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We have over 439 essays for "Antibiotics"

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Antibiotic Resistant Streptococci There Are More Than

Words: 1606 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 92069765

Antibiotic Resistant Streptococci

There are more than thirty different species of streptococcal bacteria. The infections that strep causes in humans range from "strep throat," which is caused by Group A strep and relatively easily treatable, to diseases such as pneumonia and serious wound infections, both of which can prove deadly.(1)

Antibiotics were first developed during World War II, and have saved many millions of human lives since then that would have been lost to streptococci infections and diseases. Penicillin alone was solely responsible for dramatically decreasing mortality rates of soldiers wounded on the battlefields of World War II compared to corresponding rates of World War I casualties.

The widespread use of penicillin and more modern antibiotics that have been developed since World War II has been accompanied by the natural evolution of some bacterial strains that are resistant to antibiotics. In many respects, the natural ability of bacteria to develop…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Hurst, L., Russell, S. Superbugs and nightmare scenarios: Resistance to antibiotics grows; Toronto Star (Aug. 3, 2002) Accessed at  http://www.vaccinationnews.com/DailyNews/August2002/Superbugs&Nightmares15.htm 

2. Lopez, T. Study: Drug-resistant infections increasing in U.S. hospitals www.solucient.com (August 5, 2003 Press Release) Accessed at http://www.solucient.com/news_press/news20030805.shtml

Srikameswaran, A. Higher rate of antibiotic resistance here puzzles researchers; Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (February 18, 2004) Accessed at  http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/04049/274463.stm 

4. Staphylococcal and streptococcal infections
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Role of Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment

Words: 2560 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94718984

ole of Antibiotic Therapy in the Treatment of Periodontal Disease?

The objective of this work is to examine the role of antibiotic therapy in the treatment of periodontal disease. Also examined will be the delivery system, the type of antibiotics and efficacy as an adjunct to mechanical therapy in the management of periodontal disease. Toward this end, this work will examine the literature in this area of study including literature located in professional and academic journal and publications.

Sub-Antimicrobial Dose Doxycycline

The work of Preshaw, et al. (2005) entitled "Long-Term Treatment with Sub-Antimicrobial Dose Doxycycline Has No Antibacterial Effect on Intestinal Flora" reports a study that sought to determine if a nine-month regimen of subantimicrobial doxycycline (20 mg. bid) had an effect on either the intestinal or the vaginal microflora. The study involved 69 individuals with periodontal disease who were randomized to receive drug or placebo control for a nine-month…… [Read More]

References

American Academy of Periodontology. (2000) Parameter on "refractory" periodontitis. J Periodontol 2000;71:859-860.

Andrian E, Grenier D, Rouabhia M. (2004) In vitro models of tissue penetration and destruction by Porphyromonas gingivalis. Infect Immun. 2004;72: 4689 -- 98.

Chen C, Slots J. (1993) The current status and future prospects of altering the pathogenic microflora of periodontal disease. Curr Opin Periodontol 1993;71-77.

Chen C, Slots J. (2000) Microbiological tests for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Periodontol 2000-1999;20:53-64.
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Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Words: 1496 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 97332427

Psuedomonas Aeruginosa

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Epidemiology

The Gram-negative, motile, rod-shaped bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic killer that takes advantage of people suffering from medical problems (Van Delden and Iglewski, 1998).For this reason, P. aeruginosa is one of the most common nosocomial infection that occurs in hospitals. P. aeruginosa is responsible for causing 16% of pneumonia cases, 12% of urinary tract infections, 10% of bloodstream infections, and 8% of surgical infections due to hospital care. Patients who are immune-compromised are also susceptible to P. aeruginosa infections, such as patients undergoing chemotherapy, suffering from HIV / AIDS, recovering in burn units, and suffering from cystic fibrosis. With death rates ranging from 30 to 60% for these patients, P. aeruginosa is considered to be a significant threat to patient health.

Ecology

P. aeruginosa can switch between a free-swimming planktonic form and colonies enclosed within slime-protected biofilms attached to surfaces (Baltch and Smith, 1994,…… [Read More]

References

Baltch, A.L. And Smith, R.P. (Eds.). (1994). Pseudomonoas aeruginosa Infections and Treatment. New York, NY: Marcel Dekker, Inc.

Botzenhart, Konrad and Doring, Gerd. (1993). Ecology and Epidemiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In M. Campa, M. Bendinelli, H. Friedman (Eds.), Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an Opportunistic Pathogen (pp. 1-18). New York, NY: Plenum Press.

Hawkey, Peter M. And Kerr, Kevin G. (2004). Laboratory investigation of health care-associated infection. In P. Hawkey and D. Lewis (Eds.), Medical Bacteriology: A Practical Approach (pp. 331-354). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Hurley, Matthew N., Camara, Miguel, and Smyth, Alan R. (2012). Novel approaches to the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections in cystic fibrosis. European Respiratory Journal, published online ahead of print, 1-19. Retrieved 23 July 2012 from  http://erj.ersjournals.com/content/early/2012/06/27/09031936.00042012.long .
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Justification Assessment of Proteome Changes

Words: 1822 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 18669217

efining other techniques is laudable and important, but is not the domain of the proposed research. In addition, the mixed methods use of both mass spectrometry and bioinformatics methodologies is logically called fro due to the volume of data the mass spectrometry is expected to generate and the time consuming nature of any other mode of analysis save those available through specialized bioinformatics programs (Kuamr & Mann, 2009).

Conclusion

The selection of the model bacterial strain and of the previously validated antibiotic agent will be important considerations for this research, and will have a direct impact on the applicability of the results in other areas of research. Selection should be made on a basis of practicality not only in the ability to carry out the research, but also in light of how the findings can and might actually be applied. There are no real ethical implications that need to be…… [Read More]

References

Aebersold, R. & Mann, M. (2003). Mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Nature 422: 198-207.

Aldred, S., Grant, M. & Griffiths, H. (2004). The use of proteomics for the assessment of clinical samples in research. Clinical Biochemistry 37(11): 943-52.

Freiberg, C., Brotz-Oesterhelt, H. & Labischinski, H. (2004). The impact of transcriptome and proteome analyses on antibiotic drug discovery. Current Opinion in Microbiology 7(5): 451-9.

Kuiper, H., Kok, E. & Engel, K. (2003). Exploitation of molecular profiling techniques for GM food safety assessment. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 14(2): 238-43.
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Aerobic Respiration Produces the Most

Words: 1435 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 81140583

Based on the results of these assays, S. flexneri can often be identified, although additional kits may be required. The simplest way, however, may be the novel approach through multiplex PCR (mRPC). It is possible to identify Shigella species through mPCR techniques by identifying pathogenicity islands associated with Shigella and S. flexneri.

6. How could you create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin? (You need to include techniques, steps, enzymes, etc.)

In order to create a corn plant that would express the human protein fibrin, scientists would first need to incorporate the human fibrin gene within the corn plant genome. The incorporated human gene would require regulation and promoter sequences that would function within the plant cell. Proper splicing sequences would also be required or removal of the introns altogether.

The delivery of transgenes into the corn plant could be accomplished through electroporation into corn protoplasts…… [Read More]

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Staphylococcus Aureus Is a Type

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57712865

Tests are therefore conducted to examine if there is a presence of S. aureus that caused the illness and if the bacteria is or can be recognised as a potential source for food poisoning (Bennet & Lancette, 2001). One such test is known under the name of Direct Plate Count Method as it was illustrated by Bennet and Lancette, generally requiring a step-by-step procedure involving a. Equipment and materials, B. Media and reagents, C. Preparation of sample, D. Isolation and enumeration of S. aureus, E. coagulase test, F. ncillary tests, and G. Knowledge of some typical characteristics of species of staphylococci and micrococci (Bennet & Lancette, 2001).

fter considering several mediums for growing Staphylococcus, it seems Tryptic Soy gar (TS) is of some convenience as it allows for the cultivation of a wide variety of microorganisms. lso, the nutritional composition favours plate counting which is beneficial in the examination of…… [Read More]

After considering several mediums for growing Staphylococcus, it seems Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) is of some convenience as it allows for the cultivation of a wide variety of microorganisms. Also, the nutritional composition favours plate counting which is beneficial in the examination of food.

