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Keeping passengers safe on their flights involves more than just making sure the aircraft in use is fully functional and operationally fit. Aviation security involves keeping dangerous people from becoming passengers, and that entails security checks during the boarding process, and more. This paper points to the steps that government officials and airline management must take to ensure the safety and security of private and commercial air travel.
National Strategy for Aviation Security
The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), which was created following the attacks on the United States (the orld Trade Center and Pentagon were hit with hijacked commercial airliners, due to flaws in security checkpoints), has ultimate responsibility for aviation security and safety in America. The DHS published a document entitled "The National Strategy for Aviation Security" in 2007, and within that document readers find the basic theories and strategies for keeping the airways safe and…… [Read More]
Post 9/11 Security
Despite the working group presented above, post 9/11 security entails measures that must be carried out in a dedicated, complex manner in order to be efficient, even if they, in turn, have a negative impact on airport efficiency. Without a doubt, these measures that provoke so much annoyance have a positive impact on the security of airports and the sky. Post 9/11 security comes with much pain, but many rewards as well (i.e. over 10 years of safe flight).
Such security measures are, however, constantly revised. For instance, in a study conducted quite recently at Cornell University, two professors examined the impact of such airport security measures on air travel, which included the impact upon airport security personnel and passengers. These two individuals utilized five years of data geared towards analyzing passenger volume and direct effects of the implementation of various post 9/11 rules, such as additional…… [Read More]
Like the airline industry, it seems as if the airport industry is moving towards consolidation and more airport cooperation and alliances seem likely in the future. (Graham, 2003)
One approach in which civil aviation can contribute in ensuring peace amid the countries of the world is principally through its key role of facilitating communication and international discourse. The ICAO -- International Civil Aviation Organization has played a large part in achieving this to a great extent. Article 44 of the Chicago Convention charges ICAO to work towards aiding the global community for the development of civil aviation in an economic, safe and orderly manner. A apid esponse Team on Airport Security was formed under the DOT -- Department of Transportation of the United States. The initiative of ICAO for ensuring harmony and peace in the field of aviation is largely accomplished through its Council which has its origin in the…… [Read More]
ith the threat of terrorism remaining so strong in this country it is vital to find new and better ways to protect people and to keep them safe from harm as much as is humanly and technologically possible.
Scope of the Study
The scope of this particular study is very broad and far-reaching, because there are so many people who are being affected by it now and will be affected by it in the future. This was mentioned briefly earlier, as the current individual that may be suffering from the after-effects or the fear of terrorism is by far not the only one that is affected or will be affected in the future. The family and friends of that person are also affected, and the individuals of the future and their families and friends may also be affected by terrorism some day. Even though not everyone that goes through a…… [Read More]
'The International Outreach Plan' provides a comprehensive framework to solicit international support for an improved global aviation security network.
All these specially suggested plans addresses the need of different aspects of aviation security, yet, these security plans support and complement each other and that is why all have been properly integrated with the designing plan of the airport (Transportation Security Administration, 2010).
The designed plan for the airport includes all aspects of TSA -- mandated and provides a system for passenger screening in terms of concentric ring theory -- defense-in-depth. The first layer of security is presented and guarded by the 'Passenger Security Screening Checkpoints -- SSCP.' Every passenger or employer is required to pass through the SSCP before they may access the departure gate. Enhanced security measures are engaged in the system of screening. Security officers properly screens and scans the passengers and their carry baggage. No person…… [Read More]
"As the first flights began again on September 15, some crews refused to fly, not confident of airport security. Those who steeled themselves to work entered a strange new workplace. With no guidance from the airlines or the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) on how to handle potential future hijackings, flight attendants inventoried galleys for objects they could use as defensive weapons. Shell-shocked passengers sometimes hugged flight attendants as they boarded. Many crewmembers barely contained tears, often hiding in galleys to avoid alarming passengers."
Association of Flight Attendants
As the growth in air traffic appears to be picking up again, people are demanding more safety and security. As we look back to the events of September 11, 2001, we realize that this was a day that most Americans will never forget as long they live. Some of those who witnessed and watched airplanes plunge into…… [Read More]
S. Constitution. Notwithstanding the defendant's claim that the money orders were not his, the DEA and other federally authorized airport security seized the briefcase because they had probably cause to do so. One federal statute 31 U.S.C. § 5324(a) (avoiding currency transaction reporting rules) was referenced. Moreover, believing that they had probably cause to believe money laundering was involved they invoked 18 U.S.C. § 1956(a)(1)(i) and 1957(a) (2000). And after a drug sniffing dog detected cocaine, the federal law 21 U.S.C. § 881(a)(6) (1994) (amended 2000) was referenced. The answer to the question posed in the first paragraph of the Second Case, the contents of a briefcase may be seized if a "plain view" observation on the contents gives the officer probable cause to believe that the contents could have resulted from: a) money laundering; b) the avoidance of currency transaction laws; or c) drug trafficking activities. Those contents may…… [Read More]
For managers, this meant that they had to implement some kind of solution that could respond to these changes. ("Christmas Day ombing Plot," 20100
As a result, the TSA introduced full body scan imaging machines. These are similar to X ray machines that will look beneath the clothing of the suspect, to see if they have any kind of explosive in their private areas. For those individuals who were concerned about privacy issues, managers offered them another option (which was fully body pat downs by same sex security officers). During this procedure, they were required to manually check various private areas on a host of different individuals. The problem is that many civil rights groups and victims advocates, were claiming that this is a violation of basic constitutional principles. However, from a manager's perspective, these different views were unfounded, as they believed that the current system could address these underlying…… [Read More]
After the 911 terrorist attacks on the United States of America, airline security has become one of the most prominent safety issues within the country and also abroad. Indeed, specific organizations and strategies have been implemented in order to ensure the safety of aircraft for passengers and for the country as a whole. One of these is the Coalition of Airline Pilots Associations (CAPA), an organization specifically concerned with airline security issues and the implementation of safety measures (Air Safety Week, 2003). Critics have however suggested that the government has been in denial regarding the danger and shortcomings inherent in safety and security measures for commercial airlines.
