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In his proposal letter to Confederate President Jefferson Davis, he stated, "Our army consisted of a superior quality of soldiers, but it was in no condition to divide in the enemy's country.
Lee recognized their lack of supplies, which would hinder their effort further into enemy territory. However, he would not let his disadvantages hold him back, and he threw caution to the wind by choosing to execute his invasion. His words to Davis in his proposal letter were: "Still, we cannot afford to be idle, and though weaker than our opponents in men and military equipments, must endeavor to harass if we cannot destroy them."
he victory on behalf of the Union lifted spirits which had recently been dampened from prior successful Confederate campaigns. Local reports claim "Gen. McClellan immediately proceeded to the right, where he was enthusiastically received, and by his presence added much to our success in…
Thompson, "With Burnside at Antietam."
Univeristy of Texas, "Battle of Antietam." University of Texas Libraries, (2010), http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/national_parks/anti_95.jpg (Retrieved February 24, 2010).
BioCrawler, "Antietam Battle Map," (2010), http://www.biocrawler.com/w/images/0/0e/Antietam_Battle_Map.png, (Retrieved February 24, 2010).
Orders were misconstrued, mistakes were made, and bravery was commonplace.
In conclusion, this Bloody Lane is a modern testament to the bravery of the Union and Confederate forces that fought here. Walking this stretch of road is a step back in history, and imagining what occurred here so long ago is worse than anything we could possibly imagine or conceive. The Bloody Lane proved to be the turning point in the Battle of Antietam, and it could have been the turning point of the war. It is difficult to think about the results of the war, and how many men might not have had to die if only General McClellan had played out his advantage and decimated Lee's troops here, instead of allowing them to fight another day (Dew 865). The Bloody Lane might have at least saved the blood of others, if McClellan had only taken the chance.
Cannan, John. The Antietam Campaign: August-September 1862. Conshohocken, PA: Combined Books, 1994.
Dew, Charles B. "How Samuel E. Pittman Validated Lee's 'Lost Orders' Prior to Antietam: A Historical Note." Journal of Southern History 70.4 (2004): 865+.
Editors. "Antietam National Battlefield." National Park Service. 2002. 30 April 2008. http://www.nps.gov/anti/battle.htm
Heidler, David Stephen, Jeanne T. Heidler, David J. Coles, James M. McPherson. Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000.
Despite over 23,000 casualties of the nearly 100,000 engaged, both armies stubbornly held their ground as the sun set on the devastated landscape."
This point is made time in again among the accounts of the battle, where historians laud General Lee's relentless fighting spirit even in the face of growing losses of precious men and materiel. For example, despite his enormous losses, General Lee continued to prosecute the battle in an opportunistic fashion throughout the daylong battle in hopes of ultimately turning the tide. In this regard, Jamieson advises that, "Even [after sustaining devastating losses], Lee conceded the initiative grudgingly and during the day-long battle he made division-sized counterattacks, exhausted all of his reserves, and looked for opportunities to seize the offensive."
After 12 hours, it would seem reasonable to suggest that both sides would have had enough and would have been exhausted to the point where they could fight…
Armstrong, M.V. (2008). Unfurl Those Colors! McClellan, Sumner, and the Second Army Corps
in the Antietam Campaign. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press
Bledsoe, a.S. (2012, Spring). "The Homecircle: Kinship and Community in the Third Arkansas
Infantry, Texas Brigade, 1861-1865." The Arkansas Historical Quarterly, 71(1), 22-29.
Essentially little more than a last-ditch suicide run, Chamberlain's out-of-ammunition bayonet-charge captured a good portion of the Alabama brigade and turned the tide of attle of Gettysburg in favor of the Union.
It was the cry of men like Chamberlain to hold the line and orders like Vincent's, "Don't give an inch!" that made all the difference in the attle of Little Round Top and the conflict that continued at Gettysburg.
