Atomic Bomb Essays (Examples)

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Atomic Testing Though Modern People

Words: 11346 Length: 35 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33269463

The First Nuclear Test

Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.

This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached a phenomenal height, variously estimated as 50,000 to 70,000 feet. It remained towering over the northeast corner of the site for several hours." Even at that time, the government was aware of the potentially adverse affects of exposure to radioactive fallout; initial testing looked at radiation levels in houses surrounding…… [Read More]


Adams, Cecil. 1984. "Did John Wayne die of cancer caused by a radioactive movie set?" The Straight Dope. (Accessed August 19, 2008).

American Cancer Society. 2006. "Radiation exposure and cancer." (Accessed August 19, 2008).

Ball, Howard. 1996. "Downwind from the bomb." The New York Times. (Accessed August 19, 2008).

Brodersen, Tom. 2002. "Compensation available to fallout cancer victims." Sharlot Hall
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Japanese Attitude Towards the Atomic

Words: 4551 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64562654

) Some even thought (rightly) that it was being spared for something big. However, no one in their wildest imagination was anticipating an atomic bomb attack. Hence, on the morning of the fateful day, the residents of Hiroshima were completely unprepared for an atomic bomb explosion.

Painting of Hell":

Many survivors of the atomic explosion on Hiroshima have likened the experience of the blast and its immediate aftermath to mankind's common perception of hell. A young Japanese sociologist, for example, described the scene of a nearby park after the explosion: "The most impressive thing I saw was some girls, very young girls, not only with their clothes torn off but with their skin peeled off as immediate thought was that this was like the hell I had always read about." (Selden and Selden, xix) Another eye-witness, twenty-year-old Shibayama Hiroshi, recalled entering Hiroshima on foot from his suburban workplace within hours of the bombing and encountering a scene reminiscent of "a painting of hell." Apart from the scores of dead bodies he saw floating in the Kyobashi River with "faces swollen to twice their normal size," there was one sight the young man believed he would never forget. He saw…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Braw, Monica. The Atomic Bomb Suppressed: American Censorship in Occupied Japan. Armonk, NY M.E. Sharpe, 1991.

Hume, Mick. "Hiroshima: the 'White Man's Bomb' revisited." Spiked Essays. August 2, 2005. May 24, 2006.

Kagan, Donald. "Why America Dropped the Bomb." Commentary Sept. 1995: 17+.

Kamata, Sadao, and Stephen Salaff. "The Atomic Bomb and the Citizens of Nagasaki." Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 14.2 (1982): 38-50.
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Decision to Use the Atomic

Words: 1585 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58194182

Because, clearly, we committed acts of terrorism in dropping the bombs on Japan. The intent was to create a massive destruction to horrific that the victims could not help but surrender without further fight - which is, of course, what happened. Our new brand of terrorism is, truly, the only effective manner that certain people have of waging a war. When you do not have the technology or the resources of the largest nations in the world, but you do know how to make and plant a bomb that is likely to kill civilians and military targets as well - do you simply roll over and surrender because you might kill innocent people? If that was the case, then the United States would have never been able to wage war with anyone using bombs and missiles and rockets - the war could have only been waged by spies and snipers.

Terrorism, then, is a political construct used to brand a particular enemy with a very negative brush. It is an implied immaturity, a "cowardice" that a group of fighters will refuse to engage a clearly and overwhelmingly superior military and instead kill civilians - which seems to have a greater…… [Read More]


Alperovitz, Gar. The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb. New York: Vintage, 1996.
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Manhattan Project a Bomb Heard Around the World

Words: 1587 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3890229

Manhattan Project, and examines whether or not we should have dropped the bomb associated with the project.

The Manhattan Project: An Examination

In 1939, the United States got word through various channels of intelligence that the Nazis in Germany were planning to develop an atomic bomb. This was startling and upsetting news for the United States, as the prospect of the Nazis with the most powerful weapon in the world was not a comforting one. As a result, the United States began its own project to develop and build an atomic bomb before the Nazis or the Japanese did. The United States began this project in 1942 under the Army Corps of Engineers. It was the atomic bomb that was developed during this effort, an effort known as the Manhattan Project, that was eventually dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This paper examines the history behind the Manhattan Project and analyzes whether or not the United States should have dropped the bomb it developed.

General Leslie R. Groves, who was the Chief of Construction of the Army Corps of Engineers, was selected to head up the Manhattan Project. The Manhattan Project faced some strong hurdles right from the very beginning, and…… [Read More]


Bracchini, Miguel A. The History and Ethics Behind the Manhattan Project.

University of Texas Press: Austin, Texas. 1997.

Hewlett, Richard G. And Anderson, Oscar E. The New World: A History of the United States Atomic Energy Commission, Volume 1, 1939/1946. U.S. AEC

Technical Information Center: Oak Ridge, Tennessee. 1972.
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World War II the Use of Atomic

Words: 660 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94462779

World War II

The Use of Atomic Weapons on Japan in WWII

The Second World War officially began in 1939 with the evasion of Poland by Germany. The United States of America did not officially enter this international conflict of epic scale until the Japanese attacked American and European territories in the Pacific in 1941. The war persisted until 1945, culminating with the surrender of Japan and Germany to the U.S. & Allied Forces. During World War II, the world saw the first demonstrations of nuclear weapons -- atomic bombs. There were two infamous attacks on Japan by the U.S. On Nagasaki and Hiroshima, where the atomic bombs were dropped and caused unparalleled damage. The paper will provide a historical and political context within which to consider why the United States of America resorted to the use of atomic bombs upon Japan.

War campaigns waged by Germany and Japan were widely successful. Germany successfully invaded and conquered several critical European territories, providing them with substantial tactical advantage and a serious boost to their morale. Allied with countries such as Japan, who additionally saw military victories, the war was moving in their favor. Because WWII was one of the largest wars…… [Read More]


Aviation History. (2006) World War II -- Second Atomic Bomb that Ended the War. Available from . 2012 June 25.

