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Ancient Art from Greece and India: A Comparison
Art is a cultural phenomenon that perpetuates consistently throughout the world. Each time period and culture has its own artistic sensibility, often connected to the cultural, political and religious values of the time. The art of ancient Greece and India is no exception to this. While significant changes occurred throughout the centuries that could be consider "ancient," a comparison of certain works shows the similarities and differences between what could be essentially regarded as the Western and Eastern cultures of ancient times.
In ancient India, for example, art tended towards being largely introspective. Hence, environmental and political elements did not play as important a role as the internal elements of mind and introspection. In terms of iconography, therefore, religious and metaphysical concerns take precedence over influences of culture and environment. In terms of this, the Indian idea of Pramana, or "creation of…
Ancient-Greece.org. (2015). Athena Nike Parapet Frieze. Retrieved from: http://ancient-greece.org/art/athena-nike-parapet.html
Caroun.com (2015). Ancient Indian Art. Retrieved from: http://www.caroun.com/art/pakistan/ancientindianart.html
Pisani, L. (2013, Aug. 6). The Ajanta Cave Paintings. The Global Dispatches. Retrieved from: http://www.theglobaldispatches.com/articles/the-ajanta-cave-paintings
If the purpose of law is to maintain the order of society yielding the best possible circumstance for each individual man, woman, and child, then the argument arises as to whether such direct revenge is actually conducive to preventing further disorders. Revenge can easily run in endless cycles, and fear of punishment may not in and of itself be any deterrent at all, in particular if the act which is to be punished was committed in the heat of passion or without premeditation. Philosophers of law and ethics have long discussed the precise nature of the divine code that was given to Moses. On a fundamental level, there exists the question as to whether these laws are immutable expressions of an unchanging natural order such as has always existed, or whether these Mosaic laws represent merely the decrees of God that are applicable to a particular, time, place, or situation.…
Dalley, Stephanie, a.T. Reyes, David Pingree, Alison Salvesen, and Henrietta McCall. The Legacy of Mesopotamia. Edited by Stephanie Dalley. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Del Testa, David W., ed. Government Leaders, Military Rulers, and Political Activists. Westport, CT: Oryx Press, 2001.
Ancient Jewish Weddings
Weddings in Ancient Jewish Custom
There is an example of a wedding feast from the gospel of Luke that is not of the famous Cana Wedding Feast that takes place at the beginning of Jesus' ministry, but a gathering in the house of a Pharisee. The Pharisees and scribes invited Jesus there because, as always they were trying to test Him. It was on the Sabbath, and there had already been some discussion of this seminal event in the Jewish week, but the discussion had changed because Christ had been asked to heal a man who walked up to him who had dropsy (an abnormal swelling due to excessive water retention). He asked them if they thought it was lawful to heal a man on the Sabbath, and as they were testing Him, they did not answer. So, he told them that they would definitely take their…
Celine. (2010). Difference between Talmud and Torah. Retrieved from http://www.differencebetween.net/miscellaneous/religion- miscellaneous/difference-between-talmud-and-torah/
Orthodox Judaism. (2010). A guide to Jewish wedding tradition. Retrieved from http://www.orthodox-jews.com/jewish-wedding-tradition.html#axzz1qcIRRWOQ
Rich, T.R. (2011). Marriage. Retrieved from http://www.jewfaq.org/marriage.htm
West, J. (2003). Ancient Israelite marriage customs. Quartz Hill School of Theology. Retrieved from http://www.theology.edu/marriage.htm
Ancient Egyptian Gynecology
In ancient Egypt, sex was open and untainted by guilt. It was considered an important part of life and both single and married couples had sex. Ancient Egyptian religious shows signs of adultery, incest, homosexuality, masturbation and necrophilia. Masculinity and femininity were strongly linked with the ability to conceive and bear children.
Ancient Egyptians saw fertile women as the most attractive ones. A woman who had children was believed to be more fortunate than a woman without children. Similarly, men who bore children were seen as more masculine than those who did not.
The Egyptians enjoyed close family relationships in Egyptian mythology. The fact that they had no taboo against incest leads to the conclusion that incest may have been normal in ancient Egypt.
Egyptian men had false penises attached to their mummies while Egyptian women had artificial nipples attached. oth would become fully functional in the…
Antelme, Ruth...(et al.). Sacred Sexuality in Ancient Egypt: The Erotic Secrets of the Forbidden Papyrus. Inner Traditions 1997.
Women In History. Encyclopedia Britannica 2001. http://www.britannica.com/women/articles/contraception.html
Tour Egypt Website 1996. http://www.touregypt.net/magazine/mag05012001/magf4.htm
Lesko, Barbara. The Remarkable Women of Ancient Egypt. Scribe 1987.
Ancient Rome and the Events of the Late Republic (end of the Republic), you will create a timeline of major events that led to the end of the Republic. Your timeline should have at least 7 events.
200 CE: The rise of populist or democratic sentiments and political philosophy. Rome was not a democracy, although it was a Republic. By the 2nd century CE, populist tribunes started to make waves on the Roman political scene. These populist tribunes were mirrored by the uprisings by local governments and communities in Roman-acquired territories throughout the vast empire. With such a vast empire, and such a relatively weak method of centralized governance, it became increasingly impossible to achieve harmony and authoritative rule. It was not as if Rome usurped idyllic ways of life, so much as populist leaders did recognize the need to start "reclaiming public land and putting landless poor citizens back…
3. What are some of the themes you notice in the "Love Songs"?
The Egyptian love songs use the terms "brother" and "sister" as generic references to male and female lovers and suggest intimacy as well as the taboo of incest. Brother-sister unions were already written into Egyptian mythology by the time the love songs were penned. Also, the love songs reveal an emerging theme of romantic love, which almost seems out of place in ancient literature.
4. Did the erotic or explicit nature of some of the love songs surprise you? Explain.
The eroticism in the love songs is not wholly surprising, given that many ancient cultures addressed human sexuality frankly and even using graphic depictions. The Egyptians also employed some sexual imagery into their art, as did the ancient Indians and Chinese.
1. In what ways is the Hebrew view of God different from the Sumerian…
The Sumerians of Mesopotamia were also the first to use iron, They recovered the metal from meteorites and used it for spear tips and ornaments. Later smelting techniques developed in the area to purify the iron, and these spread to Europe via trade routes. By the Middle Ages, large foundries existed for smelting and forging iron into the many things it was used for. Basic trade rules and organization also passed from the Sumerians to Europe; methods of keeping accounts and even early guilds and merchant groups were part of Sumer, and passed est with trade (Airmet).
Airmet. "The History of Iron orking." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.airmetmetalworks.com/iron-working-history.html
Hooker, Richard. "Ancient China: The Shang." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCCHINA/SHANG.htm
O'Connor, J.J. And E.F. Robertson. "Egyptian Numerals." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.gap-system.org/~history/HistTopics/Egyptian_numerals.html
Airmet. "The History of Iron Working." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.airmetmetalworks.com/iron-working-history.html
Hooker, Richard. "Ancient China: The Shang." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/ANCCHINA/SHANG.htm
O'Connor, J.J. And E.F. Robertson. "Egyptian Numerals." Accessed 26 July 2009. http://www.gap-system.org/~history/HistTopics/Egyptian_numerals.html
Ancient Kingdoms- Expansion and Empire Building
Ancient kingdoms and their expansion strategies were uniform throughout the ancient world. Persia, Rome, Athens and Sparta had expanded their kingdoms by means of conquests, wars and consolidation. The enlargement of kingdoms had but one purpose i.e. security as Thomas Hobbes notes: "If there is no power erected, or not great enough for our security, every man will and may lawfully rely on his own strength for caution against all other men" (99). Greece, Russia and all other major empires of the ancient world had their focus on just one thing, security which they sought through either conquests or consolidation with weaker nations.
