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Ancient Chinese Contributions
(1) Identify eight to ten of these useful inventions or contributions.
Cultivation of millet: millet was discovered in Northern China, with valid evidence from places like Jiahu, Peiligang, and Cishan. In Cishan, archeological remains were found which included storage pits of about 300 in number, other 80 that contained millet remains, and the storage capacity for millet gave an estimation of about 100,000 grains. In 4000 BC, the areas of Yangshao had started using the foxtail cultivation method that completely had its own storage pits and tools that were fine for digging and proper crop harvesting. Using the DNA of the population of East Asian, Chinese farmers, specializing in production of millet are still evident today. The research showed that the Chinese farmers' ancestors made an arrival to the area 30,000 BP (Jiang, 2008).
Noodle: In 2002, the culture of Qijia in a place known as Laija…… [Read More]
People of the time lacked the technological tools to build them, gaps remain regarding how they were accomplished, and it would be challenging for us still today to imitate them.
Criticism of ancient astronaut theory
Critics of the ancient astronaut thesis used some of the following arguments to demolish the claims:
The claims of extra-terrestrials are totally unfounded and many are complete reinterpretations of (for instance) the Bible. proponents such as Von Daniken and Barry Downing, for example, believe that the concept of hell in the Bible was a description of Venus transmitted by extraterrestrials who showed photos of the hot surface on Venus to humans (Penczak, 2007). These, and many more claims, cannot even be called pseudo-science. They are fictitious and stuff of science-fiction.
These arguments too have been proven to be unfounded with most being discredited and the others simply lacking basis. professor Joe…… [Read More]
The first few millennia BCE were transformative times throughout the Near East. Ugaritic (Caanite), Biblical (Israelite), Hittite, Mesopotamian and Egyptian literature reveal common themes, shared motifs, and similar cultural norms and values in spite of the differences that distinguish each region from the other. Core themes that ancient Near Eastern sacred and allegorical literature reveals include the role of monarch as either divine or semi-divine; the strict gender roles and social hierarchies; and the dynamic relationships formed between ruler and people; versus ruler and gods. The social and symbolic universes of the ancient Near East were also strongly and unapologetically patriarchal. In addition to social and moral themes, Ugaritic (Caanite), Biblical (Israelite), Hittite, Mesopotamian and Egyptian literature from the first and second millennia reveal the shift from a henotheistic worldview, cosmology, and theology, to a monotheistic one that would firmly take root.
Leadership remains one of the most…… [Read More]
Ancient Near East Art at the Met
The Cyrus Cylinder is a fragmented clay cylinder (9 in. x 4 in.) from ancient times (roughly 530 BC), which contains the dictates of the Persian king Cyrus, known as Cyrus the Great. The cylinder is made of baked clay, like a pot or an ancient tablet, and inscribed in the clay are the orders of the king, concerning the people of Babylon, whom he had recently conquered.
The purpose of the cylinder was to give praise to the king Cyrus, to show how his virtues marked him as an exemplary king, how he did much to improve the lives of the Babylonians, and how he allowed non-Babylonians (such as Jews) to return to their native lands.
The Cyrus Cylinder is important first of all as an historical artifact which has captured a time and place and allows us today to witness what…… [Read More]
The Greeks even believe that the sun had "kissed" the Ethiopians, explaining the deep color of their skin. In fact, according to one of the sources Keita quotes, the Ethiopians "pioneered" religion, inventing many of the customers that existed later in Egypt; according to that same source, the Egyptians were descended from the Ethiopians. Indeed, Herodotus asserted that almost all the names of the Greek gods came from Egypt, and that those names had been known in Egypt "from the beginning of time...." (Keita, 1994, p. 147+). The Greeks, the source maintains, taught the Greeks about ceremonial meetings, processions and liturgies and to assign a day to a deity and to engage in prognostications and use of omens.
On the other hand, it is unlikely that, without the Greeks to conquer lands on both sides of the Mediterranean, the spread of religion and liturgy and myth -- ascribed to the…… [Read More]
Influential Ancient Historians
Faces of History: Historical Inquiry from Herodotus to Herder by Donald . Kelley
In his book, which is written in a scholarly, colorful, and interesting style, and is as rich with thought-provoking questions as it is lean on assumptions, author Kelley goes to great lengths to set the stage for every historian's work that he discusses. On page 3, he says that "the difficulty" in writing about ancient historians, is, initially, "the question of what qualifies, retrospectively, as 'history'." Does one include the writings of an ancient historian like Herodotus, Kelly asks, since Herodotus's "inquiries" are very subjective and do not fit "modern prescriptions of historical methods"?
And as one reads through the various books on ancient historians, it becomes apparent that chroniclers like Herodotus must be considered historians because there is little else to base "history" upon - and moreover, it is vain and…… [Read More]
Oddly enough, modern Judeo-Christian teachings overlook the important role that women played in the economic security of their households in the ancient Israel period. In ancient-Israel, households were largely self-sufficient. People did not specialize and trade was not a substantial part of the society. (Meyers, p.143). It seems likely that animals were stabled inside with people, on the first floor of the home, which also had space for other agricultural concerns, and crafts. Excavations have revealed the presence of animal bones almost everywhere; demonstrating the importance of animals to the economy. They have also revealed a lack of imported goods, helping reaffirm the self-sufficient nature of households. (Meyers, p.143). The result is that an ancient-Israeli housewife was, in all senses of the word, a "working mother." She was actively involved in subsistence and contributions to the family's economy. However, much of Christian tradition has been concerned with relegating women to…… [Read More]
Ancient Chinese ronzes
The existence of the believed first prehistoric Chinese dynasty of Xia from the 21st to the 16th century was assumed a myth on account of scientific excavations at early bronze-age sites in Anyang, Henan Province in 1928 (Crystal 2004) (Poon). ut archaeological finds in the 1960s and 1970s, consisting mainly of urban sites, bronze implements and tombs, provided evidence to the existence of a Xia civilization in the locations mentioned in ancient Chinese manuscripts. These new finds theorized that the probable Xia period to be between the Neolithic culture and the urban Shang dynasty. The one evidence shared by these ancient civilizations was bronze metallurgy (Crystal, Poon), which could have been a prehistoric activity before the 22nd century C (Lees 2004).