Henretta. (2009) Chapters 23 -- 26. Provided.
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Hydrogen Bomb the 1940s Introduced

Words: 696 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97595256

Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum). After meeting with his advisors over the course of several days, President John F. Kennedy declared a blockade would be put in place around Cuba with the intention of preventing the Soviet Union from supplying Cuba with any more military supplies ("Cuban Missile Crisis," John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum). Shortly thereafter, on October 22, President Kennedy announced, via a television broadcast, the presence of the missiles in Cuba, his decision to "enact a naval blockade around Cuba and made it clear the U.S. was prepared to use military force if necessary to neutralize this perceived threat to national security" ("Cuban Missile Crisis," History Channel). While Kennedy and the United States were unsure of the reaction this televised announcement would have on Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, both political leaders recognized the threat nuclear war posed and agreed to negotiate a deal ("Cuban Missile Crisis," John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum). However, Kennedy and Krushchev reached an agreement that not only called for a dismantling of weapons sites in Cuba in an exchange for a pledge from Kennedy that stated he would not invade Cuba, but also included an agreement from the United States…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cavendish, Richard. "The First Hydrogen Bomb." History Today. Vol. 56, Issue 5 (2006). Web.

23 March 2013.

"Cuban Missile Crisis." History Channel. Web. 23 March 2013.

"Cuban Missile Crisis." John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. Web. 23 March
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Truman and the Use of

Words: 1131 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89272459

S. during the summer of 1945 had indicated that the Japanese were ready to surrender; that the War could have been ended, if the U.S. had responded by offering the retention of the Japanese Imperial Monarchy instead of insisting on unconditional surrender. Further research on the decoded messages, however, indicate that the militarists still dominated the power hierarchy in Japan and they were willing to fight to the bitter end, despite their precarious military position. They were depending on the war-wariness of the Americans. Their theory being that the United States was unwilling to bear more casualties and any major setback to the American forces during a planned invasion of the Japanese mainland would improve Japan's bargaining position and obtain a peace agreement. In other words, the Japanese military leaders were only agreeable to a ceasefire and unwilling to consider surrender. They wanted to retain the militarist policies of the government and with the hawks dominating the corridors of power, there were no chances of an early end to the War in August of 1945. It was only the shock of the devastating power of the atomic bombs, which broke the hold of the militarists over the Japanese government and…… [Read More]


Frank, R.B. (2005). "Why Truman Dropped the Bomb." The Weekly Standard.

08/08/2005, Volume 010, Issue 44.

Truman, the Bomb, and What Was Necessary." (2005). Seattle Times News Services, August 06, 1995. Retrieved on October 4, 2007 at

Wainstock, D.D. (1996). "The Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb." Praeger: Westport, CT.
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Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next

Words: 5067 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10464176

Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might Be Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack

Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and detonation. Apart from the overview of the topic, the paper seeks to examine and evaluate the review of Literature, the methodology, analysis and findings, and a summary of the fundamental arguments as well as conclusive remarks.


1. Introduction

2. Literature Review

3. Methodology

4. Analysis and Findings…… [Read More]


Anthony Cordesman, Terrorism Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, (New


Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).

Eric Croddy, James Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction, (London: ABC-CLIO, 2005).
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Manhattan Project

Words: 3708 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47798352

Manhattan Project was one of the most documented events in American and World History. The discussion will provide an explanation of the Manhattan Project and how the project changed society forever. The purpose of this essay is to provide a historiographic discussion on the topic of the Manhattan project.

The Manhattan Project Summary

According to a book entitled The Manhattan Project and published by the Department of Energy, Albert Einstein was actually quite instrumental in the development of the Manhattan Project. According to the book Einstein wrote a now famous letter explaining to President Roosevelt advances in science related to chain reactions through the use of Uranium. Einstein asserted that this new scientific discovery could lead to the development of bombs that would be extremely powerful and destructive.

In the letter, Einstein also revealed to the president that Germany was already attempting to build bombs involving this new scientific discovery. Roosevelt was concerned and in 1939 he approved uranium research believing that America could not take the risk of permitting Hitler to develop such a weapon without America also attempting to develop such a weapon. Roosevelt's approval of uranium research marked the beginning of the Manhattan Project.

Basically the Manhattan…… [Read More]

Vincent C. Jones Manhattan: The Army and the Atomic Bomb. Reviews in American History, Vol. 15, No. 4 (Dec., 1987), pp. 680-685

Robert Serber, Richard Rhodes. The Los Alamos Primer: The First Lectures on how to Build an Atomic Bomb Contributor Richard Rhodes Edition: illustrated, annotated Published by University of California Press, 1992

Bernstein, Barton J. Reconsidering the Atomic General: Leslie Groves. The Journal of Military History, Vol.67, No. 3 (Jul.,2003), pp. 883-920
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Hiroshima Bombing

Words: 1342 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9876017

Hiroshima Bombing

The Manhattan Project

When I was asked to work on the Manhattan project during the late 1930's, I was delighted to be included in work of such magnitude. Not only would I work with the most prominent scientists in the world; I would also make a substantial contribution to the United States Government and its effort to keep the country safe.

Recently however I have begun experiencing considerable ambivalence regarding the work we were doing. Nuclear technology is extremely volatile and dangerous. The Government is also under pressure to end the war quickly, and plans are being made to use the atomic bomb for this purpose. Although the atomic bomb would effectively accomplish this, I am having serious misgivings about using it on human targets. My colleagues have voiced similar misgivings. For this reason I was asked to draw up a petition voicing our concerns about using the bomb in populated areas. In order to make a clear decision regarding the contents of this petition, and indeed whether or not such a petition is necessary, I have examined all the factors involved in this issue.

International Law

The most important consideration is international law. Several preventative laws have…… [Read More]

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War Rational Choice Realism

Words: 1507 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66607944

War is a necessary and inevitable. The question of whether it is justified is dependent on the conditions of each war individually, but the necessity and inevitability of armed conflict among human societies has been demonstrated consistently throughout history. Davidson and Lytle (1992) provide a strong argument in favor of this position with their description of the conditions surrounding the detonation of the atomic bombs over Hiroshima and Nagasaki to bring an end to the Second World War.

Davidson and Lytle argue that the reason for these bombings was not as much to end the war with the Japanese but rather to send a message to the Soviet Union. At the time, the U.S.S.R. was also pursuing nuclear weapons technology. In the wake of the end of the war in Europe, that continent had been effectively been divided between the United States and its allies in the West and Stalin's USSR in the east. To make their case, the authors parrot third-party speculation that the U.S. "had no compelling military reason to drop atomic bombs on Japan" (7). While the use of third party analysis does not explicitly invalidate the conclusion, it also lends it no particular support. The idea…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Crossman, Ashley (2014). Rational choice theory. Retrieved May 25, 2014 from

Davidson, James & Mark Lytle. The decision to drop the bomb. After the fact: The Art of Historical Detection. McGraw-Hill.

