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Astrophysical Implications of Black Holes
There is a tradition in science for phenomena that are once thought of as impossible or absurd, later become fundamental to the progression of science. The subject of black holes falls within this tradition. Stephen Hawking, a leader in physics, once claimed that the existence of black holes was impossible; later on, he became on the leaders at the forefront of research and topics related to black holes. In the 21st century, it is common knowledge within physics and astronomical communities that black holes are critical to the existence and health of the universe. Black holes are far more frequent occurrences that previously theorized with distinctive properties and vital functions. Astrophysicists and other related professionals now theorize that super massive black holes are at the center of most galaxies, and possibly at the center of all galaxies. This idea speaks directly to the significance…
Bunn, T. (1995). Black Holes FAQ. University of California, Berkeley, Department of Cosmology, Web, Available from: http://cosmology.berkeley.edu/Education/BHfaq.html . 2013 April 10.
Department of Astronomy, Cornell University. (2011). Curious About Astronomy? Black Holes and Quasars. Cornell University, Web, Available from: http://curious.astro.cornell.edu/blackholes.php . 2013 April 10.
Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville. (2013). Black Holes. University of Tennessee, Web, Available from: http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr162/lect/blackhole/blackhole.html . 2013 April 10.
National Geographic. (2013). Black Holes -- A Mighty Void. National Geographic, Web, Available from: http://science.nationalgeographic.com/science/space/universe/black-holes-article/ . 2013 April 10.
Twins - Typically a word indicating the production of two offspring from the same source of origin, mostly referred during reproductive results.
Science Express -- A science publication that electronically publishes selected articles prior to the articles' appearance in print.
Matthew Turk and Tom Abel -- Turk was a former astrophysics graduate student of the Kavli Institute, and currently studying at a post-doctoral fellowship at UC San Diego. Abel is an associate professor at KIPAC's physics department, with research interests in cosmological and astrophysical systems.
Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology -- Known usually as KIPAC and is a laboratory independent of Stanford University, funded by Stanford University, the U.S. Department of Energy, and initiated through the grant from the Kavli Foundation.
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory -- SLAC boasts a multipurpose laboratory dedicated to astrophysics, photon science, accelerator and particle physics research, with the longest linear accelerator…
The cosmological disagreement can take many forms, but it works with the basis since the cosmos (universe) exists, there must be a God. How can the information that the universe exist point to any other conclusion than that the universe exists? The first argues that God must exist because He is "The Temporal First Cause" of the universe. The second argues that God must exist because He is "The Ontological First Cause" of the universe.
It is by no means clear that the logical relations between sense experiences and physical objects are significantly different from the logical relations between mystical or numinous experiences and an object like God. It is thus not clear that some sort of special justification is needed in the one case, which is not needed in the other. If a special justification is not needed in the case of sense experience, and it…
Catherine Keller's On the mystery: Discerning divinity in progress envisions the creation as a living, dynamic thing rather than something that is static and unchanging. The central metaphor which governs Chapter 3 of her book is that of the fish: a fish is constantly moving with the ebbs and flows of the waters around him and instead of drowning or being swallowed up by the waters of change like a human being, the fish is able to move forward. The fish also supports Keller's ecological view of the universe. Keller stresses the need for human beings to see themselves as part of the universe, rather than dominators of it. Keller finds particular inspiration in the ambiguous "bi-gendered" vision of the divine in the first creation myth of Genesis, versus the second myth which portrays a more anthropocentric God and a more rigid gender hierarchy.[footnoteRef:1] [1: Catherine Keller, On the mystery:…
Keller, Catherine. On the mystery: Discerning divinity in progress. Minneapolis: Fortress Press,
Hurricanes and NASA Problems
Finding the Distance to Stars Using the Parallax Angle
Given the above equation and information provided, about how far away is HT Cas?
Your answer was calculated in parsecs. Given that 1 parsec = 3.2616 light years, about what is the distance to HT Cas in light years? (Your answer in parsecs X 3.2616 light years = The Distance to HT Cas in light years).
217 light years
434 light years
219 light years
Based on your answer, do you think this is a star that we might be able to send a space probe to? Why or why not? Support your answer.
1,287,418,956,726,420 After reviewing some information about probes, I do not think this star is one that we might be able to send a probe to. Voyager 1 is the probe that has gone the furthest in…
Barnes, G. (2009). Hurricanes and the equator. www.soest.hawaii.edu / Retrieved from https://www.soest.hawaii.edu/GG/ASK/hurricanes.html
Currently she is a Scientist III working with the Institute for the Study of Society and Environment (ISSE) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado. Her research focuses on human exploitation of climate-sensitive natural resources, and the socioeconomic and institutional factors affecting resource management decisions in the context of uncertainty and competing interests.
