Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Keeping passengers safe on their flights involves more than just making sure the aircraft in use is fully functional and operationally fit. Aviation security involves keeping dangerous people from becoming passengers, and that entails security checks during the boarding process, and more. This paper points to the steps that government officials and airline management must take to ensure the safety and security of private and commercial air travel.
National Strategy for Aviation Security
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), which was created following the attacks on the United States (the orld Trade Center and Pentagon were hit with hijacked commercial airliners, due to flaws in security checkpoints), has ultimate responsibility for aviation security and safety in America. The DHS published a document entitled "The National Strategy for Aviation Security" in 2007, and within that document readers find the basic theories and strategies for keeping the airways safe and…
American Association of Aviation Executives. (2011). AAAE Aviation Security Summit
Focuses on Risk-Based Security.
Department of Homeland Security. (2007). Aviation Operational Threat Response Plan.
Retrieved December 27, 2011, from http://www.dhs.gov/files/programs/aviation- security.shtm.
Post 9/11 Security
Despite the working group presented above, post 9/11 security entails measures that must be carried out in a dedicated, complex manner in order to be efficient, even if they, in turn, have a negative impact on airport efficiency. Without a doubt, these measures that provoke so much annoyance have a positive impact on the security of airports and the sky. Post 9/11 security comes with much pain, but many rewards as well (i.e. over 10 years of safe flight).
Such security measures are, however, constantly revised. For instance, in a study conducted quite recently at Cornell University, two professors examined the impact of such airport security measures on air travel, which included the impact upon airport security personnel and passengers. These two individuals utilized five years of data geared towards analyzing passenger volume and direct effects of the implementation of various post 9/11 rules, such as additional…
Blalock et. al., 2007.
N.A. (2001). Aviation Security. U.S. General Accounting Office. Retrieved, .
N.A. (2012). Publications. Counter-Terrorism. Retrieved, < http://www.counterterrorismtraining.gov/pubs/01.html>.
Like the airline industry, it seems as if the airport industry is moving towards consolidation and more airport cooperation and alliances seem likely in the future. (Graham, 2003)
One approach in which civil aviation can contribute in ensuring peace amid the countries of the world is principally through its key role of facilitating communication and international discourse. The ICAO -- International Civil Aviation Organization has played a large part in achieving this to a great extent. Article 44 of the Chicago Convention charges ICAO to work towards aiding the global community for the development of civil aviation in an economic, safe and orderly manner. A apid esponse Team on Airport Security was formed under the DOT -- Department of Transportation of the United States. The initiative of ICAO for ensuring harmony and peace in the field of aviation is largely accomplished through its Council which has its origin in the…
Abeyratne, Ruwantissa Indranath Ramya. (2003) "Aviation in Crisis"
Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Anderson, John. (2005, Mar) "New Aviation Security Laws" Retrieved 8 April, 2008 at http://www.minister.infrastructure.gov.au/ja/releases/2005/march/a36_2005.htm
Armstrong, David. (2007, Sep) "Programs to Speed Airport Security Checks Advance
ith the threat of terrorism remaining so strong in this country it is vital to find new and better ways to protect people and to keep them safe from harm as much as is humanly and technologically possible.
Scope of the Study
The scope of this particular study is very broad and far-reaching, because there are so many people who are being affected by it now and will be affected by it in the future. This was mentioned briefly earlier, as the current individual that may be suffering from the after-effects or the fear of terrorism is by far not the only one that is affected or will be affected in the future. The family and friends of that person are also affected, and the individuals of the future and their families and friends may also be affected by terrorism some day. Even though not everyone that goes through a…
Autodesk Technology used in homeland security applications. 18 March 2002. Business News Publishing Company.
Benson, Miles. In the name of homeland security, telecom firms are deluged with subpoenas. 2002. Newhouse News Service.
Doganis, R. 1991: "Flying off course: the economics of international airlines," London, Harper Collins; (2nd ed.)
Fredrickson, H.G., & LaPorte, T.R. 2002. "Airport security, high reliability, and the problem of rationality." Public Administration Review, 62(Special Issue), 33-43.
'The International Outreach Plan' provides a comprehensive framework to solicit international support for an improved global aviation security network.
All these specially suggested plans addresses the need of different aspects of aviation security, yet, these security plans support and complement each other and that is why all have been properly integrated with the designing plan of the airport (Transportation Security Administration, 2010).
The designed plan for the airport includes all aspects of TSA -- mandated and provides a system for passenger screening in terms of concentric ring theory -- defense-in-depth. The first layer of security is presented and guarded by the 'Passenger Security Screening Checkpoints -- SSCP.' Every passenger or employer is required to pass through the SSCP before they may access the departure gate. Enhanced security measures are engaged in the system of screening. Security officers properly screens and scans the passengers and their carry baggage. No person…
Aviation transportation System Security Plan. (2007) "Supporting Plan to the National Strategy for Aviation Security."
N.A. (2007) "National Strategy for Aviation Security"
N.A. (n. d.) "Aviation Projects: Bodouva, Architects and Planners" Retrieved 26
July 2010 from http://www.cbodouva.com/pages/3/index.htm
"As the first flights began again on September 15, some crews refused to fly, not confident of airport security. Those who steeled themselves to work entered a strange new workplace. With no guidance from the airlines or the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) on how to handle potential future hijackings, flight attendants inventoried galleys for objects they could use as defensive weapons. Shell-shocked passengers sometimes hugged flight attendants as they boarded. Many crewmembers barely contained tears, often hiding in galleys to avoid alarming passengers."
Association of Flight Attendants
As the growth in air traffic appears to be picking up again, people are demanding more safety and security. As we look back to the events of September 11, 2001, we realize that this was a day that most Americans will never forget as long they live. Some of those who witnessed and watched airplanes plunge into…
Ansoff, I.H. (1983). Strategic management. London: Macmillan.
Bass, B.M. (1990). Bass & Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Applications. (3rd ed.). New York: Free Press.
Charan, R. (1991). How networks reshape organizations for results. Harvard Business Review, 69, 104-115.
Cherry, B.L. (2003). Safety and security within the airline industry. (Available from the Industrial College of the Armed Forces, National Defense University, Washington, DC 20319)
S. Constitution. Notwithstanding the defendant's claim that the money orders were not his, the DEA and other federally authorized airport security seized the briefcase because they had probably cause to do so. One federal statute 31 U.S.C. § 5324(a) (avoiding currency transaction reporting rules) was referenced. Moreover, believing that they had probably cause to believe money laundering was involved they invoked 18 U.S.C. § 1956(a)(1)(i) and 1957(a) (2000). And after a drug sniffing dog detected cocaine, the federal law 21 U.S.C. § 881(a)(6) (1994) (amended 2000) was referenced. The answer to the question posed in the first paragraph of the Second Case, the contents of a briefcase may be seized if a "plain view" observation on the contents gives the officer probable cause to believe that the contents could have resulted from: a) money laundering; b) the avoidance of currency transaction laws; or c) drug trafficking activities. Those contents may…
Cornell University Law School. (2010). Fourth Amendment / Exceptions to the Warrant
Requirement. Retrieved Dec. 18, 2010, from http://topics.law.cornell.edu/wex/fourth_amendment .
Cornell University Law School. (2010). U.S. Code Title 18 § 930. Possession of firearms and dangerous weapons in Federal facilities. Retrieved Dec. 18, 2010, from http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/18/usc_sec_18_00000930-000-.html .
FindLaw. (2010). United States v. $557,933.89 More or Less in Funds. Retrieved Dec. 18,
For managers, this meant that they had to implement some kind of solution that could respond to these changes. ("Christmas Day ombing Plot," 20100
As a result, the TSA introduced full body scan imaging machines. These are similar to X ray machines that will look beneath the clothing of the suspect, to see if they have any kind of explosive in their private areas. For those individuals who were concerned about privacy issues, managers offered them another option (which was fully body pat downs by same sex security officers). During this procedure, they were required to manually check various private areas on a host of different individuals. The problem is that many civil rights groups and victims advocates, were claiming that this is a violation of basic constitutional principles. However, from a manager's perspective, these different views were unfounded, as they believed that the current system could address these underlying…
Christmas Day Bombing Plot. (2010). Reuters. Retrieved from: http://www.reuters.com/article/2010/01/07/us-security-airline-intelligence-idUSTRE6065V120100107
Baskas, H. (2010). TSA Pat Down. MSNBC. Retrieved from: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/40291856/ns/travel-news/
After the 911 terrorist attacks on the United States of America, airline security has become one of the most prominent safety issues within the country and also abroad. Indeed, specific organizations and strategies have been implemented in order to ensure the safety of aircraft for passengers and for the country as a whole. One of these is the Coalition of Airline Pilots Associations (CAPA), an organization specifically concerned with airline security issues and the implementation of safety measures (Air Safety Week, 2003). Critics have however suggested that the government has been in denial regarding the danger and shortcomings inherent in safety and security measures for commercial airlines.