Korab-Karpowicz, Julie. (2013). Political realism in international relations. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved May 25, 2014 from
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Science and Morality After the

Words: 1361 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57790064

That is not to say that theory and application cannot be separated into ethical categories. They can be, but those categorizations are always going to be somewhat skewed by the researcher, because no human being is capable of perfect neutrality. To assume that one can research for the sake of purse science really does involve imaging that scientists are not human beings with their own personal motivations. Moreover, this is not an issue that developed in the post-atomic world. Even before the use of the atomic bomb, scientists were motivated by personal motivations that kept them from being completely neutral. Therefore, it might be better to consider the ethics of scientific discovery from a viewpoint that includes the inherent morality of a discovery. For example, chemotherapy could be used as a weapon with very disastrous results, because its side-effects are devastating and can even be fatal. However, chemotherapies are developed with the goal of saving lives. It would be ridiculous to prohibit or discourage the development of new chemotherapies on the grounds that they could be used as weapons. On the other hand, while it may seem responsible to discourage something like the advent of nuclear weaponry, the fact that…… [Read More]

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American History The Aftermath of the World

Words: 731 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58440829

American History:

The aftermath of the World War II from 1945 to 1965 was a period of intense change in the United States that changed socially, politically, and economically. This period was characterized by the rebuilding of various aspects in the country since the war was destructive on political, social, and economic fronts. Socially, there was the need to return to normalcy in the United States as the dislocations that resulted in the war were put aside for some time. As many men and women returned from the war and women returned home, a new generation began in the country. Since the United States was the only industrial power that was undestroyed during the war, the country experienced extraordinary economic growth after the war. America's economy was greatly stimulated by the war as new industrial complexes were developed across the country with the decisive end of depression ("Effects of World War II," n.d.). On the political front, the resolution of World War II and strong opposition to the Soviet Union forced America to embrace the democratic concept of the good.

20th Century American History:

During the period when President Truman authorized the use of atomic bombs against Japan in August…… [Read More]


"Assess the Effectiveness of Franklin Roosevelt's New Deal." (n.d.). UMSL -- University of Missouri. Retrieved from University of Missouri -- St. Louis website: 

"Chapter Summary: Frank D. Roosevelt and the New Deal." (n.d.). America Past and Present.

Retrieved November 30, 2011, from

"Effects of World War II." (n.d.). HS -- 102 Readings. Retrieved from Suffolk County
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Frank's Downfall and the American

Words: 1913 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32102982

In order to be taken seriously in the world and to build understanding, a nation must make good on all their promises, be them positive or negative. it's likely that the Allied forces could have found another means of guaranteeing Japan's surrender with more ingenuity, though perhaps not. They had exhausted standard means of warfare, American lives and they didn't want to continue battle. Japan refused and essentially guaranteed more bloodshed. "When advisors informed him that the alternative to using the atomic bomb was a million American casualties, he did not hesitate to give the order to use it" (Conlin, 718). America, some could argue, was being realistic and doing "the very bad things" powerful nations have to do to protect their people. And there is a strong argument for supporting the validity of such maneuvers. After America dropped the bomb on Hiroshima and issued a statement that it was in fact atomic, America asked for Japan's surrender, saying that if they did not receive it, they could expect, "a rain of ruin from the air, the like of which has never been seen on this Earth" (Bodden, 31). America received no response from the Japanese, and then, had to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bodden, V. . The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Mankato: Creative Education,


Conlin, J.R. The American Past: A Survey of American History: Since 1865. Boston:

Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.
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Weapons of Mass Destruction Before

Words: 2438 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41998215

(Rebehn M.) Another example from the 1700's of the use of bacterial agent in war was in the conflict between Russia and Sweden in 1710. There are reports that the Russians used the bodies of plague victim to create an epidemic among the enemy. (HISTORY of BIOLOGICAL WARFARE)

There is also the infamous incident in American history of the intentional infection of the native Indians with smallpox. "An English general, Sir Jeffery Amherst, surreptitiously provided the Indians loyal to the French with blankets infected with smallpox virus. The resulting epidemic decimated the Indians." (HISTORY of BIOLOGICAL WARFARE)

2.3. The modern technological era and weapons of mass destruction.

With the advent of the modern industrial age there was a rapid development of technology. This was also to lead to the equally rapid growth in the development of even more and more destructive and indiscriminate weapons of destruction. The most well-known and widely documented is the first truly modern use of chemicals and other weapons of mass destruction in the First World War. With the development of chemical techniques and technologies the biological weapons could now be synthetically and more easily produced in large quantities, which resulted in more accessible and devastating…… [Read More]


HISTORY of BIOLOGICAL WARFARE. Retrieved 17 February, 2007, at 

History of Epidemics and Plagues (2001) Retrieved 17 February, 2007, at

Johnson T.J. A History of Biological Warfare from 300 B.C.E. To the Present.

Retrieved 17 February, 2007, at
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Iran's Nuclear Threat

Words: 1996 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8024940

Iran's Nuclear Threat:

As the development of Iran's nuclear program has increased rapidly, there has been a simultaneous increase in the amount of enriched uranium that could be swiftly transformed into weapons-grade material. While Iranian leaders continue to state that the nuclear program is geared towards peaceful purposes, there are increased concerns that the development of a nuclear bomb would be a major security threat. In attempts to discourage and prevent Iran from its plans of developing a nuclear bomb, the United States and other European Union countries have imposed various sanctions against Iran. These sanctions have brought economic and financial blockades that have huge impacts on the Iran's economic and financial system.

While these sanctions seem to have forced Iran to the negotiation table to deliberate on its nuclear program, they have significant strategic value with regards to the impact they have had on Iran's economic and financial system. The strategic value of the sanctions against Iran has been to slow down the country's economic growth that would force Iran to consider its nuclear program and technology. After the sanctions were imposed, there was a decrease in world oil prices and a significant increase in the prices of basic…… [Read More]


"Can a Nuclear Armed Iran Be Contained?" (2012, October 9). International Policy Digest.

Retrieved November 9, 2012, from

Ellner, A. (2012). Iran -- Challenge or Opportunity for Regional Security? Retrieved November

9, 2012, from
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Non-Moral or Religious Standpoint While

Words: 983 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36395756

Part 4 -- Just War and Iraq -- it can be very difficult to define intangible philosophies or actions that are both part of the human psyche and that seem obvious. One of these such intangibles is war. What is war? Each historical period has added a new meaning to the word, but the essence of it still remained the same. War is always associated with terror, cruelty and unhappiness. There are really five elements that allow a just war: cause, authority, intention, hope for success, and proportionality. Without becoming too cynical, most scholars would probably agree that the first Iraqi war was "Just" but the second, under Bush II, was not. There were clear distinctions. In the first, Iraq invaded a soverign country, Kuwait, who asked for aid and protection; in the second, data was never fully disclosed as to the infamous weapons of mass destruction, and later found to be exaggerated and false, thus not allowing for most of the principles of justness; but more as an economic excuse (Coady, 2008, 58-60).

