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Video Technologies on Children's Attention Spans
I see that engrossed look in her eyes and I can't tell if it's reverie or focus. I don't know if the lights are on and learning is under way, or if the lights are dimmed and vegetation is spawning. -- Jeff Weinstock, 2007
The epigraph above is reflective of the concern that many adults have that video technologies are harming children's attention spans. The dictionary definition for the term, "attention span," states that this refers to the amount of time that an individual or group of people is able to maintain focus, interest or concentration on something (Merriam-Webster, 2012). Parents and educators can readily testify that many young people have shorter attention spans than adults, but the reasons for this difference remain a source of controversy. Some researchers maintain that young people's attention spans and academic performance are being adversely affected by video…
Baudisch, P., DeCarlo, D., Duchowski, A. & Geisler, W.S. (2003, March). Considering attention in display. Communications of the ACM, 46(3), 60-66.
Greengard, S. (2009, July). Are we losing our ability to think critically? Communications of the ACM, 52(7), 18-19.
Pempek, T., Kirkorian, H.L., Richards, J.E.; Anderson, D.R.; Lund, A.F. & Stevens, M.
(2010, September). Video comprehensibility and attention in very young children.
Technology and children's attention spans
I decided to select the topic of the impact of technology on children's attention spans because it was of great personal interest to me. Like many young people, I have heard adults complain that my generation has a very short attention span. It is hard for me to gauge this, of course, because I only have my own perceptions as a reference. Anecdotally, this seems to be the case. If I look back on the books and movies of a generation ago, they do seem longer and more detailed than the media of today. But empirical research is required to establish if such common sense wisdom is actually the case.
I believed that the research would have value because it could have an impact upon how children are taught. If interactive technology such as video games can impede a student's learning even before the child…
Attention-Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
According to the American Psychiatric Association Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD) is now referred to as Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD. However, most lay people and some professionals will still refer to the condition as ADD, which are the names given to the condition in 1980. ADHD has been around for a longer period than most people actually recall or realize. Hippocrates, who lived from 460 to 370 BC, described a condition similar to ADHD. ADHD is a neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder where there are substantial problems with executive functions that cause hyperactivity, attention deficits, or impulsiveness, which is inappropriate for the person's age. In order for a diagnosis to be made for the condition, the symptoms of ADHD must persist for six months or more. According to (McGoey et al., 2014), they define ADHD as a condition that causes a person to have trouble focusing…
Antshel, K. M., Faraone, S. V., & Gordon, M. (2012). Cognitive behavioral treatment outcomes in adolescent ADHD. FOCUS.
Fabiano, G. A., Pelham, W. E., Coles, E. K., Gnagy, E. M., Chronis-Tuscano, A., & O'Connor, B. C. (2009). A meta-analysis of behavioral treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Clinical psychology review, 29(2), 129-140.
Gudjonsson, G. H., Sigurdsson, J. F., Sigfusdottir, I. D., & Young, S. (2012). An epidemiological study of ADHD symptoms among young persons and the relationship with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53(3), 304-312.
Harold, G. T., Leve, L. D., Barrett, D., Elam, K., Neiderhiser, J. M., Natsuaki, M. N., . . . Thapar, A. (2013). Biological and rearing mother influences on child ADHD symptoms: revisiting the developmental interface between nature and nurture. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54(10), 1038-1046.
When something is emotionally riveting, furthermore, we can get lost it. If somebody was to try and get our attention in such a moment, we might not even notice the stimuli meant for us, and perceived by our subconscious.
Evidence suggests that attention can concurrently isolate multiple locations for focus. Still not clear, however, is if this ability depends on continuous allocation of attention to the different targets, referred to as a "parallel" strategy, or if attention changes rapidly between the targets, known as a temporal "sampling" strategy. but, either way, both techniques can explain the "set size effects," whereby, with each additional attended item, cognitive attention and performance decreases.
William James wrote of attention in his textbook, Principles of Psychology: (Broadbent 90)
"Everyone knows what attention is. It is the taking possession by the mind, in clear and vivid form, of one out of what seem several simultaneously possible…
1. Deutsch, J.A. & Deutsch, D., (1963) "Attention: some theoretical considerations," Psychological Review, 70, 80-90.
2. Phelps, Elizabeth a. Ling, Sam. Carrasco, Marisa, (2006) Emotion Facilitates Perception and Potentiates the Perceptual Benefits of Attention. Psychological Science, April; 17 (4), 292-299
3. Broadbent, D.E. (1954). The role of auditory localization in attention and memory span. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47, 191-196.
I see to it that, as much as possible, efforts are acknowledged because in my own experience it is hard to continue working and giving you 100% if you cannot see or appreciate were your efforts go.
2. Which of these boundary spanning behaviors were effective and which were ineffective? Why?
As noted above, there are studies that have investigated on such behaviors. Their result showed that boundary spanning behaviors give job satisfaction and organizational commitment from their workers and role conflicts have also been addressed.
A couldn't say ineffective, but the least effective boundary spanning behavior, I think focusing on further advertising the product. Not that this could not improve sales and gather more consumers, but what good can a well advertised product do if the personal service offered by my members is discouraging. Therefore, this behavior should just be an adjunct to the most effective boundary spanning behavior…
Lance a. Bettencourt. Role Stressors and Customer-Oriented Boundary-Spanning Behaviors in Service Organizations, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 31, No. 4, 394-408 (2003). http://jam.sagepub.com/cgi
Steven Lysonski and Arch G. Woodside. Boundary Role Spanning Behavior, Conflicts and Performance of Industrial Product Managers, Journal of Product Innovation Management Volume 6 Issue 3-Page 169-184, September 1989. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com
Janice H. Schopler PhD, et. al. Boundary Spanning and Group Leadership Functions the Third Dimension.
Social Work With Groups: a journal of community and clinical practice Volume: 18 Issue: 4-Page 3-17, 1995. http://www.haworthpress.com
Lifespan development is a field of study that involves growth patterns stability and change in one's behavior in the whole stretch of life. The definition does not fully capture the intricate process of the study. The study employs scientific approaches to establish these trends. We need a close examination of the elements of the definition above. In examining stability, growth and change, lifespan development checks the assumptions about the course and nature of the development of a human being. This is a scientific way of establishing the facts in the study. Scientists evolve development theories and apply systematic scientific methods to establish the exactness of these assumptions. The focus of the studies is the development of human beings (FLDNMC, 2010).Lifespan Development scientists select a topical area of focus and consider the age range of study. The span normally spreads out in broad age range segments. These segments include…
Adolescence. (n.d.). Pearson Highered. Retrieved from:https://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/020559526X.pdf
Baltes, P. B., Lindenberger, U., & Staudinger, U. M. (2007). Life Span Theory in Developmental Psychology. In Handbook of Child Psychology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470147658.chpsy0111/abstract
Chand, S. (2013). How to Adapt CBT for Older Adults? Current Psychiatry, 12(3), 10-15.
Cooper, J., Masi, R., & Vick, J. (2009). Social-emotional Development in Early Childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty.
, 2006). Soliciting client's self-report may be another helpful practice (Landry et al., 2009).
To deal with both attrition and ethnicity factors in conjunction with an adolescent or school-aged client, the counselor may be well advised to consider the fact that the client may better benefit from a school counselor's intervention rather than from her own. Studies (for instance Cummings, 2009) have shown that "schools may be the best setting in which to provide mental health services if the objective is to reduce the unmet need for mental health care among adolescents living in disadvantaged and/or ethnically diverse communities." (Cummings, 2009, 1).
At times, the counselor may have to deal with trauma-related matters. Since trauma may traverse several generations and is comprised of complex issues, Goodman and West-Olatuni (2008) recommend a transgenerational trauma recognition and assessment approach as well as historical and contextual knowledge of the trauma.
Of particular interest…
Abe-Kim, J., Takeuchi, D., Hong, S., Zane, N., Sue, S., Spencer, M -- . & Algeria, M. (2007). Use of Mental Health Related Services Among Immigrant and U.S.-Born Asian-Americans: Results From the National Latino and Asian-American Study. American Journal of Public Health, 97(11), 91-8.
Barrett, M., Chua, W., Chistoph, P., Gibbons, M., Casiano, D. & Thompson, D. (2008). Early withdrawal from mental health treatment: Implications for psychotherapy practice. Psychotherapy, 45(2), 247-67.
Bird, T. (2010). Approaches to patients with neuropathic disease. Clinics in Laboratory Medicine, 30(4), 785-93.
Brach, C., Falik, M., Law, C., Robinson, G., Trent-Adams, S., Ulmer, C. & Wirght, a. (2005). Mental Health Services: Critical Component of Integrated Primary Care and Substance Abuse Treatment. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 6(3), 322-41.
