublicans, had come to identify security for the Union with concrete, fundamental change in southern society, particularly in black & white relations. Most important, epublicans insisted upon protection for former slaves in their new freedom. Yet these same Northerners, including epublicans, displayed a remarkable reluctance to force these changes on the South through the power of the national government. At first many epublicans hoped Southerners themselves would inaugurate the necessary changes voluntarily, but it quickly…
Andrew Johnson, Presidency. (2007). In The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia (6th ed.,. Retrieved from www.infoplease.com/ce6/people
Ashkenazi, E. (1988). The Business of Jews in Louisiana, 1840-1875. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.
Benedict, M.L. (1973). The Impeachment and Trial of Andrew Johnson. New York: Norton.
Johnson, Andrew. (2009). In the Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). New York: Columbia University Press.
Like the Jamestown colony, the Plymouth colony also had dealings with the Native Ameicans. In ode to maintain peace, howeve, the colonists made a teaty with the Native Ameicans. Upon finding a Native Ameican who could speak English, the Plymouth colony succeeded in passing a peace teaty with the Native Ameicans, which, among othe things, allowed the colonists and the Native Ameicans to make a secuity pact. Othe than feaed theat fom the Native Ameicans, the colonists had a vaiety of diffeent poblems settling in the aea. These included illness, finding povisions, etc.
Thid and finally, the colony at Massachusetts Bay allowed faith to play an incedible ole in the fomation of the society's laws. John Winthop's "A Model of Chistian Chaity" sets out not what actual stuggles that the colonists had duing the foundation of thei colonies, but what kind of social contact that they would live by. Highly…
references. Although the document does not directly discuss the problems that Native Americans brought to the country, it did encourage new Americans to work together in order to develop a new society. For instance, in this model, Winthrop instructs his fellow colonists to accept that they have no enemies in Christ. This would make for dealing with Native Americans in a very different manner than the previous two colonies did. In addition, Winthrop's propositions for Massachusetts Bay Colonies have incredible implications for societal order. Like the Plymouth colony which sought to instruct colonists on how to live together as Christians, the Massachusetts Bay Colony as structured by Winthrop would have to rely on a great deal of community building in order to survive.
Thus, elements of all three of these colonies helped foster the culture of the United States, which would become one of the predominate cultures in the world in the 20th century. While these colonies had similarities, such as overcoming disease and troubles with Native Americans, they also had differences, such as their goals and upon what system they were based. The Massachusetts Bay Colony and Plymouth Colony have a great deal of similarities, as they were both founded primarily on Christian principals. The Jamestown colony, however, has a more governmental and business flavor.
12. Sweeney is Deek's teache all acoss the movie and even a substitute fo the fathe Deek lost. The tansfomation suffeed by Deek fom a naow-minded skinhead to a thinke and a feedom fighte is impessive. Pat of Deek's new concept of life if patly due to the skinhead faction because of thei teachings and of thei actions in pison. A main motive fo Deek's change is the fact that he discoveed the demuing natue of skinheads geneally.
13. The movie evolves as Deek's chaacte advances fom one phase to anothe by becoming an odinay citizen woying fo the good sake of his family. As he gets out of pison, Deek uses his fame to each Cameon and to explain that he's out of the faction and that he's taking Danny with him. Even with Danny out of Cameon's plan and his impoved life, Deek cannot escape the nightmae.
references whatsoever. The easier way of coping with the situation would leave Derek involved in drug trafficking and against all he previously stood for. This situation would have been less painful and even profitable, but in fact it would have killed the concept of freedom and of a free America.
10. Derek's decision allows him to still have respect for himself by not kneeling in front of all that was wrong. Because of previously being a good and devoted student to Cameron, Derek had also learned to keep his beliefs regardless to what the consequences might have been. Ironically, by keeping his head up, Derek wins his freedom inside prison by keeping his mind free from the corrupt system. As he wins Sweeney's trust to support him at the board committee meeting, Derek also has a material prize in the form of freedom.
11. Having become confident and independent, Derek proved a normal being's capabilities of metamorphosis and freeing himself of his own demons. The road back to his family is assured both by Sweeney's intervention and his own transformation. As he returns, Derek finds a disorganized family living in a small apartment and his brother Danny a true fan of Cameron's. Derek now has to deal with the reformation of his family's life habits by making his mother quit smoking, assuring a good education for both his brother and sister, and getting a job. Derek's worst greatest task is to convince Danny to leave Cameron and to forget all the racist propaganda he learned.
12. Sweeney is Derek's teacher all across the movie and even a substitute for the father Derek lost. The transformation suffered by Derek from a narrow-minded skinhead to a thinker and a freedom fighter is impressive. Part of Derek's new concept of life if partly due to the skinhead faction because of their teachings and of their actions in prison. A main motive for Derek's change is the fact that he discovered the demurring nature of skinheads generally.
13. The movie evolves as Derek's character advances from one phase to another by becoming an ordinary citizen worrying for the good sake of his family. As he gets out of prison, Derek uses his fame to reach Cameron and to explain that he's out of the faction and that he's taking Danny with him. Even with Danny out of Cameron's plan and his improved life, Derek cannot escape the nightmare.
235) by organizing them into groups throughout the film, the movie helped dispel stereotypes by showing the multiculturally diverse struggling with the same problems in the same area.
Although they lived in the same are and struggled with many of the same social problems, the film certainly allowed viewers to see the communication barriers that developed between members of different races. This is especially important for the counselor who wishes to work with the multiculturally diverse. The primary communication barrier was erected between blacks and whites. First, viewers can see this in the school between two educated members of these races. Mr. Murry, Danny's history teacher and a white Jew, confronts African-American principal Dr. Sweeney about the Mein Kampf paper that Danny has written. Mr. Murry is highly offended by the attitudes in the paper, while Dr. Sweeney wants to give Danny another chance. The two have difficulty coming to…
Collins, Noah M. And Pieterse, Alex L. (2007). Critical Incident Analysis-Based Training:
An Approach for Developing Active Racial/Cultural Awareness. Journal of Counseling and Development. 85, 14-23.
Ibrahim, Farah a. (1991). Contribution of Cultural Worldview to Generic Counseling and Development. Journal of Counseling and Development 70, 13-19.
Kaye, Tony (Director). (1998). American History X. [videotape].