According to Air Safety Week (2003), CAPA has implemented a measure by which it grades the governmental effort towards improving aviation security. And even two years after the September 11 attacks, the grades still fall considerably short of the desired result.…
Ahlers, Mike (2004, August). " 9/11 commission leaders cite gaps in aviation security." CNN.com, August 28, 2004.
Air Safety Week (2003, October). "Aviation Security Report Card." Air Safet Week, Oct. 13. Retreived August 28, 2003, from: Looksmart Find Articles: www.findarticles.com
Feuerherd, Joe (2004, January). "Top secret: critics say Bush refusal to release records is more about politics than security." National Catholic Reporter, Jan. 9. Retreived August 28, 2003, from: Looksmart Find Articles: www.findarticles.com
Pit & Quarry (2004, January). "Aviation funding legislation signed by president." Pit & Quarry, January. Retreived August 28, 2003, from: Looksmart Find Articles: www.findarticles.com
However, funding cutbacks have delayed the expected completion of this training by all air marshals. Currently, federal air marshals protect less than 5% of daily U.S. flights. Other limitations to the use of air marshals include a mandatory dress code and the ongoing surveillance, which makes the marshal obvious to passengers. Furthermore, marshals must show identification to the flight crew and board the plane before first-class and handicapped passengers, which further compromises their undercover status.
Despite the limitations to the current aviation security system, many aspects are quite strong. Although not 100% accurate, airport screening devices are sensitive enough to detect metallic orthopedic implants (Kamineni, Legge and are). Also, TSA made remarkable enhancements to these areas in a relatively short period since "9/11." The agency has ongoing initiatives to increase the efficiency of screening checked baggage, including the development and construction of in-line baggage screening systems at larger airports to…
Barnett, a. "Capps Ii: The Foundation of Aviation Security?" Risk Anal 24.4 (2004): 909-16.
CBS Broadcasting, Inc. New Airport X-Ray Too Revealing? New York, NY, 2003.
Galiano Riveros, E. "The Digital Radiographic and Computed Tomography Imaging of Two Types of Explosive Devices." Appl Radiat Isot 57.6 (2002): 861-5.
Kamineni, S., S. Legge, and H. Ware. "Metallic Orthopaedic Implants and Airport Metal Detectors." J. Arthroplasty 17.1 (2002): 62-5.
intra and inter-agency cooperation in the context of aviation security, since the 9/11 attacks. The paper will also look into obstacles to cooperation and how to mitigate them.
Means of Inter-Intra Agency Cooperation Increase
Aviation Operational Threat esponse Plan recommends systematized and all-inclusive protocols for guaranteeing a well-organized and successful governmental response to threats from airborne sources against the country and its welfare. The Aviation Transportation System ecovery Plan outlines a set of strategies for mitigating the economic and operational impacts of an aerial attack, in addition to measures, which will allow the Aviation Transport System, as well as other concerned private sector and governmental aviation-connected groups, to rapidly recover from these kinds of attacks (Aviation Transportation System Security Plan, 2007). Efforts for further reducing susceptibilities in each critical system area are maintained, increased, and improved by the Aviation Transportation System Security Plan. The Plan guides forceful efforts for: (1)…
(2014, July 7). Fox News - Breaking News Updates -- Latest News Headlines -- Photos & News Videos. U.S. increases security at foreign airports, with focus on cellphone, other electronic devices -- Fox News. Retrieved November 25, 2015, from http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2014/07/07/us-increases-security-at-foreign-airports-focus-on-cellphone-other-electronic.html
(2007). Homeland Security. Aviation Transportation System Security Plan. Retrieved November 25, 2015, from http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/hspd16_transsystemsecurityplan.pdf
Kaser, F. (2011, May 31). Federation Of American Scientists -. Interagency Collaborative Arrangements and Activities: Types, Rationales, Considerations . Retrieved November 27, 2015, from http://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41803.pdf
(2009). U.S. Government Accountability Office (U.S. GAO). Key Issues for Congressional Oversight of National Security Strategies, Organizations, Workforce, and Information Sharing . Retrieved November 25, 2015, from http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d09904sp.pdf
Countermeasures After 911
Without a doubt, September 11th changed a tremendous amount about how we live and about how safe (and unsafe) we feel. These attacks caused enormous changes and countermeasures regarding the way we travel and the way we interact with one another and the way in which we use technology. However, ever since the ten-year anniversary of 9/11 has come and gone, it begs to determine just how much we've changed in the way that we live, examining specific areas of technology, commerce and communication. Consider the following: "In spite of a doubling of the intelligence budget since 2001 to $80 billion, the creation or reorganizing of some 263 government organizations, and the formation of the $50 billion Department of Homeland Security, the government has largely fallen short, the new report notes. The report states that while some progress has been made, 'some major September 11 Commission…
Aclu.org. (2003, August 25). The Five Problems With CAPPS II. Retrieved from Aclu.org: https://www.aclu.org/national-security/five-problems-capps-ii
Alpha.org. (2011, Fall). Aviation Security. Retrieved from alpa.org: http://www.alpa.org/portals/alpa/pressroom/inthecockpit/ALPAIssueAnalysis_10YearsAfter9-11Attacks.pdf
Browne, D. (2009). Flying without Fear: Effective Strategies to Get You Where You Need to Go. New York: New Harbinger Publications.
Elias, B. (2009). Airport and Aviation Security: U.S. Policy and Strategy in the Age of Global. New York: CRC Press.
air cargo industry experienced tremendous growth since inception because of various factors in the aviation industry, particularly the freight sector. The growth and development of this industry is evident in its current significance on the freight sector. Moreover, this industry currently accounts for huge profitability in the freight sector because of increased shipping of various packages across the globe. This increased shipping is fueled by increased interconnectedness of people and countries due to rapid technological factors.
However, the industry has experienced tremendous challenges and concerns in relation to security because of the increase of security issues and emergence of new security threats throughout the world. Some of the major security challenges or issues facing the air cargo industry include terrorism, hijacking threat, vulnerability to security breaches, and probable introduction of explosive devices. These security threats are largely brought by the development of sophisticated tools and means for criminal activities by…
"Bilateral and Regulatory Issues Facing the Air Cargo Industry." (n.d.). Chapter 6. Retrieved
April 17, 2015, from http://www.aci-na.org/sites/default/files/chapter_6_-_bilateral_and_regulatory_issues.pdf
Elias, B. (2010, December 2). Screening and Securing Air Cargo: Background and Issues for Congress. Retrieved April 17, 2015, from http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/R41515.pdf
"Evaluation of Screening of Air Cargo Transported on Passenger Aircraft." (2010, September).
Aviation Security Since 911
How has aviation security improved since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001? hat do reliable sources in the literature say with reference to safety and security in 2015? And how effective is the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) at keeping air travelers safe? This paper covers those issues and in particular provides a number of good sources commenting on the quality (or lack of quality) displayed by the TSA employees.
Generalizations about aviation security in the Post-911 era
For most people who travel by air, the screening at the airports in 2015 is certainly more thorough than it was prior to 911, but there are continuing problems with TSA, as will be documented in this paper. But at the beginning of this paper it is worth reviewing the "Mission" of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in terms of what the U.S. Government wants the public to…
Blackburn, M. (2012). The TSA Is Coming To A Highway Near You. Forbes. Retrieved August 20, 2015, from http://www.forbes.com .
Federal Aviation Administration. (2014). Mission. Retrieved August 21, 2015, from http://www.faa.gov .
Jacobson, A. (2009). Why have 67,000 TSA Employees Left Their Jobs? PJ Media.
August 20, 2015, from http://pjmedia.com .
Aviation Safety: Is flying safer than driving?
There has been an ongoing debate regarding the relative safety of flying as opposed to driving over long distances. Many argue that flying is the safer option, since statistics have proven this mode of transport to be one of the safest in the world. On the other hand, flying has been perceived as unsafe because passengers have relatively little chance of survival should mishaps occur in midair. One interesting dimension in terms of aviation safety is the events during September 11, 2001. These have caused many travelers to choose driving over flying as a result of terrorism fears. When comparing statistics, however, it appears that flying is indeed safer than driving because of factors such as the fatigue that drivers may suffer and human error on American roads. When flying, passengers do not need to maintain any level of concentration in order to…
Blalock, G., Kadiyali, V., and Simon, DH (2005, Dec. 5). Driving Fatalities After 9/11: A Hidden Cost of Terrorism. Retrieved from: http://dyson.cornell.edu/faculty_sites/gb78/wp/fatalities_120505.pdf
Jones, P. (2003). Letter to the Editors: Flying vs. Driving. American Scientist. Retrieved from: http://www.americanscientist.org/issues/id.391,y.2003,no.3,content.true , page.1,css.print/issue.aspx
Kersten, M. (2011). How Did Aviation Change the Travel Experience? Grin Verlag.
Sivak, M. And Flannagan, M. (n.d.) Flying and Driving after the September 11 Attacks. American Scientist. Retrieved from: https://www.americanscientist.org/issues/issue.aspx?id=3312&y=0&no=&content=true&page=2&css=print
With regards to improving the prospects for the Gray Eagle, the United States Army must apply the core principles of CM to its operations. This entails a strategic decision-making training session, an improved technology interface that will facilitate ground and flight operations, and a thorough training module related to leadership development and communications. When FAA regulations are also integrated with Army safety regulations, the result will be an improved and safer UAS system.