4.Defined institutional and personal context for the program.
The proposed program is an endeavor to create a federally recognized, federally-funded adult literacy program. The program will also create and maintain literacy standards and objectives, with a core part of the program being devoted to application. One of the main objectives of any adult literacy program is to help stimulate personal growth and development. Moreover, an adult literacy program like this one will aim to stimulate job creation and boost local economies. Individuals participating in the program will be shown not only the mechanics of literacy but how those skills can increase their career flexibility and allow them to compete for jobs in an increasingly competitive global market.
5.Describe the target population: age, grade, reading level, attention span, occupation, previous work experience, motivation level, health, interests, socio-economic status, attitudes toward school or work, previous performance levels, language, ethnic/cultural background, gender.
Georgia Department of Technical and Adult Education. Office of Adult Literacy. Retrieved Feb 5, 2009 at http://www.dtae.org/adultlit/menu.html
National Assessment of Adult Literacy. Retrieved Feb 5, 2009 at http://nces.ed.gov/naal/
Portland State University. Adult Literacy Estimates. Retrieved Feb 5, 2009 from https://www.casas.org/lit/litcode/Results.CFM
SIL. "Issues in Literacy." Retrieved Feb 5, 2009 at http://www.sil.org/literacy/issues.htm
It is in coordinating all of these elements towards the goal of providing an appropriate education towards which administrators are constantly working, while confronting numerous obstacles.
Determining whether or not an appropriate education is being delivered depends first and foremost on whether or not the specified umber of credit hours for various areas of education are being met. Again, this comes down directly to scheduling or programming issues, and thus it is in schedule development that that foundations of an institution's educational appropriateness is found. If credit requirements are not being fulfilled through current programming, reassessments and realignments of budgets in order to provide for enhanced scheduling (or at least a major reevaluation and redesign of the schedule itself to better meet the credit requirements of the school's various programs) would be required. Meeting credit requirements should be seen as the primary goal of scheduling.
Credit recovery is also an…
Nina is an eight-year-old girl who lives in my neighborhood. She is a good friend of mine daughter, who I have known since birth. She is the first of two children and was born premature at six months. She is now about four and a half feet tall and very thin, she weighs about seventy pounds. She lives with her mother who is 39 years old and her father who is 40 years old. Her mother graduated high school and father has an Associate's degree. Her mother is a stay at home mom and father works in the mortgage industry. The family lives in an urban community, where they own their own home. Nina is musically talented and plays the piano well.
Nina was very tiny when she was younger. She was a premature baby and it took her a while to catch up with her peers.…
Self-egulation Issues in Children and Adolescence with ADHD, ODD, and OCD
Self-regulation in children and adolescence who suffer from ADHD, ODD, and OCD (Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder) is often evident due to several things. A lot of the issues in relation to self-regulation stem from additional anxiety the child/teen may feel from the difficulties experienced from these kinds of mental disorders. OCD is known to cause anxiety and isolationist behaviors leading to decreased emotional self-regulation. ADHD at times can cause hyperfocus, making it difficult for the child/teen to switch tasks therefore limiting their ability to handle their emotions and activities that assist in regulating themselves. ODD, connected to ADHD, is a disorder that has the child react angrily and spitefully to people in otherwise normally responsive situations. The extreme feelings of children or adolescence who manifest ODD make it hard for them to…
Barkley, R.A. (2013). Oppositional Defiant Disorder: The Four Factor Model for Assessment and Management - by Russell A. Barkley, Ph.D. Retrieved from http://www.continuingedcourses.net/active/courses/course079.php
Blum, K., Chen, A.L., & Oscar-Berman, M. (2008). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and reward deficiency syndrome. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4(5), 893-918. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2626918/
Campbell, S.B. (1990). Behavior problems in preschool children: Clinical and developmental issues. New York: Guilford Press.
Cheng, M., & Boggett-Carsjens, J. (2005). Consider Sensory Processing Disorders in the Explosive Child: Case Report and Review. Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 14(2), 44-48.
Children Could Lose Their Attention on TV Advertisements
While watching TV, children could create their own imaginary world and totally engrossed in it for a period of time. Recent survey finds out that children watch their favorite program on TV for about four or more hours every day. It is assumed that television has brought hazardous effect on children's attitude, intelligence, and social acceptance this way. However, based on my recent observation, kids are not totally engrossed on the program. My subjects show that during the program they also insert several different tasks such as inviting friends (other people over). Why do some children lose interest in television programming during commercials and begin other task? Is it because they lack of concentration span as most children do? Are there any other factors from the commercial itself that prevent them from watching? The research will combine behavior observation and questionnaire method…
____. Survey Design. 2001. The Survey System's Tutorial. Creative Research System. http://www.surveysystem.com/sdesign.htm .(Apr5, 2002)
____. TV or No TV?. 2000. Your Child's Health. http://www.yourchildshealth.com/family/tv.html.(Apr5, 2002).
Commercials. 1997. Center for Media Education. http://www.cme.org/children/kids_tv/commercial.html.(Apr5, 2002)
DeGaetano, Gloria. 1998. Visual Media and Children's Attention Span. University of Oregon. http://interact.uoregon.edu/MediaLit/mlr/readings/articles/degaetano/visualmedia.html (Apr5, 2002)
students becoming more eager to learn with technology?
What affect does the use of technology in the classroom have on the students or interest in the curriculum?
Does the engagement in computer activities improve the concentration span of the students?
The reason why I chose these questions:
The reason I would find this topic exciting is because, my son is on an IEP with a learning disability in reading. I must say he has gotten a lot better with using the computer and the opportunity to learn on various sites as well as other different programs. This has motivated him to learn and he has gained confidence from it, so I felt it would become great to find out why is it easier for children to learn from technology than an actual teacher. Is technology taking the place of an educator?
The processes in coming up with these three…
Carpenter, S. (2000). In the digital age, experts pause to examine effects on kids. American Psychological Association, 1.
CIO. (2003). Technology's impact on child's growth and development. Retrieved June 27, 2011, from CIO: http://www.cio.com/article/29797/David_Elkind_Technology_s_Impact_on_Child_Growth_and_Development .
The Real Truth. (2009). Does technology stunt children's social development? Retrieved June 27, 2011, from The Real Truth: http://www.realtruth.org/news/090303-008-society.html .
Parents Magazine (2008):
I am Toddler, Hear me Roar: Learning to Live With and Love Your Toddler"
The Terrible Twos: A Preview of the Teenage Years
Angry. Opinionated. Possessing a unique will and capabilities. Ready to explore the world, regardless of whether his or her parents think he or she is ready to do so. Although this description may seem to fit the profile of the typical adolescent, it is also a fair description of toddlers as well. Toddlerhood is the first major stage of childhood development when children are learning how to test their limits and stretch and grow as people by taking risks. As any parent knows, every toddler's favorite word is a decided 'no,' usually uttered in a very loud and declarative tone! Parents are often frustrated during this period of their child's development, as they strike a balance between encouraging the toddler's independence while still striving…
This is a method of indirect instruction, an important component of art education, as noted in Mary E. Thompson's chapter on "Art for Students with Special Needs." Having a rebus charts with pictures illustrating the steps of the project also helps students follow directions, and for students with attention deficit issues, these students can refer to the chart to reorient themselves if they lose focus on the project.
Teachers should strive to minimize self-consciousness. For children in a wheelchair, the classroom should be physically accessible, not simply with wheelchair ramps, but also with a wide, clear path to the art center. Some art tools may need to be used in different ways, depending on the children's physical limitations. The teacher should have a wide range of adaptive art tools, like fat bingo markers, chunky crayons, large markers, double-handed ambidextrous scissors and glue sticks, which may prove less frustrating than a…
Thompson, Mary E. (1997). "Art for Students with Special Needs." Chapter 13 from An Introduction to Early Childhood Special Education. Edited by Linda L. Dunlap MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Educators are faced with the challenge of dealing with each student's needs. Everyone needs a chance to grow, learn and face the challenges that are necessary for attaining excellence. There are always special needs children in each learning environment. Each of these students needs special attention because of their uniqueness in the learning process. Such learners may possess special gifts including learning potential and other talents. If such learners are attended to with an aim to nurture their special gifts, they are likely to make significant and special contribution to the communities that they come from and the world in general (Davis & Rimm, 2004).