According to Air Safety Week (2003), CAPA has implemented a measure by which it grades the governmental effort towards improving aviation security. And even two years after the September 11 attacks, the grades still fall considerably short of the desired result.…… [Read More]
However, funding cutbacks have delayed the expected completion of this training by all air marshals. Currently, federal air marshals protect less than 5% of daily U.S. flights. Other limitations to the use of air marshals include a mandatory dress code and the ongoing surveillance, which makes the marshal obvious to passengers. Furthermore, marshals must show identification to the flight crew and board the plane before first-class and handicapped passengers, which further compromises their undercover status.
Despite the limitations to the current aviation security system, many aspects are quite strong. Although not 100% accurate, airport screening devices are sensitive enough to detect metallic orthopedic implants (Kamineni, Legge and are). Also, TSA made remarkable enhancements to these areas in a relatively short period since "9/11." The agency has ongoing initiatives to increase the efficiency of screening checked baggage, including the development and construction of in-line baggage screening systems at larger airports to…… [Read More]
intra and inter-agency cooperation in the context of aviation security, since the 9/11 attacks. The paper will also look into obstacles to cooperation and how to mitigate them.
Means of Inter-Intra Agency Cooperation Increase
Aviation Operational Threat esponse Plan recommends systematized and all-inclusive protocols for guaranteeing a well-organized and successful governmental response to threats from airborne sources against the country and its welfare. The Aviation Transportation System ecovery Plan outlines a set of strategies for mitigating the economic and operational impacts of an aerial attack, in addition to measures, which will allow the Aviation Transport System, as well as other concerned private sector and governmental aviation-connected groups, to rapidly recover from these kinds of attacks (Aviation Transportation System Security Plan, 2007). Efforts for further reducing susceptibilities in each critical system area are maintained, increased, and improved by the Aviation Transportation System Security Plan. The Plan guides forceful efforts for: (1)…… [Read More]
Airport Security System
The secure operation of the aviation system across the globe is one of the most significant factors in the security and economic development of the United States. The use of the world's airspace should also be secured because aviation has become a major target for criminals. Actually, criminals, terrorists, and hostile nations increasingly consider aviation as a major target for exploitation and attack. An example of the security threats facing this industry is the 9/11 terror attacks, which highlighted the desire and ability of enemies to generate considerable harm to the United States. Therefore, aviation security is increasingly important in order to protect the country and its citizens from such attacks. According to Federal of American Scientists (2007), aviation security is realized through combination of private and public aviation security activities across the globe. These activities are then coordinated to detect, prevent, deter, and defeat threats that…… [Read More]
Countermeasures After 911
Without a doubt, September 11th changed a tremendous amount about how we live and about how safe (and unsafe) we feel. These attacks caused enormous changes and countermeasures regarding the way we travel and the way we interact with one another and the way in which we use technology. However, ever since the ten-year anniversary of 9/11 has come and gone, it begs to determine just how much we've changed in the way that we live, examining specific areas of technology, commerce and communication. Consider the following: "In spite of a doubling of the intelligence budget since 2001 to $80 billion, the creation or reorganizing of some 263 government organizations, and the formation of the $50 billion Department of Homeland Security, the government has largely fallen short, the new report notes. The report states that while some progress has been made, 'some major September 11 Commission…… [Read More]
air cargo industry experienced tremendous growth since inception because of various factors in the aviation industry, particularly the freight sector. The growth and development of this industry is evident in its current significance on the freight sector. Moreover, this industry currently accounts for huge profitability in the freight sector because of increased shipping of various packages across the globe. This increased shipping is fueled by increased interconnectedness of people and countries due to rapid technological factors.
However, the industry has experienced tremendous challenges and concerns in relation to security because of the increase of security issues and emergence of new security threats throughout the world. Some of the major security challenges or issues facing the air cargo industry include terrorism, hijacking threat, vulnerability to security breaches, and probable introduction of explosive devices. These security threats are largely brought by the development of sophisticated tools and means for criminal activities by…… [Read More]
CIVIL VITION'S SRPS
Civil viation's SRPs
Civil viation's SRPs
The primary objective of aviation security relates to airport infrastructure protection. The agencies also insist on the need to control people's access within protected areas. This essay discusses the roles and contributions of International ir Transport ssociation as well as the International Federation of ir Line Pilots' ssociations to the aviation industry.
The world's airlines have a trade association called IT. The organization hosts primarily major carriers (240 airlines) and carries about 83% of air traffic's vailable Seat Kilometers. IT is supportive of airline activities through formulation of industry standards and policies. The organization has its headquarters in Montreal, Canada. The Executive branch offices are in Geneva, Switzerland. ll industry stakeholders and IT members agree to sequential environmental goals. The members seek to improve average fuel efficiency to 1.5% each year between 2009 and 2020 (Hendrik 2008). The agency seeks…… [Read More]
Aviation and Security: Management Perspective
The globalization has made the world a smaller place with information transcending the hitherto boundaries that stopped free flow of information as well as increased travel across the world. The increased traveling due to availability of the means of travel heaped a lot of pressure on the aviation industry, especially the management to ensure that security is maintained and the commuting through the various airports and through the airspaces is seamless, safe and uninterrupted, providing convenience to passengers and goods alike. The management levels at the airports hence have a heavy task of ensuring the free flow of traffic and the following is an extrapolation of how the management can and have contributed to aviation security in general.