Beckhusen, . (2012). 'Gray Eagle' Drone Fails All the Time, but Army Still Wants More. Wired. June 15, 2012. etrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
Dorr, L. & Duquette, a. (2013). Fact sheet -- Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Federal Aviation Administration. etrieved online: http://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsId=14153
Helmreich, .L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. etrieved online: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/helmreichlab/publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
Mulenberg, J. (n.d.). Crew resource management improves decision making. NASA. etrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oce/appel/ask/issues/42/42i_crew_resource_management_prt.htm…
Beckhusen, R. (2012). 'Gray Eagle' Drone Fails All the Time, but Army Still Wants More. Wired. June 15, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
Dorr, L. & Duquette, a. (2013). Fact sheet -- Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved online:
Briefing on Security
Board Briefing on Security
Terrorism in Commercial Organizations
Terrorism in Airlines
Current Threats to Aviation
Automation Adds Efficiency
Improving Total Operations
Increased Threats from Advanced Explosives
Threat against Airline Services and Airports
Necessary Steps to Improve Aviation Security
Terrorism is the systematic use of terror. It does not have a legal binding or definition in criminal law. Commonly, it is referred to creation of fear through violence (Townshend, 2002). Terrorism is usually defined and assumed as a group phenomenon (Hofmann, 2012). Terrorism has spread across the globe with its many forms and indicators. The emotional and diplomatic use of the word terrorism has resulted in a difficulty to provide an appropriate definition of terroorism (aman, 2008). esearches have figured out more than hundred definitions of the word. The notion of terrorism is arguable due to two main reasons. Firstly, it is often used by government…
Dyson, W.E. (2012). Terrorism: An Investigator's Handbook. New York: Anderson Publishing.
Friedman, D.M., & Mitchell, C. (2009). Security Measures in the Commercial Trucking and Bus Industries. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Jain, A. (2013, January 1). Addressing The Insider Threat. Retrieved from Security-today: http://security-today.com/Articles/2013/01/01/Addressing-The-Insider-Threat.aspx
Parr, A. (2009). Hijacking Sustainability. New York: MIT Press.
Transportation Security and Intrusiveness of Security Screenings
America's land, seaways, and air transportation systems are structured in such a manner that enhances efficiency and enables easy access, the two features that also at the same time make these transportation systems susceptible to attacks. The expenses and difficulty of protecting the entire transportation systems from attacks raises a critical issue for legislators and other policymakers in the government: in that how much money and effort should be utilized towards preventing attacks in the country compared to the alternative of pursuing and defeating terrorists wherever they are. While completely proofing the entire transportation sector from attacks is an almost impossible task, strategies can be formulated to significantly reduce the risk of attacks. The emphasis by policymakers should be put in coming up with the resources to build a prevention, protection, and rapid response system that can greatly reduce the likelihood and consequences…
Accardo, J., & Chaudhry, M. A. (2014). Radiation exposure and privacy concerns surrounding full-body scanners in airports. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, 7(2), 198-200.
Alberto, V., & Bogatz, D. (2015, November 10). Computer Assisted Passenger Prescreening
System ("Capps Ii"): National Security V. Civil Liberties. Retrieved from maxwell.syr.edu: ww.maxwell.syr.edu/uploadedFiles/campbell/events/AlbertoBogatz.pdf
Bajoria, J. (2010, December 28). The Debate Over Airport Security. Retrieved from Council on Foreign Relations: http://www.cfr.org/border-and-port-security/debate-over-airport-security/p23673
A plethora of private firms around the world offer customized security and risk management services. TAL Global and the Wexford Group are two firms that offer some of the most comprehensive security and risk management services, strategies, and techniques, interfacing between public and private sector and wielding power in a wide range of jurisdictions. Wexford Group offers services including operational advising, law enforcement support, program management, risk assessment, operations and intelligence fusion, development and fielding, and also recruitment, assessment, selection, and training (RAST) support for government agencies and private industries. TAL Global offers airport and aviation security, emergency preparedness planning, executive protection, risk management, school safety and security, and a range of other security services within their organizational rubric. These two organizations have similar leadership structures, dividing their different duties into different departments, each with its own organizational sub-structures. Working within the laws and jurisdictions of any client context, TAL…
All of the transportation agencies were consolidated into one big agency -- the new Department of Transportation in 1966, establishing the National Transportation Safety Board as an agency that was independent inside of the department. This new board was also given the responsibility of determining the "probable cause" of: 1) highway accidents selected in cooperation with the states; 2) every passenger train accident, fatal railway accidents, and any railroad accident that caused significant damage; 3) big marine accidents, including any marine accident that involved a public vessel and a nonpublic vessel; 4) pipeline accidents involving a fatality or significant property damage; and lastly, 5) fatalities or major injuries that were caused by the release of hazardous materials (2004).
The creation of the NTSB showed that Congress was thinking that a single agency could come up with a higher level of safety than the individual model agencies that were all working…
Boeing. (2010). Making flying safer -- how Boeing helps to advance safety. Retrieved on September 19, 2010, from the Website:
Federal Aviation Administration. (2010). FAA regulations. Retrieved on September 18,
2010, from the Website,
Their casualties go uncounted, their actions largely unmonitored and their crimes unpunished." Scahill relates that four years into the Iraq occupation "there is no effective system of oversight or accountability governing contractors and their operations, not is there any effective law - military or civilian being applied to their activities." (2007) According to Scahill's report: "Since the launch of the "global war on terror," the administration has systematically funneled billions of dollars in public money to corporations like lackwater USA, DynCorp, Triple Canopy, Erinys and ArmorGroup. They have in turn used their lucrative government pay-outs to build up the infrastructure and reach of private armies so powerful that they rival or outgun some nation's militaries." (2007)
III. The EFFECTIVENESS of DHS
The work of Ahlers (2007) entitled: "Auditor's: Homeland Security Gets Mixed Grades" reports that congressional auditors gave "mixed grades to the Department of Homeland Security on its efforts to…
Labott, Elise (2004) U.S.: Probe into Iraq Trafficking Claims. CorpWatch 5 May 2004. Online available at http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=14174
Miller, Steven E. (2003) After the 9/11 Disaster: Washington's Struggle to Improve Homeland Security." Axess Stockholm, Sweden 2 (2003 Mar): 8-11. Online available at http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/publication/254/after_the_911_disaster.html
Phinney, David (2006) AU.S. Fortress Rises in Baghdad: Asian Workers Trafficked to Build World's Largest Embassy. 17 Oct 2006. CorpWatch. Online available at http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=14173
Scahill, Jeremy (2007) the Mercenary Revolution: Flush with Profits from the Iraq War, Military Contractors See a World of Business Opportunities. The Indypendent 15 Aug 2007. Online available at http://www.indypendent.org/2007/08/10/the-mercenary-revolution-flush-with-profits-from-the-iraq-war-military-contractors-see-a-world-of-business-opportunities/
Homeland Security isk Management
isk Management in Homeland Security
This paper provides a brief examination of the role of risk management within the homeland security operations. The discussion first addresses issues related to risk assessment, which is a necessary, prudent step for publicly funded activities, and particularly so given the national scope and the potential consumption of resources. The Strategic National isk Assessment (SNA) serves as a vehicle to link policy -- the Presidential Policy Directive 8 (PPD 8) and the National Preparedness System. The core capabilities of the National Preparedness Goal are mapped to the hazards and threats identified in the SNA (SNA 2011). This tactic enables additional core capabilities to be identified, and provides a resource to inform the establishment of priorities needed for making decisions about future investing in capabilities (SNA 2011).
As with any major projects of risk management, the initial stage is focused on assessment.…
The White House. National Security Strategy. (2010, May). Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office. Retrieved National_Security_Strategy.pdf
U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Secure Boarders, Safe Travel, Legal Trade. U.S. Customs and Boarder Protection Fiscal Year 2009-2014 Strategic Plan. Retrieved CBP_Strategic_Plan.pdf
U.S. Department of Homeland Security. Department of Homeland Security Strategic Plan. Fiscal Years 2012 -- 2016. (2012, February). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Retrieved DHS_Strategic_Plan-2012-2016.pdf
U.S. Department of Homeland Security. DHS Risk Lexicon. Risk Steering Committee. (2010, September). Washington, D.C. Retrieved http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/dhs-risk-lexicon-2010.pdf
Counter-Terrorism and Social Media: Freedom vs. Security
The United States prides itself to being the most democratic nation of the world, with the highest respect for the human being, for its values, norms, and dreams. At the same time, before 9/11, it was also considered to be one of the safest nations of the world. The attacks on the World Trade Center towers, in particular pointed out that there are gaps in security and that even the United States represent a vulnerable target. Since then, the security measures have been seriously increased, in certain areas of expertise; security rules have been created if they did not exist. All these measures fueled a constant debate on whether the security that has been increased affects or not the liberties and freedoms of the American population.