Dr. Thomas J. ilbank received a Ph. D. In Geography from Syracuse in 1969. He is a recognized expert in energy and environmental policy, developing countries, global change, technology and society, and institution-building. Currently he is employed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory with the title of Corporate Research Fellow and Leader, Global Change and Developing Country Programs. Dr. ilbank has studied the links between everyday economic and household activities and climate change. He is a contributor to the book, Global Change and Local Places: Estimating, Understanding, and Reducing Greenhouse Gases. This book reports on…
Hansen, James. GISS Personnel Directory. 2010. Goddard Institute for Space Studies. 27 July 2010. .
Miller, Kathleen. Institute for the Study of Society and Environment. 2010. Kathleen Millar's Home Page. 27 July 2010. < http://www.isse.ucar.edu/staff/miller/index.php>.
Simmons. 5 Deadliest Effects of Global Warming. NDI. Environmental Graffiti. 27 July 2010. .
Wilbank, Thomas J. Environmental Sciences Division. 2010. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 27 July 2010. < http://www.esd.ornl.gov/people/wilbanks/index.shtml >.
6). Pi is, therefore, on the level of philosophical discourse because many other mathematical problems elucidated by the ancients have since been solved. Arndt et al. claim that pi is "possibly the one topic within mathematics that has survived the longest," (6). Initial pi explorations may have been prehistoric. Ancient Egyptians and Mesopotamians later developed systems of writing and mathematics that enabled rigorous investigations into crucial problems. In 1650 BCE, ancient Egyptian scribe Ahmes recorded what are likely the first formulas for pi. The formulas are written on what is referred to as the Egyptian hind Papyrus (Eymard, Lafon & Wilson).
The Ahmes formulas relate the circle to the square, foreshadowing further investigations into pi by the Greeks. The Egyptians were therefore the first to record attempts to "square the circle," or relate the area of a square to that of a circle in search of a constant variable that…
Arndt, Jorg, Haenel, Christoph, Lischka, Catriona & Lischka, David. Translated by Catriona Lischka, David Lischka. Springer, 2001
Beckman, Petr. A History of Pi. Macmillan, 1971.
Berggren, Lennart, Borwein, Jonathan M. & Borwein, Peter B. Pi, A source book. Springer, 2004.
Blatner, David. The Joy of Pi. Walker, 1999.
Millions of dollars are spent on test-prep manuals, books, computer programs and worksheets (Gluckman, 2002). Static/captive learning can help teachers around the nation prepare their students for standardized testing.
Significance of the Study to Leadership
A principal is the leader of the campus. The challenge for the principal is to know his or her district's mandated curriculum and make sure teachers are able to deliver it (Shipman & Murphy, 2001). As the key decision-maker for the use of time and space, principals must be aware of how the use of time and space affects instruction. Principals need to know how best to use assessment data based on relevant content standards with teachers, school communities. Improved student learning is always the focus of assessment.
ecause of high stakes testing, teachers are always assessing to monitor student progress and plan the scope and sequence of instruction. Principals can work to structure school…
Anglin, Gary J., Vaez, Hossein, and Cunningham, Kathryn L. (nd) Visual Representations and Learning: The Role of Static and Animated Graphics. Visualization and Learning. Online available at: http://www.aect.org/edtech/33.pdf
Arnold, T.C., & Dwyer, F.M. (1975). Realism in visualized instruction. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 40, 369 -- 370.
de Melo, H.T. (1981). Visual self-paced instruction and visual testing in biological science at the secondary level (Doctoral dissertation, Pennsylvania State University, 1980). Dissertation Abstracts International, 41, 4954A.
Dwyer, F.M. (1969). The effect of varying the amount of realistic detail in visual illustrations designed to complement programmed instruction. Programmed Learning and Educational Technology, 6, 147 -- 153.
"Once every 248 Earth years, Pluto swings inside the orbit of Neptune. It stays there for twenty years. During those twenty years, Pluto is closer to the Sun than Neptune. During this period of time, like the other eight planets, Pluto's atmosphere undergoes a fundamental change in character, briefly developing an atmosphere. As methane and nitrogen frozen at the poles thaw. As it moves toward its farthest point from the Sun, Pluto's atmosphere freezes and falls back to the ground" (Dejoie & Truelove 2008).
