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When Antibiotics Quit Working
When they first began to be used, antibiotics were considered miracle drugs because they cured infections that normally killed many people. Over the decades, these compounds have come to be a common treatment for bacterial infections. But as the use of antibiotics has increased, a seriously dangerous side-effect has developed: antibiotic resistant bacteria. Almost every bacteria that has been treated with antibiotics over the years has become more resistant to the effectiveness of antibiotic treatments. As a result, bacterial infections are more difficult than ever to treat and infections that have no loner been seen as a threat to humans are beginning to return and threatening people once again.
It was in 1928 that Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibiotic, called penicillin. Antibiotics are "natural compounds produced by a fungus or another microorganism that kills bacteria which cause disease in humans or animals." ("Antibiotic esistance…
"Antibiotic Resistance Questions and Answers." Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention Webpage. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/ antibiotic-use/antibiotic-resistance-faqs.html#c
"Appropriate Antimicrobial Prescribing: Approaches that Limit Antibiotic Resistance."
American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). Retrieved from http://www.aafp.org/afp/2001/0915/p999.html
antibiotics have saved millions of lives, their efficacy is diminished over time because of antibiotic resistance. Many pathogens possess the ability to multiply and mutate rapidly in response to the presence of antibiotics, and those mutations that are the hardiest will survive, making successive generations even more resistant. To determine how these antibiotic resistant processes operate and what steps researchers have taken in response, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
The Evolution of Antibiotic esistance
When it was discovered by Alexander Fleming in 1928, penicillin was widely hailed, and rightfully so, as a miracle drug. While penicillin and other antibiotics have in fact saved millions of lives over the past several decades, the tendency of many physicians to over-prescribe these medications as well as the proliferation of the use of antibiotics…
Aguirre, A.A., Ostfeld, R.S., Tabor, G.. M., House, C. & Pearl, M.C. (2002). Conservation
medicine: Ecological health in practice. New York: Oxford University Press.
Brower, J. & Chalk, J. (2003). The global threat of new and reemerging infectious diseases:
Reconciling U.S. national security and public health policy. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Mechanism of Action
Penicillin G, when injected into the patient, will act against actively proliferating penicillin-sensitive strains of bacteria (Drugs.com, 2011). This does not include several strains of staphylococci producing penicillinase or bacteria that are quiescent. The mechanism of action is inhibition of cell-wall mucopeptide biosynthesis. Penicillin G. works best against staphylococci groups A, B, C, G, H, L, and M, pneumococci, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponemapallidum, and many others.
Penicillin is used to treat serious infections, such as septicemia, pneumonia, endocarditis, pericarditis, empyema, and meningitis (Drugs.com, 2011). Penicillin is also indicated in cases of anthrax, botulism, actinomycosis, diphtheria, listeria infections, erysipelothrix endocarditis, severe infections of the oropharynx, lower respiratory tract, and genitals. Penicillin is also used to treat gonorrhea, syphyilis, rat-bite fever, and Haverhill fever. Only penicillin-sensitive bacteria should be treated due to the risk of creating penicillin-resistant strains. Although treatment should begin immediately in…
Drugs.com. (2011). Penicillin G. Sodium Injection (FDA prescribing information). Drugsite Trust. Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/pro/penicillin-g-sodium-injection.html .
Drugs.com. (2013). Septra (FDA prescribing information). Drugsite Trust. Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/pro/septra.html .
Drugs.com. (2014a). Gentamicin Sulfate (FDA prescribing information). Drugsite Trust. Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/pro/gentamicin-sulfate.html .
Drugs.com. (2014b). Zithromax (FDA prescribing information). Drugsite Trust. Retrieved from http://www.drugs.com/pro/zithromax.html .
Chicken are treated with antibiotics and with a drug with contains arsenic. These drugs are given to birds when they are sick, and also, to make them grow faster. This treatment on birds is dangerous for humans because, if the meat isn't cooked well, people can fall ill, and the drugs that they were normally using would not destroy bacteria. This is because of the fact that excessive use of antibiotics on chicken made the bacteria develop stronger in its body and because the meat isn't cooked properly, bacteria are transferred in the organism, being immune to common drugs. This case is not only for chicken, but for the other animals, such as pigs, cows, etc. So, the meat or other products from chickens, pigs, cows that have been administrated antibiotics is not healthy, and can make people fall ill, with their affections being difficult to treat. ith these problems…
1. Amyes, Sebastian G.B. Magic Bullets, Lost Horizons: The Rise and Fall of Antibiotics (London: Taylor & Francis, 2001)
2. Levy, Stuart B. How Miracle Drugs Are Destroying the Miracle (New York: Plenum Press, 1992)
he study that covered the topic most thoroughly was the one by Saavedra, J.M. (2001), which covered not only the present situation with probiotics, but also looked at such topics as intestinal flora, lactose malabsorption, diarrhea, bacteria vs. viruses, atopic disease, and clinical safety and tolerance. In order to better understand the place that probiotics has in today's modern-day society, it is worthwhile to have a background such as the one offered here. On a whole, the rest of studies were comparable, because they were all meta-analyses and dealt with looking at the results of several studies over time. Of interest, of course, is the fact that not one of these articles found that probiotics does not help the side effects of taking antibiotics. As was mentioned, additional studies need to be done on dose, agent, length time taken, and so forth. Of course, it would be very helpful that…
The object of this article was to compare the efficacy of probiotics for the prevention of AAD based on the published randomized, controlled clinical trials using meta-analyses, three types of probiotics (Saccharomyces boulardii, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and probiotic.) the trials were included where specific probiotics for either prevention or treatment were the diseases of interest. Thirty-one of 180 screened studies (totally 3,164 subjects) met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. One reviewer identified studies and abstracted data on sample size, population characteristics, treatments, and outcomes. From 25 trials, probiotics significantly reduced the relative use of AAD. The authors concluded that a variety of different types of probiotics presently look promising as effective therapies.
The study that covered the topic most thoroughly was the one by Saavedra, J.M. (2001), which covered not only the present situation with probiotics, but also looked at such topics as intestinal flora, lactose malabsorption, diarrhea, bacteria vs. viruses, atopic disease, and clinical safety and tolerance. In order to better understand the place that probiotics has in today's modern-day society, it is worthwhile to have a background such as the one offered here. On a whole, the rest of studies were comparable, because they were all meta-analyses and dealt with looking at the results of several studies over time. Of interest, of course, is the fact that not one of these articles found that probiotics does not help the side effects of taking antibiotics. As was mentioned, additional studies need to be done on dose, agent, length time taken, and so forth. Of course, it would be very helpful that the normal diet would change enough that these probiotics were not necessary.
Probiotics are clearly found to be helpful for acute diarrhea, particularly in infants. It also may be the case that probiotics has a prophylactic effect to decrease the degree of illness when taken regularly, the effect of which appears to be greater in high-risk populations. The documented therapeutic effects include decreases shorter episodes or severity of illness. Probiotic agents also appear promising for the management of other diseases such as colitis, atopic disease, and other gut conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease. It also may be the case that in the future people will continue to consume friendly bacteria even when they are not on antibiotics. This would help return the body back thousands of years when the diet was much better, be a major benefit of warding off serious diseases such as colon cancer, and greatly help the immune system as well as cut down on stomach problems, such as gas, bloating and diarrhea. In the long run, the amount of antibiotics needed by the general population would also decrease.
This was an extremely unethical move, because in many cases the parents had no idea their child was partaking in a study,
Another example of the unethical decisions made by Pfizer was the move not to remove many children off the experimental drug when they failed to respond to it. In response, many children died who might have had a chance if they had been removed off the Trovan and placed on a more traditional antibiotic. Yet, Pfizer made the decision to ignore such dire needs of its patients and continue on with the study despite the ramifications. This is a blatant example of a completely unethical decision made to promote a faster passing of the drug into FDA standards.
Although this strategy was meant to provide faster results to the FDA on the benefits of Trovan, I would have rather taken a slower and more ethical root. Yes, this…
Chemotherapy as a Treatment for Cancer
It was a commonly held notion that along with cancer treatment through chemotherapy come a variety of side effects which may have quite an impact on one's life later on. In the recent years, however, this concept has been changed because the side effects can be controlled and minimized. Considering the fact that chemotherapy is one of the most effective and reliable cancer treatments, many have come to terms with it and are considering the fight against cancer with this process (Cukier).
Chemotherapy can be described as the treatment which involves the chemical substances that enable the body to kill the cancer cells and slow down their growth process. It is a kind of systematic process which allows the cells of the disease to be eliminated from their origin. Weighing out the statistics shows just how many people who suffer from cancer are treated…
Cukier, Daniel. Coping with Chemotherapy and Radiation. New York: McGraw Hill, 2005.