On May 1st 2011, Osama bin Laden has been announced dead by the U.S. President, arack Obama…
CNN Wire Staff. (2011) "Bin Laden killing caps decade-long manhunt." CNN Asia. http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/05/02/bin.laden.dead/index.html?hpt=T2
Cook, Martin L. (2001) Ethical Issues in Counterterrorism Warfare. Department of Command, Leadership, and Management. U.S. Army War College. May 3, 2011 http://ethics.sandiego.edu/Resources/PhilForum/Terrorism/Cook.html
Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Michigan Dept. Of State Police v. Sitz. 1990. http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0496_0444_ZS.html
Cornell University Law School. (N.d.) Terry v. Ohio. 1967. May 3, 2011 http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/historics/USSC_CR_0392_0001_ZS.html
Logistics in Aviation
Aviation logistics: Competitive advantage and technological innovation
In the modern era, the worldwide logistics and supply chain is very cut throat and keeping an edge over others is important for all the firms in operation. Worldwide competition in aviation logistics business is cut throat with numerous firms. Firms in this business survive only when they maintain an edge over their rivals in the business in order to keep the clients in check. Most of the firms are very lenient to their clients as they listen to their client's needs and requirements, complaints along the way, implementing long-term marketing programs as well as short-term. Companies also make use of their resources in order to acquire competitive edge over their rivals in the marketplace which leads to satisfactory profits (Sakchutchawan, 2011). The resource advantage theory stipulates that having edge in resources paves way for competitive edge in the…
Abrahamsson, M., Aldin, N., & Stahre, F. (2003). Logistics platforms for improved strategic flexibility. International Journal of Logistics: Research & Applications, 6 (3), 85-106.
Bardi, E.J., Raghunathan, T.S., & Bagchi, P.K. (1994). Logistics information systems: The strategic role of top management. Journal of Business Logistics, 15(1), 71-85.
Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17(1), 99-120.
Bowersox, D.J., and Daugherty, P.J. (1995). Logistics paradigms: the impact of information technology. Journal of Business Logistics, 16 (1), 65-80.
U.S. statistics indicate that 80% of aviation accidents are due to human errors with 50% due to maintenance human factor problems. Current human factor management programs have not succeeded to the degree desired. Many industries today use performance excellence frameworks such as the Baldrige National Quality Award framework to improve over-all organizational effectiveness, organizational culture and personal learning and growth. A survey administered to a sample population of senior aviation maintainers in 18 countries revealed a consistent problem with aviation human factors and the need for a more integrated framework to manage human factor problems in aviation maintenance.
Human Factors History
Current Human Factor programs in Aircraft Maintenance
Performance Excellence Framework
esearcher's Work Setting and ole
Statement of the Problem
EVIEW OF ELEVANT LITEATUE AND ESEACH
Human Factor Errors in Aircraft Maintenance Statistics
Current Human Factor Programs in Aircraft Maintenance 13
Aviation Performance Excellence Framework 12
Statement of esearch Question…
Boeing. (1993). Accident Prevention Strategies. Commercial Jet Aircraft Accidents
World Wide Operations 1982-1991. Retrieved 11 Nov, 2004 from http://www.hf.faa.gov / Portal/HFTimeline.aspx
Boeing. (1994). Field test of the MEDA process. Retrieved 17 Dec, 2004 from William L.
According to IATA, freight within Asia Pacific, between Asia Pacific and North America and between Asia Pacific and Europe will account for 57% of the 36 million tonnes of international air freight tonnes in 2011, up from 55% in 2006. The majority of this growth will be from the outbound leg from Asia Pacific ("2008 Annual Report - Air Freight: Carriers Alter Course")."
Overall the article characterizes airfreight as an aspect of the industry that will continue to grow in spite of the fuel cost and economic slow down that seems to have negatively impacted the airline industry. The growth of economies such as China and India seems to contribute to the increased profitability of the air freight segment of the industry. It seems that the growth in air freight will continue well into the future.
Week 7-Article Critique
Issues associated with traffic flow, have been at the forefront of…
Morrison Mary E. July 14, 2008. "Most airlines shun marketing as way to fly through storm" Retrieved July 24 at http://www.btobonline.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20080714/FREE/950009745/1109/FREE
What is General Aviation. http://www.aopa.org/info/what_ga.pdf
Winston C. And Morrison S.A. (2008) "The State of Airline Competition and Prospective Mergers" Retrieved July 24 at http://www.brookings.edu/testimony/2008/0424_airlines_winston.aspx
Proposed Products and Services
Market Industry Position
ole of Information Systems
Information Systems Structure
Eagle Flight School and Shop will be a flight school for future pilots and a store where pilots and students can purchase everything from clothing (apparel) to flight bags to headsets. The Flight School will provide classes that will allow students to acquire a pilot's license in accordance with government rules associated with the minimum number of flight hours and the government approved curriculum. The mission of Eagle flight school is to provide pilots with the proper instruction as it pertains to all aspects of air travel and to provide both students and professionals with the equipment needed to carry out their duties as pilots. The flight school will provide a…
Balasubramanian, S., Konana P.and Menon N. M, (2003)"Customer Satisfaction in Virtual Environments: A Study of Online Investing," Management Science, 49, 7,, 871-889.
Bhatnagar R., A.K. Srivastava+,A. (2010) An Implementation Approach for Intrusion
Detection System in Wireless sensor Network. International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering, 2(7), 2453-2456
"Data Resources." Retrieved from http://www.learn.geekinterview.com/data-warehouse/data-management/what-is-data-resource.html
What is the role of human factors in improving aviation safety?
Many personnel are involved in the operation and maintenance of airplanes. The aviation industry employs many people performing many different roles and tasks to keep aviation a safe mode of transportation for goods and services. Despite rules, procedures, and advanced technology to help keep passengers and crew safe, sometimes accidents still occur. It was found that more than 70% of commercial airplane accidents are caused by humans, rather than simply a failure of technology (Higgins & Higgins, 2008). This research supports the thesis that human factors are one of the most difficult, and the most important issues in aviation needed to increase aviation safety in the future.
Mechanical failure is cited as one of the more common reasons for aviation disasters (Higgins & Higgins, 2008). It is easy to shift the blame to a machine, rather than…
According to Pilarski (2007), "the financial situation of the airline industry, especially in the U.S.A., has been between disaster and catastrophe," (p. 3). Financial wizards like Warren Buffet have made "bombastic pronouncements" related to the economic illnesses of the airline industry (9). Dynamic entrepreneur ichard Branson, himself seduced by the desire to own an airline, has likewise stated, "How do you become a millionaire? Start as a billionaire, and then buy an airline," (cited in "In-Depth Drilldown Of The Airline Industry - Part 1, 2012). Airline companies operate with razor-thin profit margins, if any at all. Moreover, the situation was bad enough befofre but has grown worse since September 11. "Since 9/11, we've seen tremendous changes surrounding the airline industry: security, regulations, and operational costs. Overall, these variables have had tremendous, and far-bearing, negative impacts on the industry," ("In-Depth Drilldown Of The Airline Industry - Part 1," 2012).…
"Global airline industry profits to falter at $3bn in 2012," (2012). New Statesman. June 11, 2012 Retrieved online: http://www.newstatesman.com/business/transport/2012/06/global-airline-industry-profits-falter-3bn-2012
"In-Depth Drilldown Of The Airline Industry - Part 1," (2012). Retieved online: http://seekingalpha.com/article/644991-in-depth-drilldown-of-the-airline-industry-part-1http://seekingalpha.com/article/644991-in-depth-drilldown-of-the-airline-industry-part-1
Pilarski, A.M. (2007). Why Can't We Make Money in Aviation? Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Pilarski, A.M. (2010). The fallacy of airline mergers: Two drunks holding unto each other will not walk straight. Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation. Retrieved online: http://www.avitas.com/publications/adampilarskiarticles/The%20Fallacy%20of%20Airline%20Mergers%20Two%20Drunks%20Holding%20Unto%20Each%20Other%20Will%20Not%20Walk%20Straight.pdf
Human Factors in Aviation Safety
The human beings with their immense capabilities, imagination, creativity, and cleverness have transformed the world into an industrial world that is surrounded by numerous inventions, innovations, and advancements in various facets of life. Aviation industry is also one of the developments of the human beings, which was imagined as an attempt to emulate bird flight. Human beings were engaged in this phenomenon for centuries prior to the emergence of the first flight, which resulted in outstanding civil transport in the form of spaceflight (Campbell & Bagshaw, 2008). However, it is wise to note that the human life is one integral aspect that should not be ignored when any mode of transportation is concerned. To have a safe journey during flights it is demonstrated that aviation safety is essential. Aviation safety principally signifies that prevention techniques in the form of regulation, education, and training should be…
Abeyratne, R. (2012). Strategic Issues in Air Transport: Legal, Economic and Technical Aspects. USA: Springer.
Abu-Taieh, E.M.O., El-Sheikh, A.A. & Jafari, M. (2012). Technology Engineering and Management in Aviation: Advancements and Discoveries. Information Science Reference.
Ben-Daya, M. (2009). Handbook of Maintenance Management and Engineering. USA: Springer.