These eccentricities further suggested that Pluto was really much more "like a new group of objects found in the outer solar system," called dwarf planets and not worthy of the status of the other eight (Inman, 2008, p.2). Still, many astronomers argued in favor of a more inclusive definition that would still retain Pluto's status as a planet. In fact, one radical proposal: "would have made…
Britt, Robert Roy. "What is a planet>" Space.com. 2 Nov 2000. August 2, 2008. http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/solarsystem/planet_confusion_001101-2.html
Britt, Robert Roy. "Scientists decide Pluto's no longer a planet." MSNBC.com. August 24, 2006.
August 2, 2008. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/14489259/
Cain, Fraser. "Why is Pluto not a planet>" Universe Today. April 10, 2008. August 1, 2008. http://www.universetoday.com/2008/04/10/why-pluto-is-no-longer-a-planet/
It was a discovery that opened our eyes to the vastness of the universe and all that we do not know about it.
According to Steve Ruskin, Bell Burnell's discovery is significant for two reasons. First, "it was an incredible discovery for astronomers. It not only confirmed the existence of the theoretical neutron star, but it also enabled scientists to make advances in astrophysics, particularly in their theories of stellar collapse and the formation of black holes" (Ruskin). Ruskin adds that the discovery is important because pulsars are the "most regular 'clocks' in the universe" (Ruskin). Second, Bell Burnell's discovery "shed light on the important role of women in science" (Ruskin). Ruskin admits, "Perhaps more surprising than the fact that a new type of star was discovered was that a woman had discovered it" (Ruskin). omen in all fields of science owe some gratitude to Bell Burnell for beginning to…
Barbara a. Branca. "Jocelyn Susan Bell Burnell." Notable Scientists: From 1900 to the Present. 2008. GALE Science Resource Center. Site Accessed May 29, 2008. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com .
Ruskin, Steve. "The Discovery of Pulsars." Science and Its Times. 2001. GALE Science Resource Center. Site Accessed May 29, 2008.
Alien Life on Earth
Scientists believe that all known life forms descended from a single common ancestor, a microbe that lived approximately 3.5 -- 3.8 billion years ago. Their belief is based on an understanding that all life forms have liquid water as their foundation, and they contain the same "building blocks" (Toomey 26). Researchers in the new field of synthetic biology have raised questions about another kind of living organism, independent of the building blocks already understood and unrelated to the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) from which all known life forms came. It is an intriguing idea that is attracting more interest as scientists continue to find evidence of this alien, or "weird" life on earth. The weird life is said to inhabit what is called the shadow biosphere.
Because little is known about weird life, scientists are considering myriad possibilities. The basic molecule might be other than…
Cockell, Charles."How the Search for Aliens Can Help Sustain Life on Earth." CNN. Cable News Network, 04 Oct. 2012. Web. 06 May 2013. .
Grant, Andrew. "Life Could Survive on Earth-Sized Moons of Gas Giant Exoplanets." Science News 183.3 (2013): 5-6. Web. 6 May 2013.
McKie, Robin. "Life on Earth... But Not as We Know It." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 13 Apr. 2013. Web. 06 May 2013. .
Toomey, David. "Alien Life on Earth." Discover 34.2 (2013): 26-27. Web. 6 May 2013.
Few pieces of cloth have garnered as much attention as the so-called Shroud of Turin, a piece of linen cloth allegedly containing the image of Jesus Christ. The shroud of Turin measures 4.4 meters in length and about one meter wide (about fourteen feet by three feet). Both the front and the back appear to have an image of a man "who had been scourged, crowned with thorns, crucified with nails, and stabbed by a lance in the side," (Fanti, Botella, Crosilla, Lattarulo, Svensson, Schneider and hanger 1).[footnoteRef:1] Traces of blood, fire, and water have also been identified on the shroud (Fanti, et al.; Heller & Adler). Because of the way the imagery on the shroud corresponds with the Biblical story of Jesus of Nazareth, it has been speculated that the shroud was the burial cloth of Jesus before the body was put into a tomb. [1: Fanti,…
"Controversial New Theories on the Shroud of Turin." CBS. 8 April, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-3445_162-57410982/controversial-new-theories-on-the-shroud-of-turin/
Damon, P.E., Donahue, D.J.; Gore, B.H.; Hatheway, A.L.; Jull, A.J.T.; Linick, T.W.; Sercel, P.J.; Toolin, L.J.; Bronk, C.R.; Hall, E.T.; Hedges, R.E.M.; Housley, R.; Law, I.A.; Perry, C.; Bonani, G.; Trumbore, S.; Woelfli, W.; Ambers, J.C.; Bowman, S.G.E.; Leese, M.N.; Tite, M.S. Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin. The Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System. 1989.