Recommendation for Mike Grost
In the case of Mike Grost, he has been found to possess special gifts including perfect emotional and physical health, remarkable intelligence, and eidetic memory, artistic and creative abilities. He demonstrates great ability in a wide range of areas of learning.…
Methylphenidate is part of a therapy regimen for the control of the symptoms of Attention Deficity Hyperactivity Disorder or ADHD in adults and children (Ogbru 2013, Medline Plus 2012). It stimulates the central nervous system similarly as amphetamines but more mildly. The effects of methylphenidate are also more noticeable on mental activities than in physical movements. It also is used in treating narcolepsy and Attention Deficit Disorder or ADD. Stimulants control these symptoms by changing the amount of natural substances in the brain responsible for the conditions. ut both classes of stimulants are carefully used because of their potential abuse. They calm the patient, reduce their hyperactivity and increase attention span. FDA approved methylphenidate in 1955 (Ogbru, MedlinePlus).
Generic and Trade Names
Generic names -- methylphenidate, Methylphenidylacetate hydrochloride
Trade names -- Concerta, Metadate, Methylin, Ritalin, Adderall
Toxicity and Side Effects
It is to be used with cause on patients with…
Medline Plus. Methylphenidate. National Library of Medicine: National Institute
Health, 2012. Retrieved on August 24, 2013 from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682188.html
NIDA. Drug Facts. National Institute on Drug Abuse: National Institute of Health,
2009. Retrieved on August 24, 2013 from http://www, drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/stiulant-adhd-medications-methylpheidate-amphetamines
Vedantam, 2006), Americans are more socially isolated than they were in 1985, with the number of people with whom they can confide dropping by one third, from three close confidents to two. American is viewed as a fragmented society with splinters of people growing ever more distant with regard to intimate social ties. Despite the benefits of close social connections, people report being alone, feeling alone, and suffering alone in bad times.
The ability of digital social networks to support substantive civic engagement is more than a test of the media's capacity to convey and renew civic engagement -- it is also a test of the transformative capacity of social networks with regard to sustained interest and action. A criticism of communications and information technology (CIT) -- which includes digital social networking -- is its transience and churn. Engaging digital communication tends to cater to the tastes of an audience…
The advertising might be catchy, interesting, or cutting edge -- but in terms of what most clients care about, of making more money for a company, the results were uncertain, even in the minds of industry professionals. orse yet, from the point-of-view of the marketing industry, the idea of cutting spending did not seem to automatically translate into lower revenue.
The research contained qualitative as well as quantitative data, which made the results even more industry from an insider's perspective. hile the Internet and availability of new media, as well as a widening of old media channels such as televisions' multiplicity of channels, another reason may be more recent. One respondent cited that halo effect of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. His response centered on the difference the law was making in the way top managers run companies. He stated that "marketing as the last bastion of uncontrolled spending," in…
Elliott, Stuart. (20 Jul 2005) "How Effective is this Ad? Beats Me!" The New York Times. Retrieved 21 Jul 2005 at http://www.nytimes.com/2005/07/20/business/media/20adco.html
Forrester. (2005) the Forrester Company Website. Retrieved 21 Jul 2005 at http://www.forrester.com/my/1,1-0,FF.html
In short, the left prefrontal cortex is intimately connected to the cingulate cortex, the source of attentional ability (e.g. Kalish, Wiech, Hermann, & Dolan, 2006), whilst simultaneously serving as site for happiness. The hypothesis of this essay, therefore is, that the greater the span of attention accorded an activity, the more positive and more intense the level of serenity experienced.
Although Csikszentmihalyi has conducted research on 'flow' and shown that the experience of flow associated with mindfulness and attentionality has been identified as the highest level of well being (Csikszentmihalyi, 2000), little if any research seems to exist on the connection between hobbies and serenity. It may be assumed that hobbies indicate a sense of flow, implicating mindfulness or attentioanlity, therefore, as per the left prefrontal cortex, sense of pleasure and serenity should be sharpened and participants should feel more serenity. Hobbies, however, are a huge field and their spectrum…
Bear, M.F., Connors, B.W., & Paradiso, M.A. (2001). Neuroscience: Exploring the brain. Baltimore, MA: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins.
Cardoso, S.H. (2007). Hardwired for happiness. Cerebrum 2007: Emerging ideas in brain science. Washington, DC, U.S.: Dana Press. pp. 169-184.
Buckner, R, L., Raichle, M.E., & Paterson, S.E (1995) Dissociation of human prefrontal cortical areas across different speech production tasks and gender groups Journal of neurophysiology, 2, 15-25
Curtis, W.J., & Ciccheti, D. (2007). Emotion and resilience: A multilevel investigation of hemispheric electroencephalogram asymmetry and emotion regulation in maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Development & Psychopathology, 19, p811-840.
For example, determining that police officers are more likely to divorce than the general population, if that is not true, might result in marital problems being attributed to the fact that one person is a police officer rather than addressing underlying issues.
I would set the significance level at .02 rather than at .05 to avoid having a Type I error, if my sample size was small enough for me to worry about the possibility of having a Type I error. However, with a sufficiently large population, I would keep my significance level at .05, because it is the standard for social science research.
3. The null hypothesis is that there is no difference in the groups being examined for the variable in question. The directional research hypothesis is that there is a difference and suggests the nature of the difference (generally, that one population is more or less…
Learning and Cognitive Psychology Related to Memory
Memory has control over everything that an individual does and is a part of cognitive psychology that deals with all the human behavior and mental processes. It is divided into different categories with each of them performing their particular functions. The paper investigates the different types of memories and their purpose as each one plays its part in keeping the memory part of the brain functioning. The nature, maintenance, retrieval and capacity of memory are also discussed along with the different factors that influence it. The paper also discusses the application of TRS model on the working memory, which leads to the prediction that maintenance activities should postpone concurrent processing.
Memory is what drives our everyday life, makes us relate to or recollect things from the past and in many ways defines our behavior. We take it for granted as the effort…
Baddeley, A.D., Thomson, N., & Buchanan, M. (1975).World length and the structure of short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 14, 575-589.
Blankenship, A.B. (1938). Memory span: A review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 35, 1-25.
Brener, R. (1940). An experimental investigation of memory span. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 26, 467-482
Bousfield, W.A. (1953). The occurrence of clustering in the recall of randomly arranged associates. Journal of General Psychology, 49, 229 -- 240. doi:10.1080/00221309.1953.9710088
The Vietnam War was a turning point in the Army's growing realization that senior military leaders, and not just political leaders, had a responsibility to be able to speak to soldiers, to the American people, and to the press about ethical issues.
The Professionalism Study of 1970, examined institutional systems and requirements for success in the Army, attitudes and values of senior officers, and tasks for the 1970s. One of the striking conclusions of the first study was that the Army contained "untoward and unhealthy pressures to strive for success" on the part of officers. Systems that regulated the selection, education, promotion, and reward of Army officers were in need of major correction.
It was clear that the Army needed to evaluate its concepts of values and ethics.
During the decades of the 1970s and 1980s senior commanders in all the services began to exert their influence on the direction…
Angelo, T.A., & Cross, K.P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd edition). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Carter, D. & Wilson, R. (1995). Thirteenth annual status report on minorities in higher education. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Farris, P. (1996). Teaching, Bearing the Torch. Madison, WI: Brown and Benchmark
In addition to utilizing the ELMO system as a lesson presentation tool, we intend to incorporate it as a motivational device, such as by rewarding both improvement and superior performance with the opportunity to have their work presented to the class.
Including the ELMO system in our Accelerated Reading Program and Florida Reading Initiative present additional avenues for more extensive incorporation of the equipment.
4. Proposed Evaluation of Objectives:
The proposed evaluation objectives consists of conducting comprehensive objective reading skills diagnoses before the introduction of the ELMO system into the classroom environment. A subsequent series of objective diagnostic evaluation will provide a method of measuring the beneficial effect of incorporating the ELMO system into the lesson plan.
Similarly, analysis and comparison of standardized achievement tests results will provide a direct measurement of the success of this initiative at achieving the educational goals that the system is intended to accomplish.
) and Group C (control group 2) will have no lunch at all.
Testing hypothesis: Student's grades of the students receiving the nutritionally balanced lunches will increase, because of improved memory and attention span, compared with students in the control groups. Group B. will have a glucose spike of energy and crash, Group C. will have not enough glucose in their systems at all.
Variables that will remain the same: Students will be in the same types of classes. Improvement, not overall intelligence or GPA will be measured by the experiment.
Variables that will be tested: Students will eat the same type of nutritionally balanced or unbalanced lunch (or no lunch at all) for a period of one month. They will not be allowed to bring their lunches to school, regardless of how they ate before, depending on their group assignation.
Data: Performance on tests, attention span in class, and…
Colson, Deborah. (26 Feb 2006). "How Food Can Affect Your Child's Mood."