Keen, Ernest. Drugs, Therapy and Professional Power: Problems and Pills. Westerport: Praeger Publications, 1998.
Quinn, Susan. Human Trials: Scientists, Investors and Patients in the Quest for a Cure. Cambridge: Perseus Publishing, 2001.
Rn, Nancy S. "Insomnia, Fatigue, Anxiety, Depression and Quality of Life of Cancer Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy." Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice (2000).
Antibiotic Resistant Streptococci
There are more than thirty different species of streptococcal bacteria. The infections that strep causes in humans range from "strep throat," which is caused by Group A strep and relatively easily treatable, to diseases such as pneumonia and serious wound infections, both of which can prove deadly.(1)
Antibiotics were first developed during World War II, and have saved many millions of human lives since then that would have been lost to streptococci infections and diseases. Penicillin alone was solely responsible for dramatically decreasing mortality rates of soldiers wounded on the battlefields of World War II compared to corresponding rates of World War I casualties.
The widespread use of penicillin and more modern antibiotics that have been developed since World War II has been accompanied by the natural evolution of some bacterial strains that are resistant to antibiotics. In many respects, the natural ability of bacteria to develop…
Hurst, L., Russell, S. Superbugs and nightmare scenarios: Resistance to antibiotics grows; Toronto Star (Aug. 3, 2002) Accessed at http://www.vaccinationnews.com/DailyNews/August2002/Superbugs&Nightmares15.htm
2. Lopez, T. Study: Drug-resistant infections increasing in U.S. hospitals www.solucient.com (August 5, 2003 Press Release) Accessed at http://www.solucient.com/news_press/news20030805.shtml
Srikameswaran, A. Higher rate of antibiotic resistance here puzzles researchers; Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (February 18, 2004) Accessed at http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/04049/274463.stm
4. Staphylococcal and streptococcal infections
Antibiotic resistance develops in the same way that human resistance to infection develops—through exposure, the body builds up a resistance so that whatever is introduced is less effective at performing its task. As Ventola (2015) notes, “the overuse of antibiotics clearly drives the evolution of resistance. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a direct relationship between antibiotic consumption and the emergence and dissemination of resistant bacteria strains” (p. 277). Moreover, bacteria can inherent genes that are already resistant to antibiotics, which means that horizontal gene transfer occurs to create a veritable shield of defense against antibiotics. The more that antibiotics are used, the less effective they become and the stronger harmful bacteria can become. The complications that ensue are based on the fact that “when these resistant bacteria are all that are left, they are free to multiply, passing the resistance to their offspring” (Environmental Encyclopedia 4, 2011, p. 81).…
ole of Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment of Periodontal Disease?
The objective of this work is to examine the role of antibiotic therapy in the treatment of periodontal disease. Also examined will be the delivery system, the type of antibiotics and efficacy as an adjunct to mechanical therapy in the management of periodontal disease. Toward this end, this work will examine the literature in this area of study including literature located in professional and academic journal and publications.
Sub-Antimicrobial Dose Doxycycline
The work of Preshaw, et al. (2005) entitled "Long-Term Treatment with Sub-Antimicrobial Dose Doxycycline Has No Antibacterial Effect on Intestinal Flora" reports a study that sought to determine if a nine-month regimen of subantimicrobial doxycycline (20 mg. bid) had an effect on either the intestinal or the vaginal microflora. The study involved 69 individuals with periodontal disease who were randomized to receive drug or placebo control for a nine-month…
American Academy of Periodontology. (2000) Parameter on "refractory" periodontitis. J Periodontol 2000;71:859-860.
Andrian E, Grenier D, Rouabhia M. (2004) In vitro models of tissue penetration and destruction by Porphyromonas gingivalis. Infect Immun. 2004;72: 4689 -- 98.
Chen C, Slots J. (1993) The current status and future prospects of altering the pathogenic microflora of periodontal disease. Curr Opin Periodontol 1993;71-77.
Chen C, Slots J. (2000) Microbiological tests for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Periodontol 2000-1999;20:53-64.
The Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic killer that takes advantage of people suffering from medical problems (Van Delden and Iglewski, 1998).For this reason, P. aeruginosa is one of the most common nosocomial infection that occurs in hospitals. P. aeruginosa is responsible for causing 16% of pneumonia cases, 12% of urinary tract infections, 10% of bloodstream infections, and 8% of surgical infections due to hospital care. Patients who are immune-compromised are also susceptible to P. aeruginosa infections, such as patients undergoing chemotherapy, suffering from HIV / AIDS, recovering in burn units, and suffering from cystic fibrosis. With death rates ranging from 30 to 60% for these patients, P. aeruginosa is considered to be a significant threat to patient health.
P. aeruginosa can switch between a free-swimming planktonic form and colonies enclosed within slime-protected biofilms attached to surfaces (Baltch and Smith, 1994,…
Baltch, A.L. And Smith, R.P. (Eds.). (1994). Pseudomonoas aeruginosa Infections and Treatment. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc.
Botzenhart, Konrad and Doring, Gerd. (1993). Ecology and Epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In M. Campa, M. Bendinelli, H. Friedman (Eds.), Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an Opportunistic Pathogen (pp. 1-18). New York, NY: Plenum Press.
Hawkey, Peter M. And Kerr, Kevin G. (2004). Laboratory investigation of health care-associated infection. In P. Hawkey and D. Lewis (Eds.), Medical Bacteriology: A Practical Approach (pp. 331-354). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Hurley, Matthew N., Camara, Miguel, and Smyth, Alan R. (2012). Novel approaches to the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis. European Respiratory Journal, published online ahead of print, 1-19. Retrieved 23 July 2012 from http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2012/06/27/09031936.00042012.long .
efining other techniques is laudable and important, but is not the domain of the proposed research. In addition, the mixed methods use of both mass spectrometry and bioinformatics methodologies is logically called fro due to the volume of data the mass spectrometry is expected to generate and the time consuming nature of any other mode of analysis save those available through specialized bioinformatics programs (Kuamr & Mann, 2009).
The selection of the model bacterial strain and of the previously validated antibiotic agent will be important considerations for this research, and will have a direct impact on the applicability of the results in other areas of research. Selection should be made on a basis of practicality not only in the ability to carry out the research, but also in light of how the findings can and might actually be applied. There are no real ethical implications that need to be…
Aebersold, R. & Mann, M. (2003). Mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Nature 422: 198-207.
Aldred, S., Grant, M. & Griffiths, H. (2004). The use of proteomics for the assessment of clinical samples in research. Clinical Biochemistry 37(11): 943-52.
Freiberg, C., Brotz-Oesterhelt, H. & Labischinski, H. (2004). The impact of transcriptome and proteome analyses on antibiotic drug discovery. Current Opinion in Microbiology 7(5): 451-9.
Kuiper, H., Kok, E. & Engel, K. (2003). Exploitation of molecular profiling techniques for GM food safety assessment. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 14(2): 238-43.
Based on the results of these assays, S. flexneri can often be identified, although additional kits may be required. The simplest way, however, may be the novel approach through multiplex PCR (mRPC). It is possible to identify Shigella species through mPCR techniques by identifying pathogenicity islands associated with Shigella and S. flexneri.
6. How could you create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin? (You need to include techniques, steps, enzymes, etc.)
In order to create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin, scientists would first need to incorporate the human fibrin gene within the corn plant genome. The incorporated human gene would require regulation and promoter sequences that would function within the plant cell. Proper splicing sequences would also be required or removal of the introns altogether.
The delivery of transgenes into the corn plant could be accomplished through electroporation into corn protoplasts…
Tests are therefore conducted to examine if there is a presence of S. aureus that caused the illness and if the bacteria is or can be recognised as a potential source for food poisoning (Bennet & Lancette, 2001). One such test is known under the name of Direct Plate Count Method as it was illustrated by Bennet and Lancette, generally requiring a step-by-step procedure involving a. Equipment and materials, B. Media and reagents, C. Preparation of sample, D. Isolation and enumeration of S. aureus, E. coagulase test, F. ncillary tests, and G. Knowledge of some typical characteristics of species of staphylococci and micrococci (Bennet & Lancette, 2001).
fter considering several mediums for growing Staphylococcus, it seems Tryptic Soy gar (TS) is of some convenience as it allows for the cultivation of a wide variety of microorganisms. lso, the nutritional composition favours plate counting which is beneficial in the examination of…
After considering several mediums for growing Staphylococcus, it seems Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) is of some convenience as it allows for the cultivation of a wide variety of microorganisms. Also, the nutritional composition favours plate counting which is beneficial in the examination of food.