Campbell, R.D. & Bagshaw, M. (2008). Human Performance and Limitations in Aviation. 3rd Edition. USA: John Wiley & Sons.
National security cards also have the ability to provide useful information and insight to policymakers on which areas of a given country will most likely be the least secure and which pose potential security threats (Ortmeier, 2009). This will also force nations to into strategic identity management systems and taxonomies of how they classify threats to their populations. The use of analytics and big data or exceptionally large and complex data sets, will become commonplace in five years or less as a result of the adoption of national security cards across more nations in the world (Ortmeier, 2009). National security cards will also be increasingly used for managing healthcare, human services and social programs, as the United Kingdom has successfully done for example. The broader implications to the future of security from the use of national identity cards are evident in how advanced forms of security authentication continue to flourish…
Krull, a.R. (1995). Controls in the next millennium: Anticipating the it-enabled future. Computers & Security, 14(6), 491-491.
Ortmeier, P.J. (2009). Introduction to security: Operations and management. (4th ed.). New York: Pearson Education Inc.
SP's Special. (2012, India's slybird MAV maturing fast. SP's Aviation,
Sproule, C.M. (2002). The effect of the U.S.A. patriot act on workplace privacy. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 43(5), 65-73.
National Incident Management System:
NIMS has been designed with the sole purpose of integrating emergency practices on all levels of government. These practices include mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery and NIMS provides the single platform where all these practices would merge in order to better respond to national terrorist crises. The strengths of the program are:
1. It provides standards for organizational structures, processes and procedures
2. It also offers standards for planning, training and exercising of emergency practices
3. It integrates technologies such as voice and data communication systems, information systems and data display systems (Bullock, p. 53)
1. extensive training required to understand the system properly
2. not enough trained individuals available who can handle the complexities of NIMS
3. NIMS is dependent on NP for effective utilization of its capabilities and for its final success
National esponse Plan
With the help of NIMS, NP provides a…
Jane Bullock, George Haddow. Introduction to Homeland Security, Second Edition (Butterworth-Heinemann Homeland Security) Butterworth-Heinemann; 2 edition (April 13, 2006)
Money in Aviation: An Examination of Support
The history of American flight is generally one of pride and wonder. Historical figures associated with the first airplanes are generally revered by history books and society as a whole. These are figures like the Wright brothers, Amelia Earhart, Charles Lindbergh and others who most agree made a positive impact on human life and symbolize a leap of mankind towards advanced technology and increasing modern times. Modernity. Technology. These are all things that airplanes and flight represent to Americans and they're widely viewed as things which have improved life on this planet for the better. This begs the question as to why the airline industry still remains one of the most volatile, low (or no) profits business around. The book, Why We Can't Make Money in Aviation, by Adam M. Pilarski, seeks to both scrutinize and illuminate the general failure of the airline…
Bluejay, M. (n.d.). What's Wrong with Bicycle Helmets? Retrieved from Bicycle Safe: http://bicyclesafe.com/helmets.html
Bowser, B. (2003, April 2). On the Homefront: The Airline Industry. Retrieved from Pbs.org: http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/transportation/jan-june03/airlines_04-02.html
News, A. (2003, April 4). SARS Spread Leads to Fear, Questions. Retrieved from ABC News: http://abcnews.go.com/Health/ColdandFluNews/story?id=116751&page=1#.UKa064dZWSo
Pilarski, A. (2007). Why Can't We Make Money in Aviation? Burlington: Ashgate.
Advice on Handling Dismissals
The Minimum Wage
Working Time egulations
WOKES AND EMPLOYMENT
Gender and Sexual Orientation Discrimination
Discrimination on Grounds of ace or eligion or Age
Treatment of employees has come under scrutiny in the last few decades. Legislation has been passed to help facilitate effective regulation of a business/work environment. The areas covered by legislation are: employment contracts, work-related regulations (ie. Breaks and work conditions), minimum wage rates, unlawful/unfair dismissal, and discrimination/harassment on the grounds of gender, sexual preference, race, religious beliefs, disability, and in recent years, age. Legislation of this nature need to be a major concern for employers to not only follow, but implement. Dismissal of legislation could lead to large penalties, associated with compensation and legal fees.
Infringement of employees rights may also lead to a company/organization's poor public image. As most businesses know, maintaining a positive public…
Ashworth, A. 1995. Principles of criminal law. Oxford [England]: Clarendon Press, p. 87.
Computer World. 1996. IT security managers too focused on compliance, experts say. [online] Available at: http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9237254/IT_security_managers_too_focused_on_compliance_experts_say [Accessed: 12 Jun 2013].
Fay, J. 2007. Encyclopedia of Security Management. Burlington, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, p. 249.
Fletcher, G. 1998. Basic Concepts of Criminal Law. New York, N.Y.: Oxford University Press, p. 45.
Strategies to improve collaboration and cooperation between the Homeland Security agencies
The department of homeland security (DHS) controls the territorial, local, state, tribal, and federal government resources (DHS, 2018). The DHS coordinates various programs and agencies into one single and unified effort that is given to protecting the American homeland and the people. The first QHSR (Quadrennial Homeland Security Review) was completed in the year 2010 with an objective of establishing an incorporated strategy for the goals and missions of homeland security (Homeland Security, 2005). Following this, DHS carried out a BUR (Bottom up Review). The objective was to synchronize organizational structure and programmatic activities in order to effectively achieve the goals and missions of homeland security.
The primary duty of homeland security is to protect the U.S. from any terrorism. The counterterrorism duties of the DHS are concentrated on these three goals i.e. First goal is protecting and resisting…
This is important, because this flight school is larger and has a variety of programs to offer. If at some point, someone decides that want to study other forms of aviation, this school would be ideal at learning for much as possible. ("MVP Accomplishments," 2010)
Mc Air Aviation offers students the ability to complete most of the course work, through a self-study format. Where, students will complete the basic written curriculum and will then complete the in flight requirements with their certified instructors. At which point, the student can be able to receive their flight certification. This is important, because it provides other options in studying and obtaining certification, as those with busier schedule can be able to balance this kind of instruction with their lives. ("141 Self-Examining Authority," 2010)
Another option is to go through the Airline Career Pilot Program. Under this program, there is assistance for students who…
141 Self-Examining Authority. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from McAir Aviation website: http://www.mcairaviation.com/141_flight_training.htm
1999 Mooney M290. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from Aero Trader website: http://www.aerotrader.com/find/listing/1999-MOONEY-M20-Ovation-97012603
2007 172 Cessna Sky Hawk. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from Aero Trader website: http://www.aerotrader.com/find/listing/2007-CESSNA-172-SKYHAWK-96517151
Become a Pilot. (2010). Retrieved July 16, 2010 from MVP Aero Academy website: http://www.mvpaeroacademy.com/
2. Approach Clearances
According to the article, "Back door IF: When stratus happens and you didn't file, you'll need to sweet talk your way into the system. Here are some practical tips to do that safely" (2006 obtaining an IF clearance, literally on the fly, does not constitute not a to be taken for granted privilege.
Approximately 15 years ago, U.S. pilots almost lost a significant portion of this flexibility, when the FAA's legal department proposed procedural changes in FAA Order 7110.65 Air Traffic Control, potentially requiring pilots to request such "pop-ups" to be permitted "to climb under VF to whatever minimum IF, vectoring or en route altitude applied to the area in question" (Back door IF... 2006, ¶ 30).
The proposal additionally extended to particular clearances being withheld; contending that controllers may be held responsible when pilots hit terrain or obstructions at a low altitude. Previously, a pilot was…
Military Aircraft and Their Effect on Commercial Aviation
Civil aviation deals with the organization and use of aircraft as a means of commercial transportation. The principal interest is the use of aircraft on scheduled and chartered flights to carry passengers and cargo, but the subject also covers the use of aircraft for pleasure, business, and medical services. ecause of the international character of civil aviation, governments play a major role in its conduct and regulation, through both national legislation and international agreements. This governmental influence was a major factor in commercial airline operation until the early 1980s, when the U.S. domestic market was deregulated. The result was a massive increase in competition, which led in turn to a reorganization of the airlines into larger groupings. It seems likely that this process will continue in the international market, which will lead to an increase in air travel, and increased pressure on…
(1963)Aeroflot, Flight International, Vol. 84, No. 2856, December 5,
Harrison (2000)Mastering the sky: a history of aviation from ancient times to the present.
Shulman, S (2003).Unlocking the Sky: Glenn Hammond Curtiss and the Race to Invent the Airplane
Taylor, J & Munson, K (1973)History of aviation
S. Customs and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services were combined to form U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Overall, DHS incorporates 22 government agencies. The major agencies of DHS are the TSA, Customs and Border Protection, Citizenship and Immigration Services, ICE, FEMA, the U.S. Secret Service, and the U.S. Coast Guard (Borja).