Junior Magazine. Retrieved 21 Feb 2007 at http://www.juniormagazine.co.uk/page/juniormagazine?entry=how_food_can_affect_your
Delisio, Ellen. (26 Feb 2006). "How Breakfast Choices Affect Learning."
Education World. Retrieved 21 Feb 200t at http://www.education-world.com/a_issues/chat/chat168.shtml
Developmental cognitive occur starting age 50 moving end life.
Developmental and cognitive changes
The essay aims at exploring the developmental and cognitive changes that occur starting at the age of fifty years moving through end of life. The developmental changes are easily noticeable or observable, hence not much of literature or scholarly articles have been written about it. On the other hand a lot of materials, studies and researches have been conducted on cognitive changes because cognition is a key requirement needed in both the young and old to meet the job demands, challenges of education and day-to-day life of an individual (MacDonald, Hultsch, & Dixon, 2003, p 32-52).
Before the essays embark on the changes that occur at the age of fifty and beyond its important to consider the early changes right from when a baby is born up to middle life for us to understand the…
Anstey, K., Hofer, S., & Luszcz, A., (2003). Cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of differentiation in late-life cognitive and sensory function: The effects of age, ability, attrition, and occasion of measurement. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 132, 470 -- 487.
Ball, K., et al. (2002). Effects of cognitive training, interventions with older adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2271 -- 2281.
Dixon, R., De Frias, M., & Maitland, S.B. (2001). Memory in midlife. In M.E. Lachman (Ed.), Handbook of midlife development New York: Wiley (pp. 248 -- 278)...
Finkel, D., Pedersen, N.L., & Harris, J.R. (2000). Genetic mediation of the association among motor and perceptual speed and adult cognitive abilities. Aging, Neuropsychology, and Cognition, 7, 141 -- 155.
(the National Institute of Mental Health, 2008) Though we are able to identify some external factors, like drug use, and development problems in the womb, mainly it is the genes which determine the occurrence of this disease. We may say that it is a biological disorder. The persons suffering by this disease are largely affected by programs on TV, games, bad environments food intake and similar occurrences. It is Genes that have control over the chemicals in the neurotransmitters and the affected child has these chemical output out of balance. The scans conducted reveal that these defects can be noted in the areas of the brain that deals with psycho motor reflexes. This imbalance creates and distorts the functions of the person in changing focus of thought, organization of things and methods, planning out things, memory, and emotion and reasoning and differentiating between the two. They have impairments of speech…
Adler, Lenard. (2007) "Scattered Minds: Hope and Help for Adults with Attention Deficit..."
American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry. (2008) "Child and Adolescent Mental
Illness and Drug Abuse Statistics" Retrieved 27 February, 2008 at http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/resources_for_families/child_and_adolescent_mental_illness_statistics
Variations are to ask each student to write their own sheet or to have small groups do so. (22) Value Lines: Students line up according to how strongly they agree or disagree with a proposition or how strongly they value something. This gives a visual reading of the continuum of feelings in the group. Next, sort students into heterogeneous groups for discussion by grouping one from either end with two from the middle. Ask students to listen to differing viewpoints in their groups and to fairly paraphrase opposing positions.
23) Forced Debate: Ask all students who agree with a proposition to sit on one side of the room and all opposed on the other side. Hanging signs describing the propositions helps. It is important that they physically take a position and that the opposing sides face each other. After they have sorted themselves out, switch the signs and force them…
Andrews, P.H. (1985). Basic Public Speaking. New York: Harper and Row.
Baird, J.E. (1974). The Effects of "Previews" and "Reviews" upon Audience Comprehension of Expository Speeches of Varying Quality and Complexity. Central States Speech Journal. 25, 119127.
Beatty, M.J. (1988). Situational and Predispositional Correlates of Public Speaking Anxiety. Communication Education. 37, 28-39.
Bernhardt, D. Workshop on Public Speaking, University of California at Berkeley, Aug.1989.
Attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are commonly linked mental health disorders that children exhibit. This paper examines some of the challenges that both children and parents face as a result of living with these disorders. It suggests some positive approaches to parenting that parents may find useful and offers recommendations in terms of how parents can most positively help a child with ADHD or ODD. The most important conclusion that this paper provides is the notion that parents must be able to demonstrate patience over the long term while facilitating their love and support for the child with guidance, reinforcement, and education. Eliminating stress from the child’s environment can be especially helpful in allowing the child to deal in a healthy manner with the impulses he or she feels, and parents, for their part, may benefit from parental training so that they can learn what…
EP for Gifted Student
Giftedness is an intellectual ability that is significantly higher than average, not a skill, but an innate talent and aptitude that may be general or specific. Just as there are special needs for children who appear on the left side of the bell curve, so should there be for children on the far right. However, these students are often neglected in terms of special programing due to beliefs that they can just do "extra work" within a mainstreamed environment. From the 1920s to the 1970s, the trend in Western countries was to set up special schools to educate those who fell outside the norms of the bell curve, but by the 1980s most educators favored merging special and regular education in a comprehensive program that included students from all backgrounds -- in other words, mainstreaming them into a regular classroom environment. This idea, though, must also…
Intervention Plan- For CB there are essentially four major issues: her lack of attention span, the need for extended time on some assignments combined hyper-perfectionism, lack of social skills, and home activity intervention/anxiety. In each of these there is a discrepency between what is needed and/or expected in CB's school curriculum and her performance. We find that there may a disconnect in motivational issues, as well, CB is clearly bright, and when engaged, is able to perform at a higher than grade level. The key, in wrapping up all the issues, seems to be finding intervention strategies that will allow her to focus, to remove some of the anxiety and perfectionistic issues, and to improve social skills (Suping, 2003; Taylor, 1998):
Intervention #1 -- Issue: Attention Span -- Work with teacher to find modifications within the stated curriculum that are interesting to CB. Allow her to focus more on those aspects, and potentially preload the evening before if possible. This will focus CBs attention on aspects of the lesson that are more comfortable. Possible solutions to aid in this would be to allow an older student or an intern from a local teacher's college to visit a few times a week to work with CB and, with individualized attention, continually reinforce attention to tasks at hand.
Intervention #2 -- Issue: Extended Time needed/Hyper Perfectionism -- Part of CB's OCD and Anxiety diagnosis have resultant behaviors in needing extended time to complete assignments. Most of the people that work with her, however, believe that CB is quite capable of completing the tasks, but is hyper-self-critical and then unable to finish the work in the timeframe needed. Intervention will be gradual, at first allowing extra time or an untimed period (when applicable), gradually reducing the extra time until CB is back on the schedule with other students at grade level. The goal is to move toward integration within the details of the classroom; begin by offering some extra time and then gradually diminishing it based on
Age: 30 years, 11 months
Dates of Evaluation: 10/25/15 -10/30/2015
eason for eferral
This is a 30-year-old right-handed woman referred by Dr. Smith for a psychological evaluation to determine any lingering psychological and cognitive effects as a result of a mild head injury that she suffered on October 15, 2015 as a result of an automobile accident. The client has complained of severe memory problems, being disoriented at times, feeling depressed and anxious, and having nightmares the accident. Her physical complaints consist of headaches, back aches, poor sleep, nausea, and vomiting.
The client is a 30-year-old, divorced, Hispanic woman who lives with her children in a home that she rents in XXX (client please insert city). She has been married three times and has three children from two of the marriages.
The client grew up in XXXX (insert). She reported that her…
Baddeley, A. (1992). Working memory. Science, 255(5044), 556-559.
Black, D. O., Wallace, G. L., Sokoloff, J. L., & Kenworthy, L. (2009). Brief report: IQ split predicts social symptoms and communication abilities in high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 39(11), 1613-1619.
Groth-Marnat, G. (2009). Handbook of psychological assessment. (5th ed.). Indianapolis, IN John Wiley & Sons.
Hogan, T.P. (2015). Psychological testing: A practical introduction . (3rd ed). Hoboken, NJ.
But overall, she tried to use positive reinforcement such as praise, using mnemonic devices to encourage students to remember material, and asking them to repeat what they had learned. In other words, observation was an instructional tool used in structured as well as unstructured settings. An additional tool was repetition and reinforcement.
Students kept their corrected assignments in folders, which enabled the teacher to look at past assignments, and see if certain concepts were proving to be persistent problems. It also ensured that assignments could be more easily sent home for parental review and would not (hopefully) get lost if they were taking home loose in a backpack. Assignments spanned a wide range of workbook assignments, encompassing more open-ended and creative activities like compositions, as well as tests and quizzes.
The teacher said she often made frequent use of team-based activities that drew upon a full range of student's artistic…
Creativity is a necessary attribute for instructors using the Gardner method of instruction, precisely because it does not prescribe the use of any specific materials in particular at all.