It is strange but true that all major empires especially Sparta, Athens and Persia have histories that were interconnected. It was always believed both by the rulers and the ruled that mightier forces had the right to rule and for this…
History of the Peloponessian War, Thucydides
Herodotus, Translations of the Histories, by A. de Selincourt
Hobbes, Thomas. "Of Commonwealth." Leviathan. Ed. Nelle Fuller. New York:
Everyman's Library, 1973.
Since they did not have stone, the Sumerians made do with brick, building a myriad of famous constructions during this period according to their needs.
As kings of rival city-states ruled Sumer during this period, they would often go to battle. For this reason, the Sumerians also engineered many important forms of warfare technology. These include the wheeled chariot and the discovery of bronze (via the melding of copper and tin.)
The second major stage of Sumerian development was marked by the invasion of Sargon the Great, who would come to rule all of Mesopotamia. Sargon would conquer the first known empire, which extended all the way across Syrian into southeastern Turkey. Among Sargon's many accomplishments, he standardized weights and measurements in the disparate lands that he came to rule over. This made trading possible in his kingdom. Sargon was also the first Sumerian king who managed to maintain a…
Hourani, Albert. A History of the Arab Peoples. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press,
Roux, Georges. Ancient Iraq. New York: Penguin USA, 1993.
Tripp, Charles. History of Iraq. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.
Greek and Roman civilizations were not primitive. Their life style was organized and constructed in an structured pattern of rules that set the base for what we know today as modern existence.
Life was seen differently in Greece than in Rome. In the Greek conception, humans and gods were almost equal characters and they portrayed both parts in the same dimension. Humans were given divine attributes, while gods were represented as humans. This was a form of magic suggestion to compare humans with gods and create the feeling of power and balance that characterized life in the Classic Period. It was this conviction of their similitude to the divine entities that gave society the strength and balance to grow and flourish for many centuries, recreating a feeling of prosperity and harmony. The godly world they reflected in their mythology and poetry was as full of conflict as the human world,…
Burckhardt, J. (2002). History of Greek Culture. New York: Dover publications.
Hingley, R. (2005). Globalizing Roman Culture: Unity, Diversity and Empire. London: Routledge
Hurwit, JM. (1987). The Art and Culture of Early Greece, 1100-480 B.C. New York: Cornell University press.
Burckhardt, J. (2002). History of Greek Culture. New York: Dover publications
The use of physical suffering as a symbol for emotional and spiritual suffering is also well-known in the estern tradition. Centuries later, men and women would disappear into the desert in search of God. They would live apart from all human companionship, and deprive themselves of all physical comfort. Gilgamesh does the same. Gilgamesh is also like the lover who pines away for his beloved and wastes away in body, as well as in heart. The message is that the eternal truths of the universe are not easily discovered, and again that these truths are largely hidden from humankind. Humanity's lot is to suffer even in the face of our greatest happiness. Unlike the gods, we cannot know joy eternally. Enkidu was a dear friend, but he could not be by Gilgamesh' side forever. The joy and love that the hero had known were foreordained to be short. Even if…
Abusch, Tzvi. "The Development and Meaning of the Epic of Gilgamesh: An Interpretive Essay." The Journal of the American Oriental Society 121.4 (2001): 614+.
Gardner and Maier. FULL CITATION NEEDED www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000950008
Jager, Bernd. "The Birth of Poetry and the Creation of a Human World: An Exploration of the Epic of Gilgamesh." Journal of Phenomenological Psychology 32.2 (2001): 131+.
Ancient art is filled with fabulous examples of various media and unique depictions of historical and cultural events. Much ancient art is symbolic, and much is literal. Some ancient art serves both a literal and a symbolic function. This is true for much in the Egyptian art canon. It is impossible to generalize about Egyptian art because of the great span of time the various empires straddled. However, there are many similarities in Egyptian style, media, and content. In New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art alone, there are several examples of two works of Egyptian art that are directly comparable. For example, "Yuny and His Wife enenutet" is a 19th Dynasty New Kingdom sculpture. It depicts the titular figures seated together on their throne. It is made of limestone, and the dimensions are about 33 inches high and 21 inches wide. The Metropolitan Museum of Art also has a New…
"Isis and Wepwawet, god of Asyut," (ca. 1279 -- 1213 B.C.E). Retrieved online: http://www.metmuseum.org /collections/search-the-collections/100001091
"Yuny and His Wife Renenutet," (1294 -- 1279 B.C.E.). Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved online:
Ancient Earth - Women's History
OFFICIAL USE ONLY
An Analysis of "Life" Magazine dated November 17, 1958
Lexicoczar (All Hail!)
As you know, the recent discovery of a cache of "magazines" has provided our department with an opportunity to better understand the colorful but largely heretofore-baffling mid-20th century. The graphics and pictures contained in one of the "magazines" entitled "Life" appear to be particularly illustrative of the customs and values that were predominant during this period in Western history. Some sample illustrations, together with this analyst's interpretation of the contents of an issue of a "Life" "magazine" dated November 17, 1958 and their likely functions and purposes as they apply to female gender issues, are provided below.
General Description and Contents of "Magazine."
This copy of "Life" "magazine" is comparable to the other specimens discovered in "gar-[b?]ages" in recent years; this copy, though, is especially well preserved, due in…
TomFolio.com. Galactic Web: Available: http://www.tomfolio.com/bookdetailsfg.asp ?
Source: TomFolio.com. Galactic Web: Available:
Ancient Art / Comparing Two Works
Two ancient works of art were viewed for discussion in this paper. The first is called "Vessel Terminating in the Forepart of a Stag" at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The second is an Etruscan engraved mirror, which can be viewed at the Louvre. Although the objects are from different time periods and cultures and depict different images, they have in common the fact that they are both utilitarian objects made beautiful with adornment.
The stag vessel [http://www.metmuseum.org / Collections/search-the-collections/30006086] was discovered in Central Anatolia (a region of Turkey) and is attributed to the Hittite Empire, circa the 14th -- 13th centuries BCE. It is a drinking vessel made of silver with gold inlay. It is a representational piece that stands eighteen centimeters tall. According to the Museum's website, the stag's front legs and torso, which opens into a cup, was hammered from a…
Astier, M.B. (n.d.) Greek, Etruscan, and Roman antiquities. Louvre. Retrieved from http://www.louvre.fr/en/oeuvre-notices/mirror-0
Etruscan engraved mirror (ca. 4th century BCE). [Cast bronze]. The Louvre, Paris.
In the beginning of "The hagavad-Gita," two groups of opponents prepare for battle. On one side, the one hundred sons of Dhritarashtra stand and on the other side, and the Pandava brothers stand. These soldiers are in the middle of a family feud over the right to govern the land of Kurukshetra.
A soldier named Arjuna, who is the leader of the Pandava armies, prepares to battle as Lord Krishna heads toward the opposition. Just before the battle, Arjuna asks Lord Krishna for advice.
Arjuna is ridden with hesitation and guilt as he faces his family and knows he will have to kill many loved ones to win the battle. Arjuna has set down his weapon and is ready to sacrifice his life. Arjuna approaches Krishna to tell him about his emotions regarding the battle. "Krishna, I seek no victory, or kingship or pleasures" (Miller, 25).…
Miller, Barbara Stoler, translator. The Bhagavad-Gita: Krishna's Counsel in Time of War. New York NY, Bantam Books, 1986.
Ancient Greek urban planning dates its glory to Pericles. Temple architecture sourced in a precedent civilization, the Minoan of Crete, is actually reflective of palace architecture from that society's maritime city-state, Knossos (de la Croix, H. And Tansey).