His allegations have been considered to be true because of the fact that Americans had already been alarmed by the quick spread of Communism. Most of those accused by McCarthy to have been loyal to the Communist Party had been shortly dismissed from their jobs. Also, McCarthy became very popular as a result of his frequent speeches which were intended to shed more light concerning people favoring communism.
The era in which Americans were leading a national anti-communist crusade started to be known as "McCarthyism." In spite of his fame, McCarthy ended up to be one of the most hated U.S. senators.
"McCarthy's support came from people who had been shocked by revelations that former State Department official Alger Hiss was a Soviet spy, by the arrest of Soviet spy Klaus Fuchs, and by communist takeover of China in 1950." (Mccain)
Even if some anti-communists in the U.S. had had…
1. Jeremy Black, "World War Two," Routledge, 2003.
2. Jeff Broadwater, "Eisenhower & the Anti-Communist Crusade," University of North Carolina Press, 1992
3. Robert Stacy Mccain, "Authors Take Another Look at McCarthy's Role in History," the Washington Times, February 9, 2000
4. "The Cold War Begins," (2001), Retrieved March 28, 2009, from Macrohistory Web site: http://www.fsmitha.com/h2/ch24cld.html
Based on Thumim's work, it is possible to suggest that the reason John Fitzgerald Kennedy won the hite House had little to do with his wealth, his brains, the party's backing, his II heroism or even his obviously intelligent wife. In view of Thumim's claims, it is possible to conclude that a nation of devalued women -- 'put down' on television sitcoms for more than a decade -- were looking for a knight in shining armor to, if not save them, at least be charming to them while keeping them under lock and key. Certainly, that would have to be counted as a stunning impact of television on American politics. If this is only partly true, then one would have to conclude that television helped sunder the political sensibilities of voters in the United States along gender lines.
It should be noted, too, that broadcast personnel were virtually all men.…
Barbara Walters. Undated. Available from NNBD Web site. http://www.nndb.com/people/440/000023371/ ; accessed October 28, 2005.
Kramer, Hilton. 1998. Telling Lies about History: "The Fifties" on Television. New Criterion, January, 12. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o& ; d=5001411193.
Thumim, Janet. 1995. 'A Live Commercial for Icing Sugar. Researching the Historical Audience: Gender and Broadcast Television in the 1950s. Screen 36, no. 1: 48-55.
ole of the United States in Europe After WWII
This essay attempts to present the role of the United States of America in the reconstruction of post World War II Europe. This report also attempts to provide information regarding the covert Cold War, the formation of NATO, and the ample economic trade opportunities sought by the Americans.
After the successful D-Day invasion of Normandy Beach, it did not take much longer for the allied forces to topple the rest of Hitler's army. The blitzkrieg was over and the world was ready to begin to disassociate the German people from Adolf Hitler's boisterous speeches, the holocaust, the charge on Moscow by the Panzers, and ommil's quest for oil reserves in the deserts of Africa. Everyone wanted to believe that the German nation had simply been manipulated by a madman. But by the time Hitler fell, the damage had already…
Beichman, Arnold. "Reagan's legacy: How the Cold War was won" The Washington Times [Washington] 1999.Congressional Record.
Brinkley, Douglas (1998). History of the United States. New York: American Heritage.
Dennis, Donald Philips (2002). Foreign Policy in a Democracy: The Role of the Foreign Policy Association. New York. (Foreign Policy Association, 2004)
Foreign Policy Association (2004). Great Decisions. Foreign Policy, pgs. 5-9; 75-87.
McCarthyism is a term that originated in the early 1950s during America's campaign against the spread of Communism in Asia and other parts of the world. Technically defined, McCarthyism is "the political practice of publicizing accusations of disloyalty or subversion with insufficient regard to evidence" and "the use of methods of investigation and accusation regarded as unfair, in order to suppress opposition." These definitions of and the term itself originated through the person of Senator Joseph McCarthy, who became popular because of his accusations that Communism has infiltrated the American government, giving rise to the "Red Scare," reflecting the country's aversion and disapproval over Communist beliefs and methods (which has been popularly subsisted to by the Chinese and Russians).
The Baby Boom
The Baby Boom was the event in which American population had exploded during the post-World War II era. The Baby Boom had brought out an…
And women were actually recruited for this specific kind of work, which seems a new approach to female presence in the workplace. However, the way Baker describes it, with "agents" scouring the country "to decoy girls away from their homes with the promise of high wages" (the word "decoy" suggests deception and deviousness), makes it seem undignified and sinister. These factories seem to be enslaving women, not empowering women, although Baker notes that rough as the work is, women are given a chance to "toil" in order to support an "aged mother or orphaned brother and sister."
THREE: ould Baker have encouraged other women to work at Lowell? Probably she would not recommend this place of employment because it represented "…a miserable, selfish spirit of competition" which Baker hoped would be "…thrust from us and consigned to eternal oblivion." It was a "hardscrabble" existence for women so who would recommend…
Baker, Josephine L. (1998). The Lowell Offering: Writings by New England Mill Women (1840-
1845). New York W.W. Norton, 77-82.
On the 20th of October, 1776, the address to the brigade by Jones spoke of many topics of concern. First of all, Jones mentioned that it was their god's wish for them to assemble and fight against the enemies of the righteous folks at the region of Northern Lake George, especially Fort Ticonderoga. These enemies were the British who were believed to be on their way to attack. In the address, it was mentioned that if the people would not gather and defend the area, the citizens of the area would eventually be enslaved and put under circumstances that would not be acceptable. In order to prevent such a situation, the troops were gathered for defense so that eventually, the American people would attain salvation. They were to defend their homeland even though the enemies had no reason to put them in such a situation to begin with.…
Mandatory Essay: “Resistance is Never Futile: The Ongoing Struggle for Liberation”
Fossils from the Great Rift Valley offer testimony that all human beings descended from their roots in Africa. Because all humans are essentially in diaspora from our original ancestors, it can be especially fruitful to Africanize all history. Finding Africanisms in Black Culture means detailing the different ways Blacks have preserved identity and culture, while also reconstructing identities and culture in diaspora. The Gullah culture is one of the best examples of Africanisms in Black American culture. Although African Americans had been systematically stripped of language and tradition during the process of enslavement and the trans-Atlantic slave trade, it is nevertheless possible—and necessary—to trace Africanisms to their source. Prior to the trans-Atlantic slave trade, pan-African history evolved as civilizations with coherent language and culture migrated throughout the continent. The most notable of all cultural migrations was the Bantu, which…
Franklin, John Hope and Evelyn Brooks Higgenbotham. From Slavery to Freedom. 9th edition. McGraw-Hill.