A typical approach within the Gardner system might use an ice skating session to present lessons of Newtonian physics in a manner conducive to understanding by students with better kinesthetic awareness, for one example. Likewise, music might be used to present mathematical concepts such as ratio and scale, or scientific concepts such as the physics of mechanical waves. The Gardner method employs these materials in a manner designed to promote active learning by presenting the subject matter lesson directly through materials that lend themselves to absorption via all seven intelligences (Gardner, 1999).
Instructional Constructivist Technology in Active Learning Educational Methods:
One of the most comprehensive educational system emphasizing the constructivist method is the Full Option Science System (FOSS) program. The FOSS…
Adams, D. & Hamm, M. (1994). New designs for teaching and learning: Promoting active learning in tomorrow's schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York: Basic Books. Huber, R.A., & Moore, C.J. (2001). A model for extending hands-on science to be inquiry based. School Science and Mathematics, 101(1), 32. Schroeder, U. & Spannagel, C. (2006). Supporting the active learning process. International Journal on Elearning, 5(2), 245.
Shmaefsky, B. (2005). The critical elements of doing effective classroom demonstrations. Journal of College Science Teaching, 35(3), 44.
messaging during simulated driving," Drews et al. (2009) study the effect that text messaging has on driver attention spans and response times. The authors studied drivers in a driving simulation to examine how the drivers responded to texting while driving. Their findings indicate that texting while driving results in poor driver performance with respect to attention span and response time. The authors note the their scores, which are some of the first in the field, indicate that texting while driving is more dangerous than other forms of driver distraction.
The authors first provide an extensive literature review discussing the issue of distracted driving. They present evidence of how different forms of distracted driving have been show to affect driver competence. The authors also discuss the issue of texting and driving specifically, noting that there has not been much research to this point on the subject, but that they believe texting…
Drews, F., Yazdani, H, Godfrey, C., Cooper, J. & Strayer, D. (2009). Text messaging during simulated driving. Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society. Vol. 51 (2009) 762.
Technology to Improve Behavior and Performance in an Elementary Classroom
The role of teachers in a child's education has fundamentally changed. Instruction isn't primarily lecturing to students who sit in rows at desks dutifully listening and recording what they hear but offer each and every child a rich, rewarding and unique learning experience." (Lanier, 1997). Because of revolutions in knowledge and information technology and the demand for learning to be more meaningful and lifelong, schools are changing their structures and teachers are changing with them. Teachers' roles now embrace relating to their students more personally and individually; to integrate social, emotional and intellectual growth. Teachers are now tuning more into how students learn, prompted recently by Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences, and so have had to improve on and add to their instruction methods.
In order to make students more interested in learning, teachers are adding project-based and/or participatory…
Davis, B.C, & Shade, D.D.(1994). Integrate, don't isolate! Computers in the early childhood curriculum. ERIC Digest ED376991. Retrieved from the World Wide Web: http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed376991.html
Farnsworth, B.J. (2002). Preparing tomorrow's teachers to use technology in learning and attitudinal impacts on elementary students. Journal of Instructional Psychology. Retrieved from the World Wide Web: http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/3_29/91707788/print.jhtml
Haugland, S.W. (2000). Computers and young children. ERIC Digest. ED438926. Retrieved form World Wide Web: http://www.ericfacility.net/ericdigests/ed438926.html
Hutinger, P.L. & Johanson, J. (2000). Implementing and maintaining an effective early childhood comprehensive technology system. Topics in Early Childhood. Retrieved from the World Wide Web: http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/mohdg/3_20/68206887/print.jhtml
Anyone who uses his or her cellphone too quickly check a message while standing in line at the grocery store is likely to become aware of the intense hostility directed toward Internet technology. The Internet has been accused of making people rude and less civil in real life and in online life; of negatively influencing elections; even of artificially damaging the human brain by reducing the natural human attention span. Very few technologies admittedly have no negative effects. Even early industrialization had negative effects on the lives of people who wove by hand for a living. But while the Internet has clearly had some negative effects, this should not outweigh the positive impact it has had upon many lives, including connecting people who would otherwise not have any social outlet, and providing a window onto the world that intellectually curious people would not otherwise be able to see.
It is argued that teacher are exposed to role conflict, role ambiguity, lack of autonomy, social isolation and lack of self-fulfillment resulting from the special position in the schools bureaucratic system. Coupled with this is the general tendency for the teaching profession to be the least rewarded in the hierarchy of jobs.
The physical education teacher and burnout intersect at two different but related points. Firstly the notion that the teacher's reward is in heaven as some writers argue positions the teaching job as sacrificial for which adequate compensation is not given. The situation among physical education teacher has been exhausted in a lot of research because of specific peculiarities. Parsons (1968) has already discovered that the physical education teacher and the teaching profession's professionalism are highly questionable under the functional theory. Parsons who is the originator of this theory has been one of the forthright analysts of teachers and…
Akers RL. (1985) Adolescent marijuana use: A test of three theories of deviant behavior. Deviant Behavior, 6(4):323-346
Akers RL. (1989) Social learning theory and alcohol behavior among the elderly. Sociological Quarterly, 30(4):625-638
Akers RL. (1996) A longitudinal test of social learning theory: Adolescent smoking. Journal of Drug Issues, 26(2):317-343
Akers RL, Krohn MD, Lanza-Kaduce Lonn, and Rodosevich M. (1979) Social learning and deviant behavior: A specific test of a general theory. American Sociological Review, 44:636-655.
psychology and human behavior. Specifically it will discuss the effects of population density on individuals, including noise and territoriality. Population density has a dramatic affect on the population, and it can even lead to major health concerns. Studies show that residents of high-noise areas suffer a variety of ailments, from loss of attention span to hearing loss and stress. The denser the population, the more noise, stress, and lack of personal space all come together to make living conditions far less bearable than any other living situation.
Noise is one of the biggest problems facing the residents of high-density population centers. Noise can affect just about every aspect of life, and it can make sleeping, learning, conversing, and every aspect of life nearly unbearable. Noise is a part of life, but high noise levels are often most prevalent in inner cities and areas of high population density, meaning that more…
Editors. (2009). The San Francisco noise model. Retrieved 23 Dec. 2009 from the San Francisco Department of Public Heath Web site: http://www.sfphes.org/HIA_Tools_Noise.htm .
Goines, L. And Hagler, L. (2007). Noise pollution: A modern plague. Southern Medical Journal, Volume 100: p. 287-294.
Harris, A.S., Fleming, G.G., Lang, W.W. And Schomer, P.D. (2004). Reducing the impact of environmental noise on quality of life requires an effective national noise policy. Retrieved 23 Dec. 2009 from the Volpe.dot.gov Web site: http://www.volpe.dot.gov/acoustics/docs/2000/dts-34-03_2.pdf .
On the other hand, others may require a few weeks to get adjusted (Thompson; Connell; Bridges, 1988).
Threshold of esponsiveness:
This refers to how strong a stimulus requires to be reminded of a response from a child. For instance, one child may find a light touch irritating while another may need a deep hug to continue a response. This intensity of reaction refers to the vigor level of the response that is the characteristic of that child.
Another example is a child who has little threshold of responsiveness but at the same time his intensity of reaction is quite high may react to a bad taste medicine with a very loud, "Yuck!" along with lots of frowning and spitting. In contrast, another child may have the same threshold of responsiveness but a low intensity of reaction may just crumple his nose in dislike.
Persistence - Attention Span
This describes of…
Cicchetti, D., & Toth, S. (1995). Child maltreatment and attachment organization: implications for intervention. In S. Goldberg, R. Muir and J. Kerr (Eds.). Attachment theory: Social, developmental and clinical perspectives. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.
Fox, N., Kimmerly, N., & Schafer, W. (1991). Attachment to mother/attachment to father: A meta-analysis. Child Development.
Goldsmith, H., & Alansky, a. (1987). Maternal and infant temperamental predictors of attachment: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.
Seifer, R., Schiller, M., Sameroff, a., Resnick, S., & Riordan, K. (1996). Attachment, maternal sensitivity, and infant temperament during the first year of life. Developmental Psychology.
Lessons of Vietnam
It is often said that more can be learned through failure than through success and in the history of the United States the war in Vietnam is one of America's most famous failures; therefore it is reasonable to assume that the nation learned some valuable lessons from the failure in Vietnam. Even while the war was being waged, there was a debate raging about the war, and as soon as the United States pulled its forces out of the country, the debate turned to the lessons that could be learned from America's failure. In the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists' February 1970 issue, Walter Goldstein placed the blame on the systemic failures in the political system that allowed "a mis-application of military might." (Goldstein 1970) The systemic failures in the political system that Goldstein was referring to was the inability of one branch of government, the Congress,…
Ely, John Hart. (1993). War and Responsibility: Constitutional Lessons of Vietnam and its Aftermath. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Print.