Cross, David F. "Mantled in Fire and Smoke," America's Civil War, 4 (Jan. 1992): 39-
rann, James R. "Defense of Little Round Top." America's Civil War, November 1999,
Goellnitz, Jenny. "Strong Vincent: The Hero of the attle of Little Round Top." 2010,
Henning, Jeff. "Spiritual Lessons We Learn from Great Military attles of History."
JeffsOpinion, 2009, http://jeffsopinions.blogspot.com/2009/06/spiritual-lessons-from-little-round-top.html
Lee, Robert E. "Letter to CSA President Jefferson Davis." The American Civil War:
The attle of Gettysburg,…
Cross, David F. "Mantled in Fire and Smoke," America's Civil War, 4 (Jan. 1992): 39-
Brann, James R. "Defense of Little Round Top." America's Civil War, November 1999,
Still, urnside did not make use of his possibilities and therefore assumed the Confederate Army's position. Taking into account the limited visibility, the fog and the conditions in the area, mistakes were inevitable. Therefore, his decision not to take full advantage of his available resources also proved important for the outcome of the battle.
Finally, another major element that contributed to the failure of the Fredericksburg campaign was the confusion of the orders given, especially by urnside. Most often, they were rather ambiguous and could be easily interpreted. For instance, "urnside issued his attack orders early on the morning of December 13. They called for an assault against Jackson's corps by Major General William . Franklin's Left Grand Division to be followed by an advance against Marye's Heights by Major General Edwin V. Sumner's Right Grand Division." (United States, Dept. Of Interior, 2006) Therefore, according to his orders, the attack…
Burnside, Ambrose. Fredericksburg Order of Battle. Army of the Potomac. The Official Records of the War of The Rebellion 1862. 12 November. http://www.civilwarhome.com/aopfredericksburg.htm
Burnside, Ambrose. Report of Maj. Gen. E. Ambrose Burnside, U.S. Army, commanding Army of the Potomac, Battle of Fredericksburg. The Official Records of the War of The Rebellion. 1862. 12 November 2006. http://www.civilwarhome.com/burnside.htm
Gallagher, Gary. The Fredericksburg Campaign. Decisions on the Rappahannock. North Carolina: UNC Press, 1995.
Lee, Robert E. Report of General Robert E. Lee, C.S. Army, Commanding Army of Northern Virginia, Battle of Fredericksburg. The Official Records of the War of The Rebellion 1862. 12 November. http://www.civilwarhome.com/leeantietam.htm
battle fort Sumter. I attaching information I researched .
The Battle of Fort Sumter has a particular significance in the history of the United States because it represented the first battle of the Civil War, the bloodiest war in the history of the country. It marked the point in which the battle for the union of the United States, as we know it today, was started.
The battle did not only represent a turning point in the history of the country but at the same time it established the grounds on which the issue of the secessionist states of the South would prove the point of breaking from the Union and the way in which Abraham Lincoln, the president at that time managed the situation.
The historical background behind the battle of the Fort Sumter is rather clear and focuses on the desire of the Southern states to break away…
US History.org. "33a. Fort Sumter." 2013, Available at http://www.ushistory.org/us/33a.asp
US Dept. Of State. " The Blockade of Confederate Ports, 1861-1865," 2913, available at http://history.state.gov/milestones/1861-1865/Blockade
Smithonian.org, "Fort Sumter: The Civil War Begins" 2011, Available at http://www.smithsonianmag.com/history-archaeology/Fort-Sumter-The-Civil-War-Begins.html?c=y&page=5
attle of ristoe Station led many to question the Confederacy's grasp of tactics as it was a strategic blunder. In many respects, it confirmed assumptions made after the battle of Gettysburg that the leadership of the Army of Northern Virginia's officer corps was not infallible. It is the principle battle of the ristoe campaign, one in which General Lee attempted to separate the Army of the Potomac from its supply lines and prevent the North from sending more troops to Georgia to make inroads into the Confederate interior. On October 14, A.P. Hill's corps stumbled on two Corps of the retreating Union army at ristoe Station and attacked without proper reconnaissance. In fact, his opponents were Union soldiers of the II Corps, that lay to his right. elieving re-enforcement troops to be close at hand, Hill ordered Henry Heth's division to attempt to breach General Warren's well-fortified line behind the…
Downey, Fairfax. The Guns at Gettysburg. New York: D. McKay, 1958. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=6839287
Draper, John William. History of the American Civil War. Vol. 2. New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1867. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=14877569
Robin Higham, and Steven E. Woodworth, eds. The American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1996. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=1712535
Hosmer, James Kendall. Outcome of the Civil War, 1863-1865. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1907. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=9901102
The American Civil War (1861-1865)
The American Civil War was the war between the southern and northern regions of the country, wherein the main conflict that was contested were the continued practice and legalization of black slavery. As the war broke out, the two factions that were created for the war were the United States of America or Union and the Confederate States of America or the Confederacy.