In cases of antibiotic resistance, the issue is first and perhaps foremost of hygiene. Afterwards it is an issue of people having to take antibiotics only when necessary. Of course, these are preventive measures that generally are required from individuals. Overcoming antibiotic resistance has taken a new approach as exemplified by Levy (2002) and it consists of trasferring the resistance genes into other bacteria through several genetic means (p. 26). Of the three adoptive methods, it seems the latter, that of DNA released of dead bacteria and incorporated into new strains has also proved efficient in resisting among pneumococci and Haemophilus spp. (Levy, 2002, p. 26)

For determining antibiotic resistance a few sensitive testing methods exist: dilution methods, disk diffusion method, E-test, automated antimicrobial susceptibility testing systems, mechanism-specific tests, and genotypic
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Nursing Practice Knowledge

Words: 1159 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 3028953

Nursing

Discussion #1 Diabetes (either type 1 or type 2) can cause many problems for the patient when the disease is uncontrolled. Please choose one of the problems associated with diabetes and describe what happens to the body to cause the problem. Examine what causes the problem in the patient with diabetes and create a teaching strategy for a patient who is at risk for the problem. Include the types of Insulin in your post, Lantis, Lispro, egular and Intermediate acting and illustrate how evidence-based practice can improve outcomes. Justify your answers and cite your references.

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas such that it produces only a little or no insulin. Accounting for 5 to 10% of diabetes in the U.S., the disease occurs primarily in children and young adults. Prior to the discovery of insulin in 1921, everyone…… [Read More]

References

Drugs & Medications - Singulair Oral. WebMed. Retrieved  http://www.webmd.com/drugs/mono-8277-MONTELUKAST+-+ORAL.aspx?drugid=6485&drugname=Singulair+Oral 

Why Is This Medicine Prescribed? Med Line Plus. Retrieved  http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a600014.html#side-effects  [Type text]
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Resistance of the Planctomycetes Organisms to the

Words: 526 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21971513

resistance of the planctomycetes organisms to the various antibiotics using the in vitro method. The aim was to establish the susceptibility of these six selected organisms; Planctomyces maris, Planctomyces brasiliensis, Blastopirellula marina, Planctomyces limnophilus, Gemmata obscuriglobus and hodopirellula baltica as reference points by exposing them to 18 antibiotics which overall represented eleven antibiotics families. The methods that were used in the in vitro approach were strain and culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.

It was found out that Planctomycetes were resistant to b-lactams and glycopeptides and further it was established that most Planctomycetes organisms were resistant to chloramphenicol and to the aminoglycoside gentamicin. The article also indicates that in as much as the Planctomycetes organisms are naturally resistant to some antibiotic families, there were observed large differences in the resistance profiles among genera and species.

Assessment of drugs resistance

One of the clearest and most reliable assessment that one can make…… [Read More]

References

Ingrid K., (2008). Getting Rid of Superbugs. Retrieved February 22, 2014 from  http://infectiousdiseases.about.com/od/rarediseases/a/superbug_rid.htm 

CDC., (2013). Antibiotic Resistance Questions & Answers. Retrieved February 22, 2014 from  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Natural Selection First Described in Full by

Words: 593 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69618589

Natural Selection

First described in full by Charles Darwin, natural selection refers to the process by which organisms evolve by adapting to their environments. Natural selection does not occur instantly in response to an environmental change, however. Rather, natural selection occurs over the course of several successive generations. Those organisms that successfully survive the environmental changes due to their inherited traits will pass on their genes to their offspring. Thus, only those organisms with hardy genes will survive; hence the phrase "survival of the fittest." While natural selection does occur unaided by human beings in the natural world, humans are beginning to alter the course of natural evolution through the creation and implementation of certain chemical products. Moreover, environmental pollution and other human factors impact the process of natural selection and evolution in the plant and animal kingdoms. Chemical products such as antibiotics, pesticides, and herbicides in particular threaten to…… [Read More]

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Product Into a Foreign Market

Words: 1290 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98765337



The question we should be asking ourselves here is how the cream's features can be adapted to fit Thai climate. The best way to do this is by evaluating during a short period of time (up to two weeks) the exact effects of climate and weather on the cream. The team that will evaluate should also consider any possible side effects and chemical transformations that may occur due to the increased humidity in the atmosphere. Further more, the team will analyze whether or not the cream possibly has any side effects on the Thai skin. Indeed, if the cream has only been evaluated on Caucasian skin, for example, with its own characteristics (a larger amount of some elements, corroborated with lower amounts of others), it may prove wrong for other types of skin. All these evaluations are quite important before launching the product, so as to eliminate any possible issues…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Gross, Ames. Human Resource Issues in Thailand. Pacific Bridge Inc. Spring 1996. On the Internet at  http://www.pacificbridge.com/Publications/ThailandSpring96.htm 

2. Yaffe, Hillary. The Efficiency of OTC antibiotic Creams -- Phase II. On the Internet at http://plymouthschools.com/Science/scifair9/abstracts/biology/B58.htm

Gross, Ames. Human Resource Issues in Thailand. Pacific Bridge Inc. Spring 1996. On the Internet at
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Penicillin Focuses on the Miraculous Discovery of

Words: 811 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91017196

Penicillin focuses on the miraculous discovery of Alexander Fleming in the world of medicine called the Penicillin. This paper illustrates the process of discovery of this drug and outlines the various advantages it has caused not only to people but the society as well. This paper also emphasizes on the side effects of antibiotics but also proves how this may prove to be beneficial for many researchers, doctors and scientists.

Penicillin

One of the most brilliant knowledge advances of this century - as great as the computer, as great as the abolition of natural racial inferiority and growing awareness of spaceship earth, has been the conquest of infectious diseases. Drugs are thousands of years old. Neolithic, perhaps even paleolithic shamans and medicine men and women knew the curative powers of many plants. The ability of alcohol, in wine, beer and stronger liquors, to make life seem better than it really…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mary B. The History Of Penicillin. 2003. Available on the address  http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blpenicillin.htm . Accessed on 22 Nov.
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Manage Care Simon A Case

Words: 958 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97429468

The red and swollen appearance could be an on-site reaction to the administered medication. A change of type of antibiotic medication may be necessary.

Question 5: Simon begins to complain of chest tightness he is beginning to get distressed what may be occurring and what interventions need to be undertaken.

An asthma attack partially brought on by the psychological stress of the surgery and being in the hospital, combined with the physical trauma is likely. Simon, physician permitting, should be allowed with assistance to treat his asthma in the usual fashion, after screening for potentially more serious conditions that can manifest in chest tightness, such as a cardiac condition.

Question 6: You notice that Simon has become disoriented and is complaining of a headache what may be occurring and what interventions need to be undertaken?

Signs and symptoms of a concussion, the result of head trauma, are not always immediately…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Fractures of the tibia and fibula." (2008). Chapter 21: Practical Plastic Surgery. Retrieved 23 May 2008 at  http://www.practicalplasticsurgery.org/docs/Practical_21.pdf
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Helicobacter Pylori

Words: 1181 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96552566

Helicobacter Pylori

Helicobacter (genus) pylori (species), commonly known as H. pylori, is a bacterium that causes gastritis of the inner lining of the stomach in humans and is the most common cause of ulcers worldwide (Delaney, Moayyedi and Forman 536). Ingestion of contaminated food and water and person-to-person contact is the most likely means of acquiring H. pylori. Portals for entry are largely oral, as oral-oral and oral-fecal contact are the most common contamination methods. About 30% of the adult population in the United States are infected and is more common in crowded living conditions with poor sanitation (Malcolm et al. 137). Infected individuals typically carry the infection indefinitely unless they are treated with medications to eradicate the bacterium. Other than the human stomach, there appears to be no natural reservoir for this bacterium. One out of every six patients with H. pylori infection will develop ulcers of the duodenum…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Delaney, B., P. Moayyedi, and D. Forman. "Helicobacter Pylori Infection." Clin Evid.10 (2003): 535-48.

Hofman, P., et al. "Pathogenesis of Helicobacter Pylori Infection." Helicobacter 9 Suppl 1 (2004): 15-22.

Malcolm, C.A., et al. "Helicobacter Pylori in Children Is Strongly Associated with Poverty." Scott Med J. 49.4 (2004): 136-8.