Goldstein, Walter. (1970). "The Lessons of Vietnam." Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
Larson, Eric, and Bogdan Savych. (2005). "American Public Support for Military
Internet Usage on our Lives: A Critique of the Shallows
The pervasive adoption of the Internet continues to completely redefine the nature and scope of people's lives and their ability to communicate and collaborate globally. The Internet is also enabling entirely new approaches to defining methods of co-creation with customers, in addition to the creation and growth of virtual work teams (Panteli, Duncan, 2004). From friends who connect and communicate with one another across continents using Skype over the Internet to the work teams that have developers in the United States, Ukraine, Asia and Australia, the Internet is the common foundation that accelerates communication, shared data, experiences and makes complex tasks accomplishable. Technology is the enabler of greater transparency and trust when used over time to unify people, processes and systems across broad geographic and culture distances (Andriole, 2006). Contrary to this perspective however are the concepts presented in the…
Andriole, S.J. (2006). The collaborate/integrate business technology strategy. Association for Computing Machinery.Communications of the ACM, 49(5), 85-90.
Carr, N. (2011). The Shallows, What The Internet Is Doing To Our Brains. New York W.W. Norton & Co Inc.
Nolan, T., Brizland, R., & Macaulay, L. (2007). Individual trust and development of online business communities. Information Technology & People, 20(1), 53-71.
Panteli, N., & Duncan, E. (2004). Trust and temporary virtual teams: Alternative explanations and dramaturgical relationships. Information Technology & People, 17(4), 423-441.
Music and Cognitive Theory
Music tends to have a phenomenal power over the human mind and emotions. A movie without a soundtrack would seem so dull and boring. If you try closing your eyes and picture a scene with music, it gives a completely different mood and emotion to it. Even before the music culture that exists today, human beings were still making some kind of music. They made flutes with the bones and jaw harps. Music has always had an innate appreciation for humans. Pleasant sounds lure a person to identify its source, whereas a shrill, unpleasant sound makes a person uncomfortable.
Studies show that while an orchestral concert, the pleasure centers of a human brain are activated. These are also active while a person has chocolate, engages in sexual acts or during the intake of stimulants like hash and cocaine. hen a baby is being formed inside a…
Mursell, J. (1970). The Psychology of Music. New York: Prentice Hall.
Schlaug, G.L. Jancke, Y. Huang, and H. Steinmetz. 1995. In vivo evidence of structural brain asymmetry in musicians. Science 267: 699-701.
Ratey, J. (2002). A Users Guide to the Brain. New York: Vintage.
Strickland, S. (2001). Music and the Brain in Childhood Development. Childhood Education, 78(2), 98-109.
Mold Spore Trapping
Current Scientific Knowledge
People are exposed to aeroallergens in a variety of settings, both at home and at work. Fungi are ubiquitous airborne allergens and are important causes of human diseases, especially in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These diseases occur in persons of various ages.
Airborne spores and other fungi particles are ubiquitous in nonpolar landscapes, especially amongst field crops, and often form the bulk of suspended biogenic debris. The term mold often is used synonymously with the term fungi. A more precise definition would specify that molds lack macroscopic reproductive structures but may produce visible colonies. Respiratory illness in subjects exposed to rust and dark-spored imperfecti fungi was described more than 60 years ago, and physicians worldwide now recognize a sensitization to diverse fungi.
Since fungus particles commonly are derived from wholly microscopic sources, exposure hazards are assessed largely through direct sampling of a…
Brinton, W.T., Vastbinder, E.E., Greene, J.W., Marx, J.J., Hutcheson, R.H., Schaffner, W. (1987). An outbreak of organic dust toxic syndrome in a college fraternity. Journal of the American Medical Association 258:1210-1212.
Ceigler, A., & Bennett, J.W. (1980). Mycotoxins and Mycotoxicoses. Bio-Science 30:512-515.
CDC. 1994. Acute pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, January 1993-November 1994. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 1994; 43:881-3.
CDC. 1997. Update: Pulmonary hemorrhage/hemosiderosis among infants -- "Cleveland, Ohio, 1993-1996. MMWR 1997; 46:33-35.
Further evidence for the possible value of noise for children with ADHD is presented by Abikoff et al. (1996). These researchers evaluated the effect that extra-task auditory stimulation had on academic task performance of children with ADHD. This was executed by studying both children with ADHD and normal students during the performance of arithmetic tasks during three different auditory stimulus conditions: high stimulation (music), low stimulation (speech) and no stimulation (silence). The findings indicated that the normal subjects performed similarly under all three conditions, while the ADHD subjects performance was significantly better under the music condition that the silence or speech conditions. This information could prove to be valuable for teachers in the classroom environment. The presence of music in the classroom during tasks such as arithmetic might facilitate the performance of students with ADHD. Since normal students performed equally well under all auditory conditions, the presence of music would…
Abikoff, H., Courtney, M.E., Szeibel P.J., Koplewicz, H.S. (1996). The effects of auditory stimulation on the arithmetic performance of children with ADHD and nondisabled children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29(3), 238-46.
Baumgaertal, A. (1999). Alternative and controversial treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 46(5), 977-92.
Gray, L.C., Breier, J.I., Foorman, B.R., Fletcher, J.M. (2002). Continuum of impulsiveness caused by auditory masking. International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, 66(3), 265-72.
Jackson, N.A. (2003). A survey of music therapy methods and their role in the treatment of early elementary school children with ADHD. Journal of Music Therapy, 40(4), 302-23.
Review of Related Literature
This chapter provides a review of the literature concerning hypnosis, Eastern Meditation, Chi Kung, and Nei Kung and how these methods are used to treat various ailments and improve physical and mental functioning. A summary of the review concludes the chapter.
In his study, "Cognitive Hypnotherapy in the Management of Pain," Dowd (2001) reports that, "Several theories have een proposed to account for the effect of hypnosis. State theories assume that the hypnotic trance is qualitatively different from all other human experiences. From this perspective, trance capacity is supposedly a fairly stale trait that exhiits sustantial individual differences. Nonstate theories, often referred to as social learning, social psychological or cognitive-ehavioral theories of hypnosis propose that hypnotic phenomena are related to social and psychological characteristics such as hope, motivation, expectancy, elief in the therapist, desire to please the therapist, a positive initial…
bibliography. (2010). http://science.jrank.org / pages/7857/Meditation-Eastern.html.
Many religious traditions have practices that could possibly be labeled meditation. In Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, these practices are usually associated with prayer, contemplation, or recitation of sacred texts. In the religious traditions of the Native Americans, Australian aboriginals, Siberian peoples, and many others, what could be identified as meditation techniques are incorporated within the larger rubric of shamanism. It is, however, in the religions of Asia that meditation has been most developed as a religious method.
Meditation has played an important role in the ancient yogic traditions of Hinduism and also in more recent Hindu-based new religious movements such as Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Transcendental Meditation program. But it is most especially in the monastic or "elite" forms of the various traditions of Buddhism (Theravada, Tibetan/Vajrayana, and Ch'an/Zen) that meditation techniques have taken center stage and have been developed to the highest degree of sophistication and complexity.
Short-Term Effects of Meditation vs. Relaxation on Cognitive Functioning. Contributors: Gillian King - author, Jeffrey Coney - author. Journal Title: Journal of Transpersonal Psychology. Volume: 38. Issue: 2. Publication Year: 2006. Page Number: 200+.
Authors cite the lack of relevant studies concerning the effect, if any, of meditation on short-term improvements in cognitive performance. The results of this study clearly showed that meditation, per se, does not produce a short-term improvement in cognitive performance compared to other relaxation techniques.
Initiating joint attention related to activity in the frontal-cortical system, especially the left hemisphere and responding to joint attention to the parietal lobes. Heimann et al. (2006) found that that deferred imitation and joint attention both influence the development of language and communication skills in infancy. Deferred imitation at nine months was the strongest of the predictors of nonverbal communication at 14 months, but the predictive power increased significantly in situations when deferred imitation and joint attention were used together.
ecently studies have been conducted with other areas of cognitive behavior. For example, de Villiers (2007) has been looking at the association of language and what he calls Theory of Mind. Theory of Mind refers to the folk psychological theory humans use to predict and explain others' behavior on the basis of their internal workings: feelings, intentions, desires, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and point-of-view. In other words, people have to create…
Bowerman, M., & Levinson, S. C (2001). Introduction. In M. Bowerman & S.C. Levinson (Eds.), Language acquisition and conceptual development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Delgado, C.E.F., Mundy, P., Crowson, M., Markus, J., & Schwartz, H. (2002). Responding to joint attention and language development: A comparison to target location. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 715-719.