The war had numerous battles in various areas of the country; the first was the Battle of Shiloh in Tennessee 1862. In this battle, the Confederates carried an offensive attack against the Union forces, headed by General A. Johnston. However, Johnston's death during battle halted the war, as the command of the forces was transferred to General Beauregard. This short period of ceasefire allowed the Union to effectively create a defense strategy, eventually driving out the Confederates to Mississippi. Another…
Other key battles fought between the Union and Confederates was the Battle of Bull Run in June 1862, wherein the Confederates won the battle after it offensively attacked the Union forces in Virginia, specifically, in Manassas. Right after the Battle of Bull Run, the Battle of Antietam in Maryland was one of the major battles that determined the Union's success in the Civil War. This battle became significant for both factions because it ultimately determined whether the Confederates were capable of handling and controlling the northern region. For the Union, meanwhile, this battle was crucial in that it determined whether the Union was able to defend its territory, as well as fight for control of the southern region as well. Thus, the battle involved numerous casualties and deaths; though the battle did not determine who won the conflict, the Confederates' failure to capture and gain control of the territory determined the Union's capability to control its region. Due to the battle of Antietam, succeeding battles between the Union and Confederates showed the former as being more aggressive; the battles of Perryville, Kentucky and Fredericksburg, Virginia showed Union success and eventual conflict among the Confederate leaders.
From this pattern of battle victories by the Union forces and considerable support from the Administration, the Civil War was immediately won by the North. The Confederates' failure to capture Washington D.C. proved that indeed, the war was already won by the Union forces.
The Civil War had caused detriment to both the northern and southern regions of the country. Human casualties significantly affected both regions, while economic loss from the Union was estimated at $1 billion, while the Confederates, $2 billion. However, the war also benefited American society, especially its marginalized sectors, such as women and black slaves. Black slaves helped the Union efforts in the war and claimed their freedom after it, thereby legally abolishing black slavery practice as well as social discrimination against them. Women, meanwhile, assumed a significant role during the war, serving as nurses, government employees, and manufacturing employees as the male population participated in the war.
inning the Civil ar
The American Civil ar is considered the most costly of all the wars fought by this nation in terms of the human lives that were lost and the casualties which left young men mutilated, amputated, and barely able to carry on. Approximately 750,000 young men died by the war's end either from wounds inflicted in battle or from infection and lack of sanitation in hospitals.[footnoteRef:1] At the end, to warring sides were once again united as a single nation rather than two countries torn apart by ideological differences. Four years of bloodshed and violence officially ended at Appomattox Court House in Northern Virginia when Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Union General Ulysses S. Grant. It is believed that the Union won the war because the nation was reunified; however this assumption is based on the belief that there can ever be a winner in…
Alexander, Bevin. How the South Could Have Won the Civil War: the Fatal Errors that Led to Confederate Defeat. New York, NY: Crown Publishers, 2007.
Civil War Trust, "Robert E. Lee." Last modified 2011. Accessed November 14, 2012.