McLoughlin, R., et al. "Therapy of Helicobacter Pylori." Helicobacter 9 Suppl 1 (2004): 42-8.
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Milk by Products and There Effects on Growth in Poultry

Words: 3810 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60683277

Poultry

Milk from the cow is one of the most versatile and important substances in the human diet as well as in the diets of many animals and in particular in the diet of poultry that are being raised as layers, broilers or for other purposes. The fact that this milk can be processed into many different forms adds to its versatility and provides a wide array of by-products from which specialized uses can be determined. Understanding the basic array of materials that can be obtained from processing milk is the first step in understanding how those products can be used in the diets of poultry. The next step of understanding the relationship between dairy by-products and the benefits they can provide to poultry comes through examining the nutritional content of those by-products for the feeding and development of poultry. As these two explanations are provided it becomes evident in…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Attfield, Harlan H.D. Raising Chickens and Ducks. Arlington, Virginia: Volunteers in Technical

Assistance, 1990.

Bailey, JS, Roberts, T, Harvey, RB, Anderson, RC, et al. "Food Safety: Alternatives to Antibiotic Use." Poultry Science (2004).

Burrington, David. "Can-do' proteins - enzymes - Ingredient Technology." Dairy Foods, April,
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Clostridium Perfringens

Words: 1231 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 24783427

Clostridium perfringens or as it is more commonly called C. perfringens, formerly known as C. welchii , is a bacterium which is part of the genus Clostridium. It is a common bacterium which occurs naturally and is subsequently

found all over the world (Ryan). Like many bacteria, it is most often found in decaying matter such as dead plants, animals, and insects. It can also be found in living matter, such as the intestines of infected human beings. In addition, the bacteria can survive in environments with very little oxygen present. Infection from C. perfringens can be very dangerous to people who contract it. It is defined as, "Clostridium perfringens is a pathogenic species of Clostridium that causes a wide range of disease in humans -- from a limited gastroenteritis to a myonecrosis termed gas gangrene" (Nanney). C. perfringens is most often found in ill-cooked food matter or in fecal…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Borland, Sophie & Sinmaz, Emine. "They Sent Her Home and She Lay in My Arms Dying:

Husband's Anger at Hospital and Pub After his Wife Dies from Suspected Christmas Day Food Poisoning." Daily Mail. UK: Associated Newspapers, 2013. Print.

CDC. "CDC Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the United States." Atlanta, GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

"Clostridium Perfringens." U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. N.p., 2013. 6 April.
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Resp Report the Progress of

Words: 528 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20580497



Six days after his initial complaint, the patient returned with worsening symptoms and was admitted to the hospital. No bacterial or viral infections could be found, but the patient was treated with antibiotics anyway as his symptoms suggested that his respiratory distress and other symptoms were due to some sort of infection. The fact that his condition continued to worsen without any notable effect from broad-spectrum antibiotics suggests that perhaps the physicians erred in this assessment, and that the negative results of the many tests for infectious agents administered to the patient were more accurate than the physicians thought. Focusing attentions more immediately on other potential causes and more direct methods of symptom relief, either in addition to or instead of the antibiotic treatment and observation that constituted the primary means of treatment at this stage, might have prevented or at least postponed the need for intubation and the mechanical…… [Read More]

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Difficult Step in Responding to

Words: 1020 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 38529934

Due to the apparently low level of contagion, the need for public awareness is not urgent, but it is still necessary. Warnings to stay away from the convention area and to report to a local hospital if symptoms developed after being in the area or in contact with someone who had been at the convention should be issued (CDC 2009).

The known details of the attack, however, should not be released, as it is likely to create panic and bolster the terrorists' optimism. Federal assistance should be immediately sought, not necessarily for control of the spread of the disease but for the investigation and apprehension of suspects. All available resources should be called in as soon as possible in order to counter the attack. As far as treatment of the attack goes, mass prophylaxis of all convention attendees and those who have come into contact with infected individuals should be…… [Read More]

References

Bravata DM, Sundaram V, McDonald KM, Smith WM, Szeto H, Schleinitz MD, et al. (2004). "Detection and diagnostic decision support systems for bioterrorism response." Emerging infectious diseases. Accessed 25 April 2009.  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Certified Organic

Words: 647 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34819610

Organics trip to the local grocery store will reveal that organic vegetables and fruits not only look better than their non-organic counterparts: they are in many cases also not that much more expensive. As a result, many mainstream supermarkets are starting to carry organic lines of produce, offering more choice to consumers. The Albertson's chain in ashington State recently started stocking shelves with organic coffee; UK food retail giant Safeway added organic meats to its shelves, all of which is locally produced. Increasing numbers of packaged foods are being made with organic ingredients and many of them don't cost more than non-organic counterparts. However, the organic food industry still has a long uphill battle to fight. Organic agriculture is a system of production that eliminates "the use of synthetic inputs, such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, veterinary drugs, genetically modified seeds and breeds, preservatives, additives and irradiation," replacing them with…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Albertsons and Equal Exchange Coffee Team Up To Please Consumers and Small Farmers." Equal Exchange. 29 Jan 2003. Online at  http://www.equalexchange.com/news_info/pr1.03.htm .

Cowley, Geoffrey. "Certified Organic." Newsweek. 30 Sept 2002.

Frequently Asked Questions About Organic Agriculture." FAO. Online at http://www.fao.org/organicag/fram11-e.htm.

Safeway Organic Meat is 100% Sourced." Eurofood. 15 Aug 2002. On FindArticles.com.  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0DQA/is_2002_August_15/ai_90623214 .
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FIFO and LIFO

Words: 603 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Discussion Chapter Paper #: 50033236

LIFO and FIFO Inventory Valuation Methods

FIFO or LIFO

A Comparison of LIFO and FIFO Inventory Valuation Methods

There are a number of considerations when choosing between the inventory tracking and valuation methods of 'first in, first out' (FIFO) and 'last in, last out' (LIFO). These include the company's balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement, and tax considerations (Drive Your uccess, 2010).

Antibiotics

The FIFO and LIFO methods of inventory tracking can be calculated independent of the actual physical movement of goods into and out of the inventory or be used to track the physical movement of goods (Fried, n.d.). If used independently of the physical movement of goods then the purpose is to analyze the flow of costs during the year. Given that the goods in the Excel spreadsheet example are antibiotics, the physical inventory control method used would likely be FIFO in order to minimize how much…… [Read More]

Sources

Drive Your Success. (2010). Small Business Inventory Management: LIFO vs. FIFO vs. Average Cost. Retrieved June, 2011 from  http://www.driveyoursuccess.com/2010/11/small-business-inventory-management-lifo-vs.-fifo-vs.-average-cost.html 

Fried, Haim D. (n.d.) Inventory. Retrieved June, 2011 from  http://pages.stern.nyu.edu/~hfried/download/Inventory.pdf
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Teeth Whitening Mike Had Often

Words: 1267 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 65943846

One day while doing some research for one of his college courses in the library, he noticed a section of books about human evolution and it occurred to him to see whether they had any information about why white teeth were so important in the first place.

According to evolutionary biologists, human beings, just like other animals, evolved natural preferences in sexual selection that cause us to be attracted to one another on the basis of physical features that are indicators of good physical health and genetic material (Margulis & Sagan, 2000; Zuk, 2002). More specifically, features such as well-formed white teeth provide visual cues of good health and immunity systems because the production of healthy enamel requires good health and sufficient caloric resources. Therefore, in addition to providing evidence of good health, white teeth also suggest greater access to food resources.

During early human evolutionary periods, access to food…… [Read More]

References

Ackerman, D. (1999). A Natural History of Love. New York: Vintage.