Fanti, G., Botella, J.A., Crosilla, F., Lattarulo, F., Svensson, N., Schneider, R. & Whanger, A.. List of evidences of the Turin shroud. 2010. Retrieved online: http://www.acheiropoietos.info/proceedings/FantiListWeb.pdf
Heller, J.H. & Adler, A.D.. Blood on the shroud of Turin. Applied Optics 19(16): 2742-2744, 1980.
Futurism brashly and boldly embraced new technology, celebrating even the bellicose. In Marinetti's "Manifesto of Futurism," he states, "We will glorify war -- the world's only hygiene -- militarism, patriotism, the destructive gesture of freedom-bringers, beautiful ideas worth dying for, and scorn for women," (p. 148). This peculiar statement reveals the nature of futurism as it was manifest at early twentieth century. Futurism was all embracing, rejecting nothing based on immorality because futurism shunned morality. For this reason, Futurism emerged as a staunchly progressive and open-minded genre in the visual arts. The movement not just embraced new technology but celebrated it. Even the uglier side of technology, such as heavy industries and the pollution they create, was something futurists admired and incorporated into their visual art schema. Within the futurist framework, it is certainly possible to imagine works of art that represent something genuinely new.
One reason it is…
Boccioni, Umberto. "Futurist Painting: Technical Manifesto."
Marinette, Filippo Tommaso. "The Foundation and Manifesto of Futurism."
Tom Shulich ("ColtishHum")
A comparative study on the theme of fascination with and repulsion from Otherness in Song of Kali by Dan Simmons and in the City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre
In this chapter, I examine similarities and differences between The City of Joy by Dominique Lapierre (1985) and Song of Kali by Dan Simmons (1985) with regard to the themes of the Western journalistic observer of the Oriental Other, and the fascination-repulsion that inspires the Occidental spatial imaginary of Calcutta. By comparing and contrasting these two popular novels, both describing white men's journey into the space of the Other, the chapter seeks to achieve a two-fold objective: (a) to provide insight into the authors with respect to alterity (otherness), and (b) to examine the discursive practices of these novels in terms of contrasting spatial metaphors of Calcutta as "The City of Dreadful Night" or "The City of…
Barbiani, E. (2005). Kalighat, the home of goddess Kali: The place where Calcutta is imagined twice: A visual investigation into the dark metropolis. Sociological Research Online, 10 (1). Retrieved from http://www.socresonline.org.uk/10/1/barbiani.html
Barbiani, E. (2002). Kali e Calcutta: immagini della dea, immagini della metropoli. Urbino: University of Urbino.
Cameron, J. (1987). An Indian summer. New York, NY: Penguin Travel Library.
Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and danger: An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. New York, NY: Routledge & K. Paul.
teaching space science. There are various complexities that affect the way that astronomy is taught, not the least of which is the enormity of scale that space science involves.
One of the basic requirements for understanding astronomy is coming to terms with the vastness of the universe. For example, a basic unit of astronomical measurement is the light year. Merriam-ebster defines the light year as "a unit of length in astronomy equal to the distance that light travels in one year in a vacuum or about 5.88 trillion miles or 9.46 trillion kilometers" (2011). hile this definition conveys factual data, it does little to make the concept real, that is, accessible to the average student.
Moreover, trying to convey the reality of light traveling at the unimaginably fast speed of 299,792 kilometers per second (186,282 miles per second) is indeed mind-boggling. Even at such amazing speeds, light takes years to…
Bennett, J. (2011). Teaching resources -- strategies for teaching astronomy. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from: http://www.jeffreybennett.com/astronomy.html
Discovery Education. (2011). Astronomical scales. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from: http://www.discoveryeducation.com/teachers/free-lesson-plans/astronomical-scales.cfm
Koppes, S. (2011). Award-winning teachers find the unexpected. University of Chicago website. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from: http://www.uchicago.edu/features/20110527_quantrell/olinto.shtml
Merriam-Webster. (2011). Light-year. Retrieved August 12, 2011 from: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/light-year?show=0&t=1313215675
gender roles in the workplace pre-exist much of what we think defines what work really is; not only do they pre-exist the modern working world of offices and factories, but they also seems older than more basic things, like writing and currency. From the world of the Tasaday tribe in the Philippines to that of such fields as genetic engineering and astrophysics, men and women are compelled to function within the workforce in different ways. In the United States, women dominate fields such as nursing, teaching, and clerical positions, while fields like engineering, programming and accounting are thought to be the domain of men. Some positions, such as those of flight attendants and nurses, are considered so intrinsically "female" that many men refuse to enter these fields for fear that others will question their sexual preference. Other more coveted positions, such as that of the CEO of a large company,…
Last chapter to include a section for reflection-comments on the research process and, explanation of what I have learned while doing research. Research project must have practical impact on an organization. Purely academic studies are not acceptable. Need to establish measurable objectives.