Part 5 -- the argument for the use of the second atomic bomb, against Nagasaki, is essentially a moral argument based on utilitarianism. What decision resulted…… [Read More]

"Information for Research on Euthanasia." December 2009. < >.

Overview of Arguments Against Euthanasia." January 2010. BBC Ethics Guide. .

Sherwin, M. A World Destroyed. Stanford University Press, 2003.
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Utopia Dystopia Did Science Technology Bring

Words: 1581 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96705534

Many of the advances of science in the area of technology are at best quite fearsome for human beings until they become accustomed with these functions and applications. One can only imagine how strange the creation and development of all of this must have been ten, or twenty years ago and even more so in the earlier 1900's as all of this began to fall into place in the multidisciplinary study setting. What must be understood in attempting to gain comprehension of the dystopian views are that these views balance the utopian views of life in that while there are extremist views of each, that each of these tend to soften or minimize the other and as well provide some cognitive form of what is in between these two extremes in the real world.… [Read More]

bibliography by Vincent Brome (1951), published by Spottiswoode, Ballantyne & Co.

Utopia Dystopia: Did Science/Technology Bring Us To A Better or Worse Perception of Our World
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Manhattan Project the Development of

Words: 1588 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73291774

Nevertheless, the launching of the first atomic bomb on the part of the U.S. was highly criticized, especially because they had found a way to end the war which entailed sacrificing the lives of tens of thousands of innocent civilians. Their initiative to build the first atomic bomb was considered by many as the supreme proof of vanity, American exceptionalism at its best in the sense that it embodied the country's belief that it had the responsibility to end international conflict according to its own plans, disregarding international law. In order to understand how the Manhattan Project embodied American Exceptionalism, a short overview of this idea is in order. Exceptionalism represents the notion that America has a special destiny different from that of other nations, an idea that permeates every period of American history. Although it was coined as an attempt to explain the special circumstances behind the birth of this nation by Alexis de Tocqueville in 1831, American exceptionalism has often been criticized as the reason behind actions such as the take over and bloody extermination of Native Americans' land the extermination of Native Americans and takeover of their land; the efforts to expand America's influence in the Middle…… [Read More]

Hewlett, Richard G; Anderson, Oscar E. The New World, 1939/1946. Volume 1: A History of the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Pennsylvania State University Press: 1962

Wikipedia. American Exceptionalism.

Wikipedia. The Manhattan Project.
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Cold War Era Films

Words: 3422 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67696982

Cold War Era

Many films about the cold war era, especially the early films, speak out against its ideals, while others support these ideals. Below is a consideration of selected Cold War era films, and how these were influenced by the Cold War.

Dr. Strangelove

Dr. Strangelove is subtitled "How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb." Its producer/director is Stanley Kubrick and the film was released during 1964. The film is a satire with the aim of exposing Cold War politics that could result in absurd accidents such as a nuclear attack. The more serious film Fail-Safe, released during the same year, has often been compared with Dr. Strangelove. This is discussed in more detail later.

Part of Dr. Strangelove's theme is the evils of technology. This is the culprit causing the disastrous accident. It is interesting that a disclaimer had to accompany the film's release shortly after the assassination of President Kennedy. It is as if the dark predictions made in the film were a suddenly too close reality. The disclaimer was to the effect that the United States Air Force would never let an accident like the one in the film occur, together with the…… [Read More]


Dirks, T. "Fail-Safe." 1996-2002. 

North by Northwest." 1996-2002.

Heise, H. "Dr. Strangelove." Hannover, 1996-2000.

Hinson, H. "The Russia House" film review. The Washington Post, December 12, 1990.
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Feelings on Technology

Words: 1164 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73337133

Technology, Society & Politics

The role of technology in society, politics and economics: Analysis of the works of Kuhn, Rhodes, Christensen, Levy and Toulmin

The development of technology with the onset of the Industrial Revolution, capitalism, and modernism created significant changes in the culture and institutions of human societies. Where technology used to be associated with machinery and manufacturing, technology in the 20th century gradually became associated with computer technology. Scientific developments shifted from macro to micro; human power centered from physical labor to intellectual improvement/development. As civilization progressed towards modernism in the 20th century, technology has become more invasive to people's lives. Inevitably, technology has penetrated not only the science sector, but other institutions as well, particularly human society's culture, politics, and economy.

Indeed, the significant role that technology played in the culture, politics, and economy of modern society has been debated and expressed through discourses by famous philosophers and scholars on science and technology, sociology, and history. This paper discusses the main points expressed in the discourses of the following authors about science, technology, and modern society: "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions" by Thomas Kuhn, "The Making of the Atomic Bomb" by Richard Rhodes, "The Innovator's Dilemma" by…… [Read More]


Christensen, C. (1997). The Innovator's Dilemma: When new technologies cause great firms to fail. Harvard Business School Press.

Kuhn, T. (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Available at:

Levy, S. (2001). Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. Penguin.

Rhodes, R. (1995). The Making of the Atomic Bomb. Simon & Schuster.
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Energy Is Hard to Define

Words: 1565 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30002403

These massive walls of water travel faster than a commercial jet as they descend upon cities and islands. The energy and force of a Tsunamis is the massive transference of potential energy, caused by the shifting currents of the ocean, into kinetic energy that active pushes the Tsunamis forward. In 2004, one tsunami traveled 375 miles in a mere 75 minutes, about 300 miles per hour. Energy however is not just limited the massive, and the mystical, it is present in every form of life. In our own bodies, energy is the driving force behind why our heart pumps blood and why we have the ability to breathe. We use chemical energy, kinetic energy, heat energy, etc. To power the basic functions of our bodies.

Simply put, energy drives every stage of life, it is in attempting to find the factors that influence how energy is used and cultivated that has established the sciences. There are limitations to energy however, detailed by the fundamental laws of physics such as the law of conservation of energy. Scientist's everyday is attempting to fine hone and find the limitations of scientific knowledge. In the hopes that one day we will find an indisputable…… [Read More]

Simply put, energy drives every stage of life, it is in attempting to find the factors that influence how energy is used and cultivated that has established the sciences. There are limitations to energy however, detailed by the fundamental laws of physics such as the law of conservation of energy. Scientist's everyday is attempting to fine hone and find the limitations of scientific knowledge. In the hopes that one day we will find an indisputable source of energy that will never wane in force, the dream of "perpetual motion."