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) was formed on July 1, 1973 and is headquartered in Arlington, VA. Former drug enforcement related agencies are the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs and the Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement. The parent agency of the DEA is the U.S. Department of Justice. The DEA is the lead agency for domestic enforcement under the Controlled Substances Act. The DEA's primary goal is to combat drug smuggling and use within the U.S. The DEA shares jurisdiction with the FBI and ICE and shares communications systems with the Department of Defense. DEA…
Borja, Elizabeth. "Brief Documentary History of the Department of Homeland Security
2001-2008." Department of Homeland Security History Office. 2008. Print.
"DEA History." Drug Enforcement Adminstration. 3 February 2011. Web.
Question #2: Describe the evolution of aviation security threats. List several types of threats and specific events that illustrate the damage of such threats.
Through history, the threat upon the security of airline traffic has generally been reduced. Wars and conflicts would generally be handled in open attack and without the implication and loss of civil lives. Airlines were considered the safest means of transportation.
However, with the emergence of terrorism at a global scale, wars are no longer disputed openly, but adversaries seek for ways in which to inflict as much loss as possible for the other side, with the minimum casualties on their side. The direct result was that of a demise of the airline industry, including the individual reticence to fly, materialized in the bankruptcy of several airline operators.
n more recent years, the safety of the operators and passengers within the airline industry has been impacted…
In more recent years, the safety of the operators and passengers within the airline industry has been impacted by the personal desires of desperate or unstable individuals. In some instances, armed or otherwise dangerous individuals were able to attack in airports or even in airplanes and cause losses of lives, materials and money.
The modern threat on aviation through terrorism is, among other things, possible due to the growing numbers of religious fanatics. These people do not encounter any moral or physical problem with dieing in a mission, factor which has also increased the incidence of aviation threats.
In a nutshell, the evolution of aviation security and safety has followed an ascendant trend in the meaning of increased threats upon the lives and well-being of customers and airline operators. However redundant, the most relevant example remains the terrorist act of September 11, 2001. Its effects of reduced national trust and morale, the loss of thousands of lives or the bankruptcy of airline organizations are just a few of the negative impacts that will be felt for years to come.
S. law. Legislation such as many elements of the U.S.A. PATRIOT ACT are problematic because they do not provide adequate controls to ensure that investigative methods and procedures appropriate under some circumstances cannot be used in circumstances where they are inappropriate under U.S. law.
4. What is the FISA Court? Explain how it works. What authorities can it grant law enforcement? How is it different from traditional courts? What concerns exist about expanding the use of FISA?
The Foreign Intelligence and Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) was established to regulate the use of surveillance by the executive branch of government in the wake of various unconstitutional investigations conducted by the Nixon administration in connection with monitoring political rivals and government opposition groups. The FISA Act authorized the covert monitoring of information and communication exchanges of entities of foreign governments engaged in espionage and intelligence collection activities in the U.S. pursuant…
Building Security Evaluation: Baltimore-Washington Thurgood Marshall International Airport
Just a couple of decades ago, travelers, visitors and virtually anyone else could walk freely through the nation's airports without being challenged at any point, and security considerations were generally restricted to concerns over possible so-called "skyjackings" to Cuba, but even these were rare. Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, though, all of this changed in fundamental ways as airports across the country implemented a wide range of security measures intended to prevent a recurrence of these deadly security breaches. Indeed, today, security at the nation's airports has never been stricter, and despite the time and trouble these initiatives have created for air travelers, most passengers today appear to accept these measures in stride as part of the post-September 11 climate. To determine what security measures have been taken in a specific airport facility, this paper provides an evaluation of…
Facts & figures. (2009). Baltimore/Washington Thurgood Marshall International Airport. [Online]. Available: http://www.bwiairport.com/about_bwi/facts_figures/ .
Fire suppression division. (2009). Maryland Aviation Administration, Department of Transportation. [Online]. Available: http://www.marylandaviation.com/content/aboutthemaa/firerescuedept.html.
Ramstack, T. & Lively, T. (2004, January 7). BWI airport police search entering cars; action taken as a Code Orange precaution. The Washington Times, C08.
Wallis, R. (2003). How safe are our skies? Assessing the airlines' response to terrorism. Westport, CT: Praeger.
2002; Vol 31:109-127
Edkins and Zehfuss report, "According to the most conservative estimate, in the last one hundred years, 60 million men, women and children were gratuitously slaughtered in wars legitimately by the state."
Civil aviation has become an essential part of modern life which transcends national and international boundaries and political or social differences. (Salter, 2008)
Salter, M.. (2008). Imagining numbers: risk, quantification, and aviation security. Security Dialogue, 39, 243-266.
"What We Do." International Monetary Fund. 1/26/2010 .
arkawi, Tarak. "Retrieving the Imperial: Empire and International Relations." Journal of International Studies 31 (2002): 109-127.
Jenny Edkins and Maja Zehfuss, eds. Global Politics: A New Introduction (London: Routledge, 2008).
Salter, Mark. "Imagining numbers: risk, quantification, and aviation security. ." Security Dialogue 39 (2008)
Jenny Edkins and Maja Zehfuss, eds. Global Politics: A New Introduction (London: Routledge, 2008).
"What We Do." International Monetary Fund. 1/26/2010 .
Barkawi, Tarak. "Retrieving the Imperial: Empire and International Relations." Journal of International Studies 31 (2002): 109-127.
Jenny Edkins and Maja Zehfuss, eds. Global Politics: A New Introduction (London: Routledge, 2008).
Salter, Mark. "Imagining numbers: risk, quantification, and aviation security. ." Security Dialogue 39 (2008)
History Of the Organization's Formation
Objectives of ICAO as Specified in the Chicago Convention
Enhancing Safety and Security in Civil Aviation
Development and Constant Evaluation of Aviation Standards and Policies
Implementation of Standards and Practices
Timely esponse to Challenges
Changes in ICAO's Strategic Objectives
Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development Objective
The International Civil Aviation Organization was formed in November 1944 by the conclusion of the Chicago Convention held in that year. This organization was formed because of the need for securing cooperation and standardization of global aviation policies and practices. The United States of America played a crucial role in the organization's formation by inviting several states to the Convention on international civil aviation standards, policies, and procedures. Out of the 44 States that attended the Chicago Convention, 32 States signed an agreement that paved the way for ICAO's creation.
ICAO was mandated with…
"Annual Report of the Council." (2010). Documentation for the Session of the Assembly 2013.
Retrieved September 30, 2013, from http://www.icao.int/publications/Documents/9952_en.pdf
"Annual Report of the Council." (2011). Documentation for the Session of the Assembly 2013.
Retrieved September 30, 2013, from http://www.icao.int/publications/Documents/9975_en.pdf
Flight Training is a popular career choice that keeps fluctuating in scope due to the position of the economy, and is today viewed to have better prospects due to an apparent brightening up of the outlook. The career of a pilot is that of a highly trained professional who are involved in flying airplanes and helicopters which carry out many tasks. Most of the pilots are airline pilots, copilots or flight engineers and they are mostly involved in the transportation of people and cargo, but a small section of roughly 1 in 5 pilots who have commercial licenses are involved in unusual tasks like the dusting of crops, spreading seeds in the process of reforestation, testing aircraft, undertaking special flights for passengers and cargoes to unusual destinations, overseeing large scale firefighting efforts, chasing criminals, supervising traffic, and in the rescue and evacuation of severely injured individuals.
The profession suffered deeply…
Aircraft Pilots and Flight Engineers" U.S. Department of Labor; Bureau of Labor Statistics. Retrieved at http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos107.htm . Accessed on 03/23/2004
Crisis Response and 9-11: What We Have Learned" Retrieved at http://www.dpw.state.pa.us/omhsas/CASSPNews/MAR/omhCassp0302_CrisisResponse.asp. Accessed on 03/23/2004
Dougherty, Jon. "FAA most responsible for 9-11?" (July 24, 2003) Retrieved at http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=33718Accessed on 03/23/2004
FAA proposes complex and costly flight simulator regulations" Retrieved at http://www.aopa.org/whatsnew/regulatory/regfsd.html . Accessed on 03/23/2004
September 11th and Transportation Law
On the morning of September 11th, 2011, the United States of America felt the full fury of an enemy which had been lying in wait for decades, planning an attack of spectacularly tragic proportions that would shake the nation to its core. The weapons of choice for Osama bin Laden and his Al-Qaeda terrorist network were not bullets or bombs, but airplanes which were ruthlessly hijacked and flown as missiles into New York's World Trade Center, the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., and fatefully, an empty field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania. With the collapse of both of the Twin Towers and the immediate loss of over 3,000 lives, the American aviation industry was suddenly transformed from a once proud symbol of our national strength into a scapegoat for society's shattered complacency. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, with images of smoldering rubble streaming live on television…
H.R. 3110 -- 107th Congress: Transportation Security Enhancement Act of 2001. (2001). In GovTrack.us (database of federal legislation). Retrieved June 25, 2012, from http://www.govtrack.us/congress/bills/107/hr3110
107th United States Congress, (2001). Public law 107 -- 71 -- nov. 19, 2001: The aviation and transportation security act. Retrieved June 25 from U.S. Government Printing Office website: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/PLAW-107publ71/pdf/PLAW-107publ71.pdf
These are designed to be confusing for terrorists who attempt to circumvent them. The unpredictability is enhanced by varying them for location to location. What makes the threat especially insidious is the fact that current full body scanners used in airports across the world cannot detect items concealed inside the body with great accuracy. However, improving existing technology can change this capability for the better, according to aviation security experts.