Lee, J. (2009). Tooth Discoloration - the Causes and How to Fix it. Accessed online 26

April 2012: http://jameslee.articlealley.com/tooth-discoloration -- the-causes-and-how-to-fix-it-755694.html

Margulis, L. And Sagan, D. (2000). Mystery Dance: On the Evolution of Human
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Delegation in Order to Have a Successful

Words: 1209 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75464778

Delegation

In order to have a successful clinical setup, it is necessary to provide constant care. The new supervisor nurse should install an Interdisciplinary team of the health providers within clinic. They must fulfill the needs of every individual client. All the members of the interdisciplinary team belong to diverse fields but in order to provide a quality care to the patients they should work as a team, which can be achieved by coordinating with each other and most important by sharing a common aim for the patients. The initial step is to appoint which team member will handle which specific complaint of patient. The interdisciplinary team works by coordinating, communicating and the sharing of responsibilities. Such team efforts can enhance the satisfaction of the clients and allow the health care practitioners to excel in other fields and learn new skills. In order to provide quality care in primary health…… [Read More]

References

Gott, Marjori.O'brien Martin.(1990).The role of nurse in health promotion. Oxford Journal 5 (2):137-143. Retrieved from  http://heapro.oxfordjournals.org/content/5/2/137.short 

Ilyas, Mohamed .(2006).Public health and Community Medicine. Karachi:Time Publisher.

Worster A, Sardo A, Thrasher C, Fernandes C, Chemeris E.(2005). Understanding the role of nurse practitioners in Canada. Canadian Journal of Rural Medicine 10 (2):89-94
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Chest Pain Case Study the

Words: 1112 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 60883707

According to the text by Sanders (2011), the Venturi Mask is likely to be the most appropriate assistive device in this process. Sanders indicates that this particular apparatus is "advised for patients who rely on hypoxic respiratory drive. This includes, for example, patients with COPD. The main benefit of the Venturi Mask is that it allows precise regulation of the FiO2. It also permits the paramedic to titrate oxygen for the patient with COPD so as not to exceed the patient's hypoxic drive while allowing enrichment of supplemental oxygen." (Sanders, p. 422)

In addition the Venturi Mask which can help to normalize pulmonary activity, the patient is also experiencing a productive cough with thick yellow sputum. The presence of excessive mucus is also likely contributing to Mr. Hay's airway blockages. This would be an appropriate place to use the Yankeur sucker in order to help remove fluids that might be…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council. (2006). National competency standards for the midwife. Retrieved from:  http://www.nursingmidwiferyboard.gov.au/Codes-and-Guidelines.aspx#competencystandards 

Ambulance Victoria. (2012). Ambulance Victoria clinical practice guidelines for ambulance and MICA paramedics. Retrieved from:  http://www.ambulance.vic.gov.au/Paramedics/Qualified-Paramedic-Training/Clinical-Practice-Guidelines.html .

Courtney, M. (2005). Evidence for nursing practice. Marrickville NSW: Livingstone Churchill Elsevier. Page 19 of 24.

Johnson, R. & Taylor, W. (2010). Skills for midwifery practice (3rd ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier.
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Wanich Swanson Wyatt and Kelly 2012 Describe

Words: 1163 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Article Critique Paper #: 81136865

Wanich, Swanson, Wyatt, and Kelly (2012) describe the case of a 51-year-old male patient who developed postoperative pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) following a torn right patellar tendon repair.

This particular study as the objective of describing a case of PG through diagnosis and treatment that can be relevant for all medical personnel particularly nurses. PG can be a rare but quite complicated postoperative condition following surgical procedures. It can progress rapidly if not identified and treated properly. The purpose of the article is to describe a case study where the subject developed PG following surgery and to describe the diagnosis and treatment of the condition. Given the goals of Wanich et al. (2012) this method is appropriate to use (case study) and can offer vital information for nurses who treat patients at risk for this condition. In addition, following the case study the authors include a brief discussion of the research…… [Read More]

References

Wanich, T., Swanson, A.N., Wyatt, A.J., Kelly, A.M. (2012). Pyoderma gangrenosum following a patellar tendon repair: A case report and review of the literature. The American Journal of Orthopedics, 41(1), E4-E9.
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Communication Diversity This Is the

Words: 1935 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83120658



17. Johann calls you and says that Billy smells and he needs a shower. If you don't move Billy to another ward, Johann will sign himself out. Explain in details what you would do to resolve this cross cultural situation.

I would tell Johann that we are doing all we can to ensure Billy's hygiene and that if his body odor continued to bother Johann that we can move him to another room or ward in the hospital.

18. There seems to be a language and cultural barrier that's blocking effective communication occurring between these two gentlemen. Considering they are both your clients, what strategies would you put in place to improve this situation?

The best way to remedy the situation would be to introduce the two patients to each other. A handshake, some eye contact, and small personal interactions can go a long way toward eliminating prejudices and stereotypes…… [Read More]

References

Australian Indigenous HealthInfo.net (2008). Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at  http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/ 

Department of Education and Training (2005). "Racism No Way." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at  http://www.racismnoway.com.au/library/cultural/ 

Indigenous Peoples of Australia: Health." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at  http://www.ldb.org/oz_h.htm
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Corynebacterium Diphtheria The Answered The Pdf

Words: 1319 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76274818

Corynebacterium diphtheria. The answered . The pdf file attached referenced. The paper written format a scientific paper a microbiology . These textbooks great sources reference: Willey, J.

Corynebacterium diphtheriae is a bacterium that is pathogenic and is the leading cause of diphtheria. Due to the resemblance in their shape and sizes, bacteria and archaea were earlier classified as one but on discovery of their metabolic and biochemical differences, it was determined that they had different evolution histories. The bacillus falls under the nonlipophilic fermentative bacteria in classification. Structurally, it possesses cell membranes formed from a combination of the hydroxyl group and fatty acids. Unlike the bacteria, the archaea has linkages that contain ether bonds (Willey, 2003). The cell wall of C.diphtheriae is made up of peptidoglycan bonds which is a great variance from that of the archaea which contains no such bonds. Another major cutting edge factor that classifies C.diphtheriae…… [Read More]

Lammert, J.M. (2007). Techniques in Microbiology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

McClane, B.A., & Mietzner, T.A. (1999). Microbial pathogenesis: a principles-oriented approach: Fence Creek Pub.

Willey, J.M., Sherwood, L.M., & Woolverton, C.J. (2003). Prescott's Microbiology (8 ed.). Dubuque, Iowa: McGraw Hill Higher Education.
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Cultural Diversity Although I Believe That I

Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Creative Writing Paper #: 751333

Cultural Diversity

Although I believe that I have critically met the objectives for a master's degree in working in many ways (particularly academically), I can honestly state that the area in which I progressed the most was in dealing with cultural diversity. Prior to entering this program, I had extremely limited experience dealing with cultural diversity, especially in the workplace. Despite working as a nurse for the past 16 years, the most diversity I had ever experienced in my patient population was the occasional Spanish speaking client -- which would require me to utilize the language line for interpreting my directions and interacting with the patient. However, thanks to my involvement in this particular academic program, I am now much more acclimated with cultural diversity and believe that I have significantly improved my prowess in this aspect of my work as a professional nurse.

My experience with cultural diversity changed…… [Read More]

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How Nurses Use Data

Words: 527 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Creative Writing Paper #: 38099845

Health Promotion and Disease Prevention: Using Data

Prior to entering the FNP program my sixteen years of nursing experience all took place in hospital settings, including work in the ICU, ER, cath lab, and same day surgery unit. I had never worked in public health or in a primary care setting and had minimal experience using health data to improve quality and patient safety. My first encounter with the use of data was in same day surgery, using SCIP core measures: we made sure our target population received their beta blocker the day of surgery, appropriate antibiotic selection, and VTE prophylaxis because this combined treatment had been shown to significantly improve outcomes and reduce recovery time.