The management must describe and make the staff members understand the four pillars of safety within the aviation industry. Once the staff members understand these four pillars,…… [Read More]
Aviation Security Since 911
How has aviation security improved since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001? hat do reliable sources in the literature say with reference to safety and security in 2015? And how effective is the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) at keeping air travelers safe? This paper covers those issues and in particular provides a number of good sources commenting on the quality (or lack of quality) displayed by the TSA employees.
Generalizations about aviation security in the Post-911 era
For most people who travel by air, the screening at the airports in 2015 is certainly more thorough than it was prior to 911, but there are continuing problems with TSA, as will be documented in this paper. But at the beginning of this paper it is worth reviewing the "Mission" of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in terms of what the U.S. Government wants the public to…… [Read More]
Aviation Safety: Is flying safer than driving?
There has been an ongoing debate regarding the relative safety of flying as opposed to driving over long distances. Many argue that flying is the safer option, since statistics have proven this mode of transport to be one of the safest in the world. On the other hand, flying has been perceived as unsafe because passengers have relatively little chance of survival should mishaps occur in midair. One interesting dimension in terms of aviation safety is the events during September 11, 2001. These have caused many travelers to choose driving over flying as a result of terrorism fears. When comparing statistics, however, it appears that flying is indeed safer than driving because of factors such as the fatigue that drivers may suffer and human error on American roads. When flying, passengers do not need to maintain any level of concentration in order to…… [Read More]
With regards to improving the prospects for the Gray Eagle, the United States Army must apply the core principles of CM to its operations. This entails a strategic decision-making training session, an improved technology interface that will facilitate ground and flight operations, and a thorough training module related to leadership development and communications. When FAA regulations are also integrated with Army safety regulations, the result will be an improved and safer UAS system.
Beckhusen, . (2012). 'Gray Eagle' Drone Fails All the Time, but Army Still Wants More. Wired. June 15, 2012. etrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
Dorr, L. & Duquette, a. (2013). Fact sheet -- Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Federal Aviation Administration. etrieved online: http://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsId=14153
Helmreich, .L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. etrieved online: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/helmreichlab/publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
Mulenberg, J. (n.d.). Crew resource management improves decision making. NASA. etrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oce/appel/ask/issues/42/42i_crew_resource_management_prt.htm…… [Read More]
Briefing on Security
Board Briefing on Security
Terrorism in Commercial Organizations
Terrorism in Airlines
Current Threats to Aviation
Automation Adds Efficiency
Improving Total Operations
Increased Threats from Advanced Explosives
Threat against Airline Services and Airports
Necessary Steps to Improve Aviation Security
Terrorism is the systematic use of terror. It does not have a legal binding or definition in criminal law. Commonly, it is referred to creation of fear through violence (Townshend, 2002). Terrorism is usually defined and assumed as a group phenomenon (Hofmann, 2012). Terrorism has spread across the globe with its many forms and indicators. The emotional and diplomatic use of the word terrorism has resulted in a difficulty to provide an appropriate definition of terroorism (aman, 2008). esearches have figured out more than hundred definitions of the word. The notion of terrorism is arguable due to two main reasons. Firstly, it is often used by government…… [Read More]
Transportation Security and Intrusiveness of Security Screenings
America's land, seaways, and air transportation systems are structured in such a manner that enhances efficiency and enables easy access, the two features that also at the same time make these transportation systems susceptible to attacks. The expenses and difficulty of protecting the entire transportation systems from attacks raises a critical issue for legislators and other policymakers in the government: in that how much money and effort should be utilized towards preventing attacks in the country compared to the alternative of pursuing and defeating terrorists wherever they are. While completely proofing the entire transportation sector from attacks is an almost impossible task, strategies can be formulated to significantly reduce the risk of attacks. The emphasis by policymakers should be put in coming up with the resources to build a prevention, protection, and rapid response system that can greatly reduce the likelihood and consequences…… [Read More]
A plethora of private firms around the world offer customized security and risk management services. TAL Global and the Wexford Group are two firms that offer some of the most comprehensive security and risk management services, strategies, and techniques, interfacing between public and private sector and wielding power in a wide range of jurisdictions. Wexford Group offers services including operational advising, law enforcement support, program management, risk assessment, operations and intelligence fusion, development and fielding, and also recruitment, assessment, selection, and training (RAST) support for government agencies and private industries. TAL Global offers airport and aviation security, emergency preparedness planning, executive protection, risk management, school safety and security, and a range of other security services within their organizational rubric. These two organizations have similar leadership structures, dividing their different duties into different departments, each with its own organizational sub-structures. Working within the laws and jurisdictions of any client context, TAL…… [Read More]
All of the transportation agencies were consolidated into one big agency -- the new Department of Transportation in 1966, establishing the National Transportation Safety Board as an agency that was independent inside of the department. This new board was also given the responsibility of determining the "probable cause" of: 1) highway accidents selected in cooperation with the states; 2) every passenger train accident, fatal railway accidents, and any railroad accident that caused significant damage; 3) big marine accidents, including any marine accident that involved a public vessel and a nonpublic vessel; 4) pipeline accidents involving a fatality or significant property damage; and lastly, 5) fatalities or major injuries that were caused by the release of hazardous materials (2004).