Serway, Raymond a.; Jewett, John W. (2004). Physics for Scientists and Engineers (6th ed.). Brooks/Cole

Walding, Richard, Rapkins, Greg, Rossiter, Glenn (1999-11-01). New Century Senior Physics. Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press
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Scientific Progress Scientific Responsibility Nuclear

Words: 996 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94001606

In fact:

In the months following the accident, although questions were raised about possible adverse effects from radiation on human, animal, and plant life in the TMI area, none could be directly correlated to the accident. Thousands of environmental samples of air, water, milk, vegetation, soil, and foodstuffs were collected by various groups monitoring the area. Very low levels of radionuclides could be attributed to releases from the accident. However, comprehensive investigations and assessments by several well-respected organizations have concluded that in spite of serious damage to the reactor, most of the radiation was contained and that the actual release had negligible effects on the physical health of individuals or the environment. (United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission).

While the Three Mile Island incident did not cause the same type of damage as Chernobyl and the destruction from Chernobyl was less than people initially believed it would be, it is clear that the use of nuclear power can have potentially disastrous consequences. However, the responsible use of nuclear power can have tremendous benefits as well. First, the fuel for nuclear power plants is relatively inexpensive, so that nuclear energy can be provided inexpensively for large groups of people. In addition, when…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kinley, D, Ed. Chernobyl's Legacy: Health, Environmental, and Socio-Economic Impacts and Recommendations to the Governments of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine.

Chernobyl Forum: Vienna, 2006.

TXU Energy. "Nuclear FAQS." 2008. TXU Energy. 8 June 2008

United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. "Fact Sheet on the Three Mile Island Accident."
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Nuclear Power and the Cold War

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35896155

American History Since 1865

The objective of this study is to examine a topic in American History since 1865 to the present and to examine six or more related events and developments that span the years in that time period. For the purpose of this study The Cold War will be examined.

Event I -- Beginning of the Cold War

It is reported that while the world was starting its recovery from World War II that the first General Assembly of the United Nations met in 1946 in London and the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission was created. The purpose for the creation of this Commission was the elimination of all weapons of mass destruction and that this included the atomic bomb. (Atomic Archive, 2014, p. 1) The first American effort to set out a policy controlling atomic energy is reported as "The Report On The International Control of Atomic Energy" which is stated to have been known informally as the "Acheson-Lilenthal Report" which was published on the 16th day of March in 1946. The framework of this document held that "there should be an international 'Atomic Development Authority' which would have worldwide monopoly over the control of 'dangerous elements'…… [Read More]

It is reported that when the Atomic Energy Act was passed in 1946, that the "ties between U.S. And British nuclear programs were severed." (Atomic Archive, 2014, p. 1) At this time Great Britain held the belief that "it should have an independent nuclear force. In January 1947, plans were formulated to develop a British nuclear weapon." (Atomic Archive, 2014, p. 1) it is reported that Britain's first nuclear reaction was "led by Sir John Crockcroft" and that it "went critical on July 3, 1948. Sites for plutonium production and highly enriched uranium were also constructed." (Atomic Archive, 2014, p. 1) Since Britain was such small in size, there were not sites suitable for testing atmospheric weapons and this resulted in the British seeking sites in other locations to tests their weapons. The British're reported to have tested their nuclear weapons "on the Monte Bellos Islands, off the west coast of Australia." (Atomic Archive, 2014, p.1) On the 3rd day of October in 1952, it is reported that Britain "detonated its first atomic device, code-named Hurricane." (Atomic Archive, 2014, p.1) This atomic device it reported to have an "an explosive yield of about 25 kilotons." (Atomic Archive, 2014, p.1)

IV. Event 4 -- France Develops Nuclear Weapons

Following the end of World War II, France is also reported to have begun a nuclear weapons program but political pressures internally resulted in the program's failure to actually start until the latter part of the decades of the 1950s. France's independent force de frappe is reported to have "under Charles de Gaulle's leadership" to have come into being. The first nuclear test by the French known as 'Blue Gerbil' is reported to have been detonated on "February 13,
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Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87736157

U.S. Japan

On December 7, 1941, Japan launched an assault on the U.S. Naval Headquarters for the Pacific Fleet, located at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. This assault led directly to the open war between the U.S. And Japan, which several years later would culminate in the U.S. invaded Japan in the Okinawa archipelago and dropping two atomic bombs on Japan. The events that led to the U.S. invasion of Japan are therefore discussed on the macro, meso and micro levels.

Macro-Level Factors

If the U.S. invasion of Japan was spurred by Pearl Harbor, then one has to look at the causes of that attack to understand how the U.S. invasion came about. Japan was one of the world's great imperial powers during the decades prior to World War Two. After the rise of Emperor Hirohito in the 1920s, Japan embarked on a mission, believing that it could and should control "Asia, the South Seas and eventually the four corner of the world." While civilian Japan was in chaos in the early 1930s, suffering the effects of the Great Depression, the army unilaterally invaded Manchuria and set up a puppet state there. By 1937, Japan occupied Beijing, and won a critical victory…… [Read More]


History. (2014). Imperial Japan. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from

History Learning (2014). Operation Downfall. History Learning Site. Retrieved November 23, 2014 from

Rosenberg, J. (2014). Pearl Harbor. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from

Tsukiyama, T. (2006). Battle of Okinawa. The Hawai'i Nisei Story. Retrieved November 22, 2014 from
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Albert Einstein Historical and Scientific

Words: 4677 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96819342

Einstein also had a unique way of viewing the universe. He did not see open space as empty space. He wrote, "Physical objects are not in space, but these objects are spatially extended (as fields). In this way the concept 'empty space' loses its meaning" (Einstein qtd. On Space and Motion). He thought the physical reality of space was simply a representation of different coordinates of space and time.

Part of Einstein's radical thinking was the notion that distance and time are not absolute. He could look at the clock and sense that the rate of that ticking clock depended on the "motion of the observer of that clock" (Lightman). In addition to this, Einstein's ideas posited that gravity pulling one object in one direction is equal to a force accelerating in the opposite direction. Lightman helps us understand this notion with the image of an "elevator accelerating upwards feels just like gravity pushing you into the floor" (Lightman). Lightman maintains that Einstein had to come to this conclusion because gravity must move and operate by the same laws of the universe as space and time do. Einstein took the notion a little farther, noting that the gravity of any…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Albert Einstein." American Museum of Natural Science Online. Information Retrieved September 20, 2008.