Lack of Freedoms and Limited Opportunities of Women and Native Americans for the Period from 1492-1867 in America
The year 1492 counts as the starts of colonization in America. This is when Columbus sailed into the new-found land with three of his ships i.e. Santa Maria, Nina and Pinta. Native Americans impressed him with their kindness but he resulted to abusing them instead of showing the same kindness (Snyder, 2017). The king and queen Ferinand and Isabella were not impressed with the manner in which Columbia was treating the Native Americans (Marilley, 2014). The King and Queen force Columbus to go back to Spain. After this, in the year 1583, another group went into a small Island known as Roanoke with an objective of colonizing it. Roanoke Island one of the Americas Islands. This group was not successful in their colonization mission. Another group was sent in 1587 to…
Buhle, M., Murphy, T., & Gerhard, J. (2009). Women and the making of America. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Camp, S. (2004). Closer to Freedom: Enslaved Women and Everyday Resistance in the Plantation South (Gender and American culture) (pp. 63-64). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Clow, R., & Wunder, J. (1997). Native Americans and the Law: Contemporary and Historical Perpectives on American Indian Rights, Freedoms, and Sovereignty. The Western Historical Quarterly, 28(4), 561. doi: 10.2307/969891
Geisler, C. (2013). Disowned by the Ownership Society: How Native Americans Lost Their Land. Rural Sociology, 79(1), 56-78. doi: 10.1111/ruso.12028
Marilley, S. U. (2014). Woman Suffrage and the Origins of Liberal Feminism in the United States, 1820-1920. S.l.: Harvard University Press.
McDonagh, E. (2018). Counting Women\\\\'s Ballots: Female Voters from Suffrage through the New Deal. Journal Of American History, 104(4), 1043-1043. doi: 10.1093/jahist/jax493
Meltzer, D. J. (2010). First peoples in a new world: Colonizing ice age America. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Salinas, M. (1992). Christianity, Colonialism and Women in Latin America in the 16th, 17th and 18th Centuries. Social Compass, 39(4), 525-542.
The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and subsequent declaration of war by the US against Japan set in motion a chain of events that would lead to the internment of Japanese-origin people living in the United States. President Franklin D. Roosevelt wrote Executive Order 9066, ordering all Japanese-Americans to evacuate the West Coast two months after the bombing. The result was that 120,000 people were interned in 10 camps across the country (History.com, 2017). The order was driven by the widespread belief that Japanese-Americans and immigrants were plotting to aid Japan in the conflict. There was no evidence of such a plot, or of any sentiment to sabotage the war effort. The relocation and internment was not applied to people of Japanese origin living in Hawai'I, nor to people of German or Italian origin, nations that the US was also fighting in the conflict (History.com, 2017).
Frail. T. (2017). The injustice of Japanese-American internment camps resonates strongly to this day. Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved October 15, 2017 from https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/injustice-japanese-americans-internment-camps-resonates-strongly-180961422/
History.com (2017) Japanese-American relocation History.com. Retrieved October 15, 2017 from http://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/japanese-american-relocation#
As first ladies take a back seat to their husbands, historians usually depict figures like Mary Todd Lincoln and Varina Davis gingerly. A considerable amount has been written on Mary Todd Lincoln, less so about Varina Davis. Both women have been often vilified, portrayed as overbearing, interfering, and problematic. However, both women exemplified the ways white women in positions of power negotiated their subordinate status and gender norms.
While neither leveraged their husband’s power in overt ways, both Lincoln and Davis did capitalize on their role as first lady and their status in their respective communities. As wives, mothers, and de facto leaders, Lincoln and Davis also juggled numerous roles and dealt with role conflict too. Lincoln and Davis were both relatively outspoken and socially assertive women whose inability to directly participate in the political process did not undermine their willingness to subvert patriarchal norms to influence not just their…
Cashin, Joan E. “Varina Howell Davis.” Essential Civil War Curriculum. Retrieved online: http://www.essentialcivilwarcurriculum.com/assets/files/pdf/ECWCTOPICVarinaDavisEssay.pdf
Davis, Varina. “How the Davis family spent the Christmas of 1864.” The Texan Dispatch. Retrieved online: http://scvtexas.org/uploads/Camp_1325_12-16_Newsletter.pdf
Ellison, Betsy Boles. The True Mary Todd Lincoln. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, 2014.
Pederson, William D. “Mary Todd Lincoln.” In A Companion to First Ladies. John Wiley, 2016.
Ross, Ishbel. The First Lady of the South: The Life of Mrs. Jefferson Davis. Ebook: Pickle Partners, 2016.
Spencer, Evan R. “Varina Davis, Beauvoir, and the fight for Confederate memory.” Middle Tennessee State University, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 2015. 1605600
The Great War
The forces of nationalism, imperialism and militarism all played a role in the events that led to the Great War. As Gilbert (1994) notes, the Germans had industrialized and were now a threat to the British Empire in terms of becoming an economic and military powerhouse. Germany had, after all, just won the Franco-Prussian War and reclaimed the all-important Alsace and Lorraine regions. The Germans had also allied themselves with the Ottomans, which meant that Germany now oversaw the Bosporous Straights—and that meant Germany was a threat to Russia as well. Thus, France, the UK and Russia all had a reason to ally with one another against Germany, and Germany did not help itself by backing Austria-Hungary against the Serbs and Pan-Slavic movement in Eastern Europe. Germany’s fear was that if it did not back Austria-Hungary, the Pan-Slavic movement could lead to Germany’s borders being threatened in…
Balfour Declaration. (1917). Knesset. Retrieved from https://www.knesset.gov.il/lexicon/eng/BalfourDeclaration_eng.htm
Bradberry, B. (2012). The Myth of German Villainy. IN: AuthorHouse.
Gilbert, M. (1994). The First World War. NY: Henry Holt and Company.
Weir, A. (2014). Against Our Better Judgment. IN: CreateSpace.