In cases of antibiotic resistance, the issue is first and perhaps foremost of hygiene. Afterwards it is an issue of people having to take antibiotics only when necessary. Of course, these are preventive measures that generally are required from individuals. Overcoming antibiotic resistance has taken a new approach as exemplified by Levy (2002) and it consists of trasferring the resistance genes into other bacteria through several genetic means (p. 26). Of the three adoptive methods, it seems the latter, that of DNA released of dead bacteria and incorporated into new strains has also proved efficient in resisting among pneumococci and Haemophilus spp. (Levy, 2002, p. 26)
For determining antibiotic resistance a few sensitive testing methods exist: dilution methods, disk diffusion method, E-test, automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing systems, mechanism-specific tests, and genotypic
Discussion #1 Diabetes (either type 1 or type 2) can cause many problems for the patient when the disease is uncontrolled. Please choose one of the problems associated with diabetes and describe what happens to the body to cause the problem. Examine what causes the problem in the patient with diabetes and create a teaching strategy for a patient who is at risk for the problem. Include the types of Insulin in your post, Lantis, Lispro, egular and Intermediate acting and illustrate how evidence-based practice can improve outcomes. Justify your answers and cite your references.
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas such that it produces only a little or no insulin. Accounting for 5 to 10% of diabetes in the U.S., the disease occurs primarily in children and young adults. Prior to the discovery of insulin in 1921, everyone…
Drugs & Medications - Singulair Oral. WebMed. Retrieved http://www.webmd.com/drugs/mono-8277-MONTELUKAST+-+ORAL.aspx?drugid=6485&drugname=Singulair+Oral
Why Is This Medicine Prescribed? Med Line Plus. Retrieved http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a600014.html#side-effects [Type text]
resistance of the planctomycetes organisms to the various antibiotics using the in vitro method. The aim was to establish the susceptibility of these six selected organisms; Planctomyces maris, Planctomyces brasiliensis, Blastopirellula marina, Planctomyces limnophilus, Gemmata obscuriglobus and hodopirellula baltica as reference points by exposing them to 18 antibiotics which overall represented eleven antibiotics families. The methods that were used in the in vitro approach were strain and culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
It was found out that Planctomycetes were resistant to b-lactams and glycopeptides and further it was established that most Planctomycetes organisms were resistant to chloramphenicol and to the aminoglycoside gentamicin. The article also indicates that in as much as the Planctomycetes organisms are naturally resistant to some antibiotic families, there were observed large differences in the resistance profiles among genera and species.
Assessment of drugs resistance
One of the clearest and most reliable assessment that one can make…
Ingrid K., (2008). Getting Rid of Superbugs. Retrieved February 22, 2014 from http://infectiousdiseases.about.com/od/rarediseases/a/superbug_rid.htm
CDC., (2013). Antibiotic Resistance Questions & Answers. Retrieved February 22, 2014 from http://www.cdc.gov/getsmart/ antibiotic-use/antibiotic-resistance-faqs.html
MedicineNet Inc., (2014). Antibiotic Resistance (Drug Resistance, Antimicrobial Resistance). Retrieved February 22, 2014 from http://www.medicinenet.com/antibiotic_resistance/article.htm
First described in full by Charles Darwin, natural selection refers to the process by which organisms evolve by adapting to their environments. Natural selection does not occur instantly in response to an environmental change, however. Rather, natural selection occurs over the course of several successive generations. Those organisms that successfully survive the environmental changes due to their inherited traits will pass on their genes to their offspring. Thus, only those organisms with hardy genes will survive; hence the phrase "survival of the fittest." While natural selection does occur unaided by human beings in the natural world, humans are beginning to alter the course of natural evolution through the creation and implementation of certain chemical products. Moreover, environmental pollution and other human factors impact the process of natural selection and evolution in the plant and animal kingdoms. Chemical products such as antibiotics, pesticides, and herbicides in particular threaten to…
The question we should be asking ourselves here is how the cream's features can be adapted to fit Thai climate. The best way to do this is by evaluating during a short period of time (up to two weeks) the exact effects of climate and weather on the cream. The team that will evaluate should also consider any possible side effects and chemical transformations that may occur due to the increased humidity in the atmosphere. Further more, the team will analyze whether or not the cream possibly has any side effects on the Thai skin. Indeed, if the cream has only been evaluated on Caucasian skin, for example, with its own characteristics (a larger amount of some elements, corroborated with lower amounts of others), it may prove wrong for other types of skin. All these evaluations are quite important before launching the product, so as to eliminate any possible issues…
1. Gross, Ames. Human Resource Issues in Thailand. Pacific Bridge Inc. Spring 1996. On the Internet at http://www.pacificbridge.com/Publications/ThailandSpring96.htm
2. Yaffe, Hillary. The Efficiency of OTC antibiotic Creams -- Phase II. On the Internet at http://plymouthschools.com/Science/scifair9/abstracts/biology/B58.htm
Gross, Ames. Human Resource Issues in Thailand. Pacific Bridge Inc. Spring 1996. On the Internet at
Penicillin focuses on the miraculous discovery of Alexander Fleming in the world of medicine called the Penicillin. This paper illustrates the process of discovery of this drug and outlines the various advantages it has caused not only to people but the society as well. This paper also emphasizes on the side effects of antibiotics but also proves how this may prove to be beneficial for many researchers, doctors and scientists.
One of the most brilliant knowledge advances of this century - as great as the computer, as great as the abolition of natural racial inferiority and growing awareness of spaceship earth, has been the conquest of infectious diseases. Drugs are thousands of years old. Neolithic, perhaps even paleolithic shamans and medicine men and women knew the curative powers of many plants. The ability of alcohol, in wine, beer and stronger liquors, to make life seem better than it really…
Mary B. The History Of Penicillin. 2003. Available on the address http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blpenicillin.htm . Accessed on 22 Nov.
The red and swollen appearance could be an on-site reaction to the administered medication. A change of type of antibiotic medication may be necessary.
Question 5: Simon begins to complain of chest tightness he is beginning to get distressed what may be occurring and what interventions need to be undertaken.
An asthma attack partially brought on by the psychological stress of the surgery and being in the hospital, combined with the physical trauma is likely. Simon, physician permitting, should be allowed with assistance to treat his asthma in the usual fashion, after screening for potentially more serious conditions that can manifest in chest tightness, such as a cardiac condition.
Question 6: You notice that Simon has become disoriented and is complaining of a headache what may be occurring and what interventions need to be undertaken?
Signs and symptoms of a concussion, the result of head trauma, are not always immediately…
Fractures of the tibia and fibula." (2008). Chapter 21: Practical Plastic Surgery. Retrieved 23 May 2008 at http://www.practicalplasticsurgery.org/docs/Practical_21.pdf
Helicobacter (genus) pylori (species), commonly known as H. pylori, is a bacterium that causes gastritis of the inner lining of the stomach in humans and is the most common cause of ulcers worldwide (Delaney, Moayyedi and Forman 536). Ingestion of contaminated food and water and person-to-person contact is the most likely means of acquiring H. pylori. Portals for entry are largely oral, as oral-oral and oral-fecal contact are the most common contamination methods. About 30% of the adult population in the United States are infected and is more common in crowded living conditions with poor sanitation (Malcolm et al. 137). Infected individuals typically carry the infection indefinitely unless they are treated with medications to eradicate the bacterium. Other than the human stomach, there appears to be no natural reservoir for this bacterium. One out of every six patients with H. pylori infection will develop ulcers of the duodenum…
Delaney, B., P. Moayyedi, and D. Forman. "Helicobacter Pylori Infection." Clin Evid.10 (2003): 535-48.
Hofman, P., et al. "Pathogenesis of Helicobacter Pylori Infection." Helicobacter 9 Suppl 1 (2004): 15-22.
Malcolm, C.A., et al. "Helicobacter Pylori in Children Is Strongly Associated with Poverty." Scott Med J. 49.4 (2004): 136-8.
McLoughlin, R., et al. "Therapy of Helicobacter Pylori." Helicobacter 9 Suppl 1 (2004): 42-8.
Milk from the cow is one of the most versatile and important substances in the human diet as well as in the diets of many animals and in particular in the diet of poultry that are being raised as layers, broilers or for other purposes. The fact that this milk can be processed into many different forms adds to its versatility and provides a wide array of by-products from which specialized uses can be determined. Understanding the basic array of materials that can be obtained from processing milk is the first step in understanding how those products can be used in the diets of poultry. The next step of understanding the relationship between dairy by-products and the benefits they can provide to poultry comes through examining the nutritional content of those by-products for the feeding and development of poultry. As these two explanations are provided it becomes evident in…
Attfield, Harlan H.D. Raising Chickens and Ducks. Arlington, Virginia: Volunteers in Technical
Bailey, JS, Roberts, T, Harvey, RB, Anderson, RC, et al. "Food Safety: Alternatives to Antibiotic Use." Poultry Science (2004).