The assumed connection between the two dynasties was the founding of the Shang dynasty by a rebel who overcame the last Xia ruler in the 17th…… [Read More]
The city of Sparta is located along the Eurotas River, in the southern Greek island of Peloponnesus. Today, the city serves as the capital of the Lakonia province and is home to a few thousand people and ruins of temples and ancient public buildings.
The appearance of modern Sparta belies its importance in antiquity. Ancient Sparta was the most powerful and important Greek city-state at the conclusion of the Peloponnesian ar, a distinction that the city carried for almost 30 years (Hamilton 25).
Throughout Greece, Sparta's power and prestige were rivaled only by Athens.
This paper examines the institutional structures that characterized ancient Sparta, and how these institutions affected Sparta's dominance. The first part of the paper looks at the city's political and government structures. The second part focuses on the foundation of Sparta's society - the military. The third part of the paper studies the social and…… [Read More]
(owland, 1953, p. 100) The ceiling depicts octagonal concentric and interlocking symbols that if they had been constructed as part of an actual ceiling might have formed the basis for an architectural wonder. Here they were carved from the cave ceiling to represent such a grand idea. It is not often thought in the west that Buddhism could in any way compete with the classical western traditions of art and architecture, and yet the existence of this valley with its rich Buddhist history is clearly contradictory of western xenophobia or ideal do superiority. It must also be said that the iconoclasm of Islamic raiders did a great deal of damage to eastern depictions of Buddhist and even Christian art (owland, 1953, p. 165) and though the Bamiyan Buddhas had been protected, even in a Islamic culture for centuries they have now belatedly been destroyed by a less ecumenical sect of…… [Read More]
Ancient oman Culture: Dressing for Democracy
Ancient oman Culture
DESSING FO DEMOCACY
Governance, Food, Clothing, Jewelry and Marriage
Ancient oman Influences
Some have argued that for good or for bad the Ancient omans put the people into democracy. They sought to give life to the Greek concept of governance by the people, often by establishing rules and expectations that would encourage its citizens to be equally recognized, at least within certain parameters. Even though it would turn out in reality that some citizens would get more than others, there were numerous efforts to govern, feed, dress, adorn and even pair up people with an eye toward equality for most of those who qualified.
Below we review Ancient oman government, foods, fashions and jewelry, and the basis of their sexuality and marriage. Our goal is to explore some of the foundations for understanding how their influences in these areas effectively dressed…… [Read More]
It had not been until 1990, when President Bush signed the NAGPRA into law, that the natives had finally gotten their rights recognized by the government.
The dam has been built in 1950, when the government did not pay much attention to the Native Americans and to their rights. In the present, the government brings into the question the issue of people risking a flood and a lesser production of energy. It is remarkable how people change over the years, and how the U.S. government plays with the rights of its citizens. Any good-hearted man would believe that the least that the government can do is to give the territory back to its rightful owners. Perhaps the natives would get a little bit of their honor back after centuries of suffering by regaining the burial sites of their ancestors.
This case is not singular in the U.S., as various tribes…… [Read More]
The ancient histories of Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations have much in common. Both regions were inhabited since prehistoric times by nomadic groups, which began to settle down in towns and villages by around 6000 BCE. Consistent settlements soon grew into larger cities; in both Egypt and in Mesopotamia, these cities became city-states with complex lifestyles and forms of government. Some of the first written languages were created simultaneously in these regions: in Mesopotamia the Sumerians developed cuneiform and later the Babylonians and Assyrians used pictographs. The ancient Egyptians developed their unique hieroglyphics. Both these ancient cultures had sophisticated arts, such as fine pottery, ceramics, sculpture, and paintings. Both these cultures also had irrigation systems to provide the arid regions with the ability to grow crops. Egypt and Mesopotamia were both fed by major rivers: in Egypt's case it was the Nile and in the case of Mesopotamia it…… [Read More]
Top Invention- The world we know now is based on the Industrial evolution. The technological developments after feudalism - With the advent of steam power and machinery, especially in the 18th and 19th century, major changes in agriculture, mining, manufacturing and transportation literally revolutionized Europe and changed the socioeconomic and cultural conditions within almost every European country. Indeed, the onset of the Industrial evolution impacted daily life for almost every individual, and changed the course of history, too (More, 2000).
This is the impact that metallurgy and the crafting of iron and steel had on the West and modern cultures are immeasurable. China had the technology of achieving high temperatures and casting iron at least 2,000 years prior to Europe; and even understood how to refine molten pig iron into wrought iron. By the 3rd and 4th century AD, the Chinese had learned to refine metal production using the blast…… [Read More]
Ancient World Cities and Government Warfare
How were ancient city-states an intersection of these things (i.e. cities, governments and warfare?