Wilson, W. (1914). Message on neutrality. Retrieved from http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=65382
Wilson, W. (1917). A world league for peace. Retrieved from http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=65396
Northwest Passage- 1492-1600 when Europeans encountered the new world
After the Portuguese and Spanish took control of the South's sea pathways, the English and French began seeking a northwestern route to Asia. However, by the 17th century, they lost hope of ever making their way across North America's northern part after many generations of sailors failed to find a way. Nevertheless, early 15th and 16th century explorations and colonization increased knowledge regarding the world by a significant amount. Cornelius Wytfliet, the cartographer from Flanders created a world map that continued to depict the mythical "Straits of Anian" -- a province in China connecting the Atlantic and the legendary Northwest Passage, which finds mention in the edition of traveler, Marco Polo's work dated 1559. European powers' endeavors to make their homes in the Americas succeeded, ultimately, in the 17th century, when the English and the French successfully contested the…
Concepcion Saenz-Cambra. (2012). The Atlantic World, 1492 -- 1600. Concepcion.
David W. Galenson. (1984). The Rise and Fall of Indentured Servitude in the Americas: An Economic Analysis. Economic History Association, 1-26.
weli, R. v. (2008). Slave Trading and Slavery in the Dutch Colonial Empi. In Rik van weli. New West Indian Guide.
The underside of affluence
The period is in the early years of the twentieth century. America is now experiencing economic and political expansion as it became the model of an imperial superpower for all nations, both in the Western and Eastern regions. Economic growth spurred as a result of the industrial revolution, while political structures strengthened due to the numerous successful conquests of the Americans to colonize nations in the Asian and southern American regions.
However, despite the affluence that American society had experienced during this period, a considerable half of the American population is suffering from poverty. With the rise of urbanization, many people flocked to the cities in search of a high-paying job and steady source of income as factory workers. However, the rapid incidence of migration to the cities made them crowded with people, hence, living conditions began to deteriorate, which includes the lack of…
There was another group of Americans who felt that all of America, including British Canada, should have been conquered during the Revolutionary War and then ceded to the Americans, so they felt the War of 1812, which began with Americans attempting to conquer Canada, should not have had to take place at all.
Finally, New England residents openly opposed the war, and did not support anything connected with it. They would not offer funds for the war, and they would not allow their militia to fight in the war. They were angry about the economy, but they were also angry because they felt they had been mislead by the government, and the war was really being fought to gain territory in Canada, which they did not agree with. Ultimately, the war ended in 1814, but much of American did not support or condone the…
In addition, before the war, British naval power was the superior naval power in the world, and the French, after a defeat at British hands, stopped trading with Britain, and asked most other European countries to stop, as well. Thus, the majority of Great Britain's trade was with the United States before the war, and there were few other avenues open to the U.S., with European ports blockaded. So, when the British blockaded American ports, there was nowhere else to trade, and trade fell even more than it had before the war.
There was another group of Americans who felt that all of America, including British Canada, should have been conquered during the Revolutionary War and then ceded to the Americans, so they felt the War of 1812, which began with Americans attempting to conquer Canada, should not have had to take place at all.
Finally, New England residents openly opposed the war, and did not support anything connected with it. They would not offer funds for the war, and they would not allow their militia to fight in the war. They were angry about the economy, but they were also angry because they felt they had been mislead by the government, and the war was really being fought to gain territory in Canada, which they did not agree with. Ultimately, the war ended in 1814, but much of American did not support or condone the war.
Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.
Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…
Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
As was the nature of the Cold ar, the United States responded by quashing new governments that were likely to lead to communism, even where this constituted an undemocratic or even brutal instituted government (Kort 80).
Democratically elected officials from Brazil, Guyana, and Uruguay were overthrown by internal revolutionaries who were funded and trained by American forces (Parenti 44). These and other leaders and governments in Latin America were targeted by American forced as having communist leanings. Foreign policy followed, with more than two decades of the Cold ar focusing not only on the major publicized events of Korea and the Soviet Union, but on many small, third world countries. These small nations were poised to become players in the larger Cold ar struggle depending on where their allegiance and governments ended up after declaring their independence. ith the Soviet Union attempting to exert force and pressure on the United…
Eisenhower, Dwight D. Inaugural Address. Washington, D.C. 20 Jan. 1953.
Geertz, Clifford. "What Was the Third World Revolution?" Dissent 52.1 (2005): 35-45.
Freidel, Frank. Roosevelt. New York: Little Brown and Company, 1990.
Kort, Michael G. The Cold War. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994.
During the 1940s, America had just experienced the onslaught of World War II. After massive fighting against the Axis power nations (Germany, Italy, and Japan), America, along with its allies in the war, was able to conclude the conflict by deciding to drop the atomic bomb in Japan. The war ended with the Axis power conceding defeat, and America went on to rehabilitate its nation after the war. The rehabilitation of America as a nation weary of possible atrocities among nations in the world is twofold. After the war, America experienced a resurgence in economic growth, primarily brought about by the development of new technologies that spurred the country's commercial market. Furthermore, the growth of new technologies and manufacturing industry in America encouraged social mobility, enabling the middle class society to increase in number, narrowing the gap between the rich and the poor. Thus, the technological revolution and…
American History -- journal
In the September 2000 issue of the highly-prestigious history journal American Heritage, the main topic of discussion has to do with "ales From the Cold War," a period in American history following World War II when the U.S. And the Soviet Union were engaged in detente and threats related to the use of nuclear weapons.
he first article, "he Day We Shot Down the U-2" by Sergei Khrushchev, the son of Premier Nikita Khrushchev, makes it clear that the U-2 incident of May 1, 1960 involving U.S. pilot Gary Powers was far more complicated than has previously been realized. Khrushchev states that "In the 1950's, years of deep freeze in the Cold War caused politician and ordinary people on both sides to be gripped by the same fear," being "whether Moscow or Washington would seize the opportunity to deal the first, and possibly the last, nuclear…
The second article, "Aircraft 53-1876A Has Lost a Device" By Clark Rumrill, focuses on how the U.S. Air Force came to drop by mistake an A-bomb on the state of South Carolina in March of 1958 which fortunately did not detonate. Rumrill points out that an Air Force medium bomber accidentally dropped its nuclear weapon "in the woods behind the home of the Gregg family" and that the "high explosive trigger in the bomb blew up on contact with the ground, leaving a crater 50 feet across and 35 feet deep and injuring three girls" (50). This accident came about when a Captain Kulka noticed that the bomb was lodged in the wrong place in the plain and when he tried to fix the problem the bomb-bay doors opened up and the bomb fell from the plane. Moments later, "the plane was rocked by the shock wave of the blast when the bomb hit the ground" (53).