Burrington, David. "Can-do' proteins - enzymes - Ingredient Technology." Dairy Foods, April,
Clostridium perfringens or as it is more commonly called C. perfringens, formerly known as C. welchii , is a bacterium which is part of the genus Clostridium. It is a common bacterium which occurs naturally and is subsequently
found all over the world (Ryan). Like many bacteria, it is most often found in decaying matter such as dead plants, animals, and insects. It can also be found in living matter, such as the intestines of infected human beings. In addition, the bacteria can survive in environments with very little oxygen present. Infection from C. perfringens can be very dangerous to people who contract it. It is defined as, "Clostridium perfringens is a pathogenic species of Clostridium that causes a wide range of disease in humans -- from a limited gastroenteritis to a myonecrosis termed gas gangrene" (Nanney). C. perfringens is most often found in ill-cooked food matter or in fecal…
Borland, Sophie & Sinmaz, Emine. "They Sent Her Home and She Lay in My Arms Dying:
Husband's Anger at Hospital and Pub After his Wife Dies from Suspected Christmas Day Food Poisoning." Daily Mail. UK: Associated Newspapers, 2013. Print.
CDC. "CDC Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the United States." Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
"Clostridium Perfringens." U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. N.p., 2013. 6 April.
Six days after his initial complaint, the patient returned with worsening symptoms and was admitted to the hospital. No bacterial or viral infections could be found, but the patient was treated with antibiotics anyway as his symptoms suggested that his respiratory distress and other symptoms were due to some sort of infection. The fact that his condition continued to worsen without any notable effect from broad-spectrum antibiotics suggests that perhaps the physicians erred in this assessment, and that the negative results of the many tests for infectious agents administered to the patient were more accurate than the physicians thought. Focusing attentions more immediately on other potential causes and more direct methods of symptom relief, either in addition to or instead of the antibiotic treatment and observation that constituted the primary means of treatment at this stage, might have prevented or at least postponed the need for intubation and the mechanical…
Due to the apparently low level of contagion, the need for public awareness is not urgent, but it is still necessary. Warnings to stay away from the convention area and to report to a local hospital if symptoms developed after being in the area or in contact with someone who had been at the convention should be issued (CDC 2009).
The known details of the attack, however, should not be released, as it is likely to create panic and bolster the terrorists' optimism. Federal assistance should be immediately sought, not necessarily for control of the spread of the disease but for the investigation and apprehension of suspects. All available resources should be called in as soon as possible in order to counter the attack. As far as treatment of the attack goes, mass prophylaxis of all convention attendees and those who have come into contact with infected individuals should be…
Bravata DM, Sundaram V, McDonald KM, Smith WM, Szeto H, Schleinitz MD, et al. (2004). "Detection and diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism response." Emerging infectious diseases. Accessed 25 April 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol10no1/03-0243.htm
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). "Emergency preparedness and response." Accessed 25 April 2009. http://www.bt.cdc.gov/
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). "Anthrax." Accessed 25 April 2009. http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/anthrax/
Gerberding JL, Hughes J, Koplan J. (2002). "Bioterrorism preparedness and response." Journal of the American medical association. Accessed 25 April 2009. http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/287/7/898
Organics trip to the local grocery store will reveal that organic vegetables and fruits not only look better than their non-organic counterparts: they are in many cases also not that much more expensive. As a result, many mainstream supermarkets are starting to carry organic lines of produce, offering more choice to consumers. The Albertson's chain in ashington State recently started stocking shelves with organic coffee; UK food retail giant Safeway added organic meats to its shelves, all of which is locally produced. Increasing numbers of packaged foods are being made with organic ingredients and many of them don't cost more than non-organic counterparts. However, the organic food industry still has a long uphill battle to fight. Organic agriculture is a system of production that eliminates "the use of synthetic inputs, such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, veterinary drugs, genetically modified seeds and breeds, preservatives, additives and irradiation," replacing them with…
Albertsons and Equal Exchange Coffee Team Up To Please Consumers and Small Farmers." Equal Exchange. 29 Jan 2003. Online at http://www.equalexchange.com/news_info/pr1.03.htm .
Cowley, Geoffrey. "Certified Organic." Newsweek. 30 Sept 2002.
Frequently Asked Questions About Organic Agriculture." FAO. Online at http://www.fao.org/organicag/fram11-e.htm.
Safeway Organic Meat is 100% Sourced." Eurofood. 15 Aug 2002. On FindArticles.com. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DQA/is_2002_August_15/ai_90623214 .
LIFO and FIFO Inventory Valuation Methods
FIFO or LIFO
A Comparison of LIFO and FIFO Inventory Valuation Methods
There are a number of considerations when choosing between the inventory tracking and valuation methods of 'first in, first out' (FIFO) and 'last in, last out' (LIFO). These include the company's balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement, and tax considerations (Drive Your uccess, 2010).
The FIFO and LIFO methods of inventory tracking can be calculated independent of the actual physical movement of goods into and out of the inventory or be used to track the physical movement of goods (Fried, n.d.). If used independently of the physical movement of goods then the purpose is to analyze the flow of costs during the year. Given that the goods in the Excel spreadsheet example are antibiotics, the physical inventory control method used would likely be FIFO in order to minimize how much…
Drive Your Success. (2010). Small Business Inventory Management: LIFO vs. FIFO vs. Average Cost. Retrieved June, 2011 from http://www.driveyoursuccess.com/2010/11/small-business-inventory-management-lifo-vs.-fifo-vs.-average-cost.html
Fried, Haim D. (n.d.) Inventory. Retrieved June, 2011 from http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~hfried/download/Inventory.pdf
One day while doing some research for one of his college courses in the library, he noticed a section of books about human evolution and it occurred to him to see whether they had any information about why white teeth were so important in the first place.
According to evolutionary biologists, human beings, just like other animals, evolved natural preferences in sexual selection that cause us to be attracted to one another on the basis of physical features that are indicators of good physical health and genetic material (Margulis & Sagan, 2000; Zuk, 2002). More specifically, features such as well-formed white teeth provide visual cues of good health and immunity systems because the production of healthy enamel requires good health and sufficient caloric resources. Therefore, in addition to providing evidence of good health, white teeth also suggest greater access to food resources.
During early human evolutionary periods, access to food…
Ackerman, D. (1999). A Natural History of Love. New York: Vintage.
Lee, J. (2009). Tooth Discoloration - the Causes and How to Fix it. Accessed online 26
April 2012: http://jameslee.articlealley.com/tooth-discoloration -- the-causes-and-how-to-fix-it-755694.html
Margulis, L. And Sagan, D. (2000). Mystery Dance: On the Evolution of Human
In order to have a successful clinical setup, it is necessary to provide constant care. The new supervisor nurse should install an Interdisciplinary team of the health providers within clinic. They must fulfill the needs of every individual client. All the members of the interdisciplinary team belong to diverse fields but in order to provide a quality care to the patients they should work as a team, which can be achieved by coordinating with each other and most important by sharing a common aim for the patients. The initial step is to appoint which team member will handle which specific complaint of patient. The interdisciplinary team works by coordinating, communicating and the sharing of responsibilities. Such team efforts can enhance the satisfaction of the clients and allow the health care practitioners to excel in other fields and learn new skills. In order to provide quality care in primary health…
Gott, Marjori.O'brien Martin.(1990).The role of nurse in health promotion. Oxford Journal 5 (2):137-143. Retrieved from http://heapro.oxfordjournals.org/content/5/2/137.short
Ilyas, Mohamed .(2006).Public health and Community Medicine. Karachi:Time Publisher.
Worster A, Sardo A, Thrasher C, Fernandes C, Chemeris E.(2005). Understanding the role of nurse practitioners in Canada. Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine 10 (2):89-94
Wanich, Swanson, Wyatt, and Kelly (2012) describe the case of a 51-year-old male patient who developed postoperative pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) following a torn right patellar tendon repair.
This particular study as the objective of describing a case of PG through diagnosis and treatment that can be relevant for all medical personnel particularly nurses. PG can be a rare but quite complicated postoperative condition following surgical procedures. It can progress rapidly if not identified and treated properly. The purpose of the article is to describe a case study where the subject developed PG following surgery and to describe the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. Given the goals of Wanich et al. (2012) this method is appropriate to use (case study) and can offer vital information for nurses who treat patients at risk for this condition. In addition, following the case study the authors include a brief discussion of the research…
Wanich, T., Swanson, A.N., Wyatt, A.J., Kelly, A.M. (2012). Pyoderma gangrenosum following a patellar tendon repair: A case report and review of the literature. The American Journal of Orthopedics, 41(1), E4-E9.
17. Johann calls you and says that Billy smells and he needs a shower. If you don't move Billy to another ward, Johann will sign himself out. Explain in details what you would do to resolve this cross cultural situation.