After entering the FNP program I entered primary care where health promotion and disease prevention is at the forefront of my practice. This has renewed my love of nursing as I act as a…… [Read More]

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Colony Collapse and Honey Bees

Words: 320 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 66856866

Honey Bees -- Colony Collapse Disode

Desciption: In ecent yeas, honeybee colonies have been expeiencing "Colony Collapse Disode" (CCD). Given the key ole of honeybees in pollinating ou agicultual cops, it has become a seious issue. Many causes fo the collapse of honeybee colonies ae cuently being investigated. The potential causes include viuses, paasites, uban spawl, pesticides, and othe envionmental pollutants. Examine the phenomenon of CCD fom a toxicological standpoint by eseaching thee goups of chemicals that ae being investigated as potential contibutos to CCD: Antibiotics, miticides, and neonicotinoid pesticides. The assigned Case Study fo this couse deals with the phenomena of "Colony Collapse Disode" in honeybee populations, and should include the following components: A bief intoduction of the phenomenon. Backgound infomation on the goups of chemicals petinent to the Case Study. Analysis of the key potential causes of the phenomena. Summay of the aticle's conclusions and you own opinions…… [Read More]

references as well as the full citations in APA format at the end of your analysis. Include a cover page and brief abstract for your analysis (these pages are not to be included in the total 4-5-page requirement). The Case Study assignment must follow APA style guidelines, therefore the APA rules for formatting, quoting, paraphrasing, citing, and listing of sources are to be followed. The Ebsco Database (Business Source Complete) is a very good source of journals for articles related to the subject matter discussed in both assignments.
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1929 Event Penicillin Is One

Words: 2014 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 92859778



There are many bacteria that are able to resist against antibiotic drugs, including penicillin. The resistance to antibiotics often occurs because not all bacteria that are part of the same species are alike. These small differences that exist among the bacteria often mean that some will be able to fight off the assault of an antibiotic. hen a person's own defenses do not kill off these resistant bacteria then they increase. This antibiotic-resistant form of a disease often re-infects the patient, or is passed on from one person to another. hen a person takes an antibiotic for viruses like colds they can cause antibiotic resistant bacteria to develop. Antibiotics have no effect on viruses, but it will kill off harmless and even the beneficial bacteria that live in a person's body. The surviving bacteria will live and multiply and may eventually cause disease. People with bacterial infections, who don't completely…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bellis, Mary. 2009. "The History of Penicillin."

 http://inventors.about.com/od/pstartinventions/a/Penicillin.htm >

"Penicillin." n.d.

"Penicillin: the first miracle drug." 2006.
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Preventing VRE All Measures to

Words: 1874 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 84626562

For its versatility in eluding new antibiotics, it can be life-threatening. One of these "superbugs" is VRE, which is transmissible by direct hand contact or through surfaces and equipment by anyone, including the health care worker (Capriotti, 2007). VRE has recently spread to the community and the health care sector.

New antibiotics continue to be synthesized to cope with the rapid mutation of the VRE bacteria, but the organisms continue to overtake the drugs (Akins & Haase, 2005). A study conducted on a series of VRE outbreaks in Germany revealed that an estimate of 1 million Euros could be saved with adequate prevention and control of the infection. The use of newer antibiotics is not as cost-effective as prevention. These antibiotics have to be administered with precision and require complementary hygienic precautions on the part of the health care worker. The rising incidence of and serious threats posed by the…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Akins, R.L. And Haase, K.K. (2005). Gram-positive resistance: pathogens, implications and treatment options. Pharmacotherapy: Pharmacotherapy Publications. Retrieved on September 15, 2009 from  http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/507658 

Capriotti, T. (2007). Resistant "Superbugs" create need for novel antibiotics.

Dermatology Nursing: Medscape. Retrieved on September 15, 2009 from  http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/554935 

Department of Health (2006). Fact sheet. New York State Department. Retrieved on September 15, 2009 from http://www.health.stats.ny.us/diseases/communicable/v_r_e/docs/facts_sheet.pdf
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Anthrax in the United States Postal Service

Words: 4898 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69190781

Anthrax: An Attack on the United States

Anthrax is an acute disease that is caused by a bacteria known as bacillus anthracis. Anthrax most commonly occurs in lower-level vertebrates both wild and domestic, such as cows, goats, sheep, and camels. However, anthrax infection can also occur in humans when they are exposed to animals that are infected, or to tissue from these animals ("Anthrax," 2003). The anthrax infection in humans can take three forms: cutaneous, inhalation, or gastrointestinal. This paper examines the signs and symptoms of anthrax, as well as looks at the circumstances of the most current outbreak of anthrax in the United States.

Anthrax is not very common in the United States, at least not anymore. Anthrax is primarily a disease of agricultural countries where contact with and exposure to animals is a common, daily occurrence. When anthrax infects a human being, it is normally through contact with…… [Read More]

References

Anthrax." (2003). CDC. Retreived on June 25, 2003 at  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Evolution Sharma S Kunimoto

Words: 801 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 6183547

" (Sharma, Kunimoto, Garg, & Rao) They believe that he information they are providing will allow the clinician to have a more expansive approach in treating bacterial keratitis and in deciding which secondary antibiotic to use.

The goal of initial antibiotic therapy for bacterial keratitis is the proper selection of a drug which has coverage for the aetiopathogen. Microscopic evaluation of corneal smears can provide insight into the identity of the pathogen, but when smear examination is uninformative the principle of managing bacterial keratitis has been to use antibiotics which have coverage that is sufficiently broad and effective to treat the leading corneal pathogens. (Sharma, Kunimoto, Garg, & Rao)

The main thrust for their interest in this study was to assist the clinician who is in less that ideal setting when faced with treating bacterial keratitis. As mentioned previously the virulent nature of this disease necessitates immediate treatment but the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Murillo-Lopez, Fernando H. "Keratitis, Bacterial," Unidad Privada de Oftalmologia CEMES [serial online] 2006. [cited 2009 Mar 23]  http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1194028-overview 

Sharma S, Kunimoto DY, Garg P, Rao GN. "Trends in antibiotic resistance of corneal pathogens: Part I. An analysis of commonly used ocular antibiotics." Indian J. Ophthalmol [serial online] 1999 [cited 2009 Mar 23];47:95-100. Available from:  http://www.ijo.in/text.asp?1999/47/2/95/22799
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Prokaryotes Consist of Millions of Genetically Distinct

Words: 2739 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60665561

prokaryotes consist of millions of genetically distinct unicellular organisms. A procaryotic cell has five essential structural components: a genome (DNA), ribosomes, cell membrane, cell wall, and some sort of surface layer which may or may not be an inherent part of the wall (1). Functional aspects of procaryotic cells are related directly to the structure and organization of the macromolecules in their cell make-up, i.e., DNA, RNA, phospholipids, proteins and polysaccharides. Diversity within the primary structure of these molecules accounts for the diversity that exists among procaryotes (1). Identifiable groups of prokaryotes are assembled based on easily observed phenotypic characteristics such as Gram stain, morphology (rods, cocci, etc.), motility, structural features (e.g. spores, filaments, sheaths, appendages, etc.), and on distinguishing physiological features (e.g. anoxygenic photosynthesis, anaerobiasis, methanogenesis, lithotrophy, etc.). Prokaryotes are commonly known as bacteria, and it is estimated that bacteria have been around for at least 3.5 billion years…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology (2nd Edition). 1989. Williams, S.T., Sharpe, M.E., Holt J.G. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

2. Breiman RF, Butler JC, Tenover FC, Elliott JA, Facklam RR. (1994). Emergence of drug-resistant pneumococcal infections in the United States. JAMA. 1994 Jun 15;271(23):1831-5.

3. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Antibiotic/Antimicrobial resistance.  http://www.cdc.gov /" target="_blank" REL="NOFOLLOW">
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Current Research on Staph Infections

Words: 1680 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78433754

Aureus

Current Areas of esearch

Much of the current research on staphylococcus aureus centers on the emergence of antibiotic-resistance strains. In particular, the resistant strain MSA is resistant to methicillin and related drugs. This has created a number of issues for medical practitioners, as staph infections are one of the more common infections that occur in a health setting.

One of the threads of research in this regard concerns the spread of staph infection in the hospital setting. It has long been believed that s. aureus infections were transmitted between patients. Where outbreaks have occurred, the response has generally reflected this view, with patients being segregated, and other similar remedies. ecent research has shown, however, that transmission between patients in the intrahospital setting does not occur nearly as much as previously thought (Long, Beres, Olsen & Musser, 2014). This is an important finding for health care facilities, because it changes…… [Read More]

References

Haba, E., Bouhdid, S., Solana, N., Marques, A., Espuny, M., Celma, M. & Manresa, A. (2014). Rhamnolipids as emulsifying agents for essential oil formulations:

Antimicrobial effect against Candida albicans and methicillin-resistant

Staphylococcus aureus. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. Vol. 476 (2014) 134-141.