The Greek civis was largely informed by astronomy; influencing everything from temple design to the order of the public City-State. 'Archaeoastronomical' patterns beginning with the Geometric through the final Hellenistic period in Greece reveal sophistication in calculation synonymous to solar alignment. This perspective fits with what is known about the star gazing cult practices found in the archaeological record (Belmonte). Sacred objects further this theory, and there remain a significant number of votive statuary stored at temple sites. Votive offerings were left by devotees of that particular cult, including weapons, helmets, and even statues. The interior of the temple, known as the cella, was often decorated with columns and most used for…
Belmonte, Juan Antonio. From the Atlas to the Caucasus: The Other Side of the Mediterranean Before Islam. Archaeoastronomy 15.(2000): 78.
de la Croix, H. And Tansey, R.G. Gardner's: Art Through the Ages. New York, NY: Harcourt and Brace, 1980.
Dimock, Wai Chee. The Egyptian Pronoun: Lyric, Novel, the Book of the Dead. New Literary History 39.3 (2008): 619-643.
Maddison, Angus. The Contours of World Development. The World Economy, OECD, 2010.. Web.
arket research revealed several factors contributing to price inelasticity. ost importantly, Ancient's competitors were far larger competitors that raised financial viability concerns for Ancient in sales deals. Further, competitors offered bundles of software products that were far large than Ancient's database and data integration line. Some of Ancient's prospects had expressed that they were fearful that a lower price meant that the product was inferior to more expensive offerings even though Ancient did not believe that there were major differences in functionally between its data integration product and those of the competition.
Given its initial poor market reception, Ancient is now repositioning the SnapTogether solution for small and medium sized enterprises (SEs). This time it believes it will have more luck. Ancient believes that smaller companies will be more price sensitive and unable to afford the huge price tag of competitive offerings. Unlike the crowded enterprise market, Ancient's competitors avoid…
Market research revealed several factors contributing to price inelasticity. Most importantly, Ancient's competitors were far larger competitors that raised financial viability concerns for Ancient in sales deals. Further, competitors offered bundles of software products that were far large than Ancient's database and data integration line. Some of Ancient's prospects had expressed that they were fearful that a lower price meant that the product was inferior to more expensive offerings even though Ancient did not believe that there were major differences in functionally between its data integration product and those of the competition.
Given its initial poor market reception, Ancient is now repositioning the SnapTogether solution for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). This time it believes it will have more luck. Ancient believes that smaller companies will be more price sensitive and unable to afford the huge price tag of competitive offerings. Unlike the crowded enterprise market, Ancient's competitors avoid selling to smaller companies, leaving Ancient one of the few players in a relatively untapped market. Although the integration needs of smaller companies aren't as great as those of larger enterprises, Ancient believes that it can price its product in such a way that will still make it attractive for SMEs to purchase a product rather than to build the capabilities themselves. And, Ancient has developed a channel strategy to replace its direct sales force, an approach that should increase profit margins.
In the world of product introduction nothing is ever certain. But, this time around Ancient is optimistic that it has uncovered a good market opportunity. Launch of the new market strategy is slated for March, 2005. Stay tuned
Colors were essential as a means of expression in art as well.
Explanation of laughter
Laughter is rarely allowed in public, a cordial smile being always preferable. This limitation is yet again a proof of the influence Buddhism had on the aesthetic values of the world. (Clasquin, 2001)
Buddhist religion, as one of the oldest in the world, represents the expression of the constant quest for the meaning of life and the overcoming of suffering.
The philosophical system it set in place, the artistic standards it established, along with the moral percepts it promoted, Buddhism is an important influence on the aesthetic values of modern civilizations.
Clasquin, M. (2001) eal Buddhas don't laugh: attitudes towards humor and laughter in ancient India and China. [electronic version] Social Identities, vol. 7, no. 1. University of South Africa. etrieved, March 28, 2007, at http://www.thezensite.com/ZenEssays/Philosophical/Buddhas_Dont_Laugh.pdf
Indianchild. (2000) Buddhism in India,…
Clasquin, M. (2001) Real Buddhas don't laugh: attitudes towards humor and laughter in ancient India and China. [electronic version] Social Identities, vol. 7, no. 1. University of South Africa. Retrieved, March 28, 2007, at http://www.thezensite.com/ZenEssays/Philosophical/Buddhas_Dont_Laugh.pdf
Indianchild. (2000) Buddhism in India, ancient Buddhism in India, India and Buddhism. Retrieved March 28, 2007, at http://www.indianchild.com/buddhism_in_india.htm
Kumar, N. (2004) Love and Passion in Tantric Buddhist Art. Retrieved, March 28, 2007, at http://www.kheper.net/topics/Buddhism/tantra.html
Lefebure, L. (2001) Ultimate journey: retracing the path of an ancient buddhist munk who crossed asia in search of Enlightment- book review. Retrieved, March 28, 2007, at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1058/is_17_118/ai_75496693
For example, in the United States, the Civil War occurred less than 150 years ago, and yet different historians provide conflicting perspectives about the causes of the war, why it was lost, and the consequences of the war for America's history. Moreover, it was only after the Civil War and the end of slavery that one began to see widespread, reliable publication about various slave rebellions that had occurred in the antebellum South. This is interesting, because it makes one wonder if that information would be available or suppressed had the war ended differently. Moreover, the vast majority of Americans are unaware that some northern states were slaveholding states. Furthermore, when one looks at the number of Holocaust deniers, despite the overwhelming physical evidence and documentation regarding the Holocaust, one can see how intentional misrepresentation can play a role in history; there are entire countries that believe it is a…
Cornell, T.J. 2005. "The Value of the Literary Tradition Concerning Archaic Rome," in K.A. Raaflaub (ed) Social Struggles in Archaic Rome. New Perspectives on the Conflict of the Orders, 47-74. 2nd ed, Malden, MA.
Forsythe, G. 2005. A Critical History of Early Rome. From Prehistory to the First Punic War. Berkeley, Los Angeles and London. 1-5; 59-77.
Livy, Books 1-10 (trans. de Selincourt, a. 1960. Livy. The Early History of Rome. London and New York). [Scott reserve DG 207 L5 D35 1960 or online at http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/ ]
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, Roman Antiquities (trans. Cary, E. 1937-50. The Roman Antiquities of Dionysius of Halicarnassus. 7 vols. Cambridge, MA. [Scott PA 3611 L63 D562 or online at http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Dionysius_of_Halicarnassus/home.html ]
Ancient Ballgame of Mesoamerica
There are many ancient art forms that are acknowledged today as culturally enriching. The dramatic plays of ancient Greece are revered as great artistic accomplishments. The development of writing and ship building by the Phoenicians is recognized as a ground breaking achievement that changed the course of society. Yet some cultures do not receive this kind of acknowledgment for their customs, inventions, and creations which have nonetheless steered the course of humanity to a great degree. While the Olympics of Greek ancestry have gained high acclaim worldwide for the impact they have had on athletics and culture, other ancient sporting traditions have been glossed over by mainstream history. Games and sports were an integral part of the cultures of Central America and Mexico, including Volador (high pole), patolli (dice), stilts, hunting, and jai alai. One instance of a seriously underrepresented athletic influence is the most important…
Though it is acknowledged that the words and ideas of Socrates have been filtered though the thoughts of those that followed him, namely Plato, as Socrates wrote nothing himself, it is also clear that the interpretation garnered by the ancients has been profoundly felt throughout western culture. It is also clear that the body of work that survives in fragmentation recorded as prior to the Socratic philosophical revolution is a strong basis for that which followed, it can also be described as simpler or at least less complex. The main difference according to the writings of the post Socratic philosophers between Socratic ethics and pre-Socratic ethics are twofold. On the one hand the idea that philosophical questions are not and cannot be seen as finite and on the other the establishment of Socrates as the supreme model of the philosophical life and all its trappings. The impact that…
Plato. The Apology of Socrates
Wheelright, Philip ed. The Presocratics. New York: Odyssey Press, Inc. 1966.