I would tell Johann that we are doing all we can to ensure Billy's hygiene and that if his body odor continued to bother Johann that we can move him to another room or ward in the hospital.
18. There seems to be a language and cultural barrier that's blocking effective communication occurring between these two gentlemen. Considering they are both your clients, what strategies would you put in place to improve this situation?
The best way to remedy the situation would be to introduce the two patients to each other. A handshake, some eye contact, and small personal interactions can go a long way toward eliminating prejudices and stereotypes…
Australian Indigenous HealthInfo.net (2008). Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/
Department of Education and Training (2005). "Racism No Way." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.racismnoway.com.au/library/cultural/
Indigenous Peoples of Australia: Health." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.ldb.org/oz_h.htm
Corynebacterium diphtheria. The answered . The pdf file attached referenced. The paper written format a scientific paper a microbiology . These textbooks great sources reference: Willey, J.
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a bacterium that is pathogenic and is the leading cause of diphtheria. Due to the resemblance in their shape and sizes, bacteria and archaea were earlier classified as one but on discovery of their metabolic and biochemical differences, it was determined that they had different evolution histories. The bacillus falls under the nonlipophilic fermentative bacteria in classification. Structurally, it possesses cell membranes formed from a combination of the hydroxyl group and fatty acids. Unlike the bacteria, the archaea has linkages that contain ether bonds (Willey, 2003). The cell wall of C.diphtheriae is made up of peptidoglycan bonds which is a great variance from that of the archaea which contains no such bonds. Another major cutting edge factor that classifies C.diphtheriae…
Lammert, J.M. (2007). Techniques in Microbiology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
McClane, B.A., & Mietzner, T.A. (1999). Microbial pathogenesis: a principles-oriented approach: Fence Creek Pub.
Willey, J.M., Sherwood, L.M., & Woolverton, C.J. (2003). Prescott's Microbiology (8 ed.). Dubuque, Iowa: McGraw Hill Higher Education.
Although I believe that I have critically met the objectives for a master's degree in working in many ways (particularly academically), I can honestly state that the area in which I progressed the most was in dealing with cultural diversity. Prior to entering this program, I had extremely limited experience dealing with cultural diversity, especially in the workplace. Despite working as a nurse for the past 16 years, the most diversity I had ever experienced in my patient population was the occasional Spanish speaking client -- which would require me to utilize the language line for interpreting my directions and interacting with the patient. However, thanks to my involvement in this particular academic program, I am now much more acclimated with cultural diversity and believe that I have significantly improved my prowess in this aspect of my work as a professional nurse.
My experience with cultural diversity changed…
Health Promotion and Disease Prevention: Using Data
Prior to entering the FNP program my sixteen years of nursing experience all took place in hospital settings, including work in the ICU, ER, cath lab, and same day surgery unit. I had never worked in public health or in a primary care setting and had minimal experience using health data to improve quality and patient safety. My first encounter with the use of data was in same day surgery, using SCIP core measures: we made sure our target population received their beta blocker the day of surgery, appropriate antibiotic selection, and VTE prophylaxis because this combined treatment had been shown to significantly improve outcomes and reduce recovery time.
After entering the FNP program I entered primary care where health promotion and disease prevention is at the forefront of my practice. This has renewed my love of nursing as I act as a…
Honey Bees -- Colony Collapse Disode
Desciption: In ecent yeas, honeybee colonies have been expeiencing "Colony Collapse Disode" (CCD). Given the key ole of honeybees in pollinating ou agicultual cops, it has become a seious issue. Many causes fo the collapse of honeybee colonies ae cuently being investigated. The potential causes include viuses, paasites, uban spawl, pesticides, and othe envionmental pollutants. Examine the phenomenon of CCD fom a toxicological standpoint by eseaching thee goups of chemicals that ae being investigated as potential contibutos to CCD: Antibiotics, miticides, and neonicotinoid pesticides. The assigned Case Study fo this couse deals with the phenomena of "Colony Collapse Disode" in honeybee populations, and should include the following components: A bief intoduction of the phenomenon. Backgound infomation on the goups of chemicals petinent to the Case Study. Analysis of the key potential causes of the phenomena. Summay of the aticle's conclusions and you own opinions…
references as well as the full citations in APA format at the end of your analysis. Include a cover page and brief abstract for your analysis (these pages are not to be included in the total 4-5-page requirement). The Case Study assignment must follow APA style guidelines, therefore the APA rules for formatting, quoting, paraphrasing, citing, and listing of sources are to be followed. The Ebsco Database (Business Source Complete) is a very good source of journals for articles related to the subject matter discussed in both assignments.
There are many bacteria that are able to resist against antibiotic drugs, including penicillin. The resistance to antibiotics often occurs because not all bacteria that are part of the same species are alike. These small differences that exist among the bacteria often mean that some will be able to fight off the assault of an antibiotic. hen a person's own defenses do not kill off these resistant bacteria then they increase. This antibiotic-resistant form of a disease often re-infects the patient, or is passed on from one person to another. hen a person takes an antibiotic for viruses like colds they can cause antibiotic resistant bacteria to develop. Antibiotics have no effect on viruses, but it will kill off harmless and even the beneficial bacteria that live in a person's body. The surviving bacteria will live and multiply and may eventually cause disease. People with bacterial infections, who don't completely…
Bellis, Mary. 2009. "The History of Penicillin."
"Penicillin: the first miracle drug." 2006.
For its versatility in eluding new antibiotics, it can be life-threatening. One of these "superbugs" is VRE, which is transmissible by direct hand contact or through surfaces and equipment by anyone, including the health care worker (Capriotti, 2007). VRE has recently spread to the community and the health care sector.
New antibiotics continue to be synthesized to cope with the rapid mutation of the VRE bacteria, but the organisms continue to overtake the drugs (Akins & Haase, 2005). A study conducted on a series of VRE outbreaks in Germany revealed that an estimate of 1 million Euros could be saved with adequate prevention and control of the infection. The use of newer antibiotics is not as cost-effective as prevention. These antibiotics have to be administered with precision and require complementary hygienic precautions on the part of the health care worker. The rising incidence of and serious threats posed by the…
Akins, R.L. And Haase, K.K. (2005). Gram-positive resistance: pathogens, implications and treatment options. Pharmacotherapy: Pharmacotherapy Publications. Retrieved on September 15, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/507658
Capriotti, T. (2007). Resistant "Superbugs" create need for novel antibiotics.
Dermatology Nursing: Medscape. Retrieved on September 15, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/554935
Department of Health (2006). Fact sheet. New York State Department. Retrieved on September 15, 2009 from http://www.health.stats.ny.us/diseases/communicable/v_r_e/docs/facts_sheet.pdf
" (Sharma, Kunimoto, Garg, & Rao) They believe that he information they are providing will allow the clinician to have a more expansive approach in treating bacterial keratitis and in deciding which secondary antibiotic to use.
The goal of initial antibiotic therapy for bacterial keratitis is the proper selection of a drug which has coverage for the aetiopathogen. Microscopic evaluation of corneal smears can provide insight into the identity of the pathogen, but when smear examination is uninformative the principle of managing bacterial keratitis has been to use antibiotics which have coverage that is sufficiently broad and effective to treat the leading corneal pathogens. (Sharma, Kunimoto, Garg, & Rao)
The main thrust for their interest in this study was to assist the clinician who is in less that ideal setting when faced with treating bacterial keratitis. As mentioned previously the virulent nature of this disease necessitates immediate treatment but the…
Murillo-Lopez, Fernando H. "Keratitis, Bacterial," Unidad Privada de Oftalmologia CEMES [serial online] 2006. [cited 2009 Mar 23] http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1194028-overview
Sharma S, Kunimoto DY, Garg P, Rao GN. "Trends in antibiotic resistance of corneal pathogens: Part I. An analysis of commonly used ocular antibiotics." Indian J. Ophthalmol [serial online] 1999 [cited 2009 Mar 23];47:95-100. Available from: http://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1999/47/2/95/22799
prokaryotes consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organisms. A procaryotic cell has five essential structural components: a genome (DNA), ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall, and some sort of surface layer which may or may not be an inherent part of the wall (1). Functional aspects of procaryotic cells are related directly to the structure and organization of the macromolecules in their cell make-up, i.e., DNA, RNA, phospholipids, proteins and polysaccharides. Diversity within the primary structure of these molecules accounts for the diversity that exists among procaryotes (1). Identifiable groups of prokaryotes are assembled based on easily observed phenotypic characteristics such as Gram stain, morphology (rods, cocci, etc.), motility, structural features (e.g. spores, filaments, sheaths, appendages, etc.), and on distinguishing physiological features (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, anaerobiasis, methanogenesis, lithotrophy, etc.). Prokaryotes are commonly known as bacteria, and it is estimated that bacteria have been around for at least 3.5 billion years…
1. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (2nd Edition). 1989. Williams, S.T., Sharpe, M.E., Holt J.G. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
2. Breiman RF, Butler JC, Tenover FC, Elliott JA, Facklam RR. (1994). Emergence of drug-resistant pneumococcal infections in the United States. JAMA. 1994 Jun 15;271(23):1831-5.
3. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/Antimicrobial resistance. http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/actionplan/html/
4. Jones RN, Pfaller MA (1998). Bacterial resistance: a worldwide problem. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. Jun;31(2):379-88.
Current Areas of esearch
Much of the current research on staphylococcus aureus centers on the emergence of antibiotic-resistance strains. In particular, the resistant strain MSA is resistant to methicillin and related drugs. This has created a number of issues for medical practitioners, as staph infections are one of the more common infections that occur in a health setting.
One of the threads of research in this regard concerns the spread of staph infection in the hospital setting. It has long been believed that s. aureus infections were transmitted between patients. Where outbreaks have occurred, the response has generally reflected this view, with patients being segregated, and other similar remedies. ecent research has shown, however, that transmission between patients in the intrahospital setting does not occur nearly as much as previously thought (Long, Beres, Olsen & Musser, 2014). This is an important finding for health care facilities, because it changes…
Haba, E., Bouhdid, S., Solana, N., Marques, A., Espuny, M., Celma, M. & Manresa, A. (2014). Rhamnolipids as emulsifying agents for essential oil formulations:
Antimicrobial effect against Candida albicans and methicillin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. Vol. 476 (2014) 134-141.
Kriegeskorte, A., Block, D., Drescher, M.., Windmuller, N.,Mellmann, A.,Baum, C., Neumann, C., Lore, N., Bragonzi, A., Liebau, E., Hertel, P., Seggeweiss, J., Becker, K., Proctoer, R., Peters, G., & Kahl, B. (2014). Inactivation of thyA in staphylococcus aureus attenuates virulence and has a strong impact on metabolism and virulence gene expression. mBio. Vol.5(4) 1-15
co.uk 2001). Of those 1,795 reactions, "23 were fatal, 14 being actual suicides," the pressbox Web site reported. More than 200 of the "adverse reactions were psychiatric with 20 reports of suicidal thoughts of suicide attempts." Additionally, 80 reports of "depression" were logged and 13 reports of "mood swings."
The pressbox article stated that surprisingly, 74% of UK patients who had used Accutane "had mild or moderate acne according to a study among UK dermatologists." The MCA, through the article in pressbox, stated that Accutane "should only be used for severe recalcitrant cystic acne as a treatment of last resort."
Not all Accutane patients wind up depressed, psychotic or dead from suicide, of course, and Brandi Jones is one example of an Accutane success story. At least, she made it through six months of Accutane treatment, and now her skin is "mostly pimple-free" (Setoodeh, 2005), according to an article in…
The Accutane Lawyer (2004), "Accutane Side Effects, Accutane Lawsuit," [Online] Available at http://www.the-accutane-lawyer.com.
Acne-Rosacea.co.uk 2004, "Acne Treatments Page," [Online] Available at http://www.acne-rosacea.co.uk/Acne%20Treatments.htm .
Acne Resource Center 2004, "Understanding Acne," "Alternative Therapy Resources,"
The Potential Dangers of Prescription Medications," [Online] Available at http://www.acne-resource.org.
Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient
Management OF OSTEOMYELITIS IN THE DIABETIC PATIENT
Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone or bone marrow which is typically categorized as acute, subacute or chronic.1 It is characteristically defined according to the basis of the causative organism (pyogenic bacteria or mycobacteria) and the route, duration and physical location of the infection site.2 Infection modes usually take one of three forms: direct bone contamination from an open fracture, puncture wound, bone surgery, total joint replacement, or traumatic injury; extension of a soft tissue infection such as a vascular ulcer; or hematogenous (blood borne) spread from other infected areas of the body such as the tonsils, teeth or the upper respiratory system.2(p807) Bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli are the most common causative agents of the disease, although viruses, parasites and fungi may also lead to the development of osteomyelitis.3
1. Stedman's Medical Dictionary. 27th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.
2. Butalia S, Palda V, Sargeant R, Detsky A, Mourad O. Does This Patient With Diabetes Have Osteomyelitis of the Lower Extremity?. JAMA: Journal of The American Medical Association [serial online]. February 20, 2008; 299(7):806-813. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
3. Lavery L, Peters E, Armstrong D, Wendel C, Murdoch D, Lipsky B. Risk factors for developing osteomyelitis in patients with diabetic foot wounds. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice [serial online]. March 2009; 83(3):347-352. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
4. Turns M. The diabetic foot: an overview of assessment and complications. British Journal of Nursing [serial online]. August 12, 2011;:S19-S25. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
Typhoid fever disease is a global health phenomena or problem with approximately 20 million incidents and 700,000 adult deaths every year. Notably, a huge portion of these cases and deaths occur in developing countries, especially in South East Asia and Indian subcontinent. While the infection was traditionally treated with ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, serious public health program has emerged in the past decades because of the widespread emergence of antibiotic resistant Salmonella typhi or S.typhi. Moreover, typhoid fever disease caused by MD organisms can also be considered as a significant public health and therapeutic issue. This is primarily because there are a huge number of cases of MD typhoid fever that occur in childhood and are coupled with considerably high mortality and morbidity rates. Since the disease has developed to become a significant public health issue in the past few decades, it's important to conduct a research about it and…
Arjunan, M. & Al-Salamah, A.A. (2010, April 29). Typhoid Fever with Severe Abdominal Pain:
Diagnosis and Clinical Findings using Abdomen Ultrasonogram, Hermatology-cell Analysis and the Widal Test. Journal of Infections in Developing Countries, 4(9), 593-596. Retrieved from http://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/download/1010/445
Hammad et al. (2011). Ceftriaxone vs. Chloramphenicol for Treatment of Acute Typhoid
Fever. Life Science Journal, 8(2), 100-105. Retrieved from http://www.lifesciencesite.com/lsj/life0802/14_4757life0802_100_105.pdf
Pathogens and Diseases:
Pathogens are common characteristics of everyday environment as soil contains huge number of bacteria per cubic centimeter while air contains fungal spores. The existence of pathogens in everyday environment emanates from the fact that microorganisms are deposited through touching of various surfaces like tables. Pathogens can be described as disease-causing agents such as infectious microbes, and parasites. While the infectious microbes include viruses and bacteria, parasites include protozoa and fungi. Notably, microbes are only considered as pathogens if they cause harm or diseases since not all microbes are harmful (Koo, 2009). There are opportunistic pathogens, which are organisms that are normally part of the natural flora of the body. These organisms become harmful or pathogens after an invasion like the occurrence of an accidental injury or surgery.
Spread of Pathogens:
Since pathogens are common disease-causing agents, they spread in various ways to cause harm or illnesses. Some…
ABPI -- Bringing Medicines to Life (n.d.), How Pathogens Cause Disease, The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, viewed 17 April 2012,
ABPI -- Bringing Medicines to Life (n.d.), Pathogens Cause Disease, The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, viewed 17 April 2012,
Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance (2007), Infection Prevention and Control Best
Practices, Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance, viewed 17 April 2012,
Routine Shaving of the Surgical Site
Select a preoperative procedure (e.g., routine shaving of the surgical site) that you would commonly find on a surgical floor.
Describe the process or procedure you have chosen and why you think it needs change.
The process which I have chosen for surgical floor is routine shaving of the surgical site and I think it needs change because patients going through surgery are required to remove hair from the site of the cut. This is considered to reduce the chance of the surgical site becoming infected (National Collaborating Centre for omen's and Children's Health, 2008). Shaving, clipping the hair and using a cream which dissolves the hair are some of the different methods available to remove hair. And these are important because clinically, care plans offer a way to plan and communicate appropriate patient care.
A2. Based on your initial investigation of the situation,…
Collins, A.S. (n.d.). Preventing Health Care - Associated Infections. Retrieved October 30, 2012, from National Center for Biotechnology: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2683/
Graham, I.D., RN, J.L., Harrison, M.B., Straus, S.E., Tetroe, J., RN, W.C., et al. (2006). Lost in knowledge translation: Time for a map? Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 13-24.
Green, L.A., & Seifert, C.M. (2005). Translation of Reserch into Practice: Why we can't "Just Do It." PubMed, 541-545.