Kriegeskorte, A., Block, D., Drescher, M.., Windmuller, N.,Mellmann, A.,Baum, C., Neumann, C., Lore, N., Bragonzi, A., Liebau, E., Hertel, P., Seggeweiss, J., Becker, K., Proctoer, R., Peters, G., & Kahl, B. (2014). Inactivation of thyA in staphylococcus aureus attenuates virulence and has a strong impact on metabolism and virulence gene expression. mBio. Vol.5(4) 1-15
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Acne Be Treated Treating Acne

Words: 3256 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88862282

co.uk 2001). Of those 1,795 reactions, "23 were fatal, 14 being actual suicides," the pressbox Web site reported. More than 200 of the "adverse reactions were psychiatric with 20 reports of suicidal thoughts of suicide attempts." Additionally, 80 reports of "depression" were logged and 13 reports of "mood swings."

The pressbox article stated that surprisingly, 74% of UK patients who had used Accutane "had mild or moderate acne according to a study among UK dermatologists." The MCA, through the article in pressbox, stated that Accutane "should only be used for severe recalcitrant cystic acne as a treatment of last resort."

Not all Accutane patients wind up depressed, psychotic or dead from suicide, of course, and Brandi Jones is one example of an Accutane success story. At least, she made it through six months of Accutane treatment, and now her skin is "mostly pimple-free" (Setoodeh, 2005), according to an article in…… [Read More]

References

The Accutane Lawyer (2004), "Accutane Side Effects, Accutane Lawsuit," [Online] Available at http://www.the-accutane-lawyer.com.

Acne-Rosacea.co.uk 2004, "Acne Treatments Page," [Online] Available at  http://www.acne-rosacea.co.uk/Acne%20Treatments.htm .

Acne Resource Center 2004, "Understanding Acne," "Alternative Therapy Resources,"

The Potential Dangers of Prescription Medications," [Online] Available at http://www.acne-resource.org.
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Management of Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient

Words: 3435 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Article Paper #: 7686776

Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient

Management OF OSTEOMYELITIS IN THE DIABETIC PATIENT

Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone or bone marrow which is typically categorized as acute, subacute or chronic.1 It is characteristically defined according to the basis of the causative organism (pyogenic bacteria or mycobacteria) and the route, duration and physical location of the infection site.2 Infection modes usually take one of three forms: direct bone contamination from an open fracture, puncture wound, bone surgery, total joint replacement, or traumatic injury; extension of a soft tissue infection such as a vascular ulcer; or hematogenous (blood borne) spread from other infected areas of the body such as the tonsils, teeth or the upper respiratory system.2(p807) Bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli are the most common causative agents of the disease, although viruses, parasites and fungi may also lead to the development of osteomyelitis.3

Patients…… [Read More]

References

1. Stedman's Medical Dictionary. 27th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.

2. Butalia S, Palda V, Sargeant R, Detsky A, Mourad O. Does This Patient With Diabetes Have Osteomyelitis of the Lower Extremity?. JAMA: Journal of The American Medical Association [serial online]. February 20, 2008; 299(7):806-813. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.

3. Lavery L, Peters E, Armstrong D, Wendel C, Murdoch D, Lipsky B. Risk factors for developing osteomyelitis in patients with diabetic foot wounds. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice [serial online]. March 2009; 83(3):347-352. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.

4. Turns M. The diabetic foot: an overview of assessment and complications. British Journal of Nursing [serial online]. August 12, 2011;:S19-S25. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
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Typhoid Fever Disease Is a Global Health

Words: 1926 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98897703

Typhoid fever disease is a global health phenomena or problem with approximately 20 million incidents and 700,000 adult deaths every year. Notably, a huge portion of these cases and deaths occur in developing countries, especially in South East Asia and Indian subcontinent. While the infection was traditionally treated with ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, serious public health program has emerged in the past decades because of the widespread emergence of antibiotic resistant Salmonella typhi or S.typhi. Moreover, typhoid fever disease caused by MD organisms can also be considered as a significant public health and therapeutic issue. This is primarily because there are a huge number of cases of MD typhoid fever that occur in childhood and are coupled with considerably high mortality and morbidity rates. Since the disease has developed to become a significant public health issue in the past few decades, it's important to conduct a research about it and…… [Read More]

References:

Arjunan, M. & Al-Salamah, A.A. (2010, April 29). Typhoid Fever with Severe Abdominal Pain:

Diagnosis and Clinical Findings using Abdomen Ultrasonogram, Hermatology-cell Analysis and the Widal Test. Journal of Infections in Developing Countries, 4(9), 593-596. Retrieved from  http://jidc.org/index.php/journal/article/download/1010/445 

Hammad et al. (2011). Ceftriaxone vs. Chloramphenicol for Treatment of Acute Typhoid

Fever. Life Science Journal, 8(2), 100-105. Retrieved from  http://www.lifesciencesite.com/lsj/life0802/14_4757life0802_100_105.pdf
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Pathogens and Diseases Pathogens Are Common Characteristics

Words: 1909 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65625701

Pathogens and Diseases:

Pathogens are common characteristics of everyday environment as soil contains huge number of bacteria per cubic centimeter while air contains fungal spores. The existence of pathogens in everyday environment emanates from the fact that microorganisms are deposited through touching of various surfaces like tables. Pathogens can be described as disease-causing agents such as infectious microbes, and parasites. While the infectious microbes include viruses and bacteria, parasites include protozoa and fungi. Notably, microbes are only considered as pathogens if they cause harm or diseases since not all microbes are harmful (Koo, 2009). There are opportunistic pathogens, which are organisms that are normally part of the natural flora of the body. These organisms become harmful or pathogens after an invasion like the occurrence of an accidental injury or surgery.

Spread of Pathogens:

Since pathogens are common disease-causing agents, they spread in various ways to cause harm or illnesses. Some…… [Read More]

References:

ABPI -- Bringing Medicines to Life (n.d.), How Pathogens Cause Disease, The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, viewed 17 April 2012,

ABPI -- Bringing Medicines to Life (n.d.), Pathogens Cause Disease, The Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry, viewed 17 April 2012,

Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance (2007), Infection Prevention and Control Best

Practices, Canadian Committee on Antibiotic Resistance, viewed 17 April 2012,
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Routine Shaving of the Surgical Site Select

Words: 2524 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 31433982

Routine Shaving of the Surgical Site

Select a preoperative procedure (e.g., routine shaving of the surgical site) that you would commonly find on a surgical floor.

Describe the process or procedure you have chosen and why you think it needs change.

The process which I have chosen for surgical floor is routine shaving of the surgical site and I think it needs change because patients going through surgery are required to remove hair from the site of the cut. This is considered to reduce the chance of the surgical site becoming infected (National Collaborating Centre for omen's and Children's Health, 2008). Shaving, clipping the hair and using a cream which dissolves the hair are some of the different methods available to remove hair. And these are important because clinically, care plans offer a way to plan and communicate appropriate patient care.

A2. Based on your initial investigation of the situation,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Collins, A.S. (n.d.). Preventing Health Care - Associated Infections. Retrieved October 30, 2012, from National Center for Biotechnology:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK2683/ 

Graham, I.D., RN, J.L., Harrison, M.B., Straus, S.E., Tetroe, J., RN, W.C., et al. (2006). Lost in knowledge translation: Time for a map? Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Professions, 13-24.

Green, L.A., & Seifert, C.M. (2005). Translation of Reserch into Practice: Why we can't "Just Do It." PubMed, 541-545.

National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health. (2008, October). Surgical Site Infection: Prevention and Treatment of Surgical Site Infection. Retrieved October 29, 2012, from Nice.org.uk:  http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/CG74FullGuideline.pdf
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Peri-Implantitis Infections of the Implantation Area the

Words: 1912 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 15117629

Peri-Implantitis

Infections of the implantation area the mainly widespread of the dental implant complications. Implant infection is a state which is known as peri-implantitis which has a sign of swelling or inflammation of the tissues adjacent to the implantation area. Peri-implantitis is a type of periodontal disease that is able to result to inflammation, bone loss and failure in dental implant in any case it is not treated appropriately. A flame is part of a fire. Inflammation is a situation where a tissue gets swollen, red, and frequently hurts. About dental implants, it is an inflammation that can be caused by trauma or infection. Inflammation causes several special defensive cells to move to the inflamed area. Inflammation is capable of resulting to bone loss together with dental implants, where bone loss is a dangerous situation. The supporting bone holds the dental implant in the jaw.