The third article, "Mr. Smith Goes Underground" by Thomas Mallon, concerns a specially-designed bunker, meant to house the President of the United States and his closest confidants, during a nuclear strike by the Soviet Union. Mallon reminds the reader that this bunker, located in West Virginia and now open to the public for tours, was "the strangest of all Cold War relics and offers a clue to why (the U.S.) won the Cold War" (60). The current tour guide, Marvin Weikle, who helped maintain the facility for many years, always warns the visitors that what they are about to see can be quite startling, due to costing $14 million to construct in the late 1940's. Once the visitors enter the bunker, they "find themselves standing at the end of a 144 yard-long concrete corridor leading into the 112, 544 square-foot former standby capital of the United States" (63).
The last article, "Visiting the Cold War Today" By Phil Patton, describes various landmarks from Berlin, Germany to Washington, D.C. To Area 51 which as of 2000 were being opened to the public. According to Patton, "these days, there are more and more visitors to the monuments of the Cold War" and tours as often overcrowded at the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station and the Nevada Test Sites. Some of the most conspicuous sites include the Titan Missile Museum in Sahaurita, Arizona, the house on Checkpoint Charlie in Berlin (the dividing line between East and West Germany during the Cold War, a.k.a. The "Iron Curtain), the Allied Museum in Berlin and the Cold War Museum which Gary Powers, the U-2 spy plane pilot, created "to honor his father and all Cold War veterans" (72). As of 2000, this museum included "a U-2, a section of the Berlin Wall, a spy satellite, a fallout shelter and other artifacts" (72).
Derek's racist beliefs are cemented, and became the springboard to his activism and leadership of the skinheads when his father is killed by a black man, fighting a fire in a crack house in an inner-city neighborhood. hen two young African-Americans try to steal his car, Derek is determined that he, unlike his beloved father, will emerge the winner. The film makes it clear that Derek has been waiting for this to happen. Again, the film does not excuse the theft of his vehicle, but indicates that the world is filled with potential justifications for racism, and Derek is looking for such 'reasons' to engage in hateful action. Derek is both a product of his environment and his simmering male adolescent rage.
Derek sent to prison for three years. His younger brother tries to assume Derek's role by harassing immigrants and other non-whites. He also finds himself, like Derek, of…
American History X. Directed by Tony Kaye. 1998.
The film brings up numerous questions such as how does an individual descend so far and so deep into a movement as riddled with hate and brutality as Neo-Nazism to the extent that they would feel justified in murdering for this "cause." The film offers several answers, some of them satisfactory and some of them not; the answers which are less acceptable can be as useful in the task of inquiry as the ones that are adequate. For example, one critic explains that Derek blamed the death of his father on a range of race-related factors and we later see how his father tutored both sons in a range of racist beliefs, but "the scene feels like tacked-on motivation…"(Egbert, 1998). Rather what the film did do well was offer another answer for why these individuals, and the character of Derek namely could take such an extreme descent in to racism:…
Egbert, R. American History X. 30 Octover 1998. website.
Maslin, J,. American History X (1998). 28 October 1998. website.
Nevertheless, there have been many decisions over the years that have tended to weaken the intent of the Framers. In 2001, in Zelman v. Simmons Harris the Supreme Court ruled that school voucher programs did not violate the establishment clause of the First Amendment. The decision represented a blow to the essentially secular nature of the American state and system. By allowing public money to be given to religious schools, the Supreme Court was permitting the violation of a more than two hundred year old principle. In reaching its decision, the Supreme Court chose to accept the argument that giving money to schools was not a case of advancing religion but rather one of who should have power over education - the state or individual parents.
Personal freedom was now being re-defined as something that included the right to government assistance if the government provided assistance in similar situations. Persons…
Bolick, Clint. "School Choice: Sunshine Replaces the Cloud." Cato Supreme Court Review 2001-2002. Ed. Robert a. Levy, James L. Swanson, and Timothy Lynch. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2002. 149-169.
Censer, Jack. "7 France, 1750-89." Press, Politics and the Public Sphere in Europe and North America, 1760-1820. Ed. Hannah Barker and Simon Burrows. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 159-178.
Champlin, Dell P., and Janet T. Knoedler. "American Prosperity and the "Race to the Bottom: " Why Won't the Media Ask the Right Questions?" Journal of Economic Issues 42.1 (2008): 133+.
Milner, Murray. Freaks, Geeks, and Cool Kids: American Teenagers, Schools, and the Culture of Consumption. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Webster appears to be in agreement with Calhoun regarding the North's part in damaging the relationship between the North and the South. According to Webster however, the main culprit in this dynamic is the rhetoric of the abolition societies. While the author acknowledges that these societies include mostly honorable and just people who believe in their cause, he also holds that their rhetoric has become unacceptably emotional and their tactics, such as spreading anti-slavery literature to the South, essentially dishonorable. According to the author, such tactics ironically lead only to strengthen the Southern cause and increase enmity and violence.
William Henry Seward believes that the abolishment of slavery is inevitable as the economy and humanitarian institutions grow. According to this author, the institution is simply an "accidental" institution that came into being as a result of a combination of certain factors at a certain time. As times are changing,…
American Investment ecovery Act
Throughout American history there has been an emphasis on maintaining a balance of power between different branches of government. This is from the belief that concentrating too much authority in one area will lead to inevitable abuses in others. To prevent this, the federal government and states have always practiced these basic principles. As a result, there are varying interpretations as to the overall scope of power given to particular branch. (McNeese, 2001)
In 2009, these issues were continually being brought to forefront with the American ecovery Act and einvestment Act of 2009. This law was designed to provide the economy with additional amounts of stimulus to address the lingering challenges from the financial crisis. However, the process of enacting this legislation, there were increased amounts of controversy surrounding the balance of power between the President and Congress. This is because the Democrats had an overwhelming…
The American Investment and Recovery Act. (2009). Fiscal Accountability. Retrieved from: http://www.fiscalaccountability.org/index.php?content=cog09-13#
The American Investment and Recovery Act. (2009). GPO. Retrieved from: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-111hr1enr/pdf/BILLS-111hr1enr.pdf
Estimated Impact of American Investment and Recovery Act. (2012). CBO. Retrieved from: http://www.cbo.gov/sites/default/files/cbofiles/attachments/05-25-Impact_of_ARRA.pdf
Wickard v. Filburn. (2012). Case Briefs. Retrieved from: http://www.casebriefs.com/blog/law/constitutional-law/constitutional-law-keyed-to-stone/the-powers-of-congress/wickard-v-filburn-2/
Even after the Emancipation Proclamation, the Supreme Court held that separate but equal was a legitimate stance under American law, essentially codifying human beings into different racial categories like a caste system, until Brown v. Board of Education in 1954. In short, America was a nation founded upon a paradox. It idealized freedom and personal choice, yet it also was based upon a system that did not allow a substantial percentage of the population to exercise that freedom and enjoy in their liberties.