National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health. (2008, October). Surgical Site Infection: Prevention and Treatment of Surgical Site Infection. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from Nice.org.uk: http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG74FullGuideline.pdf
Infections of the implantation area the mainly widespread of the dental implant complications. Implant infection is a state which is known as peri-implantitis which has a sign of swelling or inflammation of the tissues adjacent to the implantation area. Peri-implantitis is a type of periodontal disease that is able to result to inflammation, bone loss and failure in dental implant in any case it is not treated appropriately. A flame is part of a fire. Inflammation is a situation where a tissue gets swollen, red, and frequently hurts. About dental implants, it is an inflammation that can be caused by trauma or infection. Inflammation causes several special defensive cells to move to the inflamed area. Inflammation is capable of resulting to bone loss together with dental implants, where bone loss is a dangerous situation. The supporting bone holds the dental implant in the jaw.
Generally, the purpose of the…
Hayek (2005) Comparative study between the effects of photodynamic therapy and conventional therapy on microbial reduction in ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs. Journal of Periodontology 76, 1275 -- 1281.
Loe, H., Theilade, E. & Jensen, S.B. (1965) Experimental gingivitis in man. Journal of Periodontology 36, 177 -- 187.
Mombelli, A., Nyman, S.R. & Lang, N.P. (1994) Experimentally induced peri-implant mucositis. A clinical study in humans. Clinical Oral Implants Research 5, 254 -- 259.
Renvert, S., Roos-Jansa"ker, A.M., Lindahl, C., Renvert, H. & Persson, G.R. (2007) Infection at titanium implants with or without a clinical diagnosis of inflammation. Clinical Oral
Lyme Disease and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
This text will concern itself with Lyme disease and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In so doing, it will not only give the description and epidemiology of the concerns, but also the etiology and prevention strategies. Further, diagnosis as well as treatment options and prognosis will be highlighted.
1. Lyme Disease
Description and Etiology
Described as an illness that is often debilitating, Lyme disease, as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention- CDC (2018) points out, “is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks.” It is important to note that in addition to the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, blacklegged ticks are capable of transmitting what are commonly referred to as coinfections, i.e. a variety of other disease-causing parasites as well as viruses and bacteria. Those living in wooded areas have a high likelihood…
Vancomycin should be given for at least 60 minutes. The initial dosage for pediatrics with renal impairment is not less than 15 mg/kg per day or 15 times the GF in mL/min. Premature infants should have longer dosing intervals. PO administration should be 40 mg/kg/day in 3-4 divided doses for 7-10 days. The maximum is 2,000 mg/day, which may be diluted in 1 oz of water or administered through an NG tube (PD).
Vancomycin is contraindicated to patients with hypersensitivity to vancomycin (Drug.com, 2012). Commercially prepared frozen Vancomycyn Hydrochloride injections in 5% dextrose may also be contraindicated to those with known allergic reaction to corn or corn products (Drug.com).
The patient should inform the doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and non-prescription or herbal products currently used (Medicine Net, 2012; Levinson, 2012). Aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, other antibiotics, and live bacterial vaccines are special mentions. If treatment requires…
Reference: PDR Network LLC.
Retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.pdr.net/drugpages/concisemonograph.aspx?concise=688
Because some children have developed brain damage after the immunizations, some parents are concerned that the vaccine is responsible for neurologic impairment, however research does not indicate a definitive link between the pertussis vaccine and brain damage, although research is still ongoing (hooping 2005). Yet, as a precaution, children with a history of seizures or brain disorders may not be proper candidates for the DTaP vaccine (hooping 2005).
2001 study revealed that pertussis was the cause of chronic cough in 19.9% of the patients studied. Once a disease that ravaged children worldwide, whooping cough is once again on the rise (Green 2002). Today, approximately 300,000 children worldwide die every year from whooping cough, usually in areas where immunization rates are low (Green 2002). Nonetheless, even in the United States, where immunization rates are high, roughly 1 out of every 200 babies who get whooping cough will die from it, another…
Green, Alan. (2002). Pertussis. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at http://www.drgreene.com/21_1155.html
Whooping Cough. (2005). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/whooping-cough/DS00445/DSECTION=3
Whooping Cough. (2006). MedlinePlus: U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/whoopingcough.html
Whooping cough a continuing problem. (2002, June 29). British Medical Journal.
Epidemiological considerations anthracis originates in soil in a lot of regions of this world in which we live. Environmental aspects (for example plentiful precipitation subsequent to a phase of water dearth) might improve spore mass in soil, even though the precise impact of such features remains badly understood (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002).
The organism by and large subsists in the endospore shape in environment; germination of spores exterior to an animal congregation might take place when the subsequent situations are encountered (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002):
elative humidity >95%
Presence of sufficient nutrients
Temperature amid 8°C and 45°C
PH amid 5 and 9 (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002)
Endospores are opposed to heat, drying, gamma radiation, ultraviolet light, and various antiseptics. Spores can continue in soil for decades, as exemplified by organic combat researches all through World War II on the Scottish island of Gruinard. All through 1943, as well as 1944,…
Bell, D.M., Kozarsky, P.E., Stephens, D.S. (2002). Clinical issues in the Prophylaxis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Anthrax. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(2), 222-225.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). Anthrax Disease Information
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Considerations for Distinguishing Influenza-Like Illness from Inhalational Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(44), 984-6.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Update: Interim Recommendations for Ant microbial Prophylaxis for Children and Breastfeeding Mothers and Treatment of Children with Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(45), 1014-6.
integrons has been driven by the alarmingly rapid appearance of antibiotic resistance among a number of bacteria liked to widespread disease in the last century. These bacteria have become an increasing threat to human health, and have often been featured in the media as "super bugs" that may evade any attempts to control their effects using antibiotic treatments. As a result, research into the genetic mechanisms that these drugs use to acquire genetic resistance has been followed with growing interest. The discovery of integrons may well therefore become known as one of the most important stepping-stones in this research (Rowe-Magnus).
Integrons are simply bacterial systems that allow the bacteria to capture and express DNA from other bacteria. Integrons capture foreign gene cassettes that code for important metabolic functions. Many of these gene cassettes contain genetic material that confers resistance to antibiotic drugs. There are over 70 different antibiotic resistance genes…
Rowe-Magnus, Dean. Faculty Research Focus, Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology - Faculty
of Medicine, University of Toronto. 13 February 2004.
Rowe-Magnus, Dean A., Guerout, Anne-Marie, Ploncard, Pascaline, Dychino, Broderick,
The chief concern of the researcher should be the safety of the research participant. This is carried out by carefully considering the risk to benefit ratio, using all available information to make an appropriate assessment and continually monitoring the research as it proceeds.
The scientific researcher must obtain informed consent from each research participant. This should be attained in writing although oral consents are sometimes acceptable after the participant has had the chance to carefully consider the risks and benefits and to ask any pertinent questions. Informed consent ought to be seen as an ongoing process, not a singular event or a mere formality.
The researcher must list how privacy and confidentiality concerns will be approached. esearchers must be receptive to not only how information is protected from unauthorized observation, but also if and how participants are to be notified of any unexpected findings from the research that they may…
American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Family Physicians. (2004). Clinical
Practice Guideline: Diagnosis and Management of Acute Otitis Media. Retrieved March
20, 2010, from Web site:
Mary Jane's laboratory results show there is an elevated white blood count, with CBC with differential within normal limits. Proton and INR were normal. Pregnancy was negative. UA showed occasional bacteria, but normal otherwise. Drug screen was normal, and EKG showed sinus bradycardia, rate of 59 beats per minute. Renal and hepatic functions were within normal limits.
There are four sexual response cycles, marked by physiological and psychological changes. The first stages is excitement, which Mary Jane is not getting with her partners, which is triggered by psychological or physical stimulation, and is marked by emotional changes, and increased heart rate, and vaginal swelling. Second stage is plateau, Mary Jane states she doesn't have this stimulation. The third stage is orgasm, which Mary Jane doesn't getting during intercourse, or she doesn't remember because she in under the influence of alcohol. The final phase, resolution, involves a rush of blood away…
The Infectious Diseases Society of America or IDSA came out with guidelines on the treatment of the infection.
A multidisciplinary group, which prepared these guidelines, included infectious disease specialists, rheumatologists, neurologists, pediatricians, and entomologists. The guidelines primary apply to the disease strain acquired in the U.S. And do not tackle the diagnostic evaluation of the disease. They recommended oral and parenteral therapies according to a timetable. Doxycycline or amoxicillin, cefotaxime or penicillin would be prescribed. The guidelines warned against the use of first-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and benzathene penicillin.
Greater Recovery Among Children
Studies conducted on 177 children treated for Lyme neuroborreliosis in an endemic area in Sweden showed that 117 of them recovered complete in two months.