Generally, the purpose of the…… [Read More]

WORK CITED

Hayek (2005) Comparative study between the effects of photodynamic therapy and conventional therapy on microbial reduction in ligature-induced peri-implantitis in dogs. Journal of Periodontology 76, 1275 -- 1281.

Loe, H., Theilade, E. & Jensen, S.B. (1965) Experimental gingivitis in man. Journal of Periodontology 36, 177 -- 187.

Mombelli, A., Nyman, S.R. & Lang, N.P. (1994) Experimentally induced peri-implant mucositis. A clinical study in humans. Clinical Oral Implants Research 5, 254 -- 259.

Renvert, S., Roos-Jansa"ker, A.M., Lindahl, C., Renvert, H. & Persson, G.R. (2007) Infection at titanium implants with or without a clinical diagnosis of inflammation. Clinical Oral
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Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus MRSA and Lyme Disease

Words: 1981 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45596926

Lyme Disease and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)

Introduction

This text will concern itself with Lyme disease and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In so doing, it will not only give the description and epidemiology of the concerns, but also the etiology and prevention strategies. Further, diagnosis as well as treatment options and prognosis will be highlighted.

1. Lyme Disease

Description and Etiology

Described as an illness that is often debilitating, Lyme disease, as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention- CDC (2018) points out, “is caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi and is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected blacklegged ticks.” It is important to note that in addition to the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, blacklegged ticks are capable of transmitting what are commonly referred to as coinfections, i.e. a variety of other disease-causing parasites as well as viruses and bacteria. Those living in wooded areas have a high likelihood…… [Read More]

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Drug Monograph for Serious Infections

Words: 1394 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46553583

Vancomycin should be given for at least 60 minutes. The initial dosage for pediatrics with renal impairment is not less than 15 mg/kg per day or 15 times the GF in mL/min. Premature infants should have longer dosing intervals. PO administration should be 40 mg/kg/day in 3-4 divided doses for 7-10 days. The maximum is 2,000 mg/day, which may be diluted in 1 oz of water or administered through an NG tube (PD).

Contraindications

Vancomycin is contraindicated to patients with hypersensitivity to vancomycin (Drug.com, 2012). Commercially prepared frozen Vancomycyn Hydrochloride injections in 5% dextrose may also be contraindicated to those with known allergic reaction to corn or corn products (Drug.com).

Drug-Drug Interactions

The patient should inform the doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and non-prescription or herbal products currently used (Medicine Net, 2012; Levinson, 2012). Aminoglycosides, amphotericin B, other antibiotics, and live bacterial vaccines are special mentions. If treatment requires…… [Read More]

Reference: PDR Network LLC.

Retrieved on April 20, 2012 from  http://www.pdr.net/drugpages/concisemonograph.aspx?concise=688
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Whooping Cough Known Medically as

Words: 1747 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46415890

Because some children have developed brain damage after the immunizations, some parents are concerned that the vaccine is responsible for neurologic impairment, however research does not indicate a definitive link between the pertussis vaccine and brain damage, although research is still ongoing (hooping 2005). Yet, as a precaution, children with a history of seizures or brain disorders may not be proper candidates for the DTaP vaccine (hooping 2005).

2001 study revealed that pertussis was the cause of chronic cough in 19.9% of the patients studied. Once a disease that ravaged children worldwide, whooping cough is once again on the rise (Green 2002). Today, approximately 300,000 children worldwide die every year from whooping cough, usually in areas where immunization rates are low (Green 2002). Nonetheless, even in the United States, where immunization rates are high, roughly 1 out of every 200 babies who get whooping cough will die from it, another…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Green, Alan. (2002). Pertussis. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at  http://www.drgreene.com/21_1155.html 

Whooping Cough. (2005). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at  http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/whooping-cough/DS00445/DSECTION=3 

Whooping Cough. (2006). MedlinePlus: U.S. National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health. Retrieved September 18, 2006 at  http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/whoopingcough.html 

Whooping cough a continuing problem. (2002, June 29). British Medical Journal.
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Epidemiological Considerations Anthracis Originates in Soil in

Words: 2390 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43392196

Epidemiological considerations anthracis originates in soil in a lot of regions of this world in which we live. Environmental aspects (for example plentiful precipitation subsequent to a phase of water dearth) might improve spore mass in soil, even though the precise impact of such features remains badly understood (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002).

The organism by and large subsists in the endospore shape in environment; germination of spores exterior to an animal congregation might take place when the subsequent situations are encountered (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002):

elative humidity >95%

Presence of sufficient nutrients

Temperature amid 8°C and 45°C

PH amid 5 and 9 (Bell, Kozarsky, Stephens, 2002)

Endospores are opposed to heat, drying, gamma radiation, ultraviolet light, and various antiseptics. Spores can continue in soil for decades, as exemplified by organic combat researches all through World War II on the Scottish island of Gruinard. All through 1943, as well as 1944,…… [Read More]

References

Bell, D.M., Kozarsky, P.E., Stephens, D.S. (2002). Clinical issues in the Prophylaxis, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Anthrax. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 8(2), 222-225.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2001). Anthrax Disease Information

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Considerations for Distinguishing Influenza-Like Illness from Inhalational Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(44), 984-6.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2201). Notice to Readers: Update: Interim Recommendations for Ant microbial Prophylaxis for Children and Breastfeeding Mothers and Treatment of Children with Anthrax. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 50(45), 1014-6.
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Super Integrons

Words: 852 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23747363

integrons has been driven by the alarmingly rapid appearance of antibiotic resistance among a number of bacteria liked to widespread disease in the last century. These bacteria have become an increasing threat to human health, and have often been featured in the media as "super bugs" that may evade any attempts to control their effects using antibiotic treatments. As a result, research into the genetic mechanisms that these drugs use to acquire genetic resistance has been followed with growing interest. The discovery of integrons may well therefore become known as one of the most important stepping-stones in this research (Rowe-Magnus).

Integrons are simply bacterial systems that allow the bacteria to capture and express DNA from other bacteria. Integrons capture foreign gene cassettes that code for important metabolic functions. Many of these gene cassettes contain genetic material that confers resistance to antibiotic drugs. There are over 70 different antibiotic resistance genes…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Rowe-Magnus, Dean. Faculty Research Focus, Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology - Faculty

of Medicine, University of Toronto. 13 February 2004.

http://icarus.med.utoronto.ca/patho/faculty.asp?FacultyID=208

Rowe-Magnus, Dean A., Guerout, Anne-Marie, Ploncard, Pascaline, Dychino, Broderick,
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Nursing Evidence-Based Practice the Article

Words: 3367 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 87121113



The chief concern of the researcher should be the safety of the research participant. This is carried out by carefully considering the risk to benefit ratio, using all available information to make an appropriate assessment and continually monitoring the research as it proceeds.

The scientific researcher must obtain informed consent from each research participant. This should be attained in writing although oral consents are sometimes acceptable after the participant has had the chance to carefully consider the risks and benefits and to ask any pertinent questions. Informed consent ought to be seen as an ongoing process, not a singular event or a mere formality.

The researcher must list how privacy and confidentiality concerns will be approached. esearchers must be receptive to not only how information is protected from unauthorized observation, but also if and how participants are to be notified of any unexpected findings from the research that they may…… [Read More]

References

American Academy of Pediatrics and American Academy of Family Physicians. (2004). Clinical

Practice Guideline: Diagnosis and Management of Acute Otitis Media. Retrieved March

20, 2010, from Web site:

http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/pediatrics;113/5/1451
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Sexual Risk Assessment Mary Jane

Words: 1222 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88389946



Mary Jane's laboratory results show there is an elevated white blood count, with CBC with differential within normal limits. Proton and INR were normal. Pregnancy was negative. UA showed occasional bacteria, but normal otherwise. Drug screen was normal, and EKG showed sinus bradycardia, rate of 59 beats per minute. Renal and hepatic functions were within normal limits.