The creation of the NTSB showed that Congress was thinking that a single agency could come up with a higher level of safety than the individual model agencies that were all working…… [Read More]
Their casualties go uncounted, their actions largely unmonitored and their crimes unpunished." Scahill relates that four years into the Iraq occupation "there is no effective system of oversight or accountability governing contractors and their operations, not is there any effective law - military or civilian being applied to their activities." (2007) According to Scahill's report: "Since the launch of the "global war on terror," the administration has systematically funneled billions of dollars in public money to corporations like lackwater USA, DynCorp, Triple Canopy, Erinys and ArmorGroup. They have in turn used their lucrative government pay-outs to build up the infrastructure and reach of private armies so powerful that they rival or outgun some nation's militaries." (2007)
III. The EFFECTIVENESS of DHS
The work of Ahlers (2007) entitled: "Auditor's: Homeland Security Gets Mixed Grades" reports that congressional auditors gave "mixed grades to the Department of Homeland Security on its efforts to…… [Read More]
Homeland Security isk Management
isk Management in Homeland Security
This paper provides a brief examination of the role of risk management within the homeland security operations. The discussion first addresses issues related to risk assessment, which is a necessary, prudent step for publicly funded activities, and particularly so given the national scope and the potential consumption of resources. The Strategic National isk Assessment (SNA) serves as a vehicle to link policy -- the Presidential Policy Directive 8 (PPD 8) and the National Preparedness System. The core capabilities of the National Preparedness Goal are mapped to the hazards and threats identified in the SNA (SNA 2011). This tactic enables additional core capabilities to be identified, and provides a resource to inform the establishment of priorities needed for making decisions about future investing in capabilities (SNA 2011).
As with any major projects of risk management, the initial stage is focused on assessment.…… [Read More]
The combination of such broad language and the paucity of any significant enforcement tools meant that these initiatives were largely ineffective.
Not surprisingly, complaints from passengers increased by 200% within the year; furthermore, flight delays continued to increase 12% faster in the first five months of 2000 than in the same period in 1999. "Indeed, in the twelve months following the airlines' voluntary promises, flight delays cost business travelers 5 billion dollars and 1.5 million hours" (osenthal, 2002, p. 1859). The number of delays caused National Business Travel Association Executive Director Marianne McInerney to conclude that "[w]e are at a point where our nation's airline system is in need of triage" (osenthal, 2002, p. 1859). Some observers would suggest that radical surgery is required rather than triage, and these issues are discussed further below.
Security Issues and Passenger Satisfaction. When people travel on an airline, they have a legitimate right…… [Read More]
Counter-Terrorism and Social Media: Freedom vs. Security
The United States prides itself to being the most democratic nation of the world, with the highest respect for the human being, for its values, norms, and dreams. At the same time, before 9/11, it was also considered to be one of the safest nations of the world. The attacks on the World Trade Center towers, in particular pointed out that there are gaps in security and that even the United States represent a vulnerable target. Since then, the security measures have been seriously increased, in certain areas of expertise; security rules have been created if they did not exist. All these measures fueled a constant debate on whether the security that has been increased affects or not the liberties and freedoms of the American population.
On May 1st 2011, Osama bin Laden has been announced dead by the U.S. President, arack Obama…… [Read More]
Logistics in Aviation
Aviation logistics: Competitive advantage and technological innovation
In the modern era, the worldwide logistics and supply chain is very cut throat and keeping an edge over others is important for all the firms in operation. Worldwide competition in aviation logistics business is cut throat with numerous firms. Firms in this business survive only when they maintain an edge over their rivals in the business in order to keep the clients in check. Most of the firms are very lenient to their clients as they listen to their client's needs and requirements, complaints along the way, implementing long-term marketing programs as well as short-term. Companies also make use of their resources in order to acquire competitive edge over their rivals in the marketplace which leads to satisfactory profits (Sakchutchawan, 2011). The resource advantage theory stipulates that having edge in resources paves way for competitive edge in the…… [Read More]
U.S. statistics indicate that 80% of aviation accidents are due to human errors with 50% due to maintenance human factor problems. Current human factor management programs have not succeeded to the degree desired. Many industries today use performance excellence frameworks such as the Baldrige National Quality Award framework to improve over-all organizational effectiveness, organizational culture and personal learning and growth. A survey administered to a sample population of senior aviation maintainers in 18 countries revealed a consistent problem with aviation human factors and the need for a more integrated framework to manage human factor problems in aviation maintenance.
Human Factors History
Current Human Factor programs in Aircraft Maintenance
Performance Excellence Framework
esearcher's Work Setting and ole
Statement of the Problem
EVIEW OF ELEVANT LITEATUE AND ESEACH
Human Factor Errors in Aircraft Maintenance Statistics
Current Human Factor Programs in Aircraft Maintenance 13
Aviation Performance Excellence Framework 12
Statement of esearch Question…… [Read More]
According to IATA, freight within Asia Pacific, between Asia Pacific and North America and between Asia Pacific and Europe will account for 57% of the 36 million tonnes of international air freight tonnes in 2011, up from 55% in 2006. The majority of this growth will be from the outbound leg from Asia Pacific ("2008 Annual Report - Air Freight: Carriers Alter Course")."
Overall the article characterizes airfreight as an aspect of the industry that will continue to grow in spite of the fuel cost and economic slow down that seems to have negatively impacted the airline industry. The growth of economies such as China and India seems to contribute to the increased profitability of the air freight segment of the industry. It seems that the growth in air freight will continue well into the future.
