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Yet, this is not to say that they were not conscious of the race with the ussians or the advantages of being able to demonstrate the destructive power of the new super bomb. Yet such a view has not been in doubt by most recent traditional historians, who have seen Truman as a practical statesman with one eye on the post-war world and already dealing with problems with Stalin over Eastern Europe. The administration evidently saw advantages in possessing and even using the new bombs, but the issue was what primarily motivated them to do so in August 1945 (Bastian, n.d.).
Those who dispute in favor of the decision to drop the atom bombs argue that massive casualties on both sides would have occurred in Operation Downfall, the planned invasion of Japan. The U.S. side estimated losing many soldiers in the planned invasion of Japan, although the actual number of…
Bastian, Peter. (n.d.). Dropping the Atomic Bomb. Retrieved March 16, 2010, from American
History for Australasian Schools Web site:
Burr, William. (2007). The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II. Retrieved March 16,
Atomic Bomb and Nuclear Power - Blessing or Curse
DANNENBEG, Germany, Nov 14 (euters) - A force of 15,000 police sealed roads in part of northern Germany on Wednesday in a crackdown against protesters trying to disrupt the final leg of a shipment of nuclear waste. The security operation, one of Germany's biggest in peacetime and likely to cost at least 50 million marks ($22.52 million), entered its third day with the highly radioactive waste set to make a 20 km (12-mile) road trip to a storage site at Gorleben. (Blenkinsop, 2001)
Like fire, radiation should be respected but not feared. All life has evolved in a sea of radiation that existed from the start of time. To ensure the safety of the public and of workers, and to protect the environment, the federal government regulates the ELECTICAL UTILITIES and the hospitals, universities and other institutions, which use nuclear energy…
Blenkinsop, Philip (11-13-2001). German Police Mass For Final Leg Of Nuclear Convoy. Reuters.
Not Available (09-16-1997). Nuclear Nonproliferation And Safety - Concerns With The International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Cooperation. Government Accounting Office Report.
Not Available (10-18-2002). Powell Says Force Not Contemplated North Korea's Nuclear Program 'Troubling' Bush. The Washington Times.
Not Available (10-23-2001). UN: Nuclear Power Alternative To Fossil Fuels, IAEA Director Informs General Assembly; Following Introduction Of Agency's Annual Report, Most Speakers Express Support For Non-Proliferation, Additional. M2 PressWIRE.
Historians like Gar Alperovitz and Martin Sherwin have known for many years, based on declassified U.S. government documents that Japan was going to surrender in 1945 even if the atomic bombs were no dropped and that no invasion would ever have been necessary. Their only condition was that the United States "guaranteed the safety of the Emperor Hirohito," and in the end the Truman administration agreed to this rather than prosecuting him as a war criminal (Sherwin xviii). At the time in the summer of 1945, all the top military and civilian officials of the administration except Secretary of State James Byrnes had already advised Truman to accept the Japanese surrender on this condition. Yet when the Potsdam Declaration was issued in July 1945, Truman and Byrnes removed the condition that would have allowed the emperor to remain in power. As Herwin put it, "for forty years, the…
Alperovitz, Gar. "Hiroshima: Historians Reassess." Foreign Policy, No. 99, Summer 1995: 15-34. Newsweek Interactive, LLC.
Arthur H. Compton to Secretary of War (Secret), June 12, 1945. National Security Archive, George Washington University.
It was much later in 1996 that World Court took up the case of the use of nuclear weapons and declared their use illegal under The Hague and Geneva Convention. "In July 1996, the World court took a stand in its first formal opinion on the legality of nuclear weapons. Two years earlier, the United Nations had asked the Court for an advisory opinion. The General Assembly of the United Nations posed a single, yet profoundly basic, question for consideration. It the threat of use of nuclear weapons on any circumstances permitted under international law? For the first time, the world's pre-eminent judicial authority has considered the question of criminality vis-a-vis the use of a nuclear weapon, and, in doing so, it has come to the conclusion that the use of a nuclear weapon is 'unlawful'. It is also the Court's view that even the threat of the use of…
Kai Bird. Hiroshima's Shadow (Writings on the denial of history & the Smithsonian controversy) Pamphleteer's Press; 1ST edition (May 1998)
" The difference in the Manhattan Project and other companies that were very similar in function was due to the need to become quickly successful and investments of "hundreds of millions of dollars in unproven and hitherto unknown processes and did so entirely in secret. Speed and secrecy were the watchwords of the Manhattan Project." Gosling states that the "one overwhelming advantage" of the project's inherent characteristics because it became possible, under the cloak of secrecy to "make decisions with little regard for normal peacetime political considerations."
Gosling relates the following of the Manhattan Project:
The need for haste clarified priorities and shaped decision making. Unfinished research on three separate, unproven processes had to be used to freeze design plans for production facilities, even though it was recognized that later findings inevitably would dictate changes. The pilot plant stage was eliminated entirely, violating all manufacturing practices and leading to intermittent…
Abshire, David (2002) Vulnerability and Surprise: December 7, 1941. September 11, 2001 Lessons for the 21st Century 2 Mar 2002. Center for the Study of the Presidency. Washington, D.C.
Amato, Ivan (1996) Seventy-Five Years of High Stakes Science and Technology at the Naval Research Laboratory. Pushing the Horizon.
Correll, John T. (1994) the Decision that Launched the Enola Gay Part II the Smithsonian and the Enola Gay. Air Force Association. Online available at http://www.afa.org/media/enolagay/03-02.asp
Frank, Sandy (1993)Atomic Bomb: Ultimate Failure of Diplomacy. Deense Information Systems Agency. The Industrial College of the Armed Forces
However, the dangers of nuclear explosions were not fully understood, and Miss Atomic Bomb represents the epitome of nuclear testing in the Nevada desert, when bombs were tested above ground and hundreds would flock to Las Vegas to watch for the exploding white light and mushroom cloud. Sexuality goes hand in hand with power, and so, mores were beginning to change in America, the most powerful country on earth.
In conclusion, the atomic bomb changed culture throughout America and the world. Americans became more fearful in many ways. This caused accusations, distrust, and a feeling of fear throughout the country that spread to the government and society. It helped create the global Cold War, and led to the war with North Korea and the Vietnam War. It gave America a technical advantage for a while, and helped the growth of technology. Ultimately, it ended the war, but created decades of…
Bert the Turtle Public Service Announcement." Civil Defense Administration. (1950).
Graphic Illustrations of How to Respond to a Nuclear Attack." Major Problems in American History Since 1945. 135-136.
Mass. Gov. John Volpe Constructing Brick Bomb Shelter, 1961." Boston Herald.
McCarthy, Senator Joseph. "Speech at Wheeling, West Virginia. (Feb 09, 1950)." 210-214.
bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, being one of the events that vastly shocked the world, had several consequences in the immediate history at the moment of the bombing and the after years to the contemporary times. It is widely known that it was the bombing that made Japan to surrender and effectively ending the WWII, which was the intended impact at the moment, but it also had several consequences thereafter.
Nations across the world started scrambling for stronger and more lethal weapons and ammunitions after the Hiroshima bombing. The number of nations owning the weapons of mass destruction has increased over time with the nuclear race being the latest of the cravings of nations. The U.S. indeed still leads in the ownership of the warheads and other legally recognized countries to own warheads being China, UK, France and ussia (Macias, A. (2014). These are fevers from the large scale deaths…
Macias, A. (2014). Nine Nations Have Nukes -- Here's How Many Each Country Has.
In Business Insider. Retrieved March 14, 2015, from http://www.businessinsider.com/nine-nations-have-nukes -- heres-how-many-each-country-has-2014-6
Shibata, Y. (2012). Dissociative entanglement: U.S.-Japan atomic bomb discourses by John
Hersey and Nagai Takashi. Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 13(1), 122-137.