Throughout history the greatest civilizations were a combination of cities, governments and warfare. In the case of ancient Greece, this took place with the organization of the city state itself (called a polis). This means city, but it also has deeper military roots. What happened was groups of farmers and wealthy landowners came together to create a defensible position against attack (hence the name polis). Over the course of time, as more people fell under a protective area, is when this definition shifted to mean city and the culture that it embraces. This is how cities such as Athens and Sparta were created to become the most dominate states. (Kries, 2009)
Once they were formed is when the ideas of the group would have an impact upon the kind of…… [Read More]
Ancient Civilization Study
Education was an important aspect of Greek Civilization and played a significant role throughout the Hellenistic and Roman eras. During the Hellenistic period, sports education and education in gymnasium played a significant role in the lives of Greek youths as it was an important part of Greek culture. The goal of this paper is to analyze the Greek educational system.
Education in Ancient Greek Civilization
Education was an important aspect of Greek Civilization and played a significant role throughout the Hellenistic and Roman eras. In the fifth century B.C, education in Greece became democratized as it was primarily influenced by Isocrates, Plato and Sophists. During the Hellenistic period, sports education and education in gymnasium played a significant role in the lives of Greek youths as it was an important part of Greek culture. The goal of this paper is to analyze the Greek educational system in the…… [Read More]
But here we have to separate importance of violence in politics and violence in society, because political methods of that time needed to be cruel and frightening, in another case ome would not be such successful state (Greece is a good example). I can't imagine kind and liberal Caesar fighting barbarians or August using legal methods to strengthen own power. Violence was necessary and oman leaders did good using it. But violence in oman society had absolutely different meaning: it made omans cruel and negative thinking, intolerant to each other and brutal to other nations and slaves. omans valued violence the same as Greeks valued arts and this frightened their smart compatriots, such as Marcus Aurelius. But as Machiavelli said that person who fights for good would always fail because of the majority enjoying evil, so, even good wishes of famous omans didn't have nation's support because crowd decided enjoying…… [Read More]
Ancient State Systems: Sumeria, Persia and Assyria
The ancient state-systems of Sumeria, Assyria and Persia each rose, flourished and fell in the region known as Mesopotamia between 3500 C and 330 C. Each exerted a considerable, if highly variable, degree of authority over a large geographical area; authority created and maintained by governmental and administrative institutions and backed by diplomacy and military force. Each depended on complex trading and commercial systems, and each succeeding in growing wealthy and achieving advances in agriculture, technology and social organization. As Mesopotamia was the first region to experience the development of organized states based on urban civilization, the nature of these early states, their internal structures and relationships with the societies around them, and the ways in which they laid the foundations for, and ultimately gave way to, one another, are all significant issues for the history of politics, diplomacy and international relations.
Perhaps…… [Read More]
Ancient Rome and the Events of the Late Republic (end of the Republic), you will create a timeline of major events that led to the end of the Republic. Your timeline should have at least 7 events.
200 CE: The rise of populist or democratic sentiments and political philosophy. Rome was not a democracy, although it was a Republic. By the 2nd century CE, populist tribunes started to make waves on the Roman political scene. These populist tribunes were mirrored by the uprisings by local governments and communities in Roman-acquired territories throughout the vast empire. With such a vast empire, and such a relatively weak method of centralized governance, it became increasingly impossible to achieve harmony and authoritative rule. It was not as if Rome usurped idyllic ways of life, so much as populist leaders did recognize the need to start "reclaiming public land and putting landless poor citizens back…… [Read More]
The use of physical suffering as a symbol for emotional and spiritual suffering is also well-known in the estern tradition. Centuries later, men and women would disappear into the desert in search of God. They would live apart from all human companionship, and deprive themselves of all physical comfort. Gilgamesh does the same. Gilgamesh is also like the lover who pines away for his beloved and wastes away in body, as well as in heart. The message is that the eternal truths of the universe are not easily discovered, and again that these truths are largely hidden from humankind. Humanity's lot is to suffer even in the face of our greatest happiness. Unlike the gods, we cannot know joy eternally. Enkidu was a dear friend, but he could not be by Gilgamesh' side forever. The joy and love that the hero had known were foreordained to be short. Even if…… [Read More]
Ancient Jewish Weddings
Weddings in Ancient Jewish Custom
There is an example of a wedding feast from the gospel of Luke that is not of the famous Cana Wedding Feast that takes place at the beginning of Jesus' ministry, but a gathering in the house of a Pharisee. The Pharisees and scribes invited Jesus there because, as always they were trying to test Him. It was on the Sabbath, and there had already been some discussion of this seminal event in the Jewish week, but the discussion had changed because Christ had been asked to heal a man who walked up to him who had dropsy (an abnormal swelling due to excessive water retention). He asked them if they thought it was lawful to heal a man on the Sabbath, and as they were testing Him, they did not answer. So, he told them that they would definitely take their…… [Read More]
Greek and Roman civilizations were not primitive. Their life style was organized and constructed in an structured pattern of rules that set the base for what we know today as modern existence.
Life was seen differently in Greece than in Rome. In the Greek conception, humans and gods were almost equal characters and they portrayed both parts in the same dimension. Humans were given divine attributes, while gods were represented as humans. This was a form of magic suggestion to compare humans with gods and create the feeling of power and balance that characterized life in the Classic Period. It was this conviction of their similitude to the divine entities that gave society the strength and balance to grow and flourish for many centuries, recreating a feeling of prosperity and harmony. The godly world they reflected in their mythology and poetry was as full of conflict as the human world,…… [Read More]
The Sumerians of Mesopotamia were also the first to use iron, They recovered the metal from meteorites and used it for spear tips and ornaments. Later smelting techniques developed in the area to purify the iron, and these spread to Europe via trade routes. By the Middle Ages, large foundries existed for smelting and forging iron into the many things it was used for. Basic trade rules and organization also passed from the Sumerians to Europe; methods of keeping accounts and even early guilds and merchant groups were part of Sumer, and passed est with trade (Airmet).