Week 7-Article Critique
Issues associated with traffic flow, have been at the forefront of…… [Read More]
Proposed Products and Services
Market Industry Position
ole of Information Systems
Information Systems Structure
Eagle Flight School and Shop will be a flight school for future pilots and a store where pilots and students can purchase everything from clothing (apparel) to flight bags to headsets. The Flight School will provide classes that will allow students to acquire a pilot's license in accordance with government rules associated with the minimum number of flight hours and the government approved curriculum. The mission of Eagle flight school is to provide pilots with the proper instruction as it pertains to all aspects of air travel and to provide both students and professionals with the equipment needed to carry out their duties as pilots. The flight school will provide a…… [Read More]
What is the role of human factors in improving aviation safety?
Many personnel are involved in the operation and maintenance of airplanes. The aviation industry employs many people performing many different roles and tasks to keep aviation a safe mode of transportation for goods and services. Despite rules, procedures, and advanced technology to help keep passengers and crew safe, sometimes accidents still occur. It was found that more than 70% of commercial airplane accidents are caused by humans, rather than simply a failure of technology (Higgins & Higgins, 2008). This research supports the thesis that human factors are one of the most difficult, and the most important issues in aviation needed to increase aviation safety in the future.
Mechanical failure is cited as one of the more common reasons for aviation disasters (Higgins & Higgins, 2008). It is easy to shift the blame to a machine, rather than…… [Read More]
According to Pilarski (2007), "the financial situation of the airline industry, especially in the U.S.A., has been between disaster and catastrophe," (p. 3). Financial wizards like Warren Buffet have made "bombastic pronouncements" related to the economic illnesses of the airline industry (9). Dynamic entrepreneur ichard Branson, himself seduced by the desire to own an airline, has likewise stated, "How do you become a millionaire? Start as a billionaire, and then buy an airline," (cited in "In-Depth Drilldown Of The Airline Industry - Part 1, 2012). Airline companies operate with razor-thin profit margins, if any at all. Moreover, the situation was bad enough befofre but has grown worse since September 11. "Since 9/11, we've seen tremendous changes surrounding the airline industry: security, regulations, and operational costs. Overall, these variables have had tremendous, and far-bearing, negative impacts on the industry," ("In-Depth Drilldown Of The Airline Industry - Part 1," 2012).…… [Read More]
Aviation Safety PO involves applying critical thinking to particular topics of aviation safety and security which are used to support a project or comprehensive research question. Aviation safety includes the analysis and evaluation of any and all safety and security concepts, techniques, procedures including SMS, airfield and other aviation facility security, accident investigation, operational safety, Federal Air Marshall Program, terrorism prevention as they influence and relate to the project or comprehensive research question. This paper will look at basic concepts in aviation safety in regards to crew resource management as it pertains to the aviation/aerospace industry.
Crew resource management involves the application of human factors skills and knowledge when it comes to conducting flight operations with the goal of using the available resources efficiently; equipment, systems and humans in order to achieve safe flight operations. CM is a combination of both individual skills and human factors knowledge together with effective…… [Read More]
Human Factors in Aviation Safety
The human beings with their immense capabilities, imagination, creativity, and cleverness have transformed the world into an industrial world that is surrounded by numerous inventions, innovations, and advancements in various facets of life. Aviation industry is also one of the developments of the human beings, which was imagined as an attempt to emulate bird flight. Human beings were engaged in this phenomenon for centuries prior to the emergence of the first flight, which resulted in outstanding civil transport in the form of spaceflight (Campbell & Bagshaw, 2008). However, it is wise to note that the human life is one integral aspect that should not be ignored when any mode of transportation is concerned. To have a safe journey during flights it is demonstrated that aviation safety is essential. Aviation safety principally signifies that prevention techniques in the form of regulation, education, and training should be…… [Read More]
National security cards also have the ability to provide useful information and insight to policymakers on which areas of a given country will most likely be the least secure and which pose potential security threats (Ortmeier, 2009). This will also force nations to into strategic identity management systems and taxonomies of how they classify threats to their populations. The use of analytics and big data or exceptionally large and complex data sets, will become commonplace in five years or less as a result of the adoption of national security cards across more nations in the world (Ortmeier, 2009). National security cards will also be increasingly used for managing healthcare, human services and social programs, as the United Kingdom has successfully done for example. The broader implications to the future of security from the use of national identity cards are evident in how advanced forms of security authentication continue to flourish…… [Read More]
National Incident Management System:
NIMS has been designed with the sole purpose of integrating emergency practices on all levels of government. These practices include mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery and NIMS provides the single platform where all these practices would merge in order to better respond to national terrorist crises. The strengths of the program are:
1. It provides standards for organizational structures, processes and procedures
2. It also offers standards for planning, training and exercising of emergency practices
3. It integrates technologies such as voice and data communication systems, information systems and data display systems (Bullock, p. 53)
1. extensive training required to understand the system properly
2. not enough trained individuals available who can handle the complexities of NIMS
3. NIMS is dependent on NP for effective utilization of its capabilities and for its final success
National esponse Plan
With the help of NIMS, NP provides a…… [Read More]
Money in Aviation: An Examination of Support
The history of American flight is generally one of pride and wonder. Historical figures associated with the first airplanes are generally revered by history books and society as a whole. These are figures like the Wright brothers, Amelia Earhart, Charles Lindbergh and others who most agree made a positive impact on human life and symbolize a leap of mankind towards advanced technology and increasing modern times. Modernity. Technology. These are all things that airplanes and flight represent to Americans and they're widely viewed as things which have improved life on this planet for the better. This begs the question as to why the airline industry still remains one of the most volatile, low (or no) profits business around. The book, Why We Can't Make Money in Aviation, by Adam M. Pilarski, seeks to both scrutinize and illuminate the general failure of the airline…… [Read More]
Advice on Handling Dismissals
The Minimum Wage
Working Time egulations
WOKES AND EMPLOYMENT
Gender and Sexual Orientation Discrimination
Discrimination on Grounds of ace or eligion or Age
Treatment of employees has come under scrutiny in the last few decades. Legislation has been passed to help facilitate effective regulation of a business/work environment. The areas covered by legislation are: employment contracts, work-related regulations (ie. Breaks and work conditions), minimum wage rates, unlawful/unfair dismissal, and discrimination/harassment on the grounds of gender, sexual preference, race, religious beliefs, disability, and in recent years, age. Legislation of this nature need to be a major concern for employers to not only follow, but implement. Dismissal of legislation could lead to large penalties, associated with compensation and legal fees.