A de Villiers, J. (2007) Interface of language and theory of mind. Lingua 117 1858-1878
Doherty, M.J., 2006. The development of mentalistic gaze understanding. Infant and Child Development 15, 179-186.
There have been a number of recent studies investigating the effect of background music on concentration. These studies have focused on both attention and on workplace concentration. A Stanford study identifies that background music assists in stimulating attention (Baker, 2007). A study that examined the effects of music with lyrics and music without found that the latter is more effective for workplace concentration, as lyrics are more distracting and can have a negative impact on worker performance (Shih, Huang & Chiang, 2012). Another study showed that the workers' fondness for the music was a key variable -- the type of music did not matter as long as the people liked it (Huang & Shih, 2011).
Some studies have taken an ethnographic bent, with scholars investigating effects within their specific culture. This paper will further this research, investigating what differences there are, if any, in the response to background music…
Baker, Mitzi. (2007). " Music moves brain to pay attention, Stanford study finds." Stanford Medicine. Accessed April 7, 2016 from https://med.stanford.edu/news/all-news/2007/07/music-moves-brain-to-pay-attention-stanford-study-finds.html
Huang, Rong. & Shih, Yi. "Effects of background music on concentration of workers." Work. Vol. 38 (2011) 383-387
Shih, Yi, Huang, Rong. & Chiang, HY. " Background music: Effects on attention performance. " Work. Vol. 42, 4 (2012) 573-578.
Tze, Peter. & Chou, Ming.. "Attention drainage effect: How background music effects (sic) concentration in Taiwanese college students." Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning. Vol. 10, 1 (2010) 36-46.
It is basically being able to make a sound decision from a perception made using the mind or someone's senses. This is making a choice between tow options a right one and a wrong one .normally this discernment is done on an ethical basis and ethics is what guides an individual in the decision they will eventually make.
How mindfulness reduces errors in rational-decision making
The rational-decision making process is one which requires a lot of care and precsion.one can easily make errors during this process since there are so many things involved. There should therefore be a lot of mindfulness when it comes to rational decision making. During rational decision making there are various forms of errors that can be involved, this are classified according to the specific area and they are identifying a problem, evaluating and searching for information and lastly the implementation process (Leigh, 2013). There are…
Dreyfus, G. (2010) .Is mindfulness present-centered and non-judgmental? Retrieved June 29, 2013 from http://www.emory.edu/ECCS/education/dreyfus.pdf
Garms, E.T. (2013). Practicing Mindful Leadership. Retrieved June 29, 2013 from http://www.astd.org/Publications/Magazines/TD/TD-Archive/2013/03/Practicing-Mindful-Leadership
Leigh, M. (2013). Multiple dimensions of mindfulness- jumping down the chaordic rabbit hole. Retrieved June 29, 2013 from http://deepeningmindfulness.org/2013/02/05/multiple-manifestations-of-mindfulness-jumping-down-the-chaordic-rabbit-hole/
On both the conscious and the subconscious levels, marketing initiatives whose choice of color schemes is consistent with their products are more likely to be conducive to success than initiatives whose choice of color scheme is inconsistent with cultural associations with respect to colors (Howard 2005).
The Internet marketing environment requires greater attention to any factors that might undermine consumer receptivity or shorten their attention span, precisely because the consumer has the option of simply navigating away to a competitor's website as soon as attention wanes, regardless of the reason. Unlike the case with traditional advertising media, there is no second chance to recapture the consumer's attention with compelling copy or subsequent imagery after an initial lapse in interest.
Color has always been a significant component of visual advertising, ever since its inception in still photographs and sketches. Partly, this is attributable to the association between gender and color,…
Belch, G, Belch, M. (1998) Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated
Marketing Communications Perspective. New York: Irwin/McGraw-Hill
Howard, M. (2005) We Know What You Want: How They Change Your Mind. New York: The Disinformation Company
Ogilvy, D. (1989) Ogilvy on Advertising New York: Vintage Books
Beethoven uses choral voices in his 9th Symphony to produce a sound that no man-made instrument could produce. Beethoven is attempting to achieve the highest and most joyful sound in the final movement of the symphony and so therefore uses human voices to compel the listener to the rapturous heights that he wants them to witness.
or what might look at the importance of tone and key. n the 20th century, composers like Schoenberg wrote atonal music that made music sound fractured and splintered and, in a word, off. This effect allowed Schoenberg to artistically represent a world around him that seemed to be going off its head -- with war, loss of conviction, and devaluation. There seemed to be no real key to happiness, and so the earlier keys that were used by Bach are rejected here by Schoenberg.
6) Using the illustrations found throughout chapter five, name the…
It is likely that the people of Japan continue to perform and listen to their own folk tunes even today because their culture is more tied to their past than ours. America's history is relatively brief, and its inhabitants come from all over the world. America has been likened to a melting pot of cultures; therefore it is not surprising to find that it has no real connection to a folk music tradition.
Japan on the other hand has existed for many centuries and its people are rooted in their heritage. Their culture is part of their lives and defines who they are and how they live: their folk music is an expression of their past, which they continually look back upon and reflect upon. They have also been more isolated from the West: it is only relatively recently that Japanese society has begun to reflect the social conditions of the Western world. It has made the attempt to become industrialized and be a viable element in the world's economy. It manufactures a great deal of the West's goods. But still it knows its heritage, and Japanese people know that while they seemingly work for the West, they are not of the West. Their folk music tells them this.
American culture tends to look only toward the future: it rotates its Top 40 continuously and calls music "classic" that came out thirty years ago. It does not know its ancestry and were it told to it, it would likely balk at the revelation. Americans do not like to consider the culture from which they came: they are not supposed to think of culture. They are like the people in Orwell's 1984 -- controlled, manipulated, and coddled. History is re-written by those in power, and those in power do not want the citizens thinking for themselves. To do so might cause dissonance.
Communication and Super-Saturation of the Modern Sense of Self
"How does the design of information structure the information process? And how, on the other side of the equation, does the nature of audience engagement structure its reception?"
Communication by its very nature is a dialogue. One person or medium speaks. Another individual or an audience of individuals receives the word or the message being conveyed. As with any performance, particularly a live performance, the method of transmission of the message conveyed invariably affects the message itself.
This is demonstrated in its most raw form during an improvised performance piece such as that of a stand-up comic. The comic realizes that he or she is not getting a favorable reception from the audience.
They are yawning, or signaling to the waiter that they would like some new drinks. The comic takes stock of this information, realizing that he or she is…
Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble. New York: Routledge, 1990.
Gergen, Kenneth. The Saturated Self. New York: HarperCollins, 1991.
O'Barr, William. Culture and the Ad. Oxford: Westview Press, 1994.
An initial psychotic episode is often the result, with immediate in-hospital treatment recommended for testing and observation. Treatment includes anti-psychotic medication and patients often respond well, particularly in milder cases of the illness. (Csernansky, 2001) However, a general inability to adapt socially will persist and prevent a "normal" existence for these individuals. In one case, a female patient described her general personality despite medication as characterized by "low self-esteem, hypersensitivity to criticism, hyperempathy, excessive generosity, susceptibility to manipulation, and social awkwardness" (eichenberg-Ullman, 2010). In addition, substance abuse, inability to hold a job, risk of suicide, and unwanted pregnancy are typical themes in these patients' lives. (Csernansky, 2001) in the case of pregnancy, females often suffer complications beyond their mental illness, such as poor prenatal care, risk of violence during pregnancy, and reduced likelihood of having a male supportive figure (staff, 2007)
In the middle phase of schizophrenia, or the first…
Collier, E. (2007). Challenging the concept of "burned out" schizophrenia. Mental Health Nursing, 14.
Csernansky, J.G. (2001). Schizophrenia: A New Guide for Clinicians. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Heinrichs, R.W. (2001). In Search of Madness: Schizophrenia and Neuroscience. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nicole, V. (2007, 11-21). Schizophrenia and Pregnancy: Genetic Links and Effects. Retrieved 11-24, 2010, from www.associatedcontent.com: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/454786/schizophrenia_and_pregnancy_genetic_pg2.html?cat=70
For example, let's say that a student has tremendous amounts of respect for their history teacher. While at the same time, they do not like their math teacher. These two contrasting views will have a negative impact on how they will deal with a host of situation. As, the student is more willing to listen to ideas of teachers they like and respect. Whereas those educators, that are often looked down upon will be ineffective in reaching out to their student. This is significant, because it is showing how inside the classroom the teacher must be able to relate to each person. As a result, the way that this idea can be used in the classroom is to establish an initial foundation of support for the educator and the views that are being presented. The way that this is accomplished is through effectively reaching out to the student by ensuring…
McFerrin, K. (2008). Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference. Chesapeake, VA: AACE.