Airmet. "The History of Iron orking." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.airmetmetalworks.com/iron-working-history.html
Hooker, Richard. "Ancient China: The Shang." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCCHINA/SHANG.htm
O'Connor, J.J. And E.F. Robertson. "Egyptian Numerals." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.gap-system.org/~history/HistTopics/Egyptian_numerals.html… [Read More]
Ancient Kingdoms- Expansion and Empire Building
Ancient kingdoms and their expansion strategies were uniform throughout the ancient world. Persia, Rome, Athens and Sparta had expanded their kingdoms by means of conquests, wars and consolidation. The enlargement of kingdoms had but one purpose i.e. security as Thomas Hobbes notes: "If there is no power erected, or not great enough for our security, every man will and may lawfully rely on his own strength for caution against all other men" (99). Greece, Russia and all other major empires of the ancient world had their focus on just one thing, security which they sought through either conquests or consolidation with weaker nations.
It is strange but true that all major empires especially Sparta, Athens and Persia have histories that were interconnected. It was always believed both by the rulers and the ruled that mightier forces had the right to rule and for this…… [Read More]
In the beginning of "The hagavad-Gita," two groups of opponents prepare for battle. On one side, the one hundred sons of Dhritarashtra stand and on the other side, and the Pandava brothers stand. These soldiers are in the middle of a family feud over the right to govern the land of Kurukshetra.
A soldier named Arjuna, who is the leader of the Pandava armies, prepares to battle as Lord Krishna heads toward the opposition. Just before the battle, Arjuna asks Lord Krishna for advice.
Arjuna is ridden with hesitation and guilt as he faces his family and knows he will have to kill many loved ones to win the battle. Arjuna has set down his weapon and is ready to sacrifice his life. Arjuna approaches Krishna to tell him about his emotions regarding the battle. "Krishna, I seek no victory, or kingship or pleasures" (Miller, 25).…… [Read More]
Ancient Earth - Women's History
OFFICIAL USE ONLY
An Analysis of "Life" Magazine dated November 17, 1958
Lexicoczar (All Hail!)
As you know, the recent discovery of a cache of "magazines" has provided our department with an opportunity to better understand the colorful but largely heretofore-baffling mid-20th century. The graphics and pictures contained in one of the "magazines" entitled "Life" appear to be particularly illustrative of the customs and values that were predominant during this period in Western history. Some sample illustrations, together with this analyst's interpretation of the contents of an issue of a "Life" "magazine" dated November 17, 1958 and their likely functions and purposes as they apply to female gender issues, are provided below.
General Description and Contents of "Magazine."
This copy of "Life" "magazine" is comparable to the other specimens discovered in "gar-[b?]ages" in recent years; this copy, though, is especially well preserved, due in…… [Read More]
Violence of some sort was often depicted. Sculptures of the Roman period, not surprisingly, were very similar. Again, it is difficult to tell the difference between Greek Hellenistic sculptures and Roman originals. And what better influence of classic Greek sculpture and its ideal art form on Roman artists than Michelangelo's David. The Baroque period is exemplified by Bernini's work at the Vatican. However, in his fine work, one cannot mistake the influence of Greco-Roman myth such as his own version of "Apollo and Daphne."
Examples of some of the differences between Roman art and Greek art would be Roman art tends to be more naturalistic then Greek art. Greeks were more interested in idealism. For example it's when a painter would manage to create an ideal beauty even more perfect than any of the flawed original models he was using. Romans were more interested in realism.… [Read More]
3. What are some of the themes you notice in the "Love Songs"?
The Egyptian love songs use the terms "brother" and "sister" as generic references to male and female lovers and suggest intimacy as well as the taboo of incest. Brother-sister unions were already written into Egyptian mythology by the time the love songs were penned. Also, the love songs reveal an emerging theme of romantic love, which almost seems out of place in ancient literature.
4. Did the erotic or explicit nature of some of the love songs surprise you? Explain.
The eroticism in the love songs is not wholly surprising, given that many ancient cultures addressed human sexuality frankly and even using graphic depictions. The Egyptians also employed some sexual imagery into their art, as did the ancient Indians and Chinese.
1. In what ways is the Hebrew view of God different from the Sumerian…… [Read More]
Since they did not have stone, the Sumerians made do with brick, building a myriad of famous constructions during this period according to their needs.
As kings of rival city-states ruled Sumer during this period, they would often go to battle. For this reason, the Sumerians also engineered many important forms of warfare technology. These include the wheeled chariot and the discovery of bronze (via the melding of copper and tin.)
The second major stage of Sumerian development was marked by the invasion of Sargon the Great, who would come to rule all of Mesopotamia. Sargon would conquer the first known empire, which extended all the way across Syrian into southeastern Turkey. Among Sargon's many accomplishments, he standardized weights and measurements in the disparate lands that he came to rule over. This made trading possible in his kingdom. Sargon was also the first Sumerian king who managed to maintain a…… [Read More]
Ancient art is filled with fabulous examples of various media and unique depictions of historical and cultural events. Much ancient art is symbolic, and much is literal. Some ancient art serves both a literal and a symbolic function. This is true for much in the Egyptian art canon. It is impossible to generalize about Egyptian art because of the great span of time the various empires straddled. However, there are many similarities in Egyptian style, media, and content. In New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art alone, there are several examples of two works of Egyptian art that are directly comparable. For example, "Yuny and His Wife enenutet" is a 19th Dynasty New Kingdom sculpture. It depicts the titular figures seated together on their throne. It is made of limestone, and the dimensions are about 33 inches high and 21 inches wide. The Metropolitan Museum of Art also has a New…… [Read More]
Ancient Art / Comparing Two Works
Two ancient works of art were viewed for discussion in this paper. The first is called "Vessel Terminating in the Forepart of a Stag" at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The second is an Etruscan engraved mirror, which can be viewed at the Louvre. Although the objects are from different time periods and cultures and depict different images, they have in common the fact that they are both utilitarian objects made beautiful with adornment.