The Civil Rights movement was so radical, because it demanded that the promise of American freedom finally be truly realized and granted to Black Americans, which America was unwilling to do, until African-Americans demanded their rights through this eloquent and articulate protest movement. Sadly, the damage of hundreds of years of slavery had taken their psychological and economic toll upon some Black Americans. One of the saddest…
Major Problems in American History Since 1945. Third Edition.
New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000.
Furthermore, the Supreme Court (and the Texas district court also) relied on a judicial invention introduced in the earlier Griswold and Eisenstadt decisions: namely, the penumbra of privacy that was said to "emanate" from the Fourteenth Amendment to give rise in a fundamental right of privacy despite the fact that the notion of personal privacy is not mentioned at all in the Constitution. Certainly, the Roe decision was justified on general principles of justice, equality, fairness, and ordinary definitions of private affairs; but from a technical legal argument perspective, many commentators have suggested that it was a case of the Court fitting the Constitution to the law rather than conforming the latter to the former.
Regardless of the any technical criticism in the legal analysis of the basis for the Supreme Court's decision in Roe, it remains the right and moral decision on the issue.
Certainly, room exists for…
Abrams, Natalie, Buckner, Michael, D. A Clinical Textbook and Reference for the Health Care Professions. (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999).
Dershowitz, Alan, M. Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. (New York: Little Brown & Co, 2002).
Friedman, Laurence, M. A History of American Law. (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005).
Hall, Kermit, L. The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1992).
As a result, the 1764 Currency Act was signed. The Act forbade colonies from issuing paper currency. The colonists found it extremely difficult paying their debts and taxes.
After the Currency Act had been passed, the then British Prime Minister proposed a stamp tax that obligated colonists to purchase government issued stamps for legal documents and other paper goods. When the bill was brought before the floor of the house it sailed through. The Parliament therefore had a duty to tax the colonies. The Stamp Act did not go down well with the colonies. In fact, the Virginia House of Burgesses passed a resolution that sought to deny the British Parliament the authority to tax the British colonies. ioters visited destruction on the house of stamp distributer in Boston. There were protests all over America.
The Stamp Act acted as a common cause that united at least 13 colonies against…
Age, M. (2010). From Revolution to Reconstruction. Retrieved September 12, 2012 from http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/E/7yearswar/fiw03.htm
Department of State Office of the Historian. (2012). Milestones 1750-1775. Retrieved September 12, 2012 from http://history.state.gov/milestones/1750-1775/ParliamentaryTaxation
American History -- Thomas Paine
Modern examination of the roots that birthed this nation illuminates with steadfast clarity the manner, importance, and weight of the movements of the past. Bernard Bailyn knows this firsthand; in his analysis of Common Sense, he not only studies the historiography of Thomas Paine's revolutionary pamphlet, but by placing himself in retro-active historical context, he is able to find age-old movement in the piece to share with the political historian today. Inside the Englishman's pamphlet on logic and politics, he finds not just a call for revolution, but instead a greater amass of the smaller pleas for transition that, when united under the banner of intellectual outreach and historical debate, reaffirms the common sense Pain purported two hundred and thirty years ago.
In The Most Uncommon Pamphlet of the Revolution: Common Sense, Bailyn supports the widely held belief that Thomas Paine's pamphlet that urged America…
American History: Important Changes From 1810 to 1830
The period of time from 1810 to 1830 was a major time of social, economic and political change in America. The most important of these changes are those whose impact can still be seen today. Three of the most important changes were the growth of manufacturing, the focus on the individual rather than the community and the acceptance of democracy.
The growth of manufacturing changed the nature of America forever, with manufacturing becoming more important than farming for the first time. Tocqueville (XIX) reflects on the focus America put on manufacturing saying, "No people in the world have made such rapid progress in trade and manufactures as the Americans." This rapid progress led to the industrial revolution and eventually the society we have today, with capitalism and manufacturing the basis society is built upon. As Tocqueville (XIX) argues, "Democracy not only swells…
Tocqueville, A. "Chapter XV: Unlimited Power of the Majority in the United States, and its Consequences." Democracy in America. Retrieved October 21, 2002. URL: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/1_ch15.htm
Tocqueville, A. "Chapter XIX: What Causes Almost All Americans to Follow Industrial Callings." Democracy in America. Retrieved October 21, 2002. URL: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/ch2_19.htm
Tocqueville, A. "Chapter XIII: How the Principle of Equality Naturally Divides the Americans into a Multitude of Small Private Circles." Democracy in America. Retrieved October 21, 2002. URL: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/ch3_13.htm
Tocqueville, A. "Chapter I: Equality Naturally Gives Men a Taste for Free Institutions." Democracy in America. Retrieved October 21, 2002. URL: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/ch4_01.htm
" Indeed, in the "marriage bed of the beautiful Bertrande things now went well," presumably in sexual cohesion, but also, in reproduction as two daughters were born to them." key part of the Davis story was the trial, in which Arnaud was accused of being the imposter that indeed he was. This is in effect a sidebar to the story, and a sidebar to the issue of "different historians...using different types of evidence..." talk about the same things. On page 67, some 150 people had come to testify, but "forty-five people or more said that the prisoner was Arnaud...[and] about thirty to forty people said that the defendant was surely Martin Guerre." So, people who had seen history (the real Martin) had different views of whether this man on trial was him or not. Time casts shadows on the truth, just as it does on how the history of the…
Davis, Natalie Zemon. (1983). The Return of Martin Guerre. Cambridge: Harvard
Finlay, Robert. (1988). The Refashioning of Martin Guerre. The American Historical
Review, 93, 553-603.