Covert, Thomas M. "To his Wife." Stafford Court House, VA. 1863.
Robert E. Lee was a significant figure in history and his actions impacted history in many ways. Lee is considered to be among other things, a great solider. He was also an ideal strategist and his decisions did lead to implications that can be seen today. Perhaps the most significant of his actions was choosing to support the Confederates. For example, had he decided to side with the North, the Civil ar might have lasted less than a year. In addition, Lee's actions had a ripple effect on the Emancipation Proclamation as well as the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments. His life is a constant reminder of how individuals can shape history.
Robert E. Lee was born on January 19, 1807 in Virginia. Lee wanted to follow in his father's footsteps and serve in the military and due to financial reasons, ended up joining est Point in 1825. There he proved…
Bailey, Thomas and Kennedy, David.
The American Pageant. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1994.
Norton, Mary Beth, et al. A People and a Nation. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. 1990.
Murrin, John, et al. Liberty Equality Power: A History of the American People. New York: Harcourt Brace College Publishers. 1999.
Instead of continuing the campaign, where he had an advantage, McClellan demanded reinforcements, and the campaign missed a golden opportunity to take the capital. McClellan blamed the mishap on the inability of Union troops to join him on the peninsula to aid in the attack, because they were engaged in the Battle of the Shenandoah Valley in the west, but many doubt this, feeling McClellan was simply afraid to attack.
In the Battle of Seven Pines, McClellan split his army into two positions on either side of the Chickahominy iver. General Johnston's attack could have wiped out at least half the Union forces on one side of the river, but the attack was complicated and confusing, poorly executed, and the Union forces repelled the ebels. The battle also brought about the command of obert E. Lee, who replaced Johnston who was wounded during the battle. This would give the South…
McPhearson, J.M. (2001). Ordeal by fire: The Civil War and reconstruction. New York: McGraw Hill.
Even "Porter Alexander, Lee's ordnance chief and one of the most perceptive contemporary observers of Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia, called his decision to stand at Antietam 'the greatest military blunder that Gen. Lee ever made'" (Owens 2004). Historians are divided as to the real purpose behind the Maryland campaign, which seems like an "isolated maneuver, another manifestation of Lee's innate aggressiveness as a commander. Some have gone so far as to suggest that Lee's forays into Union territory were undertaken primarily to maintain his claim on scarce Confederate resources that might have been used to greater strategic purpose in the est" (Owens 2004).
hether a demoralization strategy or an effort merely to show Confederate aggression, the focus on Lee in most historians' analysis shows how Lee dominated this conflict, and defined the terms of the battle. Thus, even if Lee acted unwisely, he was clearly 'in control,'…
The beginning of the American Civil War. (2009). BBC. Retrieved February 22, 2009. http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A3245140
Bleeding Kansas 1853-1861. (2009). Africans in America. PBS. Retrieved February 22, 2009. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2952.html
Faust, Patricia. (2005, March 26). The Anaconda Plan. Historical Times Encyclopedia of the Civil War. Retrieved from Strategy and Tactics: Civil War Home on February 22, 2005 at http://www.civilwarhome.com/anacondaplan.htm
Owens, Mackubin T. (2004, September). September 17, 1862: High tide of the Confederacy?
Senator Douglas created the Kansas and Nebraska territories as a way to appease both sides of the slavery issue, but this action resulted in increased tensions and hostility. Do you think the problems that resulted from creating these territories could have been prevented? If so, how? If not, why not?
The problems that resulted from the creation of the Kansas and Nebraska territories could not have been prevented because by 1854, the nation was already divided by the slavery question and tensions were high. There was more at stake than merely the question of whether or not blacks should be free and in fact for most people, on either side of the debate, personal and business interests were what really mattered, not the morality of making slaves out of fellow human beings.
As the United States expanded westward, controversy swirled as citizens debated whether new territories should be…
Kennedy, D.M., Cohen, L., & Bailey, T.A. (2010). The American Pageant. AP Edition.