The stag vessel [http://www.metmuseum.org / Collections/search-the-collections/30006086] was discovered in Central Anatolia (a region of Turkey) and is attributed to the Hittite Empire, circa the 14th -- 13th centuries BCE. It is a drinking vessel made of silver with gold inlay. It is a representational piece that stands eighteen centimeters tall. According to the Museum's website, the stag's front legs and torso, which opens into a cup, was hammered from a…… [Read More]
The cultures shifted from a primarily agrarian economic base to one that used metal as a means to craft practical and ritual objects. In addition to the ritual cauldrons that were emblematic of the Xia dynasty, other uses of advanced metallurgical techniques include the manufacturing of "jue," vessels used to hold a grain alcohol beverage commonly translated as "wine," (Class unit: 12). In fact, bronze objects were cast en masse during the Xia and Shang dynasties (Class unit: 12). Warfare over metals, especially tin and copper, transformed the balance of power in the region (Class unit: 12). Commoners were frequently conscripted for military service during the Shang dynasty ("The Evolution of Complex Societies in China,": 446). Bronze casting allowed Shang rulers to have access to advanced weaponry. Their bronze weapons, their centralized leadership, and their control over a large number of peasant soldiers enabled the Shang to become the first…… [Read More]
arket research revealed several factors contributing to price inelasticity. ost importantly, Ancient's competitors were far larger competitors that raised financial viability concerns for Ancient in sales deals. Further, competitors offered bundles of software products that were far large than Ancient's database and data integration line. Some of Ancient's prospects had expressed that they were fearful that a lower price meant that the product was inferior to more expensive offerings even though Ancient did not believe that there were major differences in functionally between its data integration product and those of the competition.
Given its initial poor market reception, Ancient is now repositioning the SnapTogether solution for small and medium sized enterprises (SEs). This time it believes it will have more luck. Ancient believes that smaller companies will be more price sensitive and unable to afford the huge price tag of competitive offerings. Unlike the crowded enterprise market, Ancient's competitors avoid…… [Read More]
Ancient Greek urban planning dates its glory to Pericles. Temple architecture sourced in a precedent civilization, the Minoan of Crete, is actually reflective of palace architecture from that society's maritime city-state, Knossos (de la Croix, H. And Tansey).
The Greek civis was largely informed by astronomy; influencing everything from temple design to the order of the public City-State. 'Archaeoastronomical' patterns beginning with the Geometric through the final Hellenistic period in Greece reveal sophistication in calculation synonymous to solar alignment. This perspective fits with what is known about the star gazing cult practices found in the archaeological record (Belmonte). Sacred objects further this theory, and there remain a significant number of votive statuary stored at temple sites. Votive offerings were left by devotees of that particular cult, including weapons, helmets, and even statues. The interior of the temple, known as the cella, was often decorated with columns and most used for…… [Read More]
For example, in the United States, the Civil War occurred less than 150 years ago, and yet different historians provide conflicting perspectives about the causes of the war, why it was lost, and the consequences of the war for America's history. Moreover, it was only after the Civil War and the end of slavery that one began to see widespread, reliable publication about various slave rebellions that had occurred in the antebellum South. This is interesting, because it makes one wonder if that information would be available or suppressed had the war ended differently. Moreover, the vast majority of Americans are unaware that some northern states were slaveholding states. Furthermore, when one looks at the number of Holocaust deniers, despite the overwhelming physical evidence and documentation regarding the Holocaust, one can see how intentional misrepresentation can play a role in history; there are entire countries that believe it is a…… [Read More]
" (New Standard Encyclopedia, 1986) There were two classes of people in ancient Rome, specifically those who were the patricians, or landowners and the plebeians who were poor farmers and those who worked in the city as well as those who had gained citizenship.
III. BEST RESENTATIVE of the GOOD SIDE of ROME
The emperor Marcus Aurelius who is remembered for his excellent form of a working government is stated to have passed away during the year of 180 a.D. during a war with the tribes of the Danube River, who were viscous tribes. The government was broke and the countrymen of Rome were sick from the plagues that had been infecting the land. The son of Marcus Aurelius, Commodus was spoiled and loved pleasure. Under the rule of Commodus, the government was poorly run and the result is that Rome is stated to have fallen into decay.
IV. RULE…… [Read More]
Ancient Ballgame of Mesoamerica
There are many ancient art forms that are acknowledged today as culturally enriching. The dramatic plays of ancient Greece are revered as great artistic accomplishments. The development of writing and ship building by the Phoenicians is recognized as a ground breaking achievement that changed the course of society. Yet some cultures do not receive this kind of acknowledgment for their customs, inventions, and creations which have nonetheless steered the course of humanity to a great degree. While the Olympics of Greek ancestry have gained high acclaim worldwide for the impact they have had on athletics and culture, other ancient sporting traditions have been glossed over by mainstream history. Games and sports were an integral part of the cultures of Central America and Mexico, including Volador (high pole), patolli (dice), stilts, hunting, and jai alai. One instance of a seriously underrepresented athletic influence is the most important…… [Read More]
Colors were essential as a means of expression in art as well.
Explanation of laughter
Laughter is rarely allowed in public, a cordial smile being always preferable. This limitation is yet again a proof of the influence Buddhism had on the aesthetic values of the world. (Clasquin, 2001)
Buddhist religion, as one of the oldest in the world, represents the expression of the constant quest for the meaning of life and the overcoming of suffering.