This denotes that Japanese culture had been significantly altered
both by its defeat at the hands of the United States and by the occupation
which were to follow. But in reality, the changes in Japan would only be a
first chapter in the narrative of atomic power. Indeed, the devastating
detonations on the ground in Japan were a window into a new frontier in
making warfare. Indeed, on August 6th, 1945, the world entered a new age.
The end of orld ar II, presaged by the nuclear attacks on Hiroshima and
Nagasaki, introduced the world to the nuclear era. The next five decades,
unfolding under the shadow of the Cold ar, would be underscored by the
continuing threat of nuclear war. ith major conflicts in such settings as
the Korean Peninsula, Cuba and Vietnam functioning as remote nation-
building contests between the world's two major superpowers, the United
Biswas, S. (2001). 'Nuclear Apartheid' as Political Position: Race as
aPostcolonial Resource? Alternatives: Global, Local, Political.
Cook, T.F. (1993). Japan at War: An Oral History. New Press.
Debat, A. & Gvosdev, N.K. (2006). America the Vulnerable. The National
Interest. Online at http://nationalinterest.org/Article.aspx?id=12036 .
Dower, J.W. (1974). Ground Zero 1945. MIT: Visualizing Cultures.
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's executive order to contain Japanese-Americans in internment camps could have created mistrust in the Japanese and their descendants in the U.S. Such racial antagonism could have made many Americans feel justified to drop the atomic bomb on Japan.
Earlier Presidential Statement and Other Motivations
The decision to bomb Japan's cities may not be deduced from documents during President Truman's presidency or blamed entirely on President Truman. A respected oston University attorney, Harvey undy, on March 3, 1945, presented to his boss, the Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, the draft of a three-page memorandum by then President Franklin Delano Roosevelt eight weeks before his death. It was to be issued when the atomic bomb was used. It appeared to have been the basis for later statements issued on August 6, 1945 from the White House and the War Department after the bombing of Hiroshima.
1945, President Truman authorized the detonation of an atomic bomb comically nicknamed "Little Boy" on Hiroshima, Japan. Just three days later, the United States launched another atomic bomb called "Fat Man" on Nagasaki. About a week after the Nagasaki explosion, Japan surrendered and the Second orld ar officially came to an end. The two atomic bombs resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of civilians, and many who did not instantly perish suffered long-term ill effects from radiation exposure. However gruesome and catastrophic the event, the dropping of the two atomic bombs on Japan is justifiable because it definitively ended a brutal and ongoing war and it also helped to solidify the United States as a global superpower dedicated to defeating nefarious states including the Soviet Union.
One of the most cogent reasons why the bombs were justified is rooted in the fact that the war had been dragging…
Dahi, Naji. "Dropping the Bomb On Hiroshima and Nagasaki was Never Justified." Antimedia. Retrieved online: http://theantimedia.org/dropping-the-bomb-on-hiroshima-and-nagasaki-was-never-justified/
Mason, Emma. "Was the U.S. Justified in Dropping Atomic Bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki During the Second World War?" History Extra. 6 Aug, 2015. Retrieved online: http://www.historyextra.com/feature/second-world-war/was-us-justified-dropping-atomic-bombs-hiroshima-and-nagasaki-during-second
Murray, Mike. "Hiroshima 60 Years Later." The Soapbox. Vol 3, No. 1, Oct 2005. Retrieved online: https://www.princeton.edu/~soapbox/vol3no1/31murray.html
Weber, Mark. "Was Hiroshima Necessary?" Institute for Historical Review. Retrieved online: http://www.ihr.org/jhr/v16/v16n3p-4_Weber.html
Indeed, there is no moral argument to justify the use of weapons against possible civilians. The nuclear bomb lacks any precision in targeting solely military targets without causing casualties. Although its use cannot be justified from a moral perspective, it can be seen as a means to put an end to a war that had taken millions of lives up to 1945. The impact the attacks had on Japan determined, or at least influenced, the Emperor's decision to surrender unconditionally. In this way, the death of approximately 200 thousand people can be pragmatically viewed as a price for the survival of possibly other millions of people that would have lost their lives should the war had continued.
Overall, it can be concluded that, despite the tragic loss of human lives, the nuclear attacks from Hiroshima and Nagasaki could find justification in the historical context, the economic and geopolitical framework of…
Calvocoressi, Peter. World politics since 1945. Budapest: Open Society Institute, 1996.
Goldschmidt, Bertrand. Le complex atomique: histoire politique de l'energie nucleaire. Paris: Librairie Artheme Fayard, 1980.
Kissinger, Henry. Diplomacy. London: Simon & Schuster, 1995.
Newman, Robert P. Truman and the Hiroshima Cult. Michigan State University Press, 1995.
Anscombe and Truman’s Decision to Drop the Bomb
As G.E.M. Anscombe notes in his essay criticizing Truman’s decision to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the intention was “to kill the innocent as a means to an end” (3)—the end being the unconditional surrender of the Japanese and the termination of WWII in terms favorable to the West. The question of whether those means were moral meets with another question: whether the desired end of the West could have been achieved by any other means. Anscombe points out that Truman’s policy to make war on the innocent stood out in stark contrast to his earlier policy of ensuring that “civil populations would not be attacked” (1). With the war almost at an end, Truman decided to show the full force of American military might and detonate two atomic bombs over Japan. The act was merciless and oriented towards…
The Reflective Essay
President Harry Truman's decision to drop atomic bombs on Japan during World War II
The United States remains the only country in the world that has ever made use of an atomic weapon against another country during a war. In 1945 the U.S. bombed two Japanese cities – Hiroshima and Nagasaki – in what effectively informed the surrender of Japan during World War II. It is important to note that over time, the use of an atomic bomb by the U.S. against Japan has been debated widely. Was the U.S. justified in the deployment of the atomic bombs? What escalated the wartime circumstances to dangerous levels, and could the massive devastation that came about as a consequence be prevented? These are some of the questions that scholars have grapples with on this front. This text revisits the debate and highlights President Harry Truman's decision to drop…
The First Nuclear Test
Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.
This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached…
Adams, Cecil. 1984. "Did John Wayne die of cancer caused by a radioactive movie set?" The Straight Dope. http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a2_016.html (Accessed August 19, 2008).
American Cancer Society. 2006. "Radiation exposure and cancer." Cancer.org. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_1_3X_Radiation_Exposure_and_Cancer.asp?sitearea=PED (Accessed August 19, 2008).
Ball, Howard. 1996. "Downwind from the bomb." The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DEED61438F93AA35751C0A960948260&sec=health&spon=&pagewanted=1 (Accessed August 19, 2008).
Brodersen, Tom. 2002. "Compensation available to fallout cancer victims." Sharlot Hall
) Some even thought (rightly) that it was being spared for something big. However, no one in their wildest imagination was anticipating an atomic bomb attack. Hence, on the morning of the fateful day, the residents of Hiroshima were completely unprepared for an atomic bomb explosion.
Painting of Hell":
Many survivors of the atomic explosion on Hiroshima have likened the experience of the blast and its immediate aftermath to mankind's common perception of hell. A young Japanese sociologist, for example, described the scene of a nearby park after the explosion: "The most impressive thing I saw was some girls, very young girls, not only with their clothes torn off but with their skin peeled off as well...my immediate thought was that this was like the hell I had always read about." (Selden and Selden, xix) Another eye-witness, twenty-year-old Shibayama Hiroshi, recalled entering Hiroshima on foot from his suburban workplace within…
Braw, Monica. The Atomic Bomb Suppressed: American Censorship in Occupied Japan. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1991.
Hume, Mick. "Hiroshima: the 'White Man's Bomb' revisited." Spiked Essays. August 2, 2005. May 24, 2006. http://www.spiked-online.com/Printable/0000000CACD0.htm
Kagan, Donald. "Why America Dropped the Bomb." Commentary Sept. 1995: 17+.
Kamata, Sadao, and Stephen Salaff. "The Atomic Bomb and the Citizens of Nagasaki." Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 14.2 (1982): 38-50.