Schultz, K. (2011). HIST: Volume 2. Independence, KY: Cengage
James Longstreet, January 9, 1821 -- January 2, 1904, was one of the foremost generals of the American Civil ar, who later enjoyed a successful post-war career working as a diplomat and administrator for the government of his former enemies.
Longstreet was born in Edgefield District, South Carolina, grew up in Augusta, Georgia, and at the age of twelve, his father died and the family moved to Somerville, Alabama.
In 1838, he was appointed to the United States Military Academy by the state of Alabama, and graduated from est Point in 1842, just in time to serve with distinction in the Mexican ar and rise to the rank of major.
In June 1861, he resigned from the U.S. Army to join with the Confederacy during the Civil ar.
Already highly regarded as an officer, Longstreet was immediately appointed as a brigadier general in the Confederate Army, and after fighting at…
popular films, The Patriot and Glory to discuss and evaluate leadership illustrations. The writer focuses on the leadership qualities in each film. The writer then explores the differences and similarities between the two especially when it comes to leadership. There were six sources used to complete this paper.
Most movie goers will agree that the silver screen productions that they go to view have a theme. The theme may be obvious and blatant, or the theme can be nothing more than an undertone that runs through the storyline. The themes are not always evidenced immediately, but are savored only after one has been able to enjoy the film and digest its more obvious elements and truths. Two popular movies provide a theme of leadership. Leadership is a broad-based topic of discussion in many arenas today, as it is possible to display and recognize leadership in many different ways. Leadership is…
The Patriot http://www.variagate.com/patriot.htm
The Patriot and Glory http://www.ashbrook.org/publicat/oped/owens/00/patriot.html
The main causes of the war relied in the issue of slavery as well as the right of the states to be part of a federal entity with equal rights and voices. The implications for this war were enormous as it provided a different future for the colonies and for the U.S. As a whole.
The main cause of the war was, as stated, the issue of slavery. In this sense, the Mexican war played an important role. It pointed out the importance of the slavery issue even in an apparently international situation. The Wilmot Proviso is essential in this way. Thus, it represented an additional act to a bill that enabled the U.S. To satisfy the financial needs of Mexico. The act in itself however was not passed because it pointed out the fact that none of the territories acquired during the Mexican war should be opened to slavery;…
Africans in America. The Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Act. 2007.Available at http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4p2951.html
Caughey, John Walton. The California gold rush. University of California Press: Berkeley, 1975.
Civil Rights Act of 1866. Historycentral.com. 2000. Available at http://www.historycentral.com/documents/civilrightsact.html
Cornell University Law School. "13th Amendment." United States Constitution. 2010. Available at http://topics.law.cornell.edu/constitution/amendmentxiii
orn in 1826, George . McClellan served as an officer in the U.S. Army. He was also a politician who became a major general at the time of the Civil War from 1861-1865 as well as a railroad president. In 1861, he was in command of the Army of Potomac, which he organized. McClellan also served the Union Army as the general-in-chief for a short time. He was very popular among his men, but was reluctant to make strong attacks on the Confederacy, despite having an advantage due to the number of men in his army. This brought differences between him and President Abraham Lincoln[footnoteRef:1]. When the Seven Days attle came to an end in 1862, McClellan's Peninsula Campaign fell apart. He was unable to defeat the Confederate Army of Robert E at the attle of Antietam at a later time of the same year. His extremely cautious…
Bay. "Sherman's March to the Sea: Total Impact Warfare." Creaters. 2014. Accessed May 16, 2016. https://www.creators.com/read/austin-bay/11/14/shermans-march-to-the-sea-total-impact-warfare .
Civil War Traveler. "North Carolina Civil War the Carolinas Campaign." Accessed May 16, 2016. http://www.civilwartraveler.com/EAST/NC/CarolinasCampaign.html .