The philosophical system it set in place, the artistic standards it established, along with the moral percepts it promoted, Buddhism is an important influence on the aesthetic values of modern civilizations.
Clasquin, M. (2001) eal Buddhas don't laugh: attitudes towards humor and laughter in ancient India and China. [electronic version] Social Identities, vol. 7, no. 1. University of South Africa. etrieved, March 28, 2007, at http://www.thezensite.com/ZenEssays/Philosophical/Buddhas_Dont_Laugh.pdf
Indianchild. (2000) Buddhism in India,…… [Read More]
Ancient Culture Development (AC)
Ancient Culture Development
As ancient man developed, they were faced with various challenges that were as well confronted in particular ways, in order to survive in the environment that was full of challenges. There was the use of stones shaped like chisels, flaked at the tip to provide a sharp edge to cut meat. This is one of the earliest documented tools that are estimated back to around 2.5 million years ago (Anne Pyburn, 2003). These were tools that were discovered in East Africa at Olduvai Gorge as one of the ancient man's abode.
There was division of labor apparently, and men who were faster were commissioned to hunting while women did the gathering of plant products and caring for children. This was a simple governance structure that had to do mainly with domestic labor structure. This was during the lower Paleolithic.
During the upper Paleolithic…… [Read More]
Though it is acknowledged that the words and ideas of Socrates have been filtered though the thoughts of those that followed him, namely Plato, as Socrates wrote nothing himself, it is also clear that the interpretation garnered by the ancients has been profoundly felt throughout western culture. It is also clear that the body of work that survives in fragmentation recorded as prior to the Socratic philosophical revolution is a strong basis for that which followed, it can also be described as simpler or at least less complex. The main difference according to the writings of the post Socratic philosophers between Socratic ethics and pre-Socratic ethics are twofold. On the one hand the idea that philosophical questions are not and cannot be seen as finite and on the other the establishment of Socrates as the supreme model of the philosophical life and all its trappings. The impact that…… [Read More]
Q2. Plato believed that, just as skilled craftsman should confine themselves to making shoes and warriors should confine themselves to fighting, only 'the best' should rule. Individuals with great aptitudes to be philosophers should be selected and taught to lead the people, and leadership by the majority was dangerous. The Platonic 'Guardians' would be taken away from their family at birth and given special training by other philosophers, so they would know how to govern. This reflects Socrates' notion of philosophy and leadership as specialized skills rather than something that can be practiced by all individuals equally effectively, as the concept of Athenian democracy would suggest. For Socrates, justice is not based in the concept of giving each citizen equal opportunities; justice means creating a perfect society. Making sure that the 'perfect' cobblers make shoes, the perfect warriors defend the city, and the best minds rule on earth makes society…… [Read More]
According to the Roman historian Pliny, in his Natural History, in 238 BC, at the direction of an oracle in the sibylline books, a temple was built to honor Flora, an ancient goddess of flowers and blossoming plants. (Pliny, XVIII.286) the temple was dedicated on April 28 and the Floralia instituted to solicit her protection for the city.
Although the Floralia originated as a "moving festival," after a period with bad crops when according to Ovid, "the blossoms again that year suffered from winds, hail, and rain" (Ovid, Fasti, V.329ff), the festival Ludi Florales started to be held every year, the first in 173 BCE. "It was later fixed on April 27th. After Caesar's reform of the calendar, it was April 28th. The purpose of the festival was to ensure the crops blossomed well." ("Flora," Roman Religion and Mythology: Lexicon, 1999)
Flora thus is fertile, like a mother, for she…… [Read More]
In this excerpt, her mature medicine woman attitude shows clearly that she has grown up. That doesn't mean that she isn't attracted sexually to Set, but there is a reverence now and an appreciation for his needs that perhaps readers didn't see previously. And on page 297 the desire that Set feels for Grey is a sweeter, more casual lead-in to sexual foreplay. "Their hands slipped over their bodies, describing desire, but yet discreetly." They both have grown by now.
As for the characters' achievement of modern American Indian identity, the way it interfaces the history of the Old est (to wit, Billy the Kid) with modern tends to bring the fictional aspect of the book into a brighter spotlight than Native American cultural reality. Grey's character, in particular, reveals some truth about medicine and how Indians understand that medicine comes to them. And as Karen allace writes in her…… [Read More]
Ancient Text ith Modern Text
Because written literature is capable of being transmitted from the person who wrote it across generations, it acquires the status of communal wisdom simply by being recorded. Yet there are limitations to the applicability of such stories, and to a certain degree wisdom consists in knowing that there are limitations to the theoretical knowledge one can acquire in this way, or human error can misinterpret the text. I would like to look at the way in which three texts -- one ancient (by Rumi) and two modern (by Siije and Soyinka) -- offer wisdom at the same time that they suggest limits to our own knowledge, and limits to the applicability of any such wisdom.
The poems of Rumi, by virtue of their age, seem almost to define the way by which wisdom can be transmitted in literature, but also can acknowledge its own limits.…… [Read More]
This was true for example in the northern countries of Europe where Protestantism had firmly embedded itself an thrown off Church teaching. ars were the result as the Holy Roman Empire attempted to put down the Protestant Rebellions -- but the Peace of estphalia in 1648 finally and politically gave the Protestant countries in the north of Europe the right to exercise their new religions. Humanism, indeed, was spreading as a result of the Renaissance and many societies were willing to adopt it.
Bennett, Judith. Queens, hores and Maidens: omen in Chaucer's England.
University of London. 5 March 2002. Royal Halloway, Hayes Robinson Lecture Series No. 6. eb. 23 March 2011.