Because, clearly, we committed acts of terrorism in dropping the bombs on Japan. The intent was to create a massive destruction to horrific that the victims could not help but surrender without further fight - which is, of course, what happened. Our new brand of terrorism is, truly, the only effective manner that certain people have of waging a war. When you do not have the technology or the resources of the largest nations in the world, but you do know how to make and plant a bomb that is likely to kill civilians and military targets as well - do you simply roll over and surrender because you might kill innocent people? If that was the case, then the United States would have never been able to wage war with anyone using bombs and missiles and rockets - the war could have only been waged by spies and snipers.…
Alperovitz, Gar. The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb. New York: Vintage, 1996.
Dr. Megan Sethi
Mokusatsu: Translation lunders and the Atomic omb
The motive behind President Harry Truman's decision to drop two atomic bombs on Japan is one of those most debated topics of 20th century history. Much attention is often focused on two widely held perspectives: first, that the American government was reluctant to invade the Japanese mainland and, second, that the United States wished to preempt the nuclear arms race by establishing itself as the global leader of "atomic diplomacy." However, popular debates almost always fail to acknowledge that a relatively minor linguistic mishap was the real catalyst behind the series of events leading up to Hiroshima and Nagasaki.. Despite the larger ideological motivations most often cited by historians, the "mokusatsu" translation blunder is in fact the actual historical event that directly triggered the dropping of two atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
y the summer of 1945…
Stimson, Henry. "The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb." Harper's Magazine: 97-107.
Shigenori, Togo. The Cause of Japan. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1956.
"Japan Officially Turns Down Allied Surrender Ultimatum." The New York Times 28 July 1945.
World War II
The Use of Atomic Weapons on Japan in WWII
The Second World War officially began in 1939 with the evasion of Poland by Germany. The United States of America did not officially enter this international conflict of epic scale until the Japanese attacked American and European territories in the Pacific in 1941. The war persisted until 1945, culminating with the surrender of Japan and Germany to the U.S. & Allied Forces. During World War II, the world saw the first demonstrations of nuclear weapons -- atomic bombs. There were two infamous attacks on Japan by the U.S. On Nagasaki and Hiroshima, where the atomic bombs were dropped and caused unparalleled damage. The paper will provide a historical and political context within which to consider why the United States of America resorted to the use of atomic bombs upon Japan.
War campaigns waged by Germany and Japan were…
Aviation History. (2006) World War II -- Second Atomic Bomb that Ended the War. Available from http://www.historynet.com/world-war-ii-second-atomic-bomb-that-ended-the-war.htm . 2012 June 25.
Henretta. (2009) Chapters 23 -- 26. Provided.
Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum). After meeting with his advisors over the course of several days, President John F. Kennedy declared a blockade would be put in place around Cuba with the intention of preventing the Soviet Union from supplying Cuba with any more military supplies ("Cuban Missile Crisis," John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum). Shortly thereafter, on October 22, President Kennedy announced, via a television broadcast, the presence of the missiles in Cuba, his decision to "enact a naval blockade around Cuba and made it clear the U.S. was prepared to use military force if necessary to neutralize this perceived threat to national security" ("Cuban Missile Crisis," History Channel). hile Kennedy and the United States were unsure of the reaction this televised announcement would have on Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, both political leaders recognized the threat nuclear war posed and agreed to negotiate a deal ("Cuban Missile Crisis,"…
Cavendish, Richard. "The First Hydrogen Bomb." History Today. Vol. 56, Issue 5 (2006). Web.
23 March 2013.
"Cuban Missile Crisis." History Channel. Web. 23 March 2013.
"Cuban Missile Crisis." John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Web. 23 March
S. during the summer of 1945 had indicated that the Japanese were ready to surrender; that the War could have been ended, if the U.S. had responded by offering the retention of the Japanese Imperial Monarchy instead of insisting on unconditional surrender. Further research on the decoded messages, however, indicate that the militarists still dominated the power hierarchy in Japan and they were willing to fight to the bitter end, despite their precarious military position. They were depending on the war-wariness of the Americans. Their theory being that the United States was unwilling to bear more casualties and any major setback to the American forces during a planned invasion of the Japanese mainland would improve Japan's bargaining position and obtain a peace agreement. In other words, the Japanese military leaders were only agreeable to a ceasefire and unwilling to consider surrender. They wanted to retain the militarist policies of the…
Frank, R.B. (2005). "Why Truman Dropped the Bomb." The Weekly Standard.
08/08/2005, Volume 010, Issue 44.
Truman, the Bomb, and What Was Necessary." (2005). Seattle Times News Services, August 06, 1995. Retrieved on October 4, 2007 at http://archives.seattletimes.nwsource.com/cgi-bin/texis.cgi/web/vortex/display?slug=2135131&date=19950806&query=President+Truman%2C+in+a+speech+on+August+6%2C+1945
Wainstock, D.D. (1996). "The Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb." Praeger: Westport, CT.
Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack
Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…
Anthony Cordesman, Terrorism Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, (New
Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).
Eric Croddy, James Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction, (London: ABC-CLIO, 2005).
That is not to say that theory and application cannot be separated into ethical categories. They can be, but those categorizations are always going to be somewhat skewed by the researcher, because no human being is capable of perfect neutrality. To assume that one can research for the sake of purse science really does involve imaging that scientists are not human beings with their own personal motivations. Moreover, this is not an issue that developed in the post-atomic world. Even before the use of the atomic bomb, scientists were motivated by personal motivations that kept them from being completely neutral. Therefore, it might be better to consider the ethics of scientific discovery from a viewpoint that includes the inherent morality of a discovery. For example, chemotherapy could be used as a weapon with very disastrous results, because its side-effects are devastating and can even be fatal. However, chemotherapies are developed…
In order to be taken seriously in the world and to build understanding, a nation must make good on all their promises, be them positive or negative. it's likely that the Allied forces could have found another means of guaranteeing Japan's surrender with more ingenuity, though perhaps not. They had exhausted standard means of warfare, American lives and they didn't want to continue battle. Japan refused and essentially guaranteed more bloodshed. "hen advisors informed him that the alternative to using the atomic bomb was a million American casualties, he did not hesitate to give the order to use it" (Conlin, 718). America, some could argue, was being realistic and doing "the very bad things" powerful nations have to do to protect their people. And there is a strong argument for supporting the validity of such maneuvers. After America dropped the bomb on Hiroshima and issued a statement that it was…
Bodden, V. . The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Mankato: Creative Education,
Conlin, J.R. The American Past: A Survey of American History: Since 1865. Boston:
Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
(ebehn M.) Another example from the 1700's of the use of bacterial agent in war was in the conflict between ussia and Sweden in 1710. There are reports that the ussians used the bodies of plague victim to create an epidemic among the enemy. (HISTOY of BIOLOGICAL WAFAE)
There is also the infamous incident in American history of the intentional infection of the native Indians with smallpox. "An English general, Sir Jeffery Amherst, surreptitiously provided the Indians loyal to the French with blankets infected with smallpox virus. The resulting epidemic decimated the Indians." (HISTOY of BIOLOGICAL WAFAE)
2.3. The modern technological era and weapons of mass destruction.
With the advent of the modern industrial age there was a rapid development of technology. This was also to lead to the equally rapid growth in the development of even more and more destructive and indiscriminate weapons of destruction. The most well-known and…
HISTORY of BIOLOGICAL WARFARE. Retrieved 17 February, 2007, at http://www.gulfwarvets.com/biowar.htm
History of Epidemics and Plagues (2001) Retrieved 17 February, 2007, at http://uhavax.hartford.edu/bugl/histepi.htm
Johnson T.J. A History of Biological Warfare from 300 B.C.E. To the Present.
Retrieved 17 February, 2007, at http://www.aarc.org/resources/biological/history.asp
Modern-Day Corruption and Graft
The Watergate incident that occurred in President Nixon's Administration is exemplary of modern day corruption. Here, the government under Nixon's presidency was recognized to have sanctioned a sequence of confidential monitoring operations conducted by highly-trained agents that was financed by illegal campaign contributions. The seriousness of the incident was such that ichard Nixon had to resign his presidency.
Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois offered differing philosophies, strategies, and tactics for African-Americans following econstruction. In your opinion, which of these leaders gave the best advice for their times? Why do you feel this way?
Booker T. Washington primarily believed that the approach to deal with the African-Americans after the econstruction was tolerance, adaptation, and self-assistance with maximum attention on the provision of job opportunities for possible advancement of the community W.E.B. Dubois, on the other hand, asserted that the best methodology was the use of campaigning…
Brunner, B. (2011a). Civil Rights Timeline. Accessed 29-12-11 from: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/civilrightstimeline1.html
Brunner, B. (2011b). Heroes of Civil Rights Movement. Accessed 29-12-11 from: http://www.infoplease.com/spot/bhmheroes1.html
Digital History. (2011). Hypertext History: Our Online American History Textbook -- Interactive Timelines. Accessed 25-12-11 from: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/hyper_titles.cfm
Digital History. (2011b). Guided Readings: America in Ferment: The Tumultuous 1960s. Accessed 29-12-11 from: http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/subtitles.cfm?titleID=65
Part 4 -- Just War and Iraq -- it can be very difficult to define intangible philosophies or actions that are both part of the human psyche and that seem obvious. One of these such intangibles is war. What is war? Each historical period has added a new meaning to the word, but the essence of it still remained the same. War is always associated with terror, cruelty and unhappiness. There are really five elements that allow a just war: cause, authority, intention, hope for success, and proportionality. Without becoming too cynical, most scholars would probably agree that the first Iraqi war was Just but the second, under Bush II, was not. There were clear distinctions. In the first, Iraq invaded a soverign country, Kuwait, who asked for aid and protection; in the second, data was never fully disclosed as to the infamous weapons of mass destruction, and later found…
"Information for Research on Euthanasia." December 2009. Euthanasia.com. .
Overview of Arguments Against Euthanasia." January 2010. BBC Ethics Guide. .
Sherwin, M. A World Destroyed. Stanford University Press, 2003.
Cold War Era
Many films about the cold war era, especially the early films, speak out against its ideals, while others support these ideals. elow is a consideration of selected Cold War era films, and how these were influenced by the Cold War.
Dr. Strangelove is subtitled "How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the omb." Its producer/director is Stanley Kubrick and the film was released during 1964. The film is a satire with the aim of exposing Cold War politics that could result in absurd accidents such as a nuclear attack. The more serious film Fail-Safe, released during the same year, has often been compared with Dr. Strangelove. This is discussed in more detail later.
Part of Dr. Strangelove's theme is the evils of technology. This is the culprit causing the disastrous accident. It is interesting that a disclaimer had to accompany the film's release shortly…
Dirks, T. "Fail-Safe." 1996-2002. http://www.destgulch.com/movies/fsafe/
North by Northwest." 1996-2002. http://www.filmsite.org/nort.html
Heise, H. "Dr. Strangelove." Hannover, 1996-2000. http://www.filmsite.org/drst.html
Hinson, H. "The Russia House" film review. The Washington Post, December 12, 1990.
Downside of Nuclear Energy:
Energy production has been a major issue that has attracted huge concerns in the recent past because of the negative environmental impacts associated with generating energy through burning of fossil fuels. A growing interest in nuclear power has significantly increases during this period as it is considered as a real solution to energy security and means of dealing with climate change. Actually, there have been concerns on whether nuclear power is the solution or answer to a warming planet or it is dangerous and expensive to meet the future energy needs of the modern society. hile some people have argued in support of the use of nuclear energy as a solution to these problems, others have opposed such attempts. These varying opinions have been based on arguments and counter-arguments that demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear energy.
Increased Attention on Nuclear Power:
As previously mentioned,…
Adamson, Greg. We All Live on Three Mile Island: The Case against Nuclear Power. Sydney: Pathfinder, 1981. Print.
"The Case against Nuclear Power and the Case for Real Solutions to Energy Security and Climate Change." Greenpeace International. GREENPEACE. Web. 31 May 2014. .
Totty, Michael. "The Case For and Against Nuclear Power." The Wall Street Journal. Dow Jones & Company, 30 June 2008. Web. 31 May 2014. .
Williams, Chris. "The Case against Nuclear Power." ISR - International Socialist Review. The Center for Economic Research and Social Change. Web. 31 May 2014. .
Technology, Society & Politics
The role of technology in society, politics and economics: Analysis of the works of Kuhn, Rhodes, Christensen, Levy and Toulmin
The development of technology with the onset of the Industrial Revolution, capitalism, and modernism created significant changes in the culture and institutions of human societies. Where technology used to be associated with machinery and manufacturing, technology in the 20th century gradually became associated with computer technology. Scientific developments shifted from macro to micro; human power centered from physical labor to intellectual improvement/development. As civilization progressed towards modernism in the 20th century, technology has become more invasive to people's lives. Inevitably, technology has penetrated not only the science sector, but other institutions as well, particularly human society's culture, politics, and economy.
Indeed, the significant role that technology played in the culture, politics, and economy of modern society has been debated and expressed through discourses by famous philosophers…
Christensen, C. (1997). The Innovator's Dilemma: When new technologies cause great firms to fail. Harvard Business School Press.
Kuhn, T. (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Available at: http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/kuhn.htm .
Levy, S. (2001). Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. Penguin.
Rhodes, R. (1995). The Making of the Atomic Bomb. Simon & Schuster.
These massive walls of water travel faster than a commercial jet as they descend upon cities and islands. The energy and force of a Tsunamis is the massive transference of potential energy, caused by the shifting currents of the ocean, into kinetic energy that active pushes the Tsunamis forward. In 2004, one tsunami traveled 375 miles in a mere 75 minutes, about 300 miles per hour. Energy however is not just limited the massive, and the mystical, it is present in every form of life. In our own bodies, energy is the driving force behind why our heart pumps blood and why we have the ability to breathe. We use chemical energy, kinetic energy, heat energy, etc. To power the basic functions of our bodies.
imply put, energy drives every stage of life, it is in attempting to find the factors that influence how energy is used and cultivated that…
Simply put, energy drives every stage of life, it is in attempting to find the factors that influence how energy is used and cultivated that has established the sciences. There are limitations to energy however, detailed by the fundamental laws of physics such as the law of conservation of energy. Scientist's everyday is attempting to fine hone and find the limitations of scientific knowledge. In the hopes that one day we will find an indisputable source of energy that will never wane in force, the dream of "perpetual motion."
Serway, Raymond a.; Jewett, John W. (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers (6th ed.). Brooks/Cole
Walding, Richard, Rapkins, Greg, Rossiter, Glenn (1999-11-01). New Century Senior Physics. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press
Bias of Authors Regarding America Dropping the Atom Bomb on Japan
This paper examines what has been written about the dropping of the atom bomb on Japan, following the attack on Pearl Harbor. The writer details several articles and explores where the writer is coming from and what may have led to a particular slant on a story regarding the bomb. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
THE BIAS OF AUTHORS REGARDING THE ATOM BOMB AND JAPAN
The atom bomb was dropped on Japan to make a statement to the world. It was not just that the U.S. wanted Japan to understand attacking Pearl Harbor was wrong, but Japan was the example the United States made for the world. The message was loud and clear that if the U.S. is attacked the enemy will be hit back ten fold and then some. In addition to it being…
Davis, Raymond. Clear Conscience: The Atom Bomb Vs. The Super Holocaust by Raymond Davis, Dan Winn (Preface)
Roleff, Tamara. The Atom Bomb (Turning Points in World History (Greenhaven Press).)
CREAN Mike, No hate after Hiroshima., The Press (Canterbury, New Zealand), 02-19-2002, pp 4.
Allan H. 'Bud' Selig, U.S. owes world apology for dropping atomic bombs., USA Today, 08-05-1994, pp 12.