The children exhibited fatigue, facial nerve palsy, loss of appetite and fever as symptoms. Antibiotics were given to 69% of the children. At 2 months, 117 of them recovered completely. At 6…
Bransfield, Robert C. 2001. Lyme neuroborreliosis and aggression. Action Lyme. 21-23
(April).Available from http://actionlyme.50megs.com/neuroborreliosis%20aggression.htm
-. 2009. Lyme, depression and suicide. Canlyme. 18 (April). Available
These proteins include homologous members of yeast. The presences of these proteins suggest that E. histolytica is skilled to perform homologous recombination, which is the same as in other organisms. DNA damage was evaluated by TUNEL assay. In yeast and in human cells, histone H2AX becomes rapidly phosphorylated when DSs are introduced into chromatin (Lavi et al.).
Studies show that histone as a protein plays a significant role in the transition between the expression of a fetal gene and that of the adult gene. The adult gene's metabolism becomes oxidative in order to adapt to air and to weight, as it generates methylated transmitters and creatine phosphate. The muscles get used to life on the ground as compared to the fetal life which takes place in an aquatic environment. Regulated proteins allow the muscles to respond in a more adequate manner to this environment.
Now, let us see how histone…
Abraham, R.T. (2001). "Cell cycle checkpoint signaling through the ATM and ATR kinases." Genes Dev 15(17): 2177-96.
Alexiadis, V., T. Waldmann, J. Andersen, M. Mann, R. Knippers and C. CGruss (2000). "The protein encoded by the proto-oncogene DEK changes the topology of chromatin and reduces the efficiency of DNA replication in a chromatin-specific manner." Genes Dev 14(11): 1308-12.
Aten, R. And H. Behrman (1989). Antigonadotropic effects of bovine ovarian gonadotropin-releasing hormone-binding inhibitor from bovine ovaries. Purification and identification of histone H2A. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 11065-11071.
Antigonadotropic effects of bovine ovarian gonadotropin-releasing hormone-binding inhibitor/histone H2A in rat luteal and granulosal cells. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 11072-11075.
Other signs include a child who has numerous of colds and ear infections; a child who speaks overly loudly; frequently asks for words or phrases to be repeated and who does not understand someone unless the person is facing him or her. (Hearing Health for Children)
While ear infection is usually treated with prescription antibiotics, many physicians state that use of these media is not a good idea at an early age. As one experts states, "Contrary to common practice, most children with ear infections should not be treated with antibiotics..." (DrGreene Content:
evolution in Ear Infection Treatment). These findings refer to guidelines released by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians in 2004, which state that, "...currently in the United States there are more than 10 million antibiotic prescriptions for the 5 million ear infections diagnosed in children each year - about half of…
Dr Greene Content: Revolution in Ear Infection Treatment. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at http://www.drgreene.com/21_1769.html
Ear infection (acute otitis media) Retrieved April 9, 2008, at http://www.webmd.com/hw-popup/ear-infection-otitis-media
Hearing Health for Children. Retrieved April 9, 2008, at http://www.northwords.com/Hearing.htm
How to Clean Your Preschooler's Ears. Retrieved April 9, 2008, at http://preschoolrock.com/index.php/health_exercise/clean_ears
Furthermore, the authors claim that pocket infection rates have decreased in general worldwide and especially in institutions with strict procedural guidelines. Moreover, Lakkireddy et al. (2005) note that many of the infections were superficial, due to surface wounds from the surgery and not from the deep pocket itself. Superficial wounds can be readily prevented via standard hygienic procedures used during the surgical process. Lakkireddy et al. (2005) conclude that Povidone-iodine irrigation does not in itself prevent infections but fail to outline the possible implications of the findings.
Although internally valid, the Lakkireddy et al. (2005) study has significant limitations that prevent generalization. Patients were culled from one institution. Surgical procedures were not standardized and could have varied widely from doctor to doctor. In fact, the Povidone-iodine solutions were not standardized either. Most importantly, the researchers were not able to determine whether a course of prophylactic antibiotics administered prior to implantation…
The authors questioned the role of Povidone-iodine vs. other antiseptics, noting that no detailed survey like the current one had ever been conducted on a large patient population. Furthermore, the authors claim that pocket infection rates have decreased in general worldwide and especially in institutions with strict procedural guidelines. Moreover, Lakkireddy et al. (2005) note that many of the infections were superficial, due to surface wounds from the surgery and not from the deep pocket itself. Superficial wounds can be readily prevented via standard hygienic procedures used during the surgical process. Lakkireddy et al. (2005) conclude that Povidone-iodine irrigation does not in itself prevent infections but fail to outline the possible implications of the findings.
Although internally valid, the Lakkireddy et al. (2005) study has significant limitations that prevent generalization. Patients were culled from one institution. Surgical procedures were not standardized and could have varied widely from doctor to doctor. In fact, the Povidone-iodine solutions were not standardized either. Most importantly, the researchers were not able to determine whether a course of prophylactic antibiotics administered prior to implantation affected the rates of infection. In fact, the antibiotics might have had a major bearing on the rates of infection and could abnegate the results of the current study.
However, Lakkireddy et al. (2005) do draw attention to the need for hygienic, aseptic surgical procedures including the use of topical antiseptics like Povidone-iodine. Especially when devices like PMs and ICDs are being implanted, the potential for infection rises. A more informative study might reveal which patient populations are at the highest risk of developing staph or other infections. Those patients who are the most at risk might benefit the most from prophylactic antibiotics as well as standardized, sterilized surgical procedures.
" Prescription drugs invade the markets today only to mask the symptoms of disease instead of preventing disease from happening. In this back-end approach to fighting disease instead of preventing it from occurring in the first place, pharmaceutical companies have profited at the expense of society." (Karel M.)
There is therefore also the feelings and the growing suspicion that prescription drugs are controlled by large pharmaceutical corporations and these influence practitioners and the health care industry. Modern medical practitioners are also "... subject to persuasion from drug manufacturers and rely on them for their information, despite their obvious bias to use their drugs." (Karel M.) This is an area that has been severely critiqued in allotropic health care; namely the fact that modern medicine is dominated by large drug companies which to a large extent are more concerned with their profit margins than with the quality and the ultimate effectives…
Bawaskar H.S. Non- allopathic doctors form the backbone of rural health.
Retrieved March 8, 2007, at http://www.issuesinmedicalethics.org/044ed112.html
Death by Modern Medicine. Retrieved March 8, 2007, at http://www.ashtreepublishing.com/bookshop/carolyn-dean.php
Definition of Allopathic. Retrieved March 6, 2007, at http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010938986
This is hardly used for detection of H. pylori alone but for ruling out the existence of other stomach maladies. It is quite expensive and requires a highly skilled physician.
Stool Antigen Test; this is when the stool is analyzed for detection of any foreign antigens or proteins that are associated with H. pylori infection. The stool is known to be very sensitive and can also be use to assess the infection status after the treatment has commenced. The disadvantage of this method is that it absolutely depends upon the participation and compliance of the patient, it is inconvenient to handle and the results are not immediate.
Urea breath test; it is used to detect the presence of H. pylori bacteria in the stomach. It can also be used to detect whether the treatment has worked, the problem with this test is that it is not always available (WebMD LLC,…
American Academy of Family Physicians (2002). Management of Helicobacter pylori Infection.
Retrieved May 12, 2011 from http://www.aafp.org/afp/2002/0401/p1327.html
Dennis Lee, (2011). Helicobacter Pylori. Retrieved May 12, 2011 from http://www.medicinenet.com/helicobacter_pylori/article.htm
Gastroenterological Society of Australia, (2006). Helicobacter Pylori. Retrieved May 12, 2011
More objectivity is however expected from scientists, but their opinions also vary. Specifically, the opinions of those who support growth hormones and those who reject them are all derived from scientific evidence. This in turn means that the results of scientific research could be manipulated and influenced so that the findings are indicative of the desires of those who initiated the study. In this particular sense, the most pertinent situation is revealed by the beef and dairy producers, who hire their own scientists to lead the research process in the direction desired by them.
Aside from these situations however, the scientists who have conducted studies tend to link various health problems with the growth hormones. Some of the side effects to consuming products with residual matters from growth hormones include the onset of early puberty in girls, an increase in the risk of breast cancer, an increase in the risk…
Leonard, a., the story of stuff, the Story of Stuff Project, http://www.storyofstuff.org / last accessed on February 21, 2012
McLaughlin, a. 2011, the effects of growth hormones in food, Live Strong, http://www.livestrong.com/article/98816-effects-growth-hormones / last accessed on February 21, 2012
Artificial hormones, Sustainable Table, http://www.sustainabletable.org/issues/hormones / last accessed on February 21, 2012
EU scientists confirm health risks of growth hormones in meat, Organic Consumer Association, http://www.organicconsumers.org/toxic/hormone042302.cfm last accessed on February 21, 2012