Ancient Culture Development (AC)
Ancient Culture Development
As ancient man developed, they were faced with various challenges that were as well confronted in particular ways, in order to survive in the environment that was full of challenges. There was the use of stones shaped like chisels, flaked at the tip to provide a sharp edge to cut meat. This is one of the earliest documented tools that are estimated back to around 2.5 million years ago (Anne Pyburn, 2003). These were tools that were discovered in East Africa at Olduvai Gorge as one of the ancient man's abode.
There was division of labor apparently, and men who were faster were commissioned to hunting while women did the gathering of plant products and caring for children. This was a simple governance structure that had to do mainly with domestic labor structure. This was during the lower Paleolithic.
During the upper Paleolithic…
Anne Pyburn, (2003). The First People and Culture. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from http://www.indiana.edu/~arch/saa/matrix/ia/ia03_mod_10.html
Anne Pyburn, (2004). Middle and Upper Paleolithic Hunter-Gatherers The Emergence of Modern Humans, The Mesolithic. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from http://www.indiana.edu/~arch/saa/matrix/ia/ia03_mod_11.html
The Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, (2010a). The 'Neolitic Revolution'. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from http://teachmiddleeast.lib.uchicago.edu/foundations/origins-of-civilization/essay/essay-02.html
The Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago, (2010b). Life in Mesopotamia: Law and Governance. Retrieved January 24, 2012 from http://mesopotamia.lib.uchicago.edu/mesopotamialife/article.php?theme=Law%20and%20Government
Q2. Plato believed that, just as skilled craftsman should confine themselves to making shoes and warriors should confine themselves to fighting, only 'the best' should rule. Individuals with great aptitudes to be philosophers should be selected and taught to lead the people, and leadership by the majority was dangerous. The Platonic 'Guardians' would be taken away from their family at birth and given special training by other philosophers, so they would know how to govern. This reflects Socrates' notion of philosophy and leadership as specialized skills rather than something that can be practiced by all individuals equally effectively, as the concept of Athenian democracy would suggest. For Socrates, justice is not based in the concept of giving each citizen equal opportunities; justice means creating a perfect society. Making sure that the 'perfect' cobblers make shoes, the perfect warriors defend the city, and the best minds rule on earth makes society…
According to the Roman historian Pliny, in his Natural History, in 238 BC, at the direction of an oracle in the sibylline books, a temple was built to honor Flora, an ancient goddess of flowers and blossoming plants. (Pliny, XVIII.286) the temple was dedicated on April 28 and the Floralia instituted to solicit her protection for the city.
Although the Floralia originated as a "moving festival," after a period with bad crops when according to Ovid, "the blossoms again that year suffered from winds, hail, and rain" (Ovid, Fasti, V.329ff), the festival Ludi Florales started to be held every year, the first in 173 BCE. "It was later fixed on April 27th. After Caesar's reform of the calendar, it was April 28th. The purpose of the festival was to ensure the crops blossomed well." ("Flora," Roman Religion and Mythology: Lexicon, 1999)
Flora thus is fertile, like a mother, for she…
Flora," Roman Religion and Mythology: Lexicon. Originally created 1999. Last updated 2005. Retrieved 26 Feb 2005. http://sights.seindal.dk/sight/1080_Flora.html
Flora and Pomona." Ancient Roman Mythology. Retrieved 26 Feb 2005. http://www.crystalinks.com/romemythology.html
Ovid. Fasti. Translated by a.J. Boyle and R.D. Woodard. New York: Penguin Classics, 2000.
Pliny. Natural History. Translated by H. Rackham. Cambridge: Loeb Classical Library, 1938.
In this excerpt, her mature medicine woman attitude shows clearly that she has grown up. That doesn't mean that she isn't attracted sexually to Set, but there is a reverence now and an appreciation for his needs that perhaps readers didn't see previously. And on page 297 the desire that Set feels for Grey is a sweeter, more casual lead-in to sexual foreplay. "Their hands slipped over their bodies, describing desire, but yet discreetly." They both have grown by now.
As for the characters' achievement of modern American Indian identity, the way it interfaces the history of the Old est (to wit, Billy the Kid) with modern tends to bring the fictional aspect of the book into a brighter spotlight than Native American cultural reality. Grey's character, in particular, reveals some truth about medicine and how Indians understand that medicine comes to them. And as Karen allace writes in her…
Coltelli, Laura. Winged Words: American Indian Writers Speak. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1990.
Momaday, Scott N. The Ancient Child. New York: Doubleday, 1989.
Wallace, Karen L, and Schmitt, Deborah A. "Liminality and Myth in Native American
Fiction: Ceremony and The Ancient Child." Contemporary Literary Criticism. Vol.
Ancient Text ith Modern Text
Because written literature is capable of being transmitted from the person who wrote it across generations, it acquires the status of communal wisdom simply by being recorded. Yet there are limitations to the applicability of such stories, and to a certain degree wisdom consists in knowing that there are limitations to the theoretical knowledge one can acquire in this way, or human error can misinterpret the text. I would like to look at the way in which three texts -- one ancient (by Rumi) and two modern (by Siije and Soyinka) -- offer wisdom at the same time that they suggest limits to our own knowledge, and limits to the applicability of any such wisdom.
The poems of Rumi, by virtue of their age, seem almost to define the way by which wisdom can be transmitted in literature, but also can acknowledge its own limits.…
Rumi, Jalal al-Din. The Essential Rumi: New Expanded Edition. Translated by Coleman Barks. New York: Harper-Collins, 2004.
Siije, Dai. Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress. New York: Anchor Books, 2001.
Soyinka, Wole. Death and the King's Horseman. New York: Norton, 2002.
This was true for example in the northern countries of Europe where Protestantism had firmly embedded itself an thrown off Church teaching. ars were the result as the Holy Roman Empire attempted to put down the Protestant Rebellions -- but the Peace of estphalia in 1648 finally and politically gave the Protestant countries in the north of Europe the right to exercise their new religions. Humanism, indeed, was spreading as a result of the Renaissance and many societies were willing to adopt it.
Bennett, Judith. Queens, hores and Maidens: omen in Chaucer's England.
University of London. 5 March 2002. Royal Halloway, Hayes Robinson Lecture Series No. 6. eb. 23 March 2011.
Haaren, John. Famous Men of Greece. NY: American Book Company, 1904.
Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. NY: HarperCollins, 2003.
Jusserand, J.J. English ayfaring Life in the Middle Ages. Chatham, UK: &J Mackay & Co. Ltd., 1950.…
Bennett, Judith. Queens, Whores and Maidens: Women in Chaucer's England.
University of London. 5 March 2002. Royal Halloway, Hayes Robinson Lecture Series No. 6. Web. 23 March 2011.
Haaren, John. Famous Men of Greece. NY: American Book Company, 1904.
Johnson, Paul. Art: A New History. NY: HarperCollins, 2003.
Therefore, it is true that the aspect of trade of wine and quality, as well as publication of the paintings, used the grapes and wine themes for the marketing brand associated and the underlying culture within the painter's lives.
Why the artists from Classical Antiquity to Modernism have been using particularly this theme?
From the Classical Antiquity to the modernism era, people developed an attitude that keeps certain groups of painters making a name through the themes they apply in their paintings. Therefore, the grapes and wine theme is already in deep roots within the basis of sales possible. Every painting that applies the use of the grapes and wines theme receives significant support and acceptance within the society; hence, the reason it has such wide application by the classical antique and modernism-painting activists.
Why the modern artists have been continuing to use themes particularly from Classical antiquity and from…
Comparison of Modern and Ancient Mythology
Imagination is still an inseparable aspect of his nature regardless of the claims on rationality and logic. Human beings are mythmakers. They have a tendency to imagine worlds that don't immediately exist which gives rise to mythology and religion (Armstong). Since the age of enlightenment; men began to believe in philosophy as the only method of disclosing world and nature. It can be shown that even philosophy stands on myth (Muszynski). Therefore, mythology still exists both at a personal level and a public level, in the form of religion. Mythology arises to explain ideas which cannot be explained with rationality alone - nature, the origin of people, and the existence of the universe. The root and grounds of development of mythology has not changed since the ancient times, therefore, mythology in the new world shares many similarities with the ancient mythology. Nevertheless,…
Armstong, Karen. A short history of myth. Canongate U.S., 2005.