In the months following the accident, although questions were raised about possible adverse effects from radiation on human, animal, and plant life in the TMI area, none could be directly correlated to the accident. Thousands of environmental samples of air, water, milk, vegetation, soil, and foodstuffs were collected by various groups monitoring the area. Very low levels of radionuclides could be attributed to releases from the accident. However, comprehensive investigations and assessments by several well-respected organizations have concluded that in spite of serious damage to the reactor, most of the radiation was contained and that the actual release had negligible effects on the physical health of individuals or the environment. (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission).
hile the Three Mile Island incident did not cause the same type of damage as Chernobyl and the destruction from Chernobyl was less than people initially believed it would be, it is clear…
Kinley, D, Ed. Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental, and Socio-Economic Impacts and Recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine.
Chernobyl Forum: Vienna, 2006.
TXU Energy. "Nuclear FAQS." TXUCorp.com. 2008. TXU Energy. 8 June 2008 http://www.txucorp.com/power/faqs.aspx.
United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. "Fact Sheet on the Three Mile Island Accident."
On December 7, 1941, Japan launched an assault on the U.S. Naval Headquarters for the Pacific Fleet, located at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. This assault led directly to the open war between the U.S. And Japan, which several years later would culminate in the U.S. invaded Japan in the Okinawa archipelago and dropping two atomic bombs on Japan. The events that led to the U.S. invasion of Japan are therefore discussed on the macro, meso and micro levels.
If the U.S. invasion of Japan was spurred by Pearl Harbor, then one has to look at the causes of that attack to understand how the U.S. invasion came about. Japan was one of the world's great imperial powers during the decades prior to World War Two. After the rise of Emperor Hirohito in the 1920s, Japan embarked on a mission, believing that it could and should control "Asia,…
History. (2014). Imperial Japan. History.com. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from http://www.history.co.uk/study-topics/history-of-ww2/imperial-japan
History Learning (2014). Operation Downfall. History Learning Site. Retrieved November 23, 2014 from http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/operation_downfall.htm
Rosenberg, J. (2014). Pearl Harbor. About.com. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from http://history1900s.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/Attack-Pearl-Harbor.htm
Tsukiyama, T. (2006). Battle of Okinawa. The Hawai'i Nisei Story. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from http://nisei.hawaii.edu/object/io_1149316185200.html
-29 and -26 bombers were used by U.S. forces to decimate Korean cities through round-the-clock air war using incendiary bombs, delayed demolition explosives and an "infernal jelly" called napalm.[footnoteRef:38] Created secretly during World War II, napalm was basically a mixture of petroleum and a thickening agent, designed to fiercely adhere to the target and severely burn it. Though first used against enemy structures and humans in World War II, napalm was used in the Korean War to devastating effect.[footnoteRef:39] the results of the U.S. air war against North Korea were intentionally catastrophic: at the commencement of the War, North Korea had 22 major cities, 18 of which suffered at least 50% obliteration.[footnoteRef:40] Furthermore, the U.S. government seriously considered using the atomic bombs that had so decisively ended World War II in the Pacific Theater. Particularly in September and October of 1951, -29 bombers were used for multiple runs to drop…
Bizony, Piers. The Space Shuttle: Celebrating Thirty Years of NASA's First Space Plane. Minneapolis, MN: Zenith Press, 2011.
Blight, James G., and Janet M. Lang. The Fog of War: Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.
Boyne, Walter J. Beyond the Wild and Blue: A History of the United States Air Force, 1947-2007, Second Edition. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 2007.
Chant, Christopher. The World's Greatest Aircraft. New York, NY: Crescent Publishing, 1991.
While many argued that it was a mistake the attack happened anyway and the result was a punishment that had never been experienced before in the history of the world. The dropping of an atomic bomb changed the strategic thinking of Japan for the rest of history. Today, and for the past five decades the nation has spent its energies trying to be a friendly ally to America and Great Britain instead of trying to become more powerful than they are. It has focused its attention on technological development and assisting the world in moving forward and not on which nation has the most power, the most money or the best military forces. The strategy behind the attack on Pearl Harbor was founded in the fear of economic and trade threats. Now the nation addresses those fears through advances in technology and the sharing of those advances with the nations…
Alperovitz, Gar (1995) Hiroshima: historians reassess. (atomic bombing)
Honan, William (1991) Who Planned Pearl Harbor?;a British Expert Warned the World, but Only Japan Remembered.The Washington Post
Fallows, James (1991) the mind of Japan. (Japanese history) (Special Report: Pearl Harbor: 50 Years) (Cover Story) U.S. News & World Report
Cold War and Film
Generally speaking, the Cold War has been depicted as an era of spy games and paranoia in popular films from the 1960s to the present day, but the reality of the era was much more complex. The Cold War was a period of military and political tension from 1947 to 1991, or from the end of WW2 to the collapse of the Soviet Union, in which the "politics of war" masked the business and social agendas of multinationals and ideologues. The era was marked by myriad issues: East-West mistrust, proxy wars, espionage, the threat of nuclear war, domestic and foreign propaganda, the rise of the military-industrial complex and multinational corporations, assassinations, detente, de-colonization, new nationalism, neo-colonialism, the vying for control of resources, alliances (NATO, Warsaw Pact), and an inculcation of the "deep state." [footnoteRef:1] It can be divided into five basic periods: 1947-53, 1953-62, 1962-79, 1979-85,…
Dominik, Andrew, dir. Killing Them Softly. NY: Weinstein Company, 2012. Film.
Eliot, T.S. "Burnt Norton." The Four Quartets. Web. 10 May 2015.
Frankenheimer, John, dir. Seven Days in May DVD Commentary. LA: Warner Home
They did not have any problems fighting with their enemies that had inferior technologies but when the United States came into the picture, Japan saw itself fighting not only a technologically superior enemy but one with information / intelligence gathering capabilities unbeknownst of in previous warfare history. In addition, Japan indeed woke up a "sleeping dragon" that not only was capable of evening the battlefield but mobilizing all efforts to withstand Japan's aggression in the pacific theatre of operations.
The Pacific war provided a venue to demonstrate the technological and information superiority of the United States against the Japanese Imperial forces. The use of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is the ultimate proof of these abilities but the deployment and utilization thereof could never have been possible without the people behind the invention, manufacturing, production, and implementation of these advanced military technologies and information superiority. Thus, it has…
Advameg, Inc. (2011). Science and technology -- World War II and the early Cold War. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from http://www.americanforeignrelations.com/O-W/Science-and-Technology-World-war-ii-and-the-early-cold-war.html
Grunden, W.E. (2005). Secret weapons and World War II: Japan in the shadow of big science. Wichita, KS: University Press of Kansas.
Harper, M.M., Jeffries, J.W., Tuttle, W.M. Jr., Lichtenstein, N., & Sitkoff, H. (2007, October). World War II and the American home front: A National Historic Landmarks theme study. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from http://www.nps.gov/nhl/themes/HomefrontStudy.pdf
Mercado, S. (2009, January 7). "Book review: Nisei linguists: Japanese-Americans in the military intelligence service during World War II by James C. McNaughton." Intelligence in Recent public literature. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/vol-52-no-4/nisei-linguists.html
Instead, they carried out their missions without question, and effectively won the war with their attention to detail and sense of duty. The book makes the reader question their own sense of duty, and if they would have the resolve to fight in a war like this if it happened again. It is a powerful book, partly because it is emotional, and partly because the reader realizes that these people are real, their duty was real, and that our freedom really rests on their shoulders.
Ultimately, this is a book about dying. It follows the last days of Greene's father, but it also looks at the bigger picture of America's World War II vets and how many we are losing every day. It also looks at the lives of the Japanese lost in the atomic bomb explosions, and talks about how many more lives could have been lost if the…
World War II. World War II was a turning point in world history, and brought together many allies to fight strong opponents for world domination. The War was supposed to be the "last" world war fought, but other conflicts since that time show the world is still a volatile and unsettled place, and it seems there will always be wars fought in this world.