History. "George Mcclellan." Accessed May 16, 2016. http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/george-b-mcclellan .
History. "Robert E. Lee." Accessed May 16, 2016. http://www.history.com/topics/american-civil-war/robert-e-lee .
student's position / answer question. It - (3-5) complete sentences, including thesis statement essay. The, , fourth paragraphs body paragraphs.
The evolution of slavery before and during the Civil ar
There was initially much controversy regarding the Civil ar, as people had trouble whether it was precisely meant to end slavery or if it was meant to ensure that Northern states could extend their authority to the south. However, the battle of Antietam provided Northerners with the opportunity to observe that they could emphasize the conflict's role as a tool that would put an end to slavery. People both in the north and in the south of the Union were well-acquainted with the fact that slavery was wrong, but the fact that the industry generated large profits prevented most them from getting actively involved in fighting the concept until the start of the Civil ar. Northern states realized that a…
Chamberlain, Craig, "Emancipation proclamation only one piece in ending slavery, historian says," Retrieved October 30, 2012, from the News Bureau Illinois Website: http://news.illinois.edu/news/12/0912emancipation_proclamation_BruceLevine.html
Wade, Linda R., "Slavery and the Civil War," (Slavery and the Civil War)
McPherson also points out that following the Union victory at Laurel Hill, McClellan was given the responsibility of training the newly-named Army of the Potomac at Washington, D.C. Upon arriving in the city, McClellan "found no army to command, only a mere collection of regiments, perfectly raw and dispirited... " He then "took hold with a firm hand to reorganize and train these troops" which demonstrates his excellent skills as an organizer and administrator, two very important traits for a general. In response, national newspapers hailed McClellan as "the man to save his country... And talked of him as the next President." This praise "went to his head and came to regard himself" as a master over Lincoln and every other high-ranking military officer. McPherson refers to this as McClellan's "Messiah complex" which seems quite accurate, especially since McClellan said to Lincoln that "I can do it all" in…
George McClellan." (2007). Internet. Retrieved April 14, 2008 at http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USACWmcclellan.htm.
Guelzo, Allen C. (2004). Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation: The End of Slavery in America. New York: Simon & Schuster.
McPherson, James M. (1993). Ordeal by Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction.
New York: McGraw-Hill Companies.
When we think of the defining battles of American history the image that comes to mind is likely to be battles like Lexington or Antietam - conflicts in which land soldiers played the most important roles. But the history of the United States would have been very different indeed had not the U.S. military proved to be as effective - and as innovative - as it was. Jack Sweetman, in his. American Naval History: 1775 to Present (2nd edition) discusses the key role that the U.S. Navy has played from the War of Independence through the current conflicts in the Gulf, listing the key events of in which the U.S. seagoing forces have been engaged in chronological order. The first edition was published in 1984; this current edition includes information from the naval engagements (including both the U.S. Navy and the Marine Corps) that have occurred since that…
What was the war's bloodiest day? Was it Gettysburg? No. It occurred in September, 1862, at Antietam Creek in Maryland, when 22,700 soldiers died. "[General] Lee "hoped to win decisively...but the Union army prevailed."
Meantime, the Battle of Gettysburg, July 1 through July 3, 1863, was the bloodiest battle of the war. It was the "most famous and most important Civil War Battle... [General Lee] believed his own [rebel] army was invincible..." Potter asserts. But in fact the Confederates suffered an estimated 28,000 casualties (out of 75,000 men in battle) and the Union lost 23,000 out of 88,000 - albeit, the Union won the battle. Doing the math one comes up with around 51,000 deaths on that blood-drenched, corpse-cluttered battlefield.
On July 1 and July 2, 1863, the Confederate army had gotten the best of the fighting, but Friday, July 3, 1863, would be another day, and would end quite…
The decisive moment in the Virginia theater came down to this: on the first day of the ilderness, the new commander Grant stood behind the line and met Union troops that had been routed. Rather than ordering them to return to ashington as McClellan might have, admitting defeat, he merely sent them back down a transverse road to attack at another point. All that was left was a battle of attrition which the South could never hope to win.