Albert Einstein." Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 2008. The McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science & Technology Online Information. Retrieved September 20, 2008. 

Albert Einstein." Space and Motion Online. Information Retrieved September 20, 2008.

Albert Einstein." The History Channel Online. History Channel Online. Information Retrieved September 20, 2008.
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Clausewitz's Paired Concepts Clausewitz's Contribution to the

Words: 3373 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73537897

Clausewitz's Paired Concepts

Clausewitz's contribution to the art of warfare is well established. In this treatise, On War (Clausewitz,1989), he set forth his various views on how modern warfare should be conducted. Although the treatise is not always easy to read or understand, the concepts contained therein remain applicable today. The criticisms of Clausewitz's approach are numerable and his views have been debated vigorously since they were first published. Yet, Clausewitz's theories retain their validity nearly two centuries after they were first proposed.

Before examining the validity of Clausewitz's theories it must be remembered that the era in which his theories were formalized is significantly different than the era in which the Korean War occurred. For example, Clausewitz never envisioned a weapon as powerful as an atomic bomb. The atomic bomb created methods of warfare radically different from those considered by Clausewitz and any analysis of his theories must be balanced against the use of atomic weaponry. Clausewitz also never had to consider the effect of modern air warfare. This factor is less altering than the atomic bomb but it still must be considered as significant. Finally, Clausewitz organized his theories in an era when politics and diplomacy were much…… [Read More]


Brodie, Bernard. (1973). War and Politics. New York: Macmillan.

Clausewitz, Carl von (1989). On War. Prnceton, NJ.:Princeton University Press.

Clodtfelter, Mark. (1989). The Limits of Airpower. New York: Free Press Publishing.

Cohen, Eliot A. And John Gooch.(1990). Military Misfortunes: The Anatomy of Failure in War. New York: Free Press Publishing.
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Japan 1941-1945 and the Acts

Words: 2630 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54044185

While many argued that it was a mistake the attack happened anyway and the result was a punishment that had never been experienced before in the history of the world. The dropping of an atomic bomb changed the strategic thinking of Japan for the rest of history. Today, and for the past five decades the nation has spent its energies trying to be a friendly ally to America and Great Britain instead of trying to become more powerful than they are. It has focused its attention on technological development and assisting the world in moving forward and not on which nation has the most power, the most money or the best military forces. The strategy behind the attack on Pearl Harbor was founded in the fear of economic and trade threats. Now the nation addresses those fears through advances in technology and the sharing of those advances with the nations it used to fear.


The decision to drop a bomb was made and executed in 1945. Many believe it triggered the end of the war as the world realized the power America had and was willing to use. Strategically it produced a mindset…… [Read More]


Alperovitz, Gar (1995) Hiroshima: historians reassess. (atomic bombing)

Foreign Policy

Honan, William (1991) Who Planned Pearl Harbor?;a British Expert Warned the World, but Only Japan Remembered.The Washington Post

Fallows, James (1991) the mind of Japan. (Japanese history) (Special Report: Pearl Harbor: 50 Years) (Cover Story) U.S. News & World Report
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How Was the Cold War Represented in Cinema

Words: 5793 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9347766

Cold War and Film

Generally speaking, the Cold War has been depicted as an era of spy games and paranoia in popular films from the 1960s to the present day, but the reality of the era was much more complex. The Cold War was a period of military and political tension from 1947 to 1991, or from the end of WW2 to the collapse of the Soviet Union, in which the "politics of war" masked the business and social agendas of multinationals and ideologues. The era was marked by myriad issues: East-West mistrust, proxy wars, espionage, the threat of nuclear war, domestic and foreign propaganda, the rise of the military-industrial complex and multinational corporations, assassinations, detente, de-colonization, new nationalism, neo-colonialism, the vying for control of resources, alliances (NATO, Warsaw Pact), and an inculcation of the "deep state." [footnoteRef:1] It can be divided into five basic periods: 1947-53, 1953-62, 1962-79, 1979-85, and 1985-1991, and the films from each period reflect certain preoccupations of the time and people who produced them. This paper will examine each period of the Cold War and show how it was perceived through film by different people at different times in different places and compare these films…… [Read More]


Dominik, Andrew, dir. Killing Them Softly. NY: Weinstein Company, 2012. Film.

Eliot, T.S. "Burnt Norton." The Four Quartets. Web. 10 May 2015.

Frankenheimer, John, dir. Seven Days in May DVD Commentary. LA: Warner Home
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Advancements in Military Technology and

Words: 1641 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33371527

They did not have any problems fighting with their enemies that had inferior technologies but when the United States came into the picture, Japan saw itself fighting not only a technologically superior enemy but one with information / intelligence gathering capabilities unbeknownst of in previous warfare history. In addition, Japan indeed woke up a "sleeping dragon" that not only was capable of evening the battlefield but mobilizing all efforts to withstand Japan's aggression in the pacific theatre of operations.

The Pacific war provided a venue to demonstrate the technological and information superiority of the United States against the Japanese Imperial forces. The use of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is the ultimate proof of these abilities but the deployment and utilization thereof could never have been possible without the people behind the invention, manufacturing, production, and implementation of these advanced military technologies and information superiority. Thus, it has been proven again in the Pacific war that the success in the battlefield cannot be attributed to only one or two factors but the merging and synergy of technologies, processes, and people -- absent any one of the three and Japan would have probably been the victor not only in…… [Read More]


Advameg, Inc. (2011). Science and technology -- World War II and the early Cold War. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from 

Grunden, W.E. (2005). Secret weapons and World War II: Japan in the shadow of big science. Wichita, KS: University Press of Kansas.