World War II was fought on two major fronts -- Europe and Asia. There was also fighting in North Africa, and many Pacific Islands. The initial war began in 1939 when German dictator Adolph Hitler invaded Poland. England and France had pledged to support Poland as Hitler continued to take over countries in Europe, such as Austria and Czechoslovakia in the late 1930s. When Hitler invaded Poland,
France and England issued ultimatums to Germany which were ignored, and the war had officially begun, even though actual…
Boatner, Mark M. Biographical Dictionary of World War II. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1996.
Divine, Robert A., ed. Causes and Consequences of World War II. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969.
Kitchen, Martin. A World in Flames: A Short History of the Second World War in Europe and Asia, 1939-1945. London: Longman, 1990.
No one can compensate the parents who lost their children to after-effects of an atomic explosion.
This war and several others that followed opened doors for more military conflicts and greater destruction of the so-called enemy. Who is our enemy? If people of the other countries are our enemies, why are we ever taught not to discriminate? For surely when the war begins, we have to give up all that we were previously taught and stand united to destroy the weaker enemy completely. The world as it stands today may have underpinnings of a Third World War at any point of time in the future. So, it is fairly correct to state that all wars are wrong. Why some countries or nations feel proud of the wars they fought and do not believe all wars are wrong are basically shortsighted, selfish and narrow minded. They probably see the world as…
1) [Sullivan-Wiley K. & Eisentein J. How are the effects of World War I similar to the effects of World War II. Retrieved February 16, 2005 from: http://www.pomperaug.com/bass/a_block/kirajess/kirajess.html]
NPT -Non-Proliferation Treaty
Ever since the First World War, various countries in the western world had started researching in military weapons and artillery in order to strengthen their country's security. Newer and more advanced weapons continued to be inducted in the armed forces of developed and industrialized nations in the world particularly Soviet Union, United States of America, United Kingdom, Japan and Germany. While all these countries had started their researches for development of nuclear weapons as early as 1930s, the United States of America officially emerged as the first country to have nuclear weapons developed.
While development of nuclear weapons was initially considered as an individual nation's effort to strengthen its country's security and sovereignty, it was in August 1945 when the idea of nuclear proliferation and nuclear warfare alarmed the international community. This was when the United States of America bombed to cities in Japan, Hiroshima and Nagasaki,…
Alley, R. 2000, 'Reinvigorating Nuclear Disarmament', New Zealand International Review, vol. 25, no.5, pp.11.
The Disarmament Debate: The Fate of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 2005, Harvard International Review, vol.27, no. 2, pp. 72+.
Litman, L. 2003, 'Cleaning House: Dirty Bombs and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty', Harvard International Review, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 32+.
Lund, M. 2009, 'The Eighty Percent and Twenty Percent Solutions to Nuclear Proliferation', Brigham Young University Law Review, vol. 2009, no. 3, pp. 741+.
Jackie Cabasso, executive director of the Western States Legal Foundation, an environmental and disarmament advocacy group, fears that ongoing and developing technology gives the U.S. capacity to design super nuclear armament in the near future, and that by maintaining these "weapons research, development, testing and production capabilities at the laboratories" (Center for Defense Information (1995)) we are providing the breeding ground for a future Apocalypse.
Charles Curtis, Under-Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy of the Clinton administration, admitted that nuclear weapons research was still ongoing, although this was not directed towards designing new weapons bur rather to sustaining the old. Given the uncertainty of current global affairs, he felt strongly that America's security needs to be in place.
In 1995, a Special Task Force on Alternative Futures for the Department of Energy National Laboratories, also known as the Galvin Task Force met and its specific recommendations regarding the nuclear…
Biello, D."A Need for New Warheads?" Scientific American, November 2007
Center for Defense Information (1995) Managing America's nuclear arsenal http://www.cdi.org/adm/Transcripts/826/
Hansen, Chuck. U.S. Nuclear Weapons: The Secret History. Arlington, TX: Aerofax, 1988.
MacKenzie, Donald A. Inventing Accuracy: A Historical Sociology of Nuclear Missile Guidance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990
The Depiction of Japanese Victimization in Gojira and Voice of Hibakusha
World War II left the countries involved devastated and permanently changed. This became true for Japan on August 6th 1945 when the U.S. army dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima in retaliation to an earlier attack by the Japanese. Huge areas of land were destroyed and the thousands of lives were ended. Japan has carried the weight of this tragedy for decades and struggled with the idea of their victimization. This struggle plays out in the art, literature and film of post-war Japan. In the documentary Voice of Hibakusha, the victims of the bombings spoke about their experiences and how it changed their lives. The 1954 film Gojira shows Japan being once again victimized on a large scale, but this threat comes not only as a side effect of war, but from Japan's past. Both works address…
McCarthy and the Cold War
One aspect of history is that a country's so-called "friend" one day, can be an enemy the next and visa versa. The United States and Soviet Union during World War II joined ranks against the real threat of Nazi Germany. However, it did not take long after the end of the war for ussia and the United States to once again bully each other. Even before the final surrender of Germany in 1945, the two super powers rapidly found themselves in a new military and diplomatic rivalry. Meanwhile, in the United States, the economy was taking time to build and unemployment was growing. Thoughts of the Depression loomed in people's minds. The friction with the ussians, which would receive the name of Cold War, did not help. Yet it did create a scapegoat for fears and feelings of paranoia. As the tensions between the U.S.…
Barson, M. Red Scared (2001). San Francisco: Chronicle.
Bennett, D. (1988). Party of Fear. New York: Random House.
Halberstam, D. (1993). The Fifties. New York: Villard.
Lewis, P. The Fifties (1978) New York:. J.B. Lippincott, 1978.
Positives and Negatives from a Century of Aviation
Little did the Wright brothers know, on December 17, 1903, when they successfully tested their flying machine at Kitty Hawk, what an influential industry they were launching. They could not have known in their wildest dreams that ninety-nine years later, an airport called Chicago O'Hare would facilitate some 383,362 landing and takeoff cycles each year. Or that by 1967, sixty-four years later, aerospace would become America's leading industrial employer, with some 1,484,000 employees, and sales of $27 billion, according to author Donald Pattillo (Pushing the Envelope). Nor could the Wright brothers know that a man would fly to the moon, and walk on the moon, by 1969, just sixty-six years after that little plane at Kitty Hawk left solid ground for a few triumphant seconds.
ut though the Wright brothers' crude little aircraft got the aerospace industry off the ground to become…
Biddle, Wayne. Barons of the Sky: From Early Flight to Strategic Warfare. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.
Bilstein, Roger E. Flight in America: From the Wrights to the Astronauts. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984.
Knott, Richard C. A Heritage of Wings: An Illustrated History of Navy Aviation. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1997.
Miller, Jerry. Nuclear Weapons and Aircraft Carriers: How the Bomb Saved Naval Aviation. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution, 2001.
Uranium Trioxide (UO3)
Uranium trioxide occurs as an orange powder and is the form of uranium identified in the colored glass found evidencing its use as a paint color component dating back to the First Century AD (Krauss, 2001).
Atkins, P.W. (1995). Periodic Kingdom: A Journey into the Land of the Chemical
Elements. Basic Books: New York.
Cirincione, J. (2007). Bomb Scare: The History & Future of Nuclear Weapons. Columbia University Publishing: New York.
Feynman, .P. (1997). Six Easy Pieces: Essentials of Physics Explained by Its Most
Brilliant Teacher 6th Edition. Addison-Wesley: eading, MA.
Foster, a.. And Wright, .L. (1968). Basic Nuclear Engineering. Allyn & Bacon:
Krauss L.M. (2001). Atom: An Odyssey from the Big Bang to Life on Earth…and
Beyond. Little, Brown, & Co.: New York.
Lamarsh, J.. (1975). Introduction to Nuclear Engineering. Addison-Wesley: eading,
Liverhant, S.E. (1960). Elementary Introduction to Nuclear eactor Physics. Wiley…
Atkins, P.W. (1995). Periodic Kingdom: A Journey into the Land of the Chemical
Elements. Basic Books: New York.