Bartlett, Sarah. The Mythology Bible: The Definitive Guide to Legendary Tales. Great Britain: Godsfield Press, 2009.
Campbell, Joseph. The Hero with a Thousan faces. Pantheon Books, 1949.
Muszynski, Joe. "Thinking in Narrative:Seeing Through To the Myth in Philosophy." Mythological Studies Journal 1.1 (2010).
The Roman people regarded themselves as highly religious. They linked their success as a powerful force in the world to their cordial relations with the gods. The victory by the Romans was essentially a religious occasion in which the generals exhibited their piety and zeal to serve society by dedicating a fraction of their fortunes to the gods. Jupiter was particularly called to attention in such circumstances because he was the god of justice in leadership. Following the Punic wars fought between 264 BC and 146 BC in which Rome fought hard to assert its power as a dominating authority, magistrates built many temples in honor of a deity who they depended on to guarantee success in the war (Religion in ancient Rome) (Roman mythology).
How Ancient Rome Practiced Religion
Ancient Romans recognized and offered prayer too many gods and goddesses. Some of the gods were of Roman origin but…
In addition for many years it was indeed considered impolite to laugh out loud in public which had an impact on the aesthetic value of the period in history.
The faith of Ancient Buddhism is perceived to be one of the oldest faiths in the world. Its teachings are still followed today in much of the Eastern part of the world and its simplistic view of life and the meaning of life can be seen in many other areas and cultures.
There is no denying the aesthetic value that the faith had on the period of ancient times when one examines the art being located on digs today. The beliefs of Ancient Buddhism have carried over to impact the aesthetic value of Western cultures as well as can be evidenced in the color lessons at designers schools and the study of color by modern day mental health professionals.
Ultimate Journey: Retracing the Path of an Ancient Buddhist Monk Who Crossed Asia in Search of Enlightenment. - Review - book review Christian Century, May 23, 2001 by Leo D. Lefebure http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1058/is_17_118/ai_75496693
Color Symbolism in Buddhist Art http://www.kheper.net/topics/Buddhism/colors.html
Real Buddhas Don't Laugh:Attitudes towards Humour and Laughter inAncient India and ChinaMICHEL CLASQUINUniversity of South Africa http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:0ZC9clSD9mMJ:www.thezensite.com/ZenEssays/Philosophical/Buddhas_Dont_Laugh.pdf+aesthetic+%22ancient+Buddhism%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=5&gl=us&ie=UTF-8
Origin of Ancient Nepal
Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people were living in the Himalayan region in the distant past, although their culture and artifacts are only slowly being explored. Written references to this region appeared only by the first millennium .C. During that period, political or social groupings in Nepal became known in north India. The Mahabharata and other legendary Indian histories mention the Kiratas (Roberts JM, History of the World), who still inhabited eastern Nepal in 1991.
Some legendary sources from the Kathmandu Valley also describe the Kiratas as early rulers there, taking over from earlier Gopals or Abhiras, both of whom may have been cowherding tribes. These sources agree that an original population, probably of Tibeto-urman ethnicity, lived in Nepal 2,500 years ago, inhabiting small settlements with a relatively low degree of political centralization.
Monumental changes occurred when groups of tribes calling themselves…
Roberts JM History of the World.
leadership has been in existence since ancient times with various contributions on this phenomena having been cumulative. egardless of these cumulative contributions, there are still more significant concerns and deficiencies in the existing knowledge on leadership. Examples of these deficiencies is that many studies have ignored the type of organization and culture with which leaders function, services provided by the leader's organization, and the relationships between leaders and their superiors. On the contrary, these studies on leadership mainly focus on the relationship between leaders and their direct followers.
Leadership and Management:
Leadership is described as the creation of a vision or direction for a group of people to follow making a leader to be the head of new direction or vision. Leadership and management are terms that have continued to be used interchangeably though they are very different. These two concepts are necessarily connected and complementary with attempts to separate…
Carless, S.A., Wearing, A.J. & Mann, L. (2000). A Short Measure of Transformational
Leadership. Journal of Business and Psychology, 14(3), 389-405.
House, R.J. & Aditya, R.N. (1997). The Social Scientific Study of Leadership: Quo Vadis?
Journal of Management, 23(3), 409-473.
During the beginning of ancient times, Classical civilization still lived as hunters and gatherers. They used the resources available to them and learned to gather grains, berries, and other plant foods and store them for the winter. This required them to live where the geography and climate could support them, and where supplies of water were easily available. Early settlements clustered around rivers and streams for this reason. y the end of the Classical Era, The Roman Empire had fallen. European cultures had been influenced by Rome's accomplishments, however, and Europeans knew how to build aquifers to bring the water to them. They had learned to build both roads and bridges. They had tamed livestock and used them for transportation. y the Classical Era, many of geography's limitations had solutions. Thus people could live in villages, towns and cities, farm the surrounding countryside and transport it to where…
Garraty, John A., and Gay, Peter, Eds. The Columbia History of the World. New York: Harper & Row, Publishers, 1999.
In ancient Rome, the gladiator games were a popular form of entertainment—but they were also much more than this and served multiple purposes within the Roman civilization. The games were used both by Roman authorities and by the slaves of Rome (the gladiators) as a tool, wielded for a different aim respectively. The Roman religious and the politicians used the games as well for their own ends. While the combats that took place in the arenas dazzled audiences, the violence and spectacle was really but one aspect of the contests, and an examination of the underlying social, political, religious and economic subtexts of the gladiator games reveals much about the nature of ancient Roman society. This paper will identify the four main purposes of the gladiatorial games in ancient Rome—the expression of political influence, the expression of religion, a means of emphasizing the Empire’s power, and grounds for slaves…
At the same time, the presentation of his work, the lives of the community in which he lived and the way in which he succeeded in forming a family must be relevant for the actual depiction of the historical background, the environment, and the customs of the time. For instance, the fact that he was given to marry the elder daughter of the ruler of the land he had chosen as his next home, Amunenshi, represented indeed an appreciation of his qualities and virtues as an Egyptian. Therefore, it can be said that the piece of writing is also an important source of history of the Near East.
Another important perspective of the story is the historical one which offers a view on the current situation of the time in Egypt. Therefore, the story focuses on the way in which king Sesostris was involved in political actions and maneuvers that…
The Story of Sinuhe. (n.d.) Retrieved 19 May 2008, from the Ancient Egypt Online web site: http://www.ancientegyptonline.co.uk/storysinuhe.html
Soon after, the Banker died as well, and the entire family fortune and responsibility fell on the Son.
With the passage of her husband, Mother was now no longer the head of the household, but she was confident nothing would change, after all her son loved her. When she came back from a vacation trip after a hot summer, she went into her room only to find that all of her possessions were missing. In a panic she ran to her Son's room and found him sitting on his desk.
Where are my things my beautiful son, where did you move them to?," she cried.
Why to grandmother's room of course," he diffidently stated.
What? To that dirty little shack, you cannot expect your mother to live their?!," she screamed.
Her son looked up at her and blinked his eyes. "Why are you so angry, I am treating you no…
mythology and ancient beliefs. Specifically it will compare the myths of heroism in the myth of Achilles to the modern film "Troy." The film "Troy," from 2004, is a remake of the Homer classic "The Iliad," which recounts the legend of the Greek warrior Achilles. In the film, actor Brad Pitt plays Achilles, giving him a larger than life, heroic quality. Achilles is the child of a mortal and a nymph, and his parents attempt to give him immortality by dipping him in the iver Styx, but they miss a tiny spot on his heel, and this leads to his downfall.