McGlyn, A. (2009). Millennials in College. Education Digest, 73 (6), 19 -- 22.
Shindler, J. (2010). Transformative Classroom Management. San Francisco, CA: Josey Bass.
Commenting on Edge, Banaji noted that instead of changing the way she thinks, "…what the internet has surely done is to change what I think about, what I know, and what I do" (n.p). Others with dissenting views include Bavelier and Green. hile analyzing two books highlighting the effect browsing has on the human brain, the two authors point out that some of the studies carried out so far are not in a way conclusive as in seeking to point out the changes occurring in the brain, the positions they take are not reliable (38). Indeed, the authors in this case note that conclusions in such studies are largely determined by the values of the author. Hence while one author could consider such changes positive, another one could still regard the same as being negative. ith than in mind, the authors conclude that "history suggests that technology does not change…
Banaji, Mahzarin. "How is the Internet Changing the Way You Think?" Edge. John Brockman, 2010. Web. 24 April 2012.
Bavelier, Daphne and Shawn Green. "Browsing and the Brain" University of Wisconsin. Macmillan Publishers Limited, 3 Feb. 2011. Web. 24 April 2012.
Carr, Nicholas. "How the Internet is making us Stupid." The Telegraph 27 Aug. 2010: n. pag. Web. 23 April 2012.
GreenBlatt, Alan. "Impact of Internet on Thinking." CQ Researcher 20.33 (Sept. 24, 2010): 773-796. Print.
children cope with friendship and death after reading Charlottes' Web?
The book, Charlotte's Web is probably the best selling paperback and is really a story about a farm, and how friendships develop between different animals and how they help each other. In this book, the most important development is the friendship that develops between Wilbur and Charlotte. Wilbur is a pig and Charlotte is a spider which turns out to be the leader of all animals. The book developed as a natural consequence to the author having resided on a farm and seen all the animals in action. In this book, Charlotte ends up saving the pig from slaughter and in practice; the author himself had tried to save a pig and not succeeded. The author has written about many such animals, but this became the most popular.
Animals were dear to the author and though the animals…
Children and Grief. American Academy of Child. July, 2004. Retrieved from http://www.aacap.org/publications/factsfam/grief.htm Accessed on 8 June, 2005
Hartman, Holly. Charlotte's Web. Retrieved from http://www.factmonster.com/spot/charlotte1.html Accessed on 8 June, 2005
Helping Children Cope with Loss, Death and Grief: Response to a National Tragedy. National Association of School Psychologists. 22 October, 2001. Retrieved from http://www.nasponline.org/NEAT/grief.html Accessed on 8 June, 2005
Information for the Media on Childhood Traumatic Grief. The National Child Traumatic Stress. Retrieved from www.nctsnet.org/nccts/asset.do?id=361 Accessed on 8 June, 2005
Fine Motor Skill Development in Children
Fine motor skills are important for a variety of activities such as writing and feeding, so its important they develop properly in young kids. This paper talks about the importance of fine motor skills and how it can be improved with proper intervention and the right activities.
Fine motor skills and their importance
Fine motor skills are the skills that involve the use of small muscles in the hands such as fingers. The biggest challenge in fine motor skills is the coordination of the hand with the eyes and brain and it is more complicated than what many people imagine. It develops at a young age, typically before five or six and it plays an important role in the way our hands function during adolescence and adulthood.
The development of fine motor skills is vital in young children because it is these skills that…
Smith, Jodene. (2003). Activities for Fine Motor Skills Development Grd PreK-1. Westminster, CA: Teacher Created Resources.
No author. (2011). Fine motor control. Medline Plus. Retrieved from: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002364.htm
Curtis, Kathleen; Newman, Peggy. (2005). The PTA Handbook: Keys to Success in School and Career for the Physical Therapist Assistant. New Jersey: Slack Incorporated.
Charlesworth, Rosalind. (2010). Understanding Child Development. Mason, OH: South-western Cengage Learning.
oanoke County School System Faculty and Staff's Perceptions egarding the Use of Web-Based Professional Development
Implications for Improvement of Practice
Introduction (could be longer. Include mandatory teacher ongoing certification standards)
Ongoing staff development has long been a vital part of the educational environment. It is the means by which the faculty and staff of a school system are kept current in educational trends, technologies and philosophies. In a diverse society, social pressures felt in the classroom are continually making the teaching process more challenging.
In the past few years alone, the advance in computer capabilities and in-home computer gaming equipment has affected the attention span of the average student. Elementary and secondary education students have a different paradigm as to what is interesting. Thus the challenge in the classroom to grab, hold, and mold the students attention have changed. An effective teacher must be aware of these changes,…
Blackboard. (n.d.). Blackboard.com. Retrieved October 22, 2002, at http://www.blackboard.com
Blair, J (2001). Teacher-Training Programs Turn to Cyberspace. Education Week Online,. Retrieved October 26, 2002, at http://www.edweek.org
Charles, C.M., & Mertler, C.A. (2002). Orientation to Educational Research (4 ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Guskey, T.R. (2000). Evaluating Professional Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
Math education, over the precedent years has been a contentious issue plaguing society at large. Many students, as they enter their preliminary schooling years, often have difficulty learning basic mathematical concepts. These difficulties compound as students proceed to upper levels of education. Throughout this process, math becomes more difficult for the student, often discouraging them from pursing math in a meaningful manner. Due to globalization, other nations are now becoming more competitive in regards to their overall workforce. They are now more educated, particularly in both math and science. Their respective countries are also very ambitious in teaching their children about the merits of math education. Competition now arises from all corners of the globe irrespective of geographic location. ealizing that global competition, market demands, and business needs necessitate the need for a mathematically oriented society, America has renewed its emphasis on math education. One such theory regarding…
1) Brousseau, G. (1997). The theory of didactical situations in mathematics: Didactique des mathematiques, 1970 -- 1990 (N. Balacheff, M. Cooper, R. Sutherland, & V. Warfield, Eds. And Trans.). Dordrecht: Kluwer.
2) Tiberghien, Andree. "Design Tools in Didactical Research: Instrumenting the Epistemological and Cognitive Aspects of the Design of Teaching Sequences." EDUCATIONAL RESEARCHER June 2009 vol. 38 no. 5 329-342
The Issue of Students of Arab Descent
Scope for Advisory Participation groups
ole of Involvement from Parents as External Stakeholders
Barriers and Facilitators to Parent Involvement
Advisory Participation and Policy Implications
elation between Parental Involvement and Child Growth
The ole of Native Americans in Interventions
Traditional Parenting Practices
Middle Eastern Students: Effect of Advisory Participation in the Adolescent Years - Grades 8-9
It is believed that when children and adolescents take part in group activities, they experience better social and psychological health. Indeed, it has also been documented that participating in team sports leads to positive health outcomes. Analysts observe that such eventuality accrues from the social dimension that team sports provide. The positive involvement by adults and peers enhances such gains (ochelle M. Eime, Janet A Young, Jack T. Harvey, Melanie J. Charity, & Warren . Payne, 2013). eader advisory techniques; applied with youthful patrons present an…
Abdul Tawab, N., Saher, S., & Nawawi, N. (2013). Learning About Youth. New York: Population Council.
Aghajanian, A., & Cong, W. (2012). How Culture Affects on English Language Learners' (ELL's) Outcomes, with Middle East Immigrant Students. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 172-180.
Alnawar, H. (2015). Raising Teachers' Cultural Knowledge of Middle Eastern Students in The Classroom. California State University - Capstones and Theses.
Badri, M., Al Quabaisi, A., Al Rashedi, A., & Yang, G. (2014). The causal relationship between parental involvement and children's behavioural adjustment to KG-1 schooling. International Journal of Child Care and Education Policy.
Dimensions of Identity at Work
There are numerous dimensions that reflect one's identity, and which reflect the identity of the author of this document. These dimensions encompass both the primary and the secondary realms of factors that pertain to diversity. These two realms are unequivocally "important to distinguish" (Loden and Rosener, 1991, p. 18) One can actually argue that many of the primary factors supersede the secondary ones in numerous cases -- or perhaps augment them so much that they render the latter almost subservient to the former. As such, the author believes that the five dimensions that are best reflective of herself are the primary ones. These dimensions greatly affect my perceptions and my performance at work, principally by providing the foundation through which I view most facets of life.
Of the multiple dimensions that encompass the primary dimensions of diversity, it seems as though age is certainly the…