Cirincione, J. (2007). Bomb Scare: The History & Future of Nuclear Weapons. Columbia University Publishing: New York.
Feynman, R.P. (1997). Six Easy Pieces: Essentials of Physics Explained by Its Most
By the late 1970s, the Cold War had wound down, and the Soviets posed less of a threat than they had over the past three decades. Many civil rights for blacks, women, and minorities in America had been won during the Cold War. Many other hard fights were still to come, but ultimately, the Cold War marked the height of American fear of aggression, and American gains in civil rights.
In conclusion, the Cold War was a major contributor to civil rights for a number of reasons. Civil rights were hard won, and many people gave their lives in the ultimate sacrifice to obtain freedom and equality. Civil rights came about for a number of reasons, but pressure from world forces on American democracy was one reason that civil rights became so important to many political leaders. Without pressure from much of the world, civil rights may have been even…
Dudziak, Mary L. Cold War Civil Rights: Race and the Image of American Democracy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000.
Fairclough, Adam. "The Cold War and the Color Line: American Race Relations in the Global Arena." History Today Nov. 2002: 84+.
Graham, Hugh Davis. "The Civil Rights Commission: The First 40 Years." Civil Rights Journal 2.1 (1997): 6.
McAuliffe, Mary Sperling. Crisis on the Left: Cold War Politics and American Liberals, 1947-1954. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1978.
Cold War, the president of the United States was often referred to as the "leader of the free world." This connotes an image of someone with an unsurpassed amount of power and responsibility. From 1861 to 1969, the role of President of the United States progressed from being that of the leader of a moderately powerful, factious republic to being one who was almost singularly responsible for the defense of most of the world's population against Communist tyranny. To understand this evolution requires an broader inquiry into the nature of these leaders and the constantly changing polity that they were elected to represent.
Abraham Lincoln, Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Delano Roosevelt bear the distinction of having lead the country into its largest conflicts during this time frame, which makes them among the most intriguing to historians. Although McKinley, Lyndon Johnson and Truman were also 'wartime' Presidents, their respective conflicts were…
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George F. Kennan, American Diplomacy. Ayer, 1975
Carl Degler, Out of Our Past. Harpercollins, 1986
WW2 Momentum Shift 1942-1944
One of the events that rocked the world and consequently shaped the world was the WWII that commenced effectively in 1939 and ended in 1945. It is however worth noting that some of the conflicts that eventually ended up in the culmination of the WWII started much earlier. The WWII parse involved majority of the nations, including the powerful nations at that time taking sides and aligning themselves and their military and diplomatic allegiance to either the Allies or the Axis, each side forming their combined forces. The commanding forces in the Allies were France, Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States and to some little extent China (odye-Smith J., 2014). One the other side of the divide the Axis were Italy, Germany and Japan. This war was largely seen as a continuation of the WWI bearing the 20 years of unresolved disputes that emanated from…
Rodye-Smith J., (2014). World War II. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/648813/World-War-II
Rogole J.A., (2002). The Strategic Bombing Campaign against Germany during World War II. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=10&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CGoQFjAJ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fetd.lsu.edu%2Fdocs%2Favailable%2Fetd-0413102-132317%2Funrestricted%2FRigole_thesis.pdf&ei=rnTVU7T2HOHj4QTl6YCwCA&usg=AFQjCNGr0G5t3esuMHkyG6efcmsHwe2lVg&sig2=f4uVuDX2XSnYn89JcB0wYA&bvm=bv.71778758,d.bGE
Yale Law School, (2008). The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Chapter 7 - The Attacks. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/mp07.asp
S. system of communication was responsible for far too many problems, including the presidential conception of the value of the leader, Nhu Ding Diem. Key factors in this war were the misuse of technology in the south and intelligent use of simple technology by the north. The Battle of Diem Bin Phu was a classic miscalculation when the French thought that artillery could not be brought against them through the jungle. The North Vietnamese did just that, manually hauling big guns on jungle trails and over mountains, then followed with ammunition on bicycles. In addition they hid the guns in tunnels and set off charges in the jungle to confuse the French as to the sources of shelling.
After the French left, the U.S. set up Nhu Ding Diem as president of South Vietnam. Between him and his brother, they alienated more than half the population in short order with…
Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109396003
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Bull, Stephen. Encyclopedia of Military Technology and Innovation. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2004. Questia. 8 Oct. 2006 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106977476 .
Under the terms of the Gulf War cease-fire, Iraq was supposed to destroy all its weapons of mass destruction. It has refused to do so.
Saddam Hussain is known to possess biological and chemical weapons and almost certainly hiding large stockpiles -- apart from American and British intelligence sources, this has been confirmed by neutral observers
He has tried to develop nuclear weapons before and will be in a position to do so some time in future if not stopped. There is evidence to support the this fact as he has bought and attempted to buy equipment used in development of nuclear weapons as well as weapons grade uranium
He has also acquired ballistic missiles that enables delivery of these weapons and is trying to upgrade their capability and range
He has consistently refused, obstructed and hindered inspection of his weapons development facilities to UN observers
Blair's Speech to Parliament": Raw Data. Fox News Web Site. September 24, 2002. Retrieved on November 30, 2002 at http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,63921,00.html
Does Saddam have weapons of mass destruction -- and would he use them?" (2002). USA TODAY. Retrieved on November 30, 2002 at http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/iraq-q09.htm
Falkenarth, Richard. (1998)"Unconventional Arms: The Threat of Biological and Chemical Weapons." Article in Microsoft Encyclopedia Encarta, 2002.
Rothschild, Matthew. (2002). "The Case Against the Iraq War." A speech by, Editor of The Progressive Magazine. August 28, 2002. Retrieved on November 30, 2002 at http://www.progressive.org/webex/wxiraq082802.html
Nuclear Fuel Cycle is a set of different processes that utilize nuclear materials and then returns them to their initial state, in a cyclical manner. It begins with the mining of naturally occurring nuclear materials from the environment, and ends with safe and proper disposal of nuclear waste products back to the environment. Production of energy from Uranium requires several unique processes. One of the terms used in this production of nuclear energy is front end, referring to the entire set of processes involved in making nuclear energy from the uranium ore in the nuclear fuel cycle. The processes involved are:  mining,  crushing,  processing,  enrichment, and  the fabrication of fuel. After being used to produce energy, the nuclear material is now known as spent fuel. The spent fuel has to be converted in a reprocessing or storage facility if the company wants to recycle it.…
Carlsen, B.W., Phathanapirom, U., Schneider, E., Collins, J.S., Eggert, R.G., Jordan, B., ... & Yacout, L. (2013). Environmental Impacts, Health and Safety Impacts, and Financial Costs of the Front End of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (No. INL/EXT-14-32302). Idaho National Laboratory (INL).
CAS. College of Agricultural Sciences. (2009). Manufacturing Fuel Pellets from Biomass. Retrieved from: http://extension.psu.edu/publications/uc203
ELAW. Environmental Law Alliance Worldwide. (2015). Overview of Mining and its Impacts. Retrieved from: https://www.elaw.org/files/mining-eia-guidebook/Chapter1.pdf
IAEA (2006). International Atomic Energy Agency. Storage and Disposal of Spent Fuel and High Level Radioactive Waste. Retrieved from: http://www.iaea.org/About/Policy/GC/GC50/GC50InfDocuments/English/gc50inf-3-att5_en.pdf
A nuclear meltdown would be a local catastrophe requiring evacuation (and likely permanent abandonment) of the surrounding communities, but that risk is not substantially different in magnitude from a burst hydroelectric dam, or from the aggregate harm of continuing to pollute our atmosphere with fossil fuel waste products..