Infringement of employees rights may also lead to a company/organization's poor public image. As most businesses know, maintaining a positive public…… [Read More]
One of the principle threats that is found at the internal level of airport security is passengers attempting to smuggle items aboard planes that can function as weapons. In this respect, security measures must include a list of substances that passengers are prohibited from flying with (such as chemical compounds) (Staples, no date), in addition to utilizing various devices to ensure that no is violating these rules.
There are a host of technological applications that are utilized for achieving the latter objective. Most of these devices involve scanning passengers to both detect and deter them from taking potentially lethal contraband aboard planes. Metal detectors are utilized to look for typical weapons such as firearms and knives, while searches of passengers and scanning of their luggage should also be conducted to look for any prohibited materials. Other scanning devices include x-ray machines and explosive detection machines, both of which can detect…… [Read More]
Strategies to improve collaboration and cooperation between the Homeland Security agencies
The department of homeland security (DHS) controls the territorial, local, state, tribal, and federal government resources (DHS, 2018). The DHS coordinates various programs and agencies into one single and unified effort that is given to protecting the American homeland and the people. The first QHSR (Quadrennial Homeland Security Review) was completed in the year 2010 with an objective of establishing an incorporated strategy for the goals and missions of homeland security (Homeland Security, 2005). Following this, DHS carried out a BUR (Bottom up Review). The objective was to synchronize organizational structure and programmatic activities in order to effectively achieve the goals and missions of homeland security.
The primary duty of homeland security is to protect the U.S. from any terrorism. The counterterrorism duties of the DHS are concentrated on these three goals i.e. First goal is protecting and resisting…… [Read More]
This is important, because this flight school is larger and has a variety of programs to offer. If at some point, someone decides that want to study other forms of aviation, this school would be ideal at learning for much as possible. ("MVP Accomplishments," 2010)
Mc Air Aviation offers students the ability to complete most of the course work, through a self-study format. Where, students will complete the basic written curriculum and will then complete the in flight requirements with their certified instructors. At which point, the student can be able to receive their flight certification. This is important, because it provides other options in studying and obtaining certification, as those with busier schedule can be able to balance this kind of instruction with their lives. ("141 Self-Examining Authority," 2010)
Another option is to go through the Airline Career Pilot Program. Under this program, there is assistance for students who…… [Read More]
2. Approach Clearances
According to the article, "Back door IF: When stratus happens and you didn't file, you'll need to sweet talk your way into the system. Here are some practical tips to do that safely" (2006 obtaining an IF clearance, literally on the fly, does not constitute not a to be taken for granted privilege.
Approximately 15 years ago, U.S. pilots almost lost a significant portion of this flexibility, when the FAA's legal department proposed procedural changes in FAA Order 7110.65 Air Traffic Control, potentially requiring pilots to request such "pop-ups" to be permitted "to climb under VF to whatever minimum IF, vectoring or en route altitude applied to the area in question" (Back door IF... 2006, ¶ 30).
The proposal additionally extended to particular clearances being withheld; contending that controllers may be held responsible when pilots hit terrain or obstructions at a low altitude. Previously, a pilot was…… [Read More]
Military Aircraft and Their Effect on Commercial Aviation
Civil aviation deals with the organization and use of aircraft as a means of commercial transportation. The principal interest is the use of aircraft on scheduled and chartered flights to carry passengers and cargo, but the subject also covers the use of aircraft for pleasure, business, and medical services. ecause of the international character of civil aviation, governments play a major role in its conduct and regulation, through both national legislation and international agreements. This governmental influence was a major factor in commercial airline operation until the early 1980s, when the U.S. domestic market was deregulated. The result was a massive increase in competition, which led in turn to a reorganization of the airlines into larger groupings. It seems likely that this process will continue in the international market, which will lead to an increase in air travel, and increased pressure on…… [Read More]
S. Customs and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services were combined to form U.S. Customs and Border Protection. Overall, DHS incorporates 22 government agencies. The major agencies of DHS are the TSA, Customs and Border Protection, Citizenship and Immigration Services, ICE, FEMA, the U.S. Secret Service, and the U.S. Coast Guard (Borja).
The Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) was formed on July 1, 1973 and is headquartered in Arlington, VA. Former drug enforcement related agencies are the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs and the Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement. The parent agency of the DEA is the U.S. Department of Justice. The DEA is the lead agency for domestic enforcement under the Controlled Substances Act. The DEA's primary goal is to combat drug smuggling and use within the U.S. The DEA shares jurisdiction with the FBI and ICE and shares communications systems with the Department of Defense. DEA…… [Read More]
Question #2: Describe the evolution of aviation security threats. List several types of threats and specific events that illustrate the damage of such threats.