Harper, M.M., Jeffries, J.W., Tuttle, W.M. Jr., Lichtenstein, N., & Sitkoff, H. (2007, October). World War II and the American home front: A National Historic Landmarks theme study. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from

Mercado, S. (2009, January 7). "Book review: Nisei linguists: Japanese-Americans in the military intelligence service during World War II by James C. McNaughton." Intelligence in Recent public literature. Retrieved August 7, 2011 from
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Proliferation Nuclear Weapons

Words: 2979 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60872855

Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Facilitators and Detractors

Ever since the first atom bomb was dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the world has been polarized into two different groups: one that supports nuclear proliferation, and another that vehemently campaigns against the piling up of nuclear material in the world. Both groups have their own arguments to justify their stand. While those who oppose nuclear weapons argue that nuclear proliferation endangers the very existence of the world and international peace, the supporters of nuclear weapons argue that nuclear weapons are required as a deterrent force. The American policy of minimum deterrence echoes this sentiment. However, considering the fact that the world reached dangerously close to an all out nuclear war way back in the eighties during the cold war years, points to the fact that the policy of minimum deterrence can, in the hands of hot-headed heads of states, become a very dangerous tool for political manipulation. At the same time it must also be mentioned that the fear of nuclear weapons was a major factor that prevented an all-out war between the U.S. And the U.S.S.R. during the peak of tensions during the cold war. It is here that we need…… [Read More]


GCSE History, 2003, "The Cold War: Causes," retrieved at On July 6, 2003

Dukes Paul, 2001, "A long view of the cold war," History Today, Issue: Jan, 2001

John Lewis Gaddis, Russia, the Soviet Union and the United States: An Interpretive History, Wiley, 1990
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Comic Book Cold War & Crime

Words: 2225 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64860544

From his high school beginnings to his entry into college life, Spider Man remained the superhero most relevant to the world of young people (Wright 234). His comic books, in fact, included some of the first mentions of the demonstrations -- the 1968 demonstrations at Columbia University. Peter Parker is in the middle of a demonstration at Empire State University, where the administration had decided to convert an empty building into a hotel for visiting alumni instead of a low-rent dormitory for minority students. He had to somehow find a middle ground between his concern for the students and the combat lawlessness as Spider Man. "As a law-upholding liberal, he finds himself caught between militant leftists and angry conservatives (234-235). He refused to join the demonstrations and wanted to listen to the university's side of the issue before taking a personal stand one way or another. The comic ended with the dean saying that they always expected to use the building for dorms, and he was wrong when saying that students "should be seen and not heard." A young black student added that he, too, had learned a lesson. Recognizing the dean's concern, he stated, "Sometimes it isn't easy to…… [Read More]

References Cited:

Costello, Matthew. Secret Identity Crisis: Comic Books and the Unmasking of Cold War America. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group, Inc., 2009

Horn, Maurice. The World Encyclopedia of Comics. New York: Chelsea House, 1976.

Reynolds, Richard. Super Heroes. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1992.

Rovin, Jeff. Encyclopedia of Superheroes. New York: Facts on File Publications, 1985.
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Duty A Father His Son

Words: 764 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80106301

Instead, they carried out their missions without question, and effectively won the war with their attention to detail and sense of duty. The book makes the reader question their own sense of duty, and if they would have the resolve to fight in a war like this if it happened again. It is a powerful book, partly because it is emotional, and partly because the reader realizes that these people are real, their duty was real, and that our freedom really rests on their shoulders.

Ultimately, this is a book about dying. It follows the last days of Greene's father, but it also looks at the bigger picture of America's World War II vets and how many we are losing every day. It also looks at the lives of the Japanese lost in the atomic bomb explosions, and talks about how many more lives could have been lost if the bombs had not been dropped. This book is about many forms of death, but it also celebrates the lives of those who have died, and what their sacrifices meant for the rest of America. This book makes the reader stop and think about so many things they take for granted,…… [Read More]

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World War II World War II Was

Words: 760 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28636080

World War II. World War II was a turning point in world history, and brought together many allies to fight strong opponents for world domination. The War was supposed to be the "last" world war fought, but other conflicts since that time show the world is still a volatile and unsettled place, and it seems there will always be wars fought in this world.

World War II was fought on two major fronts -- Europe and Asia. There was also fighting in North Africa, and many Pacific Islands. The initial war began in 1939 when German dictator Adolph Hitler invaded Poland. England and France had pledged to support Poland as Hitler continued to take over countries in Europe, such as Austria and Czechoslovakia in the late 1930s. When Hitler invaded Poland,

France and England issued ultimatums to Germany which were ignored, and the war had officially begun, even though actual fighting by England and France did not really begin until 1940 (Kitchen 6-11). Initially, the Soviet Union signed a pact with Germany, while England, France, and most of the European countries were allied against Germany. Later, Italy and Japan also became German allies.

Initially, the United States tried to stay…… [Read More]


Boatner, Mark M. Biographical Dictionary of World War II. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1996.

Divine, Robert A., ed. Causes and Consequences of World War II. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969.

Kitchen, Martin. A World in Flames: A Short History of the Second World War in Europe and Asia, 1939-1945. London: Longman, 1990.
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Good Bad Y When Measured by

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95924827

No one can compensate the parents who lost their children to after-effects of an atomic explosion.

This war and several others that followed opened doors for more military conflicts and greater destruction of the so-called enemy. Who is our enemy? If people of the other countries are our enemies, why are we ever taught not to discriminate? For surely when the war begins, we have to give up all that we were previously taught and stand united to destroy the weaker enemy completely. The world as it stands today may have underpinnings of a Third World War at any point of time in the future. So, it is fairly correct to state that all wars are wrong. Why some countries or nations feel proud of the wars they fought and do not believe all wars are wrong are basically shortsighted, selfish and narrow minded. They probably see the world as it exists today and have forgotten or do not know how the present day countries and nations emerged, how much their older generations suffered and how much economic, political and social power they lost. Germany provides a good example.

The country suffered immensely when its land and resources were divided…… [Read More]


1) [Sullivan-Wiley K. & Eisentein J. How are the effects of World War I similar to the effects of World War II. Retrieved February 16, 2005 from:]
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Npt -Non-Proliferation Treaty Ever Since the First

Words: 1855 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92332179

NPT -Non-Proliferation Treaty

Ever since the First World War, various countries in the western world had started researching in military weapons and artillery in order to strengthen their country's security. Newer and more advanced weapons continued to be inducted in the armed forces of developed and industrialized nations in the world particularly Soviet Union, United States of America, United Kingdom, Japan and Germany. While all these countries had started their researches for development of nuclear weapons as early as 1930s, the United States of America officially emerged as the first country to have nuclear weapons developed.

While development of nuclear weapons was initially considered as an individual nation's effort to strengthen its country's security and sovereignty, it was in August 1945 when the idea of nuclear proliferation and nuclear warfare alarmed the international community. This was when the United States of America bombed to cities in Japan, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, using nuclear artillery. The implications of the two bombs, which carried small volume of fissile material was such that the international community included the victim nation felt the need to cease the occurrence of nuclear warfare in the future. While Japan and Germany, the two parties in the Second World…… [Read More]


Alley, R. 2000, 'Reinvigorating Nuclear Disarmament', New Zealand International Review, vol. 25, no.5, pp.11.