The main likely reaction to the latest intelligence is to expand and improve security at airport checkpoints. As security measures after 9/11 have expanded and improved, terrorists have responded by creating innovative evasion measures to avoid common screening practices at airports.
The publication Today Online (2011) refers to the surgically implanted devices as "belly bombs." The report quotes Transport Security Administration spokesman Kawika iley in asserting that there has been a trend among terrorist groups to respond to increased security…
Center for HealthCare Emergency Readiness (2011). Homeland Security Presidential Directives. Retrieved from: http://www.chcer.org/Post_DHS_HSPDs.html
Homeland Security (2009, Feb 25). Homeland Security Presidential Directive 19: Combating Terrorist Use of Explosives in the United States. Retrieved from: http://www.dhs.gov/xabout/laws/gc_1219260981698.shtm
Homeland Security.com (2011, Feb 11). Homeland Security Outlines Evolving Terrorist Threats. Retrieved from: http://www.homelandsecurity.com/2011/02/11/homeland-security-outlines-evolving-terrorist-threats/
Kress, J. And Grogger, S. (2008). The Domestic IED Threat. JFQ, Iss. 48, 1st quarter. Retrieved from: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA518754
Despite the fact that full body scanners may be the most technologically advanced equipment we could realistically put in an airport, they still have their shortcomings. Full body scanners can't see inside your body. Generally, the machines also can't find items stashed in a body cavity. This means that a determined terrorist could potentially store bomb materials or weapons inside their body, specifically in their anus. Since such a low dose of electromagnetic energy is beamed inside the people who enter the scanners, the images are only skin deep. So just how drug traffickers smuggle drugs inside their bodies, terrorists could do the same but with far more dangerous materials. As America witnessed with the failed shoe bomber, it does not take a great deal of free space to hide materials that could overthrow or take a plane down. For instance, C4 explosive, which is military grade, can be…
Advanced Imaging Technology (AIT). (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.tsa.gov/approach/tech/ait/index.shtm
Brain, M. (2012). How Airport Full-Body Scanners Work -- and the huge national debate around the TSA right now. Retrieved from http://blogs.howstuffworks.com/2010/11/17/how-airport-full-body-scanners-work-
Eaton, K. (2009). Full-Body Scanners at Airports: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly.
esearch and development was encouraged for future developments as well to continue to make security a priority (Airport Security, 1989, p. 2).
Also in response to the bombing of Flight 103, the Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990 was passed. Senator Wendell H. Ford opened the proceedings with the statement: "The terrorist bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 in December 1988 tragically demonstrated that something more is needed to be done to protect Americans traveling by air" (Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990, 1990, p. 1).
In later hearings on implementation, it was noted by Thomas C. Kelly, Vice President of Security for the Air Transport Association, that U.S. airports were much safer than foreign airports and that this fact should be noted when dealing with this legislation: "Our primary focus in the development of this legislation was to ensure that it would contain provisions imposing the same extraordinary procedures…
Airport security (1989). Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives.
February 9, 1989.
Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990 (1990). Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, United States Senate. October 4, 1990.
Dorey, F.C. (1983). Aviation security. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
history of the Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) and its achievements throughout its seventy years. Safety regulations, issues of aviation concern, and milestones in union negotiations are discussed.
THE AIR LINE PILOTS ASSOCIATION
ith the recent terrorist attacks in the United States, airline safety has been of top concern. Six months ago airport security was seldom discussed except perhaps in an article tucked in a newspaper or magazine. Now it's a top story on the evening news every night. It makes us wonder if anyone has been thinking of our safety until now.
The Airline Pilots Association has always been thinking of our safety. From metal detectors in airports to the 'fasten seat belt' signs on airliners, the APLA was responsible.
The ALPA is regarded as the leader in safety issues concerning all areas of aviation
The Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) not only helps with safety issues and…
Air Line Pilots Association:
Airports need to also have a well-trained MANPAD threat response team that is familiar with combating MANPAD type weapons and tactics. This team needs to have the ability to respond quickly and effectively to any terrorist threat, with emphasis on MANPAD threats and attacks. Even after a MANPAD attack occurs, those in the aircraft as well as those on the ground need to understand how to respond effectively to reduce the possibility of further damage or attacks.
2 ?" Examine the issue of planning the airport of the future in terms of minimizing the MANPAD threat. It is far easier to build systems into new designs than it is to attempt to modify existing ones.
Since large airports are relatively costly and require permanent structures, it is much easier to build anti-MANPAD systems and strategies into new airports than it is to attempt to modify older, existing airports. Existing airports…
Federal Aviation Administration. (2007). National Strategy for Aviation Security.
Federal Aviation Administration. (2007). Aviation Transportation Security Plan.
Transportation Security Administration. (2006). Recommended Security Guidelines for Airport
Planning, Design, and Construction.
Airports, Airspace, And Air Traffic Control
A Manager's Perspective from an Aeronautical Point-of-View on Airports, Airspace, and Air Traffic control
Team resource management defines the efficient and effective use of resources that are available including people, information, and equipment. It always targets security enhancement and efficient management of air traffic control (Hikmat, 2013). The principles that guide the management of the team in air traffic control include the following aspects.
Developing human factors
Linking the human factors with constantly occurring events
Using the best practices to manage the crew
These principles are effective to counter human error having an optimum use of all the available resources, thereby improving services and operations of an air traffic controller (Wiene, Kanki, & Helmreich, 1993). Human factors in air traffic control have an enormous contribution in the management of air traffic. The constantly increasing delays in air traffic and accidents all arise from instructional…
Boeing. (2013). Air Traffic Management: Revolutionary Concepts that Enable Air Traffic Growth while cutting Delays. New York: Boeing.
Garland, D.J., Wise, J., & Hopkin, D. (1998). A Human Factors Perspective. In R. Amalberti, Automation in Aviation (pp. 173-192). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associate Inc. Publishers.
Hikmat, M.K. (2013). Collaborative Decision Making in Aviation. Center of Excellence Aviation.
McDougall, G., & Roberts, A.S. (2009). Commercializing Air Traffic Control: Have the Reforms Worked? Ottawa: Suffolk University Law School of Research.
expression that has been dedicated to the 2001 terrorist attacks by Al-Qaeda that the United States suffered from on September 11. It won't be incorrect to state that 9/11 proved to be a turning point for the George W. Bush administration and the foreign policy of the United States of America. The events unswervingly led to the United States support for the downfall of Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan where it was believed to have its foundation. These attacks were also important as they were later used by the United States of America as a justification of invading Iraq regardless of the fact that no apparent proof could be presented regarding any connection between Iraq with Al Qaeda. Nevertheless, the 9/11 impact was strong enough and the invasion was therefore strongly supported by the American public ("9/11," 2013).
Description of the Event
Al-Qaeda is a radical Islamic group that has been involved…
9/11 from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (2013). Questia. Retrieved October 11, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-N-9-11/9-11
Bergen, P. (2006, September 24). What were the Causes of 9/11?. Prospect Magazine. Retrieved October 12, 2013, from http://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/magazine/whatwerethecausesof911/#.UllYG1Awpcp
Economic Impact of the September 11 World Trade Center Attack. (2001, September 28). Fiscal Policy. Retrieved October 13, 2013, from http://www.fiscalpolicy.org/sep28WTCreport.pdf
Griffin, D.R. (2005, May 10). David Ray Griffin: 9/11 and the American Empire | Scoop News. Scoop - New Zealand News. Retrieved October 12, 2013, from http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/HL0505/S00129.htm
Terrorism Has Changed the United States
The United States has experienced considerable threats of terrorism in the past decade similar to other parts of the world. This threat has largely emerged from the fact that groups like Al-Qaeda and other terror organizations have continued to pose a significant threat to the United States homeland. Despite the success that the country has achieved in eliminating terror groups and organizations like al-Qaeda, affiliate and extremist groups continue to pose a major threat to the United States. The increase in terrorist activities and incidents in the recent past have contributed to various measures adopted by the United States as well as other countries towards combating terrorism. These efforts have significantly transformed the United States and other countries around the globe with regards to security measures, immigration, and foreign policy.
The Threat of Terrorism to the United States
The United States wasn't officially involved…
Gellman, Barton, and Greg Miller. "Black Budget' Summary Details U.S. Spy Network's Successes, Failures and Objectives." The Washington Post. The Washington Post, 29 Aug. 2013. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. .
Green, Matthew. "How 9/11 Changed America: Four Major Lasting Impacts." Online Posting. The Lowdown - Decoding the News. KQED Newsroom, 10 Sept. 2014. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. .
Jenkins, Brian M. "How a Decade of Terror Changed America." RAND Corporation - Objective Analysis, Effective Solutions. RAND Corporation., 30 Dec. 2009. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. .