This action research project is the final component in my degree program.
Women at Work: What causes lack respect towards women in the workplace. http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/friedan.htm
NASA and Integrated Financial Management Project
Like most government organizations, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) passed through several stages of development and bureaucracy. Upon its creation in 1958, the agency was run with a combination of research freedom and tight management. This combination helped foster a strong, integrated organizational culture within NASA.
Since then, however, NASA has grown into ten separate research agencies situated around the country. Each agency was run as an autonomous unit, with its own vision, research tasks, staff and organizational culture.
The last few years have seen another shift in NASA's organizational culture, as the organization implements "ONE NASA," a plan to move towards a more implemented space organization.
This first part of this paper examines the current structure of NASA, and the problems that are spawned by its fragmented structure. The paper then looks at the goals, obstacles and potential benefits of the…
Bell, Mary F. (2002). NASA's Organization: Introducing NASA Personnel, Programs, and Facilities. Washington, DC: NASA Headquarters Department of Public Affairs.
Bromberg, Joan Lisa (1999). NASA and the Space Industry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Integrated Financial Management Program (2003). IFMP Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved 10 February 2003 at http://ifmp.nasa.gov/faq/faq.html.
McCurdy, Howard E. (1993). Inside NASA: High Technology and Organizational Change in the U.S. Space Program. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press
computers in space science. Specifically, it will look at the roles computers have in current space technology and how they have effected the lives of everyone in the world. Without computer technology, space science would be confined to the ground, and man's imagination. efore large-scale computing was developed, the technologies necessary to design, build, and maintain a space program simply did not exist. Computers have made it possible to explore the moon, stars, and beyond.
Computers in Space Science
Computers play an integral role in the science of space, and without them most of modern space exploration would not be possible. As the NASA report, "Computers at NASA" states, "Since the 1950's, the computer has been the main tool that has enabled scientists and engineers to visualize the next frontier and then make it a reality" (NASA). NASA employs literally thousands of computers throughout the world to monitor, design, and…
Author not Available. "Computers at NASA." NASA. 1994. 29 Oct. 2003. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/news/factsheets/computers.pdf
Barber, Jennifer Lauren. "Close Encounters on Your Desktop." Bright Magazine. 2001. 29 Oct. 2003. http://journalism.medill.northwestern.edu/journalism/magazine/bright/brightlite/peer4.html.
Dubinski, John. "Cosmology." Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics. 26 June 1997. 29 Oct. 2003. http://www.cita.utoronto.ca/webpages/CITA/annrep96/node20.html
Editors. "Hubble's Computers and Automation." HubbleSite. 2003. 29 Oct. 2003. http://hubble.stsci.edu/sci.d.tech/nuts_.and._bolts/spacecraft_systems/#comp
difficult, in retrospect, to point to an instance where I was ahead of everyone else, but I have been able to solve problems. I remember I was in need of a career change. Mostly, things just did not feel right in my career. I did not really know what it was -- did I need a new company? A new boss? It turned out that my career path that I was on really was not a good career path for me. I went off the grid, so to speak, and came back after a period of a few months with a new sense of what I wanted. I don't know if that is a creative solution -- I think I just see things as solutions and let the "creative" or "uncreative" judgment fall to someone else. But I do know that it was an somewhat unorthodox approach to things --…
Most application of economic policy is done on either the national, supranational or subnational scales. Seldom is economic policy enacted on the non-national scale. Yet, there is the question of whether there is benefit to applying economic doctrine to space exploration. There is a corollary, in Antarctica, where various nations have signed a treaty committing to scientific activity only on that continent, and not economic activity. Yet, realistically, with space the horse is well out of the barn. Nations all over the world have launched satellites, thus far, and the more powerful nations have engaged in a broader scope of scientific exploration. Yet, the question still exists, as to whether any economic system should be applied to space, space exploration and the terrorities that exist in space. And if so, what should that economic system look like? This paper will start to explore this concept in more detail, from…