The Disarmament Debate: The Fate of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 2005, Harvard International Review, vol.27, no. 2, pp. 72+.

Litman, L. 2003, 'Cleaning House: Dirty Bombs and the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty', Harvard International Review, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 32+.

Lund, M. 2009, 'The Eighty Percent and Twenty Percent Solutions to Nuclear Proliferation', Brigham Young University Law Review, vol. 2009, no. 3, pp. 741+.
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Ladies and Gentlemen the Media

Words: 1005 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30638953

Jackie Cabasso, executive director of the Western States Legal Foundation, an environmental and disarmament advocacy group, fears that ongoing and developing technology gives the U.S. capacity to design super nuclear armament in the near future, and that by maintaining these "weapons research, development, testing and production capabilities at the laboratories" (Center for Defense Information (1995)) we are providing the breeding ground for a future Apocalypse.

Charles Curtis, Under-Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy of the Clinton administration, admitted that nuclear weapons research was still ongoing, although this was not directed towards designing new weapons bur rather to sustaining the old. Given the uncertainty of current global affairs, he felt strongly that America's security needs to be in place.

In 1995, a Special Task Force on Alternative Futures for the Department of Energy National Laboratories, also known as the Galvin Task Force met and its specific recommendations regarding the nuclear laboratories included that none of them should be closed, that the labs should continue to be funded with public money, and that weapons design work should be phased out at Lawrence Livermore and consolidated at Los Alamos.

Mean whilst, whilst the Department of Energy insists on retaining and upgrading these…… [Read More]


Biello, D."A Need for New Warheads?" Scientific American, November 2007

Center for Defense Information (1995) Managing America's nuclear arsenal

Hansen, Chuck. U.S. Nuclear Weapons: The Secret History. Arlington, TX: Aerofax, 1988.

MacKenzie, Donald A. Inventing Accuracy: A Historical Sociology of Nuclear Missile Guidance. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990
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Post War Japan

Words: 773 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29858271

Post-War Japan

The Depiction of Japanese Victimization in Gojira and Voice of Hibakusha

World War II left the countries involved devastated and permanently changed. This became true for Japan on August 6th 1945 when the U.S. army dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima in retaliation to an earlier attack by the Japanese. Huge areas of land were destroyed and the thousands of lives were ended. Japan has carried the weight of this tragedy for decades and struggled with the idea of their victimization. This struggle plays out in the art, literature and film of post-war Japan. In the documentary Voice of Hibakusha, the victims of the bombings spoke about their experiences and how it changed their lives. The 1954 film Gojira shows Japan being once again victimized on a large scale, but this threat comes not only as a side effect of war, but from Japan's past. Both works address Japanese victimization and conclude that the role of victim is an important one that must effect change in the rest of the world.

In the film Gojira a prehistoric monster is awakened by atomic radiation and wreaks havoc across Japan. The entire country is helpless as the monster storms across…… [Read More]

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American Aviation

Words: 2019 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83760206

Positives and Negatives from a Century of Aviation

Little did the Wright brothers know, on December 17, 1903, when they successfully tested their flying machine at Kitty Hawk, what an influential industry they were launching. They could not have known in their wildest dreams that ninety-nine years later, an airport called Chicago O'Hare would facilitate some 383,362 landing and takeoff cycles each year. Or that by 1967, sixty-four years later, aerospace would become America's leading industrial employer, with some 1,484,000 employees, and sales of $27 billion, according to author Donald Pattillo (Pushing the Envelope). Nor could the Wright brothers know that a man would fly to the moon, and walk on the moon, by 1969, just sixty-six years after that little plane at Kitty Hawk left solid ground for a few triumphant seconds.

But though the Wright brothers' crude little aircraft got the aerospace industry off the ground to become such a big part of the U.S. And global economy, the evolution and growth of aviation has not been an entirely positive series of events. This paper will examine the effects - good and bad - that aviation has had on the economy, on the society, on the environment and…… [Read More]


Biddle, Wayne. Barons of the Sky: From Early Flight to Strategic Warfare. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1991.

Bilstein, Roger E. Flight in America: From the Wrights to the Astronauts. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984.

Knott, Richard C. A Heritage of Wings: An Illustrated History of Navy Aviation. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1997.

Miller, Jerry. Nuclear Weapons and Aircraft Carriers: How the Bomb Saved Naval Aviation. Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution, 2001.
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Mccarthy and the Cold War One Aspect

Words: 2922 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28567492

McCarthy and the Cold War

One aspect of history is that a country's so-called "friend" one day, can be an enemy the next and visa versa. The United States and Soviet Union during World War II joined ranks against the real threat of Nazi Germany. However, it did not take long after the end of the war for Russia and the United States to once again bully each other. Even before the final surrender of Germany in 1945, the two super powers rapidly found themselves in a new military and diplomatic rivalry. Meanwhile, in the United States, the economy was taking time to build and unemployment was growing. Thoughts of the Depression loomed in people's minds. The friction with the Russians, which would receive the name of Cold War, did not help. Yet it did create a scapegoat for fears and feelings of paranoia. As the tensions between the U.S. And U.S.S.R. mounted, the Communist threat reached American shores. Surely, Russia was infiltrating the government. The Rosenberg's trial in 1951 put all the props on the stage for the director Joseph McCarthy.

The "Red Scare" was nothing new to the United States. Years earlier, when Russia overthrew its tsar and…… [Read More]


Barson, M. Red Scared (2001). San Francisco: Chronicle.

Bennett, D. (1988). Party of Fear. New York: Random House.

Halberstam, D. (1993). The Fifties. New York: Villard.

Lewis, P. The Fifties (1978) New York:. J.B. Lippincott, 1978.
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Uranium Background History and Properties

Words: 1509 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44089758

Uranium Trioxide (UO3)

Uranium trioxide occurs as an orange powder and is the form of uranium identified in the colored glass found evidencing its use as a paint color component dating back to the First Century AD (Krauss, 2001).… [Read More]


Atkins, P.W. (1995). Periodic Kingdom: A Journey into the Land of the Chemical

Elements. Basic Books: New York.

Cirincione, J. (2007). Bomb Scare: The History & Future of Nuclear Weapons. Columbia University Publishing: New York.

Feynman, R.P. (1997). Six Easy Pieces: Essentials of Physics Explained by Its Most