Ambrose Bierce was one of the leading American literary figures of his generation, approaching the rank of his contemporary, Mark Twain. He was the only first class author to fight in the Civil ar and to write extensively about it in both fiction and non-fiction genres. He enlisted as a private a few days after Fort Sumter fell and served until wounded in early 1865, reaching the rank of major. Decorated…
Bierce, Ambrose. n. d. "The Nature of War," in Russell Duncan and David J. Klooster, eds. 2002. Phantoms of a Blood-Stained period: the Complete Civil War Writings of Ambrose Bierce. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 309-10.
Elmer Ellsworth and the Zouave Craze. 2000. http://220.127.116.11/craze.html (Accessed Apr. 26, 2008).
Famous American Duels. 2005. http://www.law.gwu.edu/Burns/rarebooks/exhibits/duel_american.htm (Accessed Apr. 26, 2008).
Keegan, John. 1987. The Mask of Command. New York: Viking.
In 1903, groundbreaking national defense legislation hiked up the role of the United States National Guard as a reserve force for the U.S. Army. In fact, all this legislation did was render legitimate the purpose of the Guard as it was used since 1776. In World War I, which the U.S. entered in 1917, the National Guard made up an incredible 40% of the U.S. combat divisions in France; in World War II, National Guard units were among the first to deploy overseas and the first to fight.
In essence, the Guard has long been the backbone of the United States military, but only in 1903, finally, did it get at least Congressional recognition and appropriation for its roles in all major United States conflicts.
The purpose of the Ohio National Guard was particularly notable during the War of 1812. After receiving statehood in 1803, Ohio continued the law creating…
Ohio National Guard. 2004. A brief history.
Snook, David. 2004. History of the Iowa National Guard. Iowa National Guard.
NGB. 2004. About The National Guard. The National Guard Board.
Baker, Bonnie. 1999. The Origins of the Posse Comitatus. Air and Space Power Chronicles, Nov. 1, 1999.
I hope all is well with you and your family. It's been a while since I've written; forgive me as I've been busy with school, work and life in general. Over the past few weeks, I've become quite interested in the life and triumphs of Clara Barton, a 19th century nurse, teacher and pioneer who was by my account, a woman way ahead of her time. Clara Barton is a true hero, this letter is to give you a glimpse of her life and successes and how she contributed to nursing as we know it today. During Ms. Bartons' era women were largely shut out of working in certain professions or if they were allowed to work at all -- they were not allowed to climb the ladder to be promoted to other positions. There also lacked an institution that provided aid to those affected by disaster.…
Ardalan, C. (2010). Clara Barton's 1898 Battles in Cuba: A Reexamination of Her Nursing Contributions. Florida Atlantic Comparative Studies Journal, 12, 1-20.
Maikell-Thomas, B. "Discovered Historical Documents Uncover The First Official Missing Persons Investigator, Clara Barton" National Association of Investigative Specialists. http://www.pimall.com/nais/n.barton.html
Tooker, J. (2007). Antietam: Aspects of Medicine, Nursing and the Civil War. Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association, 118, 215-223.
A further crucial aspect is the way in which the media covered the war. Media coverage was extensive and brought the horror and the reality of war into the ordinary American home as never before. Another aspect was the emergence of the " new left" element in the country which was critical not only of the war but of the way that the society was being run and administered in general. The site provides some insightful background on this aspect. "The Vietnam War was unprecedented for the intensity of media coverage -- it has been called the first television war -- as well as for the stridency of opposition to the war by the so-called "New Left." (Vietnam War)
As mentioned, stress and trauma and its after-effects were largely ignored in veterans who returned home after the war. However, more recently this condition has become known as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.…
Vietnam War. Aug 1, 2006. http://www.vietnam-war.info/history/