Haaren, John. Famous Men of Greece. NY: American Book Company, 1904.
Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. NY: HarperCollins, 2003.
Jusserand, J.J. English ayfaring Life in the Middle Ages. Chatham, UK: &J Mackay & Co. Ltd., 1950.…… [Read More]
In ancient Rome, the gladiator games were a popular form of entertainment—but they were also much more than this and served multiple purposes within the Roman civilization. The games were used both by Roman authorities and by the slaves of Rome (the gladiators) as a tool, wielded for a different aim respectively. The Roman religious and the politicians used the games as well for their own ends. While the combats that took place in the arenas dazzled audiences, the violence and spectacle was really but one aspect of the contests, and an examination of the underlying social, political, religious and economic subtexts of the gladiator games reveals much about the nature of ancient Roman society. This paper will identify the four main purposes of the gladiatorial games in ancient Rome—the expression of political influence, the expression of religion, a means of emphasizing the Empire’s power, and grounds for slaves…… [Read More]
At the same time, the presentation of his work, the lives of the community in which he lived and the way in which he succeeded in forming a family must be relevant for the actual depiction of the historical background, the environment, and the customs of the time. For instance, the fact that he was given to marry the elder daughter of the ruler of the land he had chosen as his next home, Amunenshi, represented indeed an appreciation of his qualities and virtues as an Egyptian. Therefore, it can be said that the piece of writing is also an important source of history of the Near East.
Another important perspective of the story is the historical one which offers a view on the current situation of the time in Egypt. Therefore, the story focuses on the way in which king Sesostris was involved in political actions and maneuvers that…… [Read More]
In the "Odyssey" Achilles says to Odysseus, that it is better to be a living dog than honored in Hades.
Submission to fate is ultimately what the Greeks seem to honor as a 'good' attitude. Oedipus the King finally accepts his cursed status, rather than fleeing from it, and from the beginning of her life, Antigone seems to anticipate that she will meet with an unhappy end. Although she is betrothed to marry, she does not seem to see her future as a married woman as an obligation that supersedes her obligation as a sister, and even says that because she can only have one brother, unlike a husband; obligations to the family come before everything. The play seems to suggest that this is valid, given the wrath that falls upon Creon's head. But evil also falls upon the heads of the innocent, because of the actions of the guilty,…… [Read More]
Although the ancient Roman religion might seem a far cry from today';s contemporary context, in reality Roman religion continues to inform and shape Western culture to this day (the celebration of Christmas being one example). While there are a number of literary sources which provide contemporary scholars with information about Roman religions, both in terms of belief and practice, this religions information is encoded into the landscape and physical space of Rome itself, from the layout of its forums to the sculptures which adorn its altars. y examining three such sources in detail, the Ara Pacis, the Forum of Augustus, and the grove of the Arval rothers, one will be able to understand how Roman religion permeated Roman social and political identity and organizations, and furthermore, how these concurrent strains of identity-formation and power relations etched themselves into the very physical objects left behind to be discovered and…… [Read More]
mythology and ancient beliefs. Specifically it will compare the myths of heroism in the myth of Achilles to the modern film "Troy." The film "Troy," from 2004, is a remake of the Homer classic "The Iliad," which recounts the legend of the Greek warrior Achilles. In the film, actor Brad Pitt plays Achilles, giving him a larger than life, heroic quality. Achilles is the child of a mortal and a nymph, and his parents attempt to give him immortality by dipping him in the iver Styx, but they miss a tiny spot on his heel, and this leads to his downfall.
Both of these myths center around the idea of the hero in mythology, and in fact, they show the importance of heroes in the Greek society 3500 years ago. The translator of the Iliad writes, "Heroes are born into positions of prominence, which they also reaffirm by their public…… [Read More]
Alex Pulsipher notes that all but one of these pillars Involve "daily life" (Pulsipher 314), thus it is difficult to separate the religion from the very existence of the culture. In addition to the pillars, there are other requirements of those that practice Islam. Justice, truthfulness, abstention from alcohol, and pork, and "anything that seems remotely connected to idolatry" (44) are all things from which Muslims must refrain.
hen we look at the practices involved with being Muslim, we can see why these people behave the way they do. It is not because they are strange; it is because they are upholding ancient religious values through practices that help them define who they are. Understanding this helps build the bridge to understanding our differences.
Monk, Robert, et al. Exploring Religious Meaning. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. 1997.
Pulsipher, Alex.…… [Read More]
Soon after, the Banker died as well, and the entire family fortune and responsibility fell on the Son.
With the passage of her husband, Mother was now no longer the head of the household, but she was confident nothing would change, after all her son loved her. When she came back from a vacation trip after a hot summer, she went into her room only to find that all of her possessions were missing. In a panic she ran to her Son's room and found him sitting on his desk.
Where are my things my beautiful son, where did you move them to?," she cried.
Why to grandmother's room of course," he diffidently stated.
What? To that dirty little shack, you cannot expect your mother to live their?!," she screamed.
Her son looked up at her and blinked his eyes. "Why are you so angry, I am treating you no…… [Read More]
Roman Sarcophagi sculptures, one sarcophagus of portraying Roman deity as portrayed on the Sarcophagus with the Indian Triumph of Dionysus' triumphal return from India, contrasted with the other the Sarcophagus Depicting a Battle between Soldiers and Amazon made for a military leader.