Both of these myths center around the idea of the hero in mythology, and in fact, they show the importance of heroes in the Greek society 3500 years ago. The translator of the Iliad writes, "Heroes are born into positions of prominence, which they also reaffirm by their public…
Homer. Iliad. Trans. Stanley Lombardo. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company, 1997.
Troy. Dir. Wolfgang Petersen. Perf. Brad Pitt, Orlando Bloom, Eric Bana, Brian Cox. Warner Brothers, 2004.
Although the ancient Roman religion might seem a far cry from today';s contemporary context, in reality Roman religion continues to inform and shape Western culture to this day (the celebration of Christmas being one example). While there are a number of literary sources which provide contemporary scholars with information about Roman religions, both in terms of belief and practice, this religions information is encoded into the landscape and physical space of Rome itself, from the layout of its forums to the sculptures which adorn its altars. y examining three such sources in detail, the Ara Pacis, the Forum of Augustus, and the grove of the Arval rothers, one will be able to understand how Roman religion permeated Roman social and political identity and organizations, and furthermore, how these concurrent strains of identity-formation and power relations etched themselves into the very physical objects left behind to be discovered and…
Ando, Clifford. The Matter of the Gods: Religion and the Roman Empire. Berkeley: University
of California Press, 2008.
Beard, Mary, John North, and Simon Price. Religions of Rome, Volume 1: A History. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Roman Sarcophagi sculptures, one sarcophagus of portraying Roman deity as portrayed on the Sarcophagus with the Indian Triumph of Dionysus' triumphal return from India, contrasted with the other the Sarcophagus Depicting a Battle between Soldiers and Amazon made for a military leader.
During the second and 3rd centuries, inhumation became more and more used than cremation, and this created a push for a greater need for sarcophagi, as the departed were placed inside these vessels. "Sarcophagi are of eminent importance for the study of Roman art, for they provide the largest single body of sculptural material in which we may study both the style and subject matter of the art of the tumultuous years of the later Roman empire, when there are few other monuments with pictorial relief to which we can turn… through sarcophagus reliefs we can trace and re-experience the profound shift in pagan religious thought, away from…
Awan, H.T.. "Roman Sarcophagi." metmuseum.org. The Metropolitan Museum, n.d.
Web. 1 Apr 2014.
Koortbojian, Michael Myth, Meaning, and Memory on Roman Sarcophagi. Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1995.
Pre-Columbian Art went to the Orlando Museum of Art. From their collection of Pre-Columbian, Peruvian art, I selected the "Shaman Figure Vessel" and the "Stirrup-spout Hand Vessel."
The Shaman Figure vessel is from the Nazca culture. This piece is an image of a Shaman or other very important person in the culture. The shape of the piece is aesthetically pleasing, probably thrown on a wheel. A trimmed foot raises the piece from the surface, giving the piece more lift and energy.
The detail of the glazes is impressive, with multiple earth colors used. Great detail has been put into making the piece symmetrical. Dots in a stripe of off-white are carefully spaced. The representation of feet contain five toes with one toe larger, suggesting human form, although the piece has a cat's face. Given the great care into the decoration of this piece it may have served an important ceremonial…
While in exile, Ravana and Maricha trick Lakshmana into believing the Rama was in trouble. Since it was Lakshmana's duty to protect Rama, he goes to rescue them. While he is gone, Sita is abducted.
Interestingly, however, the evil Ravana is ultimately defeated through an act of deceit. Although the Brahma promised he could not be killed by a god, spirit or demon, they make no such promise as to humans. However, Ravana, being a god, would not even think of being defeated by a human as this is impossible. Yet, when the Brahma see Ravana destroying the earth, they become disturbed and thus create the plan of creating Rama, as a human incarnation of a god and thus powerful enough to kill Ravana without breaking their promise. In a sense, this is the greatest deceit of them all.
In summary, the story of Ramayana is an expression of what…
The three authors presented above and their works were considering the different ways science and the results of scientific knowledge translated in the advance of technology influence human lives. Hawthorne saw technology positively influencing the lives of those taking advantage of it and helping them get out of the darkness of unknown; Dick was imagining a much more gloomy outcome of the combination between human nature and technology, while Taylor was presenting the importance of addressing the issues of prosperity in an industrial society benefitting the advantages of technology solely from the point-of-view of science.
Dick, P.K.(1968) Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep. Ballantine Books.
Hawthorne, N.(1898) the House of the Seven Gables. etreived: Oct. 15, 2008. Available at http://books.google.com/books?id=wxYPsGsZOQQC&dq=the+house+of+the+seven+gables&pg=PP1&ots=tJCsK0U_GC&sig=Ez5dxVgBzgzPk9DZNOvMO4PrdY&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result
Taylor, F.W. (1911) the Principles of Scientific Management. Harper. Originally from Harvard University. etrieved: Oct. 15, 2008. Available at http://books.google.com/books?id=5ek4cYPdndYC&dq=the+principles+of+scientific+management&pg=PP1&ots=jZtS7Qkgc5&sig=_AhmBEtfZQZbjyjJwq4crGqmc0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result
Dick, P.K.(1968) Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep. Ballantine Books.
Hawthorne, N.(1898) the House of the Seven Gables. Retreived: Oct. 15, 2008. Available at http://books.google.com/books?id=wxYPsGsZOQQC&dq=the+house+of+the+seven+gables&pg=PP1&ots=tJCsK0U_GC&sig=Ez5dxVgBzgzPRk9DZNOvMO4PrdY&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result
Taylor, F.W. (1911) the Principles of Scientific Management. Harper. Originally from Harvard University. Retrieved: Oct. 15, 2008. Available at http://books.google.com/books?id=5ek4cYPdndYC&dq=the+principles+of+scientific+management&pg=PP1&ots=jZtS7Qkgc5&sig=_AhmBEtfZQZbjyjJwq4crGqmcR0&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result
Preacher and the Ancient Text
This was an extremely technical text which offers deeper insights for anyone who desires to have a deeper understanding of all biblical issues and literary themes. This is because this text is able to offer a more nuanced perspective of major biblical pillars in terms of their own historical and literary viewpoint, while interlacing it with strong theological content. One of the deeper insights that were gleaned from studying this text was the fact that this book offers a superb means of explaining some of these more intricate pillars.
One of the more lucid insights that were gained from studying this book was as a result of the fusion developed from the hermeneutics and homiletics and the holistic approach that was engaged in. All insights gain were as a result of the link that Greidanus is able to forge in regards to the different arenas…
Greidanus, S. (1988) The Modern Preacher and the Ancient Text. Eerdmans Publishing:
Also, after realizing that the killing of the albatross was crime, the Mariner is forced to roam the seas "upon the rotting deck" of the ship where the "dead men lay" (Part IV, lines 19-20). This description is very symbolic, for it means that the Mariner and his crew mates are all doomed to roam the seas as dead men because of the Mariner's killing of the albatross.
Although Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner" is superbly written, there are parts that could use some development. Some would say that any attempt to change or alter this poem goes against all the principles of literary license, yet it is clear that Coleridge left plenty of room for perhaps additional characters and situations. For example, as previously mentioned, in Part IV, Coleridge mentions "a saint" which could be developed into St. Elmo, best known for his "St. Elmo's fire" which sometimes…
Hours of Ancient Sunlight
Explain Hartmann's argument connecting the "younger culture" mentality/way of life to the rise of violence between groups of people (e.g. "races" and genders) and against Nature.