Wood, Gordon S. (1991). The Radicalization of the American Revolution. New York:
Architect Frank Lloyd right went beyond even Ives's achievements. Sharing affection for the organic ideas of the American Renaissance before the Civil ar and asserting that form and function were one, right developed the Prairie school of architecture. This tried to integrate the design of housing and the land it used and forced Americans to think more carefully about rapid urbanization. In terms of the impact that he had abroad right's work still influences architects and city planners today (Progressive Movement, 2010).
A lot happened during the reform movement all which had some effect on the way that we live today. It changed things in this country on a political, social and economic level that helped this country to progress forward and become what it is today. History provides a wonderful building block upon which we can grow and expand. It gives us the insight into what worked and what…
"Progressing into the 20th Century the Progressive Movement." (n.d.). 14 February 2010,
"Progressive Movement." (2010). 14 February 2010,
British reactions to the colonies wavered throughout the colonial era, from the policy of salutary neglect to the tightened controls of King George III. The Crown faced a dilemma: to allow the colonies to develop thriving commercial enterprises in the hopes of a trickle-down benefit for Great Britain; or to tighten the leash on the colonial governments to demand more regular tax revenues. In light of the thriving colonial economies in Massachusetts, Virginia, and Maryland, King George III opted for the latter, imposing tariffs on the colonies. Britain's policies toward the New World colonies remained, therefore, primarily economic: the Stamp and Sugar Acts exemplify the Crown's interest not so much in the development of colonial culture as in the colonial economy.
Friction between English settlers and Native Americans also impacted the development of colonial life and of Crown policies. Infiltration into lands inhabited by the indigenous Americans led to numerous…
An Outline of American History." Embassy of the United States, Stockholm. Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at http://stockholm.usembassy.gov/usis/history/chapter2.html
Colonial Settlement, 1600s-1763." The Library of Congress. Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at http://memory.loc.gov/learn/features/timeline/colonial/indians/indians.html
From Revolution to Reconstruction." Retrieved Sept 12, 2006 at http://www.let.rug.nl/usa/H/1994/ch1_p9.htm
In the construction of Panama Canal, Roosevelt's primary objective was to curtail his fears that another nation would come up with the idea of building a passageway, wherein trade between the U.S. And other countries would be detrimentally affected, blocking the U.S.'s access to trade goods from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean and back. Through the Roosevelt Corollary, the then president implemented the Monroe Doctrine, which posits that European nations shall not force Venezuela to pay its debts. Roosevelt's assertion that the U.S. shall take action should the doctrine be violated by the concerned parties. As with the Panama Canal construction, the implementation of the Roosevelt Corollary was imposed by Roosevelt for fear that a European nation shall control or overpower a Latin American nation, which may lead to increased European power, and ultimately, decrease the power and control of America over the Latin American region.
The middle class as a social sector and movement in the society is a benefit because of its ability to mobilize and incite action among people, both socially and legally -- as Daniel explicated, "...explored a legal path to equal rights." The middle class was also a detriment for the civil rights cause because most of the middle class people are white Americans, an ironic situation considering that these very people fought for equal rights in their society. Because of their predominantly white American membership, the middle class impeded on the development of the civil rights movement; however, as far as social mobility is concerned, the middle class had significantly contributed to the development of a more egalitarian society in America -- at least, primarily among white Americans.
Linking the development of the middle class sector in America inevitably brings the issue of civil rights movement into focus. It can…
. . Even puritanical John Adams thought that the argument for Christ's divinity was an 'awful blasphemy' in this new enlightened age." (Wolf, 160)
And yet, Wolf goes on to discuss the manner in which religious values remain such a prominent part of the political process. n spite of the effort to which our founding fathers went to prevent such manipulation, the puritanical roots of American culture and values is now suffieiently entrenched to the point that presidential candidates must declare their faith to expect any chance of victory. To the point, Wolf recalls the manner in which recent elections, included those of Bush and Obama thereafter, have called religion into the public discourse as a way of identifying the candidates and their resonance with American culture at large. The degree to which Obama, Wolf's text denotes, would work to articulate his faith in Christ as a response to politically…
Indeed, in a fledgling nation with no small number of illiterate rural constituencies, the proctoring of religious piety in concert with the imposition of political ideals would be a defining characteristic in the nation's cultural development. Indeed, it would revealed to be a political device in many ways, used to manipulate a constitutional system founding on an explicitly stated separation of church and state. To this point, the founding fathers appear to have been largely driven by the desire to preserve this idea. As our text indicates, "at best, most of the revolutionary gentry only passively believed in organized Christianity and, at worst, privately scorned and ridiculed it . . . Even puritanical John Adams thought that the argument for Christ's divinity was an 'awful blasphemy' in this new enlightened age." (Wolf, 160)
And yet, Wolf goes on to discuss the manner in which religious values remain such a prominent part of the political process. In spite of the effort to which our founding fathers went to prevent such manipulation, the puritanical roots of American culture and values is now suffieiently entrenched to the point that presidential candidates must declare their faith to expect any chance of victory. To the point, Wolf recalls the manner in which recent elections, included those of Bush and Obama thereafter, have called religion into the public discourse as a way of identifying the candidates and their resonance with American culture at large. The degree to which Obama, Wolf's text denotes, would work to articulate his faith in Christ as a response to politically conjured allegations of his being Moslem, demonstrated how inextricably linked faith and politics are as a result of the devoutness in our history. (Wolf, 161)
Wolf, N. (2008). Give Me Liberty: A Handbook for American Revolutionaries. Simon & Schuster.
f they had managed to do great damage to the French forces, the British could have cut off those French troops from helping the Americans, and the war would have gone to the British. He writes, "The failure of the British to attack, and possibly fatally wound, the French at Newport was calamitous in the long run" (Ketchum 36). Thus, the author gives the reader insight into both sides of the battle, including his own analysis of what went wrong and what went right for both sides, making it easier for the reader to understand the background and inner workings of the battle.
n addition, Ketchum clearly understands the inner workings of many of the "cast of characters" of this book. He clearly admires Washington, but he is also very familiar with many other participants, such as Lafayette, Benjamin Franklin, and many others. He introduces them clearly and effectively, and…
In conclusion, Ketchum's book is a detailed and interesting account of a pivotal time in U.S. history. Anyone interested in American history would appreciate this book, and anyone interested in the Revolutionary War should certainly read and/or own it. The book is not so scholarly that it is difficult to understand, and Ketchum's writing style makes it much easier to comprehend and enjoy. In addition, his research is thorough and detailed. This book should be used in classrooms so students can grasp more underlying information about the Revolutionary War and those who participated in it.