Through history, the threat upon the security of airline traffic has generally been reduced. Wars and conflicts would generally be handled in open attack and without the implication and loss of civil lives. Airlines were considered the safest means of transportation.
However, with the emergence of terrorism at a global scale, wars are no longer disputed openly, but adversaries seek for ways in which to inflict as much loss as possible for the other side, with the minimum casualties on their side. The direct result was that of a demise of the airline industry, including the individual reticence to fly, materialized in the bankruptcy of several airline operators.
n more recent years, the safety of the operators and passengers within the airline industry has been impacted…… [Read More]
S. law. Legislation such as many elements of the U.S.A. PATRIOT ACT are problematic because they do not provide adequate controls to ensure that investigative methods and procedures appropriate under some circumstances cannot be used in circumstances where they are inappropriate under U.S. law.
4. What is the FISA Court? Explain how it works. What authorities can it grant law enforcement? How is it different from traditional courts? What concerns exist about expanding the use of FISA?
The Foreign Intelligence and Surveillance Act of 1978 (FISA) was established to regulate the use of surveillance by the executive branch of government in the wake of various unconstitutional investigations conducted by the Nixon administration in connection with monitoring political rivals and government opposition groups. The FISA Act authorized the covert monitoring of information and communication exchanges of entities of foreign governments engaged in espionage and intelligence collection activities in the U.S. pursuant…… [Read More]
Building Security Evaluation: Baltimore-Washington Thurgood Marshall International Airport
Just a couple of decades ago, travelers, visitors and virtually anyone else could walk freely through the nation's airports without being challenged at any point, and security considerations were generally restricted to concerns over possible so-called "skyjackings" to Cuba, but even these were rare. Following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, though, all of this changed in fundamental ways as airports across the country implemented a wide range of security measures intended to prevent a recurrence of these deadly security breaches. Indeed, today, security at the nation's airports has never been stricter, and despite the time and trouble these initiatives have created for air travelers, most passengers today appear to accept these measures in stride as part of the post-September 11 climate. To determine what security measures have been taken in a specific airport facility, this paper provides an evaluation of…… [Read More]
2002; Vol 31:109-127
Edkins and Zehfuss report, "According to the most conservative estimate, in the last one hundred years, 60 million men, women and children were gratuitously slaughtered in wars legitimately by the state."
Civil aviation has become an essential part of modern life which transcends national and international boundaries and political or social differences. (Salter, 2008)
Salter, M.. (2008). Imagining numbers: risk, quantification, and aviation security. Security Dialogue, 39, 243-266.
"What We Do." International Monetary Fund. 1/26/2010 .
arkawi, Tarak. "Retrieving the Imperial: Empire and International Relations." Journal of International Studies 31 (2002): 109-127.
Jenny Edkins and Maja Zehfuss, eds. Global Politics: A New Introduction (London: Routledge, 2008).
Salter, Mark. "Imagining numbers: risk, quantification, and aviation security. ." Security Dialogue 39 (2008)
Jenny Edkins and Maja Zehfuss, eds. Global Politics: A New Introduction (London: Routledge, 2008).… [Read More]
History Of the Organization's Formation
Objectives of ICAO as Specified in the Chicago Convention
Enhancing Safety and Security in Civil Aviation
Development and Constant Evaluation of Aviation Standards and Policies
Implementation of Standards and Practices
Timely esponse to Challenges
Changes in ICAO's Strategic Objectives
Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development Objective
The International Civil Aviation Organization was formed in November 1944 by the conclusion of the Chicago Convention held in that year. This organization was formed because of the need for securing cooperation and standardization of global aviation policies and practices. The United States of America played a crucial role in the organization's formation by inviting several states to the Convention on international civil aviation standards, policies, and procedures. Out of the 44 States that attended the Chicago Convention, 32 States signed an agreement that paved the way for ICAO's creation.
ICAO was mandated with…… [Read More]
Flight Training is a popular career choice that keeps fluctuating in scope due to the position of the economy, and is today viewed to have better prospects due to an apparent brightening up of the outlook. The career of a pilot is that of a highly trained professional who are involved in flying airplanes and helicopters which carry out many tasks. Most of the pilots are airline pilots, copilots or flight engineers and they are mostly involved in the transportation of people and cargo, but a small section of roughly 1 in 5 pilots who have commercial licenses are involved in unusual tasks like the dusting of crops, spreading seeds in the process of reforestation, testing aircraft, undertaking special flights for passengers and cargoes to unusual destinations, overseeing large scale firefighting efforts, chasing criminals, supervising traffic, and in the rescue and evacuation of severely injured individuals.
The profession suffered deeply…… [Read More]
September 11th and Transportation Law
On the morning of September 11th, 2011, the United States of America felt the full fury of an enemy which had been lying in wait for decades, planning an attack of spectacularly tragic proportions that would shake the nation to its core. The weapons of choice for Osama bin Laden and his Al-Qaeda terrorist network were not bullets or bombs, but airplanes which were ruthlessly hijacked and flown as missiles into New York's World Trade Center, the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., and fatefully, an empty field in Shanksville, Pennsylvania. With the collapse of both of the Twin Towers and the immediate loss of over 3,000 lives, the American aviation industry was suddenly transformed from a once proud symbol of our national strength into a scapegoat for society's shattered complacency. In the aftermath of the 9/11 attacks, with images of smoldering rubble streaming live on television…… [Read More]
These are designed to be confusing for terrorists who attempt to circumvent them. The unpredictability is enhanced by varying them for location to location. What makes the threat especially insidious is the fact that current full body scanners used in airports across the world cannot detect items concealed inside the body with great accuracy. However, improving existing technology can change this capability for the better, according to aviation security experts.