To Hartmann the younger culture and the older culture are different on the basis of individual reality. Previously, in the older culture, the meanings of the actions and the intentions of these actions were limited, but today the younger culture is not only receptive but also reactive to everything, from the very basic to the most modern of the reality. The only difference lies in the difference of reality of the younger and the older culture. While writing from an environmentalist notion, he argues that the younger culture has by far contributing to the rising of violence in the world about and has gained full access to thoughts and cultures that aims to reap and harvest the seeds of violence.…
Resources on this plant are made for the betterment of the people and its inhabitants, not for the destruction. Destruction of the inhabitants is against the law of nature, and going against the law of nature means inviting destruction to us. So the solution lies in knowing the exact nature and purpose of our existence, whether it is survival, competence, control, dominance, rebellion, violence, or whether it is peace and harmony between every one. Thus, the proponents of the younger culture need to think deep which is better, present day control and dominance over the resources and people or the future peace and harmony and survival knowing our planet is getting hot and hot every passing day due to this trend of younger culture.
Hartmann, T. (2000) The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight: Waking Up to Personal and Global Transformation, Three Rivers Press
The Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight
civilization in the ancient Near East (3500-1000 B.C.E.) and the Mediterranean (1000 B.C.E. - 500 C.E.) shared a great number of similarities as well as numerous differences. These points of comparison covered the political, economic, and social realms, cultural and intellectual ideas, as well as values and institutions. Further, each civilization differed in their specific impact on the creation of estern civilization, and the degree of that impact.
Civilization in the ancient Mediterranean (1000 B.C.E. - 500 C.E.) arose out of a number of important causes. First, the location of the Mediterranean area between three continents, and the influence of civilizations like Mesopotamia, India and China nearby. Further, the excellent communication by sea, the mild climate, and the invention of writing were important factors in encouraging the development of civilization in the area (Poiycratis).
The history of civilization in the Mediterranean is not one of a single cultural, political, social,…
Ancientnewreast.com. Near eastern history, language and culture. 03 June 2004. http://www.ancientneareast.com/
Carlos, Michael C. Near East. Odyssey Online. 13 June 2004. http://carlos.emory.edu/ODYSSEY/NEAREAST/homepg.html
Poiycratis, G.S. 1992. THE INFLUENCE OF THE ANCIENT MEDITERRANEAN CIVILIZATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN CULTURES. Annals of the MBC,5(1). 03 June 2004. http://www.medbc.com/annals/review/vol_5/num_1/text/vol5n1p5.htm
Greidanus, Sidney. "The Modern Preacher Ancient Text." Eerdmans Publishing: Grand apids, 1988. Please write separately pages shown.
Chapter eview: 1, 6 &
According to Sidney Greidanus in his book The Modern Preacher and the Ancient Text, although we in modernity often like to say that talk is cheap, words are the way in which God communicates with human beings and preaching is an extension of this fact. The earliest preachers, the apostles, acted as representatives of God on earth and used words to transmit their messages. "Preaching is the proclamation of Christianity to the non-Christian world." [footnoteef:1] Preaching, however, is not merely the musings of the preacher 'off the cuff' or personal ruminations but must be securely grounded in Christian texts. It is very important that all forms of Christian preaching are yoked in their intention and scope to the Bible. [1: Sidney Greidanus, The Modern Preacher and the Ancient…
Greidanus, Sidney. The Modern Preacher and the Ancient Text. Eerdmans Publishing: Grand
Athens and Sparta were two most powerful states in Ancient Greece. Athens was known for its undying focus on infrastructural development while Sparta had an unmatched military prowess. As such, Sparta was the most powerful Greek state. Although the two states are very close geographically, they do have contrasting lifestyles, governance structures, military strength and economic systems (Internet Ancient History Sourcebook: Greece. 1998).
Unlike Athens, which was a democracy government, Sparta was an Oligarchy system of government. This means the state was ruled by a few individuals. Two kings acted as leaders who were accompanied by five Ephors. The Kings passed on their crowns to their sons. The Ephors and Kings would attend the general assembly to develop and pass motions, decrees legislations and make civil decisions (Blackwell, 2003).
In Sparta, the goal of education is to yield a well-disciplined and well-drilled marching army. These people believe in…
According to Bass, "Hinduism is the only major religion lacking an adequate explanation as to its origin," as no definitive Hindu text exist that that date before 1000 B.C. Indeed, because Hinduism is one of the religions that views time as cyclical rather than linear, what information is available about Hinduism does not give a very accurate picture of its history (Bass 5). hat can be gleaned from this history is the fact that Hinduism is one of the oldest religions with one of the oldest societies in the world. Just as their origins are difficult to define, the beliefs of Hinduism are varied depending on one's personal interpretation of the religion. However, one of the more important aspects of Hinduism is its social caste system. This belief states that there are four casts, and each "has its rules and obligation for living." The three castes are Brahman, priests, hatriyas,…
"A Concise History of Islam and the Arabs." Mid East Web. n.d. 11 June 2009.
Abdullah, Mohd Habibullah Bin. "The Story of Creation in the Quar'an and Old
Testament." Bismika Allahuma. 15 October 2005. 11 June 2009.
Hours of Ancient Sunlight: Waking Up to Personal and Global Transformation by Thom Hartmann. Specifically, it will consist of a brief summary of the reading, a summary of the main points, and end with thoughts, questions, and a critique of the book. "Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight" is an inspirational book about our planet, and what we can do to save it from environmental and social decay.
The book uses poetic and eloquent language to describe how the balance of life on Earth works so perfectly, if only we will let it. Hartmann takes a look back in time to illustrate why we are the very way we are, then explains how we have ravaged the Earth, and what is our hope for the future. The book is broken down roughly into thirds, with each third following this format of past, present, and future. Hartmann's thesis is simple: hope for…
Hartmann, Thom. Last Hours of Ancient Sunlight: Waking Up to Personal and Global Transformation. New York: Three Rivers Press, 1999.
Both Spartan men and women exercised together in the nude, and both were "encouraged to improve their intellectual skills" ("omen in Ancient Greece"). Being a woman in Sparta certainly ensured a greater sense of gender equality -- but that does not necessarily mean Sparta was the preferred residence of women in Greece. After all, Sparta did without a lot of the creature comforts that other city-states like Athens took for granted as essential to civilization. There is a reason the phrase "Spartan living" has come to be synonymous with the bare necessities.
As for variance in the social structure of the various states, democracy prevailed in Athens for a time (but so did tyranny and corruption as well). Thebes also had its monarchy and later on its heroic warrior citizens. Sparta had two kings who ruled simultaneously. But its social structure was also more slave-based than anywhere else. In fact,…
Haaren, John. Famous Men of Rome. NY: American Book Company, 1904.
Johnston, Sarah. Religions of the Ancient World. Harvard University Press, 2004.
Kyziridis, Theocharis. "Notes on the History of Schizophrenia." German Journal of Psychiatry, vol 8, 42-48, 2005.
Sikora, Jack. Religions of India. Lincoln, NE: Writer's Club Press, 2002.
Art of classical antiquity, in the ancient cultures of Greece and ome, has been much revered, admired, and imitated. In fact, the arts of ancient Greece and ome can be considered the first self-conscious and cohesive art movements in Europe. Style, form, execution, and media were standardized and honed to the point where aesthetic ideals were created and sustained over time. The art of classical antiquity in Greece and ome reverberated throughout history, impacting the art of subsequent eras in Europe. In fact, there can be no absolute "neoclassical" era in art history because of the way neoclassicism evolved throughout the centuries since the fall of the oman Empire. The arts of the enaissance borrowed heavily from classical antiquity, as can be seen in enaissance icons such as Michelangelo's David. Some suggest that medieval art pays homage to classical antiquity, even if the quotations from classical Greek and ome are…
Castelijn, D. (2012). The Influence of Classical Antiquity on the Renaissance. Oxford Department for Continuing Education. Retrieved online: http://www.conted.ox.ac.uk/courses/details.php?id=V350-130#pagetop
"Classical Antiquity in the Middle Ages," (n.d.). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved online:
Nature Closer to the Ancient than the Renaissance View?