Plumer, Brad. "Nine Facts about Terrorism in the United States since 9/11." The Washington Post. The Washington Post, 11 Sept. 2013. Web. 14 Apr. 2015. .
Over the past ten years many technology companies have succumb to the economic conditions that have dictated their demise. InVision technologies is a company that has risen to the occasion and silenced many of the pessimists and naysayers. The purpose of this discussion is to identify InVision's strategic strengths and weaknesses based on environmental "scan" analysis. The discussion will also focus on the core competencies of the organization and develop a Porter's "Five Forces" analysis for the organization. Finally we will discuss the strategic thinking of company CEO Sergio Magistri. Let's begin with a brief description of the company's function and the products that it offers.
According to MultexInvestor Invision Technologies produces and sells explosives detection systems which are used in airports throughout the world to monitor checked baggage. The company, founded in 1992, has created products that are based on advanced computed tomography. (Company Profile) The…
Company Profile. 2003. MultexInvestor. Retrieved August 19, 2003 from;
Company Overview. (2003) InVision Technologies. Retrieved August 19, 2003 from; http://www.invision-tech.com/company/company.htm
Management. (2003) InVision Technologies. http://www.invision-tech.com/company/mgmt.htm
America still welcomes terrorists, criminals, & other foreign menaces
The September 11 attacks have changed the ways Americans view the security and violence situation within their territory. Dramatic changes have been made in connection with security in the ports (land, sea and air); immigration laws; buying residency and citizenship, as well as visas. However, many experts assert that the security situation has worsened from where it had been before 9/11. Instead of reducing bureaucratic procedures and the loopholes associated with it and increasing the efficiency of the present workforce through accountability and checks and balances, the government has done exactly the opposite. This research paper is primarily focused on terrorism, and how we continue to allow it to happen to us. How the September 11 terrorists exploited U.S. immigration laws. How government officials sell residency & citizenship papers. How people from other countries are rushed through airport without proper screening…
Bill Sammon, Jerry Seper. U.S. To Offer Visas for Help against Terror. The Washington Times, November 30, 2001
Michael Janofsky. 9/11 Panel Calls Policies on Immigration Ineffective. New York Times. April 17, 2004
Pascal Riche. At American Borders: Smile; you're on File. Liberation. January 6, 2004.
Steven A. Camarota. How the terrorists get in. Public Interest, 2002.
Terrorism and Counterterrorism
Causes of Terrorism
Terrorism clearly draws attention to the group that perpetuated the crime in the media although it is not clear that it 'works' to achieve the stated goals of the groups that use it. Studies of the efficacy of terrorism indicate that it often backfires, at least violent terrorism. "When terrorists kill civilians or captives, it significantly lowers the likelihood of bargaining success" (Solomon 2013). However, some might argue that the accomplishments of former terrorist organizations in gaining the ability to negotiate with the offending power such as the rish Republican Army (RA) and the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) (both of which have long renounced terrorism but which began as paramilitary groups) might suggest that violence is often useful in achieving group objectives (Solomon 2013).
But in these instances, the goals of the groups were relatively concrete (expelling British and sraeli influence, respectively, from contested…
International responses to terrorism
The Bojinka plot was an international effort, comprising a terror network beholden to no specific nation. Also, although the terrorists were based in Manila, the 'testing ground' of the plot cast a wide net. For example, to assess the feasibility of the plan, the organizers detonated a bomb in Japan and the 'lines were not drawn' between this attack, a small bomb on a Philippines Airlines Flight, and a bombing in a Manila theater. While the Homeland Security Department has made major efforts in increasing information-sharing between domestic agencies, the same efforts must be made to increase information-sharing between nations as well.
Unfortunately, the atmosphere of mistrust between nations affected by terrorism has hampered this, even when this seems to work against nations' best interests. Legally speaking, there is growing consensus internationally as to what constitutes terrorist actions as defined in the abstract. According to the UN, "there are currently 12 international conventions that criminalize some of the most significant acts of terror: offenses against aircraft and airports, attacks on internationally protected persons, hostage-taking, misuse of nuclear material, attacks on ships and offshore platforms, misuse of plastic explosives, bombings and financing of terrorist acts"( Multi-lateral responses to terrorism: The UN, 2004, Anti-defamation League).
911 tragedy, many politicians and airline industry representatives began to search for improvements to the Airline Traffic Control system, or ATC. These improvements were deigned to increase security and safety for all flight personnel, as well as for all passengers. This paper will outline some of the changes made to the ATC systems, and will discuss the benefits of each new policy or procedure.
One of the most significant changes to ATC has been the implementation of key technology, deployed at the headquarters of NOAD, located in Colorado Springs. This technology, known as Explorer, enables the NOAD team to monitor all commercial aircraft flying across the country at any given time. Previously, the technology had been used solely to monitor for incoming missiles, or military planes (Carr and Cone, 2002). The FAA also added a staff of air traffic controllers to the NOAD base, as well as in many busy…
Belger, M. (2004, June). Written testimony to the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. Retrieved online April 29, 2005 from Global Security. Web site: http://www.globalsecurity.org/security/library/congress/9-11_commission/040617-belger.pdf .
Carr, D. And Cone, E. (2002, April). When air traffic control became national defense. Baseline, 3, 163.
FAA. (2002). Part 6: air traffic services. 2002 Security Updates. Retrieved online April 29, 2005 from FAA.website. Web site:
Furthermore, existing vulnerabilities of the airline industry are not taken into consideration until a disaster occurs. Lastly, the September 11th Security Fee introduced by the Department of Homeland Security was considered by many "as a beneficial trade off for their personal safety eventually," having as a direct consequence a rise of the airline industry.
Gregory Mankiw (2004) Principles of Economics, 3e, Mankiw
InnovativeThinker. (2007) Economic Profile of the Airline Industry. Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from Associated Content, Inc. Web site: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/435732/economic_profile_of_the_airline_industry.htm
Wei, S. (2006). Analysis of aggregate Passenger Routes in Air Travel: An Atlanta-ased Study. Southeastern Geographer, Volume 46, Issue 1, page 139. Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from web site: http://proquest.umi.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com
Recent Policy Initiatives to Raise Low Pay. (2004). Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from ACORN.ORG: https://www.acorn.org/index.php?id=203
FRSF Economic Letter. (January, 2002). Airline Competition. Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from Olin usiness School- Washington University: http://www.olin.wustl.edu/faculty/gowrisankaran/pdf_papers/airline_competition.pdf
Virgin Territory (2006, September 30).…
Gregory Mankiw (2004) Principles of Economics, 3e, Mankiw
InnovativeThinker. (2007) Economic Profile of the Airline Industry. Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from Associated Content, Inc. Web site: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/435732/economic_profile_of_the_airline_industry.htm
Wei, S. (2006). Analysis of aggregate Passenger Routes in Air Travel: An Atlanta-Based Study. Southeastern Geographer, Volume 46, Issue 1, page 139. Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from web site: http://proquest.umi.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com
Recent Policy Initiatives to Raise Low Pay. (2004). Retrieved Feb 1, 2008, from ACORN.ORG: https://www.acorn.org/index.php?id=203
Policing in the U.S.A., UK, and Germany
The way law enforcement and the criminal justice system does its work in the United States has more similarities than differences with the way in which law enforcement and criminal justice is conducted in the UK and in Germany. This paper points to the similarities and the differences in approaches to policing and criminal justice in those three countries.
Criminal Justice in the United States
The USA has a presidential system of government, with one federal constitutional institution (with three branches, judiciary, legislative and executive), and 50 separate states with their own constitutions. In terms of the criminal justice system in the U.S. -- and law enforcement's role in that system -- there are four kinds of policing: a) federal policing (U.S. Dept. f Justice -- and several agencies within the DJ -- the Dept. f Homeland Security (Secret Service, Immigration, and the…
On pages 47-50, the author emphasizes the growing number of violent sex crimes that have been committed against children. About one-third of the "organized pornography rings around the world" are located in the United States and hence, since the 1990s, several pieces of legislation dealing with child molesters / sex offenders. Along with the "Wetterling Act" (the law that mandates sex offenders must be included on the national registry of sexual predators) and the Adam Walsh Protection and Safety Act (2006), the federal government provides funds for states to upgrade law enforcement and to provide sex offender information and registries. In the UK, the Violent and Sex Offender Register (VISOR) is very much like the National Sex Offender Registry (NSOR) in the U.S. The Sex Offences Act of 2003 describes more than 60 different kinds of sex crimes -- including possession of "indecent photographs of children" and the trafficking of children for sex purposes -- and like the U.S., sex offenders must register their residences and notify the government within 3 days (60-61).
In conclusion, there are many similarities between the criminal justice systems in the UK, the U.S., and in Germany. The similarities can be explained because all three democratic countries basically face the same kinds of criminal issues -- terrorism, white color crime, crimes against children, violent crime, among other aspects of criminal activity -- and in all three countries police and federal agents are ultimately accountable to the citizens who pay the taxes to keep law enforcement well staffed and up-to-date vis-a-vis technology. In the UK, there is a movement to decentralize police services away from total federal control, but decentralization is already reflected in the U.S. And Germany.