Ketchum, Richard M. Victory at Yorktown: The Campaign That Won the Revolution. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2004.
Ford (Evans, 2004).
By the 1920s, the affordability of Ford's products and the increasing availability of modernized paved roads and highways combined to make taking a "country drive" one of the fastest and most fashionable national pastimes in the U.S. (Nevins & Commager, 1992). The trendy new fad of driving to the still-undeveloped suburbs and many other recreational areas on weekends was fueled by the relative exclusivity of automobile transportation to the middle (and upper) class, which allowed them to escape the masses of poor at the most popular local recreation spots such as the most popular beaches and state parks (Nevins & Commager, 1992). Ironically, Ford's success in making the automobile more accessible to the middle class also resulted in the beginning of a national obsession with the automobile as much for its social connotations as for the transportation convenience it offered.
Evans H. (2004). They Made America:…
Evans H. (2004). They Made America: From the Steam Engine to the Search Engine
Two Centuries of Innovators. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Nevins J. And Commager H. (1992). A Pocket History of the United States. New York:
American History prior 1877 signed . Start introduction paragraph discuss historical events / people occurances, devote approximately page topic chosen.
"Unimportant" American Events
In spite of the fact that they had a decisive influence on the American society, particular historic events are likely to be forgotten by the masses. Little people know something regarding Thomas Paine's "Common Sense" pamphlet or about the influence that it had on colonists during the ar of Independence. The Three-fifths compromise made it possible for Southerners to increase their power in the U.S. through exploiting the fact that they had slaves. The Fugitive Slave Clause of 1793 was among the first legislations issued with the purpose of allowing slaveholders to get their slaves back. The ar of 1812 played an essential role in shaping U.S. history, but received little attention from the public across time. The Land Act of 1820 prohibited the acquisition of public…
"Common Sense," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the Digital History Website: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/documents/documents_p2.cfm?doc=267
"Land Act of 1820," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the University of Oklahoma Website: http://jay.law.ou.edu/faculty/Hampton/Mineral%20Title%20Examination/General%20Reading%20-%20Land%20Act%20of%201820.pdf
"The Fugitive Slave Acts of 1793 and 1850," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the University at Buffalo Website: http://www.nsm.buffalo.edu/~sww/0history/SlaveActs.html
"The Presidency of Andrew Jackson," Retrieved November 14, 2011, from the Digital History Website: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=637
American History from the Origins of the evolution to the Close of War of 1812
In the 16th century, America, in its development as a new nation, had been colonized by the British government, and for a decade, Americans had shown little resistance against the British colonizers. However, a decade after their conquest, the British forces and government in America had met resistance from the people, and these acts of resistance were triggered by a number of events and policies that further illustrated the growing inequality and injustices of the British to the Americans. As the American evolution became successful, and America had finally achieved independence, the War of 1812 broke out, pitting the country once again against the British forces. The War of 1812 had also encountered problems that had happened before and during the development of the said war. These conflicts and major problems are essential to the…
An Outline of American History." An online book published by the U.S. Department of State International Information Program. Available: http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/history/toc.htm.
American history as it relates to the first five Presidents of the United States. Specifically, it will discuss the impact of early leaders of America on the democratic government, and how the first five presidents impacted early American government. It will also look at the accomplishments of each president and different facts about each that contributed positively and negatively on America as it formed as a nation. The first five presidents of the United States were George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. Each man influenced American history in his own unique and significant ways, with both positive and negative results. These leaders were really creating the office of President as they tried to run the country with intelligence and finesse. Their accomplishments were not always perfect, but they did the best they could with the knowledge and resources available at the time.
THE IMPACT OF…
Agar, Herbert. The People's Choice, from Washington to Harding: A Study in Democracy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1933.
Kane, Joseph Nashan. Facts about the Presidents: A Compilation of Biographical and Historical Data. New York H.W. Wilson Co., 1959.
Kurtz, Stephen G. The Presidency of John Adams: The Collapse of Federalism, 1795-1800. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1957.
Smith, Abbot Emerson. James Madison: Builder: A New Estimate of a Memorable Career. New York: Wilson-Erickson, Incorporated, 1937.
history seems only like a carefully curated set of facts, figures, and events that when taken together promote a specific ideology or worldview. Thus, Americans focus almost exclusively on people, places, and events that uphold the idea of American exceptionalism. ars and the conquests of men overshadow the lives of women, and Europeans are given precedence. The quote by .E.B. DuBois underscores the inherent falseness in approaching history, given that on some level there will always be editorializing. Howard Zinn also reassembles American history in a way that subverts the paradigm that had been taught related to the supremacy of capitalism and the white-washing of key turning points. A People's History of the United States gives voice to those who were systematically suppressed or oppressed. Likewise, Loewen's Lies My Teachers Told Me undoes the brainwashing that schoolchildren in the United States endure.
Loewen and Zinn take up .E.B DuBois on…
Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. New York: Touchstone, 2007.
Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. Online version at: http://www.historyisaweapon.com/zinnapeopleshistory.html
Battle Cry of Freedom by James M. McPherson is probably the most successful symbol of historiography's advancement. There are two concepts that are reflected in the book: that the main cause of war was the slavery of black people and it was not a pleasant experience. Looking at the title, it is evident that McPherson understands that black people's status was the core of the war in regard to cause and effect. egardless of the ineptness and faultiness of the trial, freedom was in jeopardy. The author therefore rejects the tacitly racist explanations that try to make the issue seem less significant in favour of explanations that were economically and culturally favourable. He places black people as the main characters, emphasizing their military role and how they contributed towards the Union's abolition and survival (Nolan, 1989).
A People's History of the United States by Howard Zinn -- published…
Allbery, R. (2005). A People's History of the United States - Review.
Battle cry of freedom: the Civil War era - Review. (1988). Retrieved from Buffalo and Erie County Public Library: https://www.buffalolib.org/vufind/Record/482262/Reviews
Book Review: A People's History Of The United States. (2010, October 25). Retrieved from Grub Street: https://grubstreethack.wordpress.com/2010/10/25/book-review-a-peoples-history-of-the-united-states/