In his book, The Idea of Nature, Collingwood analyzes the principle characteristics of three periods of cosmological thinking in the history of European thought: Greek, Renaissance, and the Modern. By taking such an approach, Collingwood makes it possible for his readers to distinguish the similarities as well as fundamental differences between the modern view of Nature and that of Greek and Renaissance cosmology. But, perhaps Collingwood's work is more valuable because it demonstrates how both Greek and Renaissance schools of thought have made the modern view of nature possible. In other words, the modern view of nature has evolved from both Greek and Renaissance cosmology, with each period laying the foundation for the next to build on. To that extent, an assertion that the modern view of Nature more closely resemblances one period rather than another cannot, strictly speaking, be made…
Collingwood, R.G. "The Idea of Nature." Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1945.
Ever since the time when the Muslims raided the city, it became obvious that Christians would lose their influence in the territory, even with the fact that the latter were given permission to keep most of their churches. During the years in which I stood witnessing the Christian population being assimilated into the more powerful Muslim population, I observed that people belonging to both religions came to the church to worship God. Regardless of their personal convictions, people were united through religion and through their dedication to believing in God.
The finances spent for building such an architectural colossus are surely mind-blowing, taking into account that the structure's magnitude expresses magnificence. However, because the Muslim population thrived during the period, it is not surprising that they were willing to support such a spending, especially given that they too were aware of the consequences such a building would have on their…
1. Flood, F.B. The Great Mosque of Damascus: Studies on the Makings of an Umayyad Visual Culture (Boston: Brill, 2001).
2. Smith, E.B. Egyptian Architecture as Cultural Expression (New York: D. Appleton-Century, 1938).
3. Thackara, W.T.S. "The Epic of Gilgamesh: A Spiritual Biography." Retrieved October 2, 2010, from the Teosophy Northwest Website: http://www.theosophy-nw.org/theosnw/world/mideast/mi-wtst.htm
e. The Law of Hospitality, which stressed over the utilization of the expertise and support services towards an individual or community, which has experienced critical and crucial time, similarly, the services and obligations between the master and servant towards each other has been the focused of his teachings and practices (Steven, 2006).
The Odyssey attempted several times to return to his kingdom in Ithaca, whereas the exiled ama never planned any political or military outrage against the ruling authority to ensure his return. The major difference in both the epics has been the deep involvement and influence of the ama's family in his life. Sita, the wife of ama, contributed deeply towards the spiritual objectives of her spouse, their children were equally involved in the quest marked by their parents. The Sita was forcibly victimized by the associates of the ama, and she was alleged for malpractices which eventually resulted…
Catherine Clement. Theo's Odyssey. 1999. pp. 32-34. Arcade Publishing.
Arthur Charles Clarke, Gentry Lee. Rama Revealed. 1994. pp. 154-167. Bantam Books.
Steven J. Rosen. Essential Hinduism. 2006. pp. 54-67. Greenwood Press.
George William Cox. The Mythology of the Aryan Nations. 2004. pp. 213-222. Adamant Media Corporation.
By connecting the awarding of a peace prize with the concerns of a world in which terrorism has become a constant threat, Obama makes clear the exigency of his message when he says: "I do not bring with me today a definitive solution to the problems of war."
Nobel laureates are given few formal constraints in terms of their responses but Obama faced the more general constraints of trying to meet very high expectations and the conflicting expectations of the peoples of different nations. I believe that he did a good -- though not perfect -- job in meeting these differing expectations, and so crafted a speech that served as a fitting response to the occasion.
Whether or not one believes that Obama achieved the Aristotelian concept of ethos -- the ability to make a credible ethical appeal -- depends probably more on one's own politics than the speech itself.…
Abraham Path Initiative
The Abraham Path: The evolution of the enterprise over time
One of the most divisive regions of the world is the Middle East. The Middle East is fraught with conflict not simply because of the ongoing Israeli-Palestinian territorial dispute but also because of a host regional and sectarian struggles that are tearing this area of the world apart. With this in mind: "in the face of daunting barriers, the Abraham Path Initiative envisions uncovering and revitalizing a route of cultural tourism that follows the path of Abraham and his family some 4000 years ago across the Middle East…As it takes fuller shape, the Path variously serves as a catalyst for sustainable tourism and economic development, a platform for the energy and idealism of young people, a beacon for pilgrims and peacebuilders, as well as a focus for seemingly endless media inquiries from reporters, producers" (Leary, Sebenius, &…
Leary, K., Sebenius, J. & Weiss, J. (2009). Negotiating the Path of Abraham. Harvard Business
School Working Paper. 10-049.
While the Jews eventually did find a King - King Saul, their king was not a supreme ruler with complete control over the people and the land. Again, the Jews indicated their diversity and divergence from the surrounding cultures. Their king was supposed to be a model Jew, one the people could emulate and admire. This period of the Israelite kingdoms was a time of growth and change that would end in a tumultuous exile of the Jews to Babylonia, one of the first of many Jewish exiles and persecutions. Many scholars believe King Saul helped aid the fall of the Jews by not taking on the nation of Amalek and eradicating it. The nation hated Jews and their religion, and caused many of the early Jewish troubles in the area. Saul did not take them on, and many feel this was his fatal flaw (Spiro). After a brief rule…
Edelheit, Hershel, and Abfaham J. Edelheit. History of Zionism: A Handbook and Dictionary. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2000.
Spiro, Rabbi Ken. "The Time of the Judges." AISH.com. 2007. 26 March 2007. http://www.aish.com/literacy/jewishhistory/Crash_Course_in_Jewish_History_Part_15_-_The_Time_of_the_Judges.asp
Cultural Perceptions of Time in frica
Time is a foundational factor in every culture. The perception of time is different for most cultures and the determining factor to those differences is often based on the means of production. "Most cultures have some concept of time, although the way they deal with time may differ fundamentally." (Kokole 1994, 35) Tracing the perception of the concept of time in frica can be seen as tracing the European racial prejudices of the intellect of the indigenous populations in the colonized regions of frica. Much of the information regarding the development of time concepts in frican culture is colonial and based on the European interlopers recorded ideas.
Some of those recorded ideas are those of missionaries and others are those of capitalist adventurers, with the intermittent mark of a very few true historians.
In Mali, as in many other parts of frica, there are…
Akan" is an ethnographic and linguistic term used to refer to a cluster of culturally homogenous groups living in central and southern Ghana and parts of the adjoining eastern Cote d'Ivoire. The Akan constitute two broad subcategories: the inland Asante, Bono, Akyem, Akwapem, and Kwawu, who speak the Twi, and the coastal Fante, who speak a dialect of the same name. The Akan dialects are, for the most part, mutually intelligible. Most of these ethnic groups constituted autonomous political systems in the pre-colonial period. www.questia.com/PageManagerHTMLMediator.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=55458430" (Adjaye 1994, 57)
Studies of Akan time perceptions and calendrical systems have been limited despite the fact that the existence of institutions and mechanisms for time-reckoning have been noted in the literature on the history and ethnography of the Akan for nearly two centuries. Beyond early sparse references by Rattray (1923) and Danquah (1968), a full-length monograph on the subject did not appear until Deborah Fink "Time and Space Measurements of the Bono of Ghana" (1974); however, the author's primary concern was with the applicability of Bono terminologies for measuring volume, weight, and time to formal education, rather than with time-marking systems P.F. Bartle brief five-page paper, "Forty Days: The Akan Calendar" (1978), was an exploratory essay into a single calendrical framework, the 40-day (adaduanan) cycle. Its treatment is consequently restrictive and limited to the 40-day calendrical structure. Similarly, Tom McCaskie "Time and the Calendar in Nineteenth-Century Asante: An Exploratory Essay" (1980) and Ivor Wilks ' "On Mentally Mapping Greater Asante: A Study of Time and Motion" (1992) are concerned primarily with a specific aspect of time: the scheduling of diplomatic and other governmental business in Asante.
(Adjaye 1994, 57)