During the second and 3rd centuries, inhumation became more and more used than cremation, and this created a push for a greater need for sarcophagi, as the departed were placed inside these vessels. "Sarcophagi are of eminent importance for the study of Roman art, for they provide the largest single body of sculptural material in which we may study both the style and subject matter of the art of the tumultuous years of the later Roman empire, when there are few other monuments with pictorial relief to which we can turn… through sarcophagus reliefs we can trace and re-experience the profound shift in pagan religious thought, away from…… [Read More]
While in exile, Ravana and Maricha trick Lakshmana into believing the Rama was in trouble. Since it was Lakshmana's duty to protect Rama, he goes to rescue them. While he is gone, Sita is abducted.
Interestingly, however, the evil Ravana is ultimately defeated through an act of deceit. Although the Brahma promised he could not be killed by a god, spirit or demon, they make no such promise as to humans. However, Ravana, being a god, would not even think of being defeated by a human as this is impossible. Yet, when the Brahma see Ravana destroying the earth, they become disturbed and thus create the plan of creating Rama, as a human incarnation of a god and thus powerful enough to kill Ravana without breaking their promise. In a sense, this is the greatest deceit of them all.
In summary, the story of Ramayana is an expression of what…… [Read More]
The three authors presented above and their works were considering the different ways science and the results of scientific knowledge translated in the advance of technology influence human lives. Hawthorne saw technology positively influencing the lives of those taking advantage of it and helping them get out of the darkness of unknown; Dick was imagining a much more gloomy outcome of the combination between human nature and technology, while Taylor was presenting the importance of addressing the issues of prosperity in an industrial society benefitting the advantages of technology solely from the point-of-view of science.
Dick, P.K.(1968) Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep. Ballantine Books.
Hawthorne, N.(1898) the House of the Seven Gables. etreived: Oct. 15, 2008. Available at http://books.google.com/books?id=wxYPsGsZOQQC&dq=the+house+of+the+seven+gables&pg=PP1&ots=tJCsK0U_GC&sig=Ez5dxVgBzgzPk9DZNOvMO4PrdY&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result
Taylor, F.W. (1911) the Principles of Scientific Management. Harper. Originally from Harvard University. etrieved: Oct. 15, 2008. Available at http://books.google.com/books?id=5ek4cYPdndYC&dq=the+principles+of+scientific+management&pg=PP1&ots=jZtS7Qkgc5&sig=_AhmBEtfZQZbjyjJwq4crGqmc0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result… [Read More]
Ancient Egyptian Gynecology
In ancient Egypt, sex was open and untainted by guilt. It was considered an important part of life and both single and married couples had sex. Ancient Egyptian religious shows signs of adultery, incest, homosexuality, masturbation and necrophilia. Masculinity and femininity were strongly linked with the ability to conceive and bear children.
Ancient Egyptians saw fertile women as the most attractive ones. A woman who had children was believed to be more fortunate than a woman without children. Similarly, men who bore children were seen as more masculine than those who did not.
The Egyptians enjoyed close family relationships in Egyptian mythology. The fact that they had no taboo against incest leads to the conclusion that incest may have been normal in ancient Egypt.
Egyptian men had false penises attached to their mummies while Egyptian women had artificial nipples attached. oth would become fully functional in the…… [Read More]
Therefore, it is true that the aspect of trade of wine and quality, as well as publication of the paintings, used the grapes and wine themes for the marketing brand associated and the underlying culture within the painter's lives.
Why the artists from Classical Antiquity to Modernism have been using particularly this theme?
From the Classical Antiquity to the modernism era, people developed an attitude that keeps certain groups of painters making a name through the themes they apply in their paintings. Therefore, the grapes and wine theme is already in deep roots within the basis of sales possible. Every painting that applies the use of the grapes and wines theme receives significant support and acceptance within the society; hence, the reason it has such wide application by the classical antique and modernism-painting activists.
Why the modern artists have been continuing to use themes particularly from Classical antiquity and from…… [Read More]
Preacher and the Ancient Text
This was an extremely technical text which offers deeper insights for anyone who desires to have a deeper understanding of all biblical issues and literary themes. This is because this text is able to offer a more nuanced perspective of major biblical pillars in terms of their own historical and literary viewpoint, while interlacing it with strong theological content. One of the deeper insights that were gleaned from studying this text was the fact that this book offers a superb means of explaining some of these more intricate pillars.
One of the more lucid insights that were gained from studying this book was as a result of the fusion developed from the hermeneutics and homiletics and the holistic approach that was engaged in. All insights gain were as a result of the link that Greidanus is able to forge in regards to the different arenas…… [Read More]
Comparison of Modern and Ancient Mythology
Imagination is still an inseparable aspect of his nature regardless of the claims on rationality and logic. Human beings are mythmakers. They have a tendency to imagine worlds that don't immediately exist which gives rise to mythology and religion (Armstong). Since the age of enlightenment; men began to believe in philosophy as the only method of disclosing world and nature. It can be shown that even philosophy stands on myth (Muszynski). Therefore, mythology still exists both at a personal level and a public level, in the form of religion. Mythology arises to explain ideas which cannot be explained with rationality alone - nature, the origin of people, and the existence of the universe. The root and grounds of development of mythology has not changed since the ancient times, therefore, mythology in the new world shares many similarities with the ancient mythology. Nevertheless,…… [Read More]
In addition for many years it was indeed considered impolite to laugh out loud in public which had an impact on the aesthetic value of the period in history.
The faith of Ancient Buddhism is perceived to be one of the oldest faiths in the world. Its teachings are still followed today in much of the Eastern part of the world and its simplistic view of life and the meaning of life can be seen in many other areas and cultures.
There is no denying the aesthetic value that the faith had on the period of ancient times when one examines the art being located on digs today. The beliefs of Ancient Buddhism have carried over to impact the aesthetic value of Western cultures as well as can be evidenced in the color lessons at designers schools and the study of color by modern day mental health professionals.
REFRERENCES…… [Read More]