There are four sexual response cycles, marked by physiological and psychological changes. The first stages is excitement, which Mary Jane is not getting with her partners, which is triggered by psychological or physical stimulation, and is marked by emotional changes, and increased heart rate, and vaginal swelling. Second stage is plateau, Mary Jane states she doesn't have this stimulation. The third stage is orgasm, which Mary Jane doesn't getting during intercourse, or she doesn't remember because she in under the influence of alcohol. The final phase, resolution, involves a rush of blood away…… [Read More]

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Neuroborreliosis Borrelia Burgdorferi or Bb

Words: 2247 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 57244825



Treatment

The Infectious Diseases Society of America or IDSA came out with guidelines on the treatment of the infection.

A multidisciplinary group, which prepared these guidelines, included infectious disease specialists, rheumatologists, neurologists, pediatricians, and entomologists. The guidelines primary apply to the disease strain acquired in the U.S. And do not tackle the diagnostic evaluation of the disease. They recommended oral and parenteral therapies according to a timetable. Doxycycline or amoxicillin, cefotaxime or penicillin would be prescribed. The guidelines warned against the use of first-generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and benzathene penicillin.

Greater Recovery Among Children

Studies conducted on 177 children treated for Lyme neuroborreliosis in an endemic area in Sweden showed that 117 of them recovered complete in two months.

The children exhibited fatigue, facial nerve palsy, loss of appetite and fever as symptoms. Antibiotics were given to 69% of the children. At 2 months, 117 of them recovered completely. At 6…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bransfield, Robert C. 2001. Lyme neuroborreliosis and aggression. Action Lyme. 21-23

(April).Available from  http://actionlyme.50megs.com/neuroborreliosis%20aggression.htm 

-. 2009. Lyme, depression and suicide. Canlyme. 18 (April). Available

from  http://www.mentalhealthandillness.com/tnaold.html
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Histone H2AX in the Study

Words: 5478 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 64159440

These proteins include homologous members of yeast. The presences of these proteins suggest that E. histolytica is skilled to perform homologous recombination, which is the same as in other organisms. DNA damage was evaluated by TUNEL assay. In yeast and in human cells, histone H2AX becomes rapidly phosphorylated when DSs are introduced into chromatin (Lavi et al.).

Studies show that histone as a protein plays a significant role in the transition between the expression of a fetal gene and that of the adult gene. The adult gene's metabolism becomes oxidative in order to adapt to air and to weight, as it generates methylated transmitters and creatine phosphate. The muscles get used to life on the ground as compared to the fetal life which takes place in an aquatic environment. Regulated proteins allow the muscles to respond in a more adequate manner to this environment.

Now, let us see how histone…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abraham, R.T. (2001). "Cell cycle checkpoint signaling through the ATM and ATR kinases." Genes Dev 15(17): 2177-96.

Alexiadis, V., T. Waldmann, J. Andersen, M. Mann, R. Knippers and C. CGruss (2000). "The protein encoded by the proto-oncogene DEK changes the topology of chromatin and reduces the efficiency of DNA replication in a chromatin-specific manner." Genes Dev 14(11): 1308-12.

Aten, R. And H. Behrman (1989). Antigonadotropic effects of bovine ovarian gonadotropin-releasing hormone-binding inhibitor from bovine ovaries. Purification and identification of histone H2A. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 11065-11071.

Antigonadotropic effects of bovine ovarian gonadotropin-releasing hormone-binding inhibitor/histone H2A in rat luteal and granulosal cells. J. Biol. Chem. 264: 11072-11075.
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Healthy Ears in Preschoolers the

Words: 1359 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23546936

Other signs include a child who has numerous of colds and ear infections; a child who speaks overly loudly; frequently asks for words or phrases to be repeated and who does not understand someone unless the person is facing him or her. (Hearing Health for Children)

While ear infection is usually treated with prescription antibiotics, many physicians state that use of these media is not a good idea at an early age. As one experts states, "Contrary to common practice, most children with ear infections should not be treated with antibiotics..." (DrGreene Content:

evolution in Ear Infection Treatment). These findings refer to guidelines released by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians in 2004, which state that, "...currently in the United States there are more than 10 million antibiotic prescriptions for the 5 million ear infections diagnosed in children each year - about half of…… [Read More]

References

Dr Greene Content: Revolution in Ear Infection Treatment. Retrieved April 9, 2008 at  http://www.drgreene.com/21_1769.html 

Ear infection (acute otitis media) Retrieved April 9, 2008, at  http://www.webmd.com/hw-popup/ear-infection-otitis-media 

Hearing Health for Children. Retrieved April 9, 2008, at http://www.northwords.com/Hearing.htm

How to Clean Your Preschooler's Ears. Retrieved April 9, 2008, at  http://preschoolrock.com/index.php/health_exercise/clean_ears
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Cement Shortage Lakkireddy Et Al

Words: 536 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 20353210

Furthermore, the authors claim that pocket infection rates have decreased in general worldwide and especially in institutions with strict procedural guidelines. Moreover, Lakkireddy et al. (2005) note that many of the infections were superficial, due to surface wounds from the surgery and not from the deep pocket itself. Superficial wounds can be readily prevented via standard hygienic procedures used during the surgical process. Lakkireddy et al. (2005) conclude that Povidone-iodine irrigation does not in itself prevent infections but fail to outline the possible implications of the findings.

Although internally valid, the Lakkireddy et al. (2005) study has significant limitations that prevent generalization. Patients were culled from one institution. Surgical procedures were not standardized and could have varied widely from doctor to doctor. In fact, the Povidone-iodine solutions were not standardized either. Most importantly, the researchers were not able to determine whether a course of prophylactic antibiotics administered prior to implantation…… [Read More]

The authors questioned the role of Povidone-iodine vs. other antiseptics, noting that no detailed survey like the current one had ever been conducted on a large patient population. Furthermore, the authors claim that pocket infection rates have decreased in general worldwide and especially in institutions with strict procedural guidelines. Moreover, Lakkireddy et al. (2005) note that many of the infections were superficial, due to surface wounds from the surgery and not from the deep pocket itself. Superficial wounds can be readily prevented via standard hygienic procedures used during the surgical process. Lakkireddy et al. (2005) conclude that Povidone-iodine irrigation does not in itself prevent infections but fail to outline the possible implications of the findings.

Although internally valid, the Lakkireddy et al. (2005) study has significant limitations that prevent generalization. Patients were culled from one institution. Surgical procedures were not standardized and could have varied widely from doctor to doctor. In fact, the Povidone-iodine solutions were not standardized either. Most importantly, the researchers were not able to determine whether a course of prophylactic antibiotics administered prior to implantation affected the rates of infection. In fact, the antibiotics might have had a major bearing on the rates of infection and could abnegate the results of the current study.

However, Lakkireddy et al. (2005) do draw attention to the need for hygienic, aseptic surgical procedures including the use of topical antiseptics like Povidone-iodine. Especially when devices like PMs and ICDs are being implanted, the potential for infection rises. A more informative study might reveal which patient populations are at the highest risk of developing staph or other infections. Those patients who are the most at risk might benefit the most from prophylactic antibiotics as well as standardized, sterilized surgical procedures.
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Allopathic Medicine Outweigh the Risks

Words: 4631 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37148611

" Prescription drugs invade the markets today only to mask the symptoms of disease instead of preventing disease from happening. In this back-end approach to fighting disease instead of preventing it from occurring in the first place, pharmaceutical companies have profited at the expense of society." (Karel M.)

There is therefore also the feelings and the growing suspicion that prescription drugs are controlled by large pharmaceutical corporations and these influence practitioners and the health care industry. Modern medical practitioners are also "... subject to persuasion from drug manufacturers and rely on them for their information, despite their obvious bias to use their drugs." (Karel M.) This is an area that has been severely critiqued in allotropic health care; namely the fact that modern medicine is dominated by large drug companies which to a large extent are more concerned with their profit margins than with the quality and the ultimate effectives…… [Read More]

References

Bawaskar H.S. Non- allopathic doctors form the backbone of rural health.

Retrieved March 8, 2007, at  http://www.issuesinmedicalethics.org/044ed112.html 

Death by Modern Medicine. Retrieved March 8, 2007, at  http://www.ashtreepublishing.com/bookshop/carolyn-dean.php 

Definition of Allopathic. Retrieved March 6, 2007, at  http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612  www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010938986