Certainly, nuclear energy requires strict regulation, careful facilities planning, and myriad other equally important practical considerations for administrating the industry safely so that its risks are minimized. However, the emotional objection to peaceful uses of nuclear power is based on incorrect assumptions about what those risks actually are, as well as on the illogical association of the beneficial uses of the technology with its destructive potential used in weapons of war.
In the case of nuclear power, the ethical considerations are closely related to the logical analysis. Once it is established that the emotional objection to nuclear power on overall…
Gundersen, P. (1999) the Handy Physics Answer Book.
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The second signing statement put forth the Bush view that "the new legislation is not enforceable in U.S. courts and that it terminates all pending habeas corpus actions by Guantanamo Bay detainees."
POINT #4: CONCLUSION: MUSEUMS & the PUBLIC'S RIGHT to KNO
Several U.S. military personnel have been convicted and sent to prison for the abuses that took place in Abu Ghraib. But whether or not future museums will allow photos of Abu Ghraib abuses in exhibits remains to be seen. In 1995, when the Smithsonian Institution planned to show an well-illustrated exhibit depicting "the role the atomic bomb played in ending II" (Bernstein, 1995), pressure from 80 members of Congress, the Air Force Association, the American Legion, and others, caused the Smithsonian to reverse plans, according to an article in the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. "hy were the a-Bombs used?" was one question the exhibit was originally planning…
Bernstein, Barton J. "Misconceived patriotism: the Smithsonian's critics should have defended
Freedom rather than censorship." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists 51.3 (1995): 4-5.
Crook, John. "New U.S. Legislation Prohibits Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment,
Restricts Habeas Corpus Petitions by Guantanamo Detainees, and Establishes Limited
Strangely, America's role as policeman in Europe actually led to its becoming involved in military conflicts in Southeast Asia. Although the U.S. did not fight the Soviet Union directly in Korea or Vietnam, both conflicts were due to the U.S.'s policy of defeating the spread of Communism no matter where it might occur. Fears of escalation during both the Korean and Vietnam conflicts caused the U.S. To adopt a military strategy that favored limited warfare (Brodie).
The Cold ar had a tremendous impact on the growth of the United States as an industrial and world military power. America's presence throughout the world militarily and the dependence of estern Europe and Japan on the American economy for the sustenance of their own economies caused America's political and economic influence to expanded substantially. Beginning with the Berlin airlift (Reeves) where the United States provided food and other vital items to est Berliners…
Brodie, Bernard. War and Politics. New York: Macmillan Co., 1973.
Comstock, Douglas A. "NASA's Legacy of Technology Transfer and Prospects for Future Benefits." AIAA Space Conference & Exposition. Long Beach, CA: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2007. 1-9.
Cox, M. "The Cold War as a system." Critique (1986): 17-82.
Lieber, Keir A. "The Rise of U.S. Nuclear Primacy." Foreign Affairs (2006): 42-67.
interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…
'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.
Available from . [24 Aug 2013].
Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.
Planet of the apes series is one of the most successful series in American cinematic history. Product of the anti-Vietnam War sentiment, open racial tension, the War on Poverty, fear of nuclear war and lingering Cold War anti-USSR passions, the first 5 films in the series were also based on knowledge of and research about apes up to and including the 1960's and 1970's. Rise of the planet of the apes was released 38 years later and placed its emphasis squarely on apes as a valuable subject rather than a symbol.
Development of the Planet of the Apes Series up to and Including Rise of the Planet of the Apes in Historical Context
Planet of the Apes
Planet of the apes (Schaffner, 1968), is the first in the film series. In the film, 4 astronauts travel to and crash on a strange planet. Prior to the crash, Stewart, the white…
Beneath the Planet of the Apes
Beneath the planet of the apes (Post, 1970), the first sequel to Planet of the apes, shares the historical context of the first film and was propelled by the added impetus of the first film's financial success (Greene, 1999, p. 48b). Based on the story by Mort Abrahams and Paul Dehn, Paul Dehn wrote the screenplay for Beneath the planet of the apes (Greene, 1999, p. 22). In this film, a white astronaut named John Brent has been sent to find Taylor. Brent's ship crashes onto the same planet and Brent finds Nova alone in the desert. Brent and Nova are both captured by the apes but escape, travel to the Forbidden Zone and find Taylor in Manhattan, which is now a bombed-out underground city. Taylor is being held hostage by radiation-induced mutants who communicate by mental telepathy and worship an atomic bomb as God's instrument. A gorilla army led by General Ursus invades the city and shoots Taylor. Taylor's final act is detonation of the atomic bomb, which destroys the entire planet.
Still following the controversial topics of the 1960's - distinct anti-Vietnam War sentiment, open racial
Japan and Korea Occupation
How and why did the Allied occupations of Japan and Korea differ?
Allied occupations of Japan and Korea date backs to year 1945 when orld ar II got ended. Both the occupations occurred as a consequence of victory of allies over the axis. The allied powers included the United States of America, United Kingdom, Soviet Union, France, and China whereas axis included Germany, Empire of Japan, and Italy (Schaller 1985, 1-11). The causes and effects of both these occupations were dependent on occupation of Japan by the allied forces. This paper will investigate and analyze that how and why did the allied occupations of Japan and Korea differ? After stating a brief hypothesis of this study, the paper will briefly inform the reader about the background that led to both these occupations. This will set the stage for understanding that how and why did both of…
Dower, John W. Embracing defeat: Japan in the wake of World War II. WW Norton & Company, 2000.
Molasky, Michael S. The American occupation of Japan and Okinawa: Literature and memory. Routledge, 2001.
Oberdorfer, Don. The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History. Addison-Wesley, 1997.
Schaller, Michael. The American occupation of Japan: the origins of the Cold War in Asia. Oxford University Press, 1985.
deteriorating effects of wars. The line of reasoning follows the commonly used Taulmin's Model. The orks Cited four sources in MLA format.
All wars are not wrong?
The world that we live in is estimated to have the age of 5000 years plus. All wars throughout the history of the world have ended in terrible devastation and extensive destruction in terms of economic, social and political repercussions for the countries and their people (Sullivan- iley & Eisentein) [Sullivan-iley K. & Eisentein J. How are the effects of orld ar I similar to the effects of orld ar II. Retrieved February 08, 2003 at http://www.pomperaug.com/bass/a_block/kirajess/kirajess.html]
Different wars led to different end results. In some cases, the economies crashed such as the Great Depression in the United States of America after the orld ar 1 which reduced the value of the currency to mere its paper, cost of living escalated beyond human…
Sullivan-Wiley K. & Eisentein J. How are the effects of World War I similar to the effects of World War II. Retrieved February 08, 2003 at http://www.pomperaug.com/bass/a_block/kirajess/kirajess.html
Koeller D. The World Wars: 1900- 1989. Retrieved February 08, 2003 from: http://campus.northpark.edu/history/WebChron/World/WorldWars.html. Why World War II?. Last updated 29 Dec. 1999. The History Ring. 2 Mar. 2000.
Reynolds C. What is the Taulmin's Model? Retrieved February 08, 2003 at http://www.concentric.net/~Creyn266/COMM335/Toulmin.htm
It would likely also require the diplomatic alignment of the U.S. with United Nations interests, which has traditionally not been a guarantee. This would combine with the established potential of counter-terrorist cells to strike on U.S. soil to place unprecedented emphasis on securing U.S. borders from entities clearly designated as enemies of the U.S. Such an enemy list that includes a nuclear power such as North Korea could therefore pose grave consequences for the U.S. And for the entire world.
The history of North Korea's nuclear program has frequently been shrouded in secrecy, sheltered from the IAEA and denounced by the United Nations Security Council. With the announcement of the arrival of the nation as a nuclear power, there is little for North Korea to shield from the rest of the world beyond the tenuous nature of its political machine. It remains to be seen if North Korea can maintain…
Globalsecurity.org. Weapons of Mass Destruction: Nuclear Weapons Program.
McDonald, Mark. "North Korea Suggests Libya Should Have Kept Nuclear Program"
New York Times (New York), March 24, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/25/world/asia/25korea.html