The main likely reaction to the latest intelligence is to expand and improve security at airport checkpoints. As security measures after 9/11 have expanded and improved, terrorists have responded by creating innovative evasion measures to avoid common screening practices at airports.
The publication Today Online (2011) refers to the surgically implanted devices as "belly bombs." The report quotes Transport Security Administration spokesman Kawika iley in asserting that there has been a trend among terrorist groups to respond to increased security…… [Read More]
Despite the fact that full body scanners may be the most technologically advanced equipment we could realistically put in an airport, they still have their shortcomings. Full body scanners can't see inside your body. Generally, the machines also can't find items stashed in a body cavity. This means that a determined terrorist could potentially store bomb materials or weapons inside their body, specifically in their anus. Since such a low dose of electromagnetic energy is beamed inside the people who enter the scanners, the images are only skin deep. So just how drug traffickers smuggle drugs inside their bodies, terrorists could do the same but with far more dangerous materials. As America witnessed with the failed shoe bomber, it does not take a great deal of free space to hide materials that could overthrow or take a plane down. For instance, C4 explosive, which is military grade, can be…… [Read More]
esearch and development was encouraged for future developments as well to continue to make security a priority (Airport Security, 1989, p. 2).
Also in response to the bombing of Flight 103, the Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990 was passed. Senator Wendell H. Ford opened the proceedings with the statement: "The terrorist bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 in December 1988 tragically demonstrated that something more is needed to be done to protect Americans traveling by air" (Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990, 1990, p. 1).
In later hearings on implementation, it was noted by Thomas C. Kelly, Vice President of Security for the Air Transport Association, that U.S. airports were much safer than foreign airports and that this fact should be noted when dealing with this legislation: "Our primary focus in the development of this legislation was to ensure that it would contain provisions imposing the same extraordinary procedures…… [Read More]
history of the Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) and its achievements throughout its seventy years. Safety regulations, issues of aviation concern, and milestones in union negotiations are discussed.
THE AIR LINE PILOTS ASSOCIATION
ith the recent terrorist attacks in the United States, airline safety has been of top concern. Six months ago airport security was seldom discussed except perhaps in an article tucked in a newspaper or magazine. Now it's a top story on the evening news every night. It makes us wonder if anyone has been thinking of our safety until now.
The Airline Pilots Association has always been thinking of our safety. From metal detectors in airports to the 'fasten seat belt' signs on airliners, the APLA was responsible.
The ALPA is regarded as the leader in safety issues concerning all areas of aviation
The Air Line Pilots Association (ALPA) not only helps with safety issues and…… [Read More]
Airports need to also have a well-trained MANPAD threat response team that is familiar with combating MANPAD type weapons and tactics. This team needs to have the ability to respond quickly and effectively to any terrorist threat, with emphasis on MANPAD threats and attacks. Even after a MANPAD attack occurs, those in the aircraft as well as those on the ground need to understand how to respond effectively to reduce the possibility of further damage or attacks.
2 ?" Examine the issue of planning the airport of the future in terms of minimizing the MANPAD threat. It is far easier to build systems into new designs than it is to attempt to modify existing ones.
Since large airports are relatively costly and require permanent structures, it is much easier to build anti-MANPAD systems and strategies into new airports than it is to attempt to modify older, existing airports. Existing airports…… [Read More]
Airports, Airspace, And Air Traffic Control
A Manager's Perspective from an Aeronautical Point-of-View on Airports, Airspace, and Air Traffic control
Team resource management defines the efficient and effective use of resources that are available including people, information, and equipment. It always targets security enhancement and efficient management of air traffic control (Hikmat, 2013). The principles that guide the management of the team in air traffic control include the following aspects.
Developing human factors
Linking the human factors with constantly occurring events
Using the best practices to manage the crew
These principles are effective to counter human error having an optimum use of all the available resources, thereby improving services and operations of an air traffic controller (Wiene, Kanki, & Helmreich, 1993). Human factors in air traffic control have an enormous contribution in the management of air traffic. The constantly increasing delays in air traffic and accidents all arise from instructional…… [Read More]
expression that has been dedicated to the 2001 terrorist attacks by Al-Qaeda that the United States suffered from on September 11. It won't be incorrect to state that 9/11 proved to be a turning point for the George W. Bush administration and the foreign policy of the United States of America. The events unswervingly led to the United States support for the downfall of Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan where it was believed to have its foundation. These attacks were also important as they were later used by the United States of America as a justification of invading Iraq regardless of the fact that no apparent proof could be presented regarding any connection between Iraq with Al Qaeda. Nevertheless, the 9/11 impact was strong enough and the invasion was therefore strongly supported by the American public ("9/11," 2013).
Description of the Event
Al-Qaeda is a radical Islamic group that has been involved…… [Read More]
Terrorism Has Changed the United States
The United States has experienced considerable threats of terrorism in the past decade similar to other parts of the world. This threat has largely emerged from the fact that groups like Al-Qaeda and other terror organizations have continued to pose a significant threat to the United States homeland. Despite the success that the country has achieved in eliminating terror groups and organizations like al-Qaeda, affiliate and extremist groups continue to pose a major threat to the United States. The increase in terrorist activities and incidents in the recent past have contributed to various measures adopted by the United States as well as other countries towards combating terrorism. These efforts have significantly transformed the United States and other countries around the globe with regards to security measures, immigration, and foreign policy.
The Threat of Terrorism to the United States
The United States wasn't officially involved…… [Read More]