Bay Of Pigs Essays (Examples)

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America and the Bay of

Words: 1614 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77940580



One of the best points is brought forth by Higgins, who writes that an estimated force of 1500 men were sent to take on no less than 25,000 Cubans (Higgins 1987). "In the end, of approximately 1300 men who actually landed on the beaches from the Brigade, almost 1200 were captured and about 100 killed in combat (Higgins 149). The Brigade, if they failed, were expected to escape into the protected areas that connected to the Bay of Pigs; when in fact those areas, the conditions of the terrain, the poor training and preparation of the Brigade, made such escape impossible (Higgins 149).

Years later, declassified papers and tapes from the hite House would lend insight into the fiasco, but not clarity. One thing that was evidenced from the hite House tapes is that the Bay of Pigs continued to be a source of humiliation and annoyance to President Kennedy…… [Read More]

Works Cited www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105514152

Blight, James G. And Peter Kornbluh, eds. 1999. Politics of Illusion: The Bay of Pigs Invasion Reexamined. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105514456.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24098536

Chomsky, Noam. 1993. Rethinking Camelot: JFK, the Vietnam War, and U.S. Political Culture. Boston: South End Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=24098683.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=105410509
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Monterey Bay the Environment Has

Words: 4298 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93293655

This entity follows the California Clean Air Act and the Federal Clean Air Act so that it is responsible for air monitoring, permitting, enforcement, long-range air quality planning, regulatory development, and education and public information activities with regard to air pollution.

A more recent concern has developed as the first cruise ship to enter Monterey ay since 1966 caused environmental groups to demand increased protection for marine sanctuaries and to increase regulation of the cruise ship industry. The water around Monterey ay has also been affected by sewage spills at local beaches, leading to viral and bacterial contamination. In 2000, four Monterey County beaches were closed because of sewage spills, and twenty-five warning advisories were issued. In 2001, there was one beach closure and eleven advisories. It has also been found that there is inadequate storm pipe maintenance in cities on the Monterey peninsula.

The California Ground Squirrel is a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Burde, John H. And George a. Feldhamer. Mammals of the National Parks. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005.

Environmental Impact Analysis." San Benito County 2005 RTP EIR (2005).

Castillo, Edward D. A Short Overview of California Indian History (1998). http://www.nahc.ca.gov/califindian.html.

Cato, Paisley. "Spermophilus beecheyi." San Diego Natural History Museum (2007),  http://www.sdnhm.org/fieldguide/mammals/sper-bee.html .
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Judgment in Managerial Decision Making

Words: 682 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11843591

A year later, Soviet's premier in collaboration with Cuba installed nuclear missiles on the Cuban island, a few miles from the U.S. This decision triggered the Missile Crisis in Cuba and many global leaders feared the possibility of a nuclear war (Blight & Kornbluh, 2007).

Focalism / focusing illusion played a part in this failure

As evidenced above, Kennedy's reign offers potent examples of the psychological theory about flawed focusing illusion (group decision-making). Because the group culture overruled the internal agreement, members became unrealistic. In this case, the products of focusing illusions played a part in the failure of the invasion. President Kennedy's poor decision-making practices led to insufficient solutions to the issues of the invasion. Because the president and his advisors limited their discussions to few alternative courses of action, they disregarded further consideration of alternatives, which could have been worthy to the course. The team ignored all viable…… [Read More]

References

Blight, J.G., & Kornbluh, P. (2007). Politics of illusion: The Bay of Pigs invasion reexamined. Boulder, Colo: Lynne Rienner Pub.

Craughwell, T.J., & Phelps, M.W. (2008). Failures of the presidents: From the Whiskey Rebellion and War of 1812 to the Bay of Pigs and war in Iraq. Beverly, MA: Fair Winds Press.

Higgins, T. (2009). The perfect failure: Kennedy, Eisenhower, and the CIA at the Bay of Pigs. New York: Norton
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Kennedy's Legacy What John F

Words: 992 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26383576

In this Kennedy appeared to be following up on his anti-Communist speech with anti-Communist actions. but, the level of actual commitment was clearly not there. Kennedy had the entire United States military at his disposal. All he had to do was use them. but, clearly, he did not have the stomach to follow it all the way through. Kennedy wanted to appear strong but did not want to have to be strong - image meant everything.

Operation Mongoose continued the entire Cuban situation. It relied upon covert use of the CIA to make any and all attempts necessary to overthrow the Cuban government. On the heels of the Bay of Pigs failure, Kennedy attempted another poorly conceived attempt to rid himself of Castro. The operation essentially failed before it could possibly begin. Time after time, plans were brought out to be replaced by others. And those plans were impossibly strange…… [Read More]

References

LeFeber, Walter. America, Russia and the Cold War: 1945-2002. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.

Merrill, Dennis & Paterson, Thomas G Major Problems in American Foreign Relations: Since 1914. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005.
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History International Relations

Words: 2464 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50664711

United tates and Fidel Castro's Cuba, now more than forty years old, is still a source of great political and moral contention. The collapse of the oviet Union and, with it, the end of the Cold War, signaled a change in the implications of the type of socialism governing Cuba. The alleged threats that had hovered so close to the continental U.. throughout these paranoid and dangerous days of ideological impasse were now neutralized by the dismantling of the infrastructure that had brandished them. Cuba, once a unique and remote ally to the U...R., served as an outpost for anti-American hostilities and a potential vessel through which to deliver the devastating blows that may have turned the Cold War hot, now is an isolated bastion for ideals abandoned by most of the world. In the Western Hemisphere, they are alone, paying for what most American citizens will tell you is…… [Read More]

Sources can be found and printed at the following sites:

Source 1. http://www.state.gov/www/regions/wha/cuba/policy.html

Source 2. http://travel.state.gov/cuba.html

Source 3.  http://qbanrum.tripod.com/cuba-1.html 

Source 4.  http://isla.igc.org/Features/Cuba/cuba2.html
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Cuban Missile

Words: 5521 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6435999

Cuban Missile Crisis

There are two views, as with any conflict or issue, on the reasons and reactions of the major players in the Cuban Missile Crisis that took place at the end of October 1962. The crisis pitted two world powers, the United States and the Soviet Union, against each other in what many describe as the closest the world has come to World War III and a nuclear holocaust.

In order to understand the Crisis, it is important to first understand the events leading up to the crisis. This paper examines the background of the crisis from the Cuban/Soviet point-of-view in depth. Toward the end of the paper, the United States' perspective of the crisis is discussed with regard to what is described previously from the perspective of supporters of the Castro regime and the now collapsed Soviet Union.

ackground

After the devastation that the bombs left in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders," 20 November 1975. The National Security Archives. 147.

Bay of Pigs: Forty Years After," Chronology, National Security Archives (Cuban Problems 11 December 1959), 24 June 2004. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/bayofpigs/chron.html.

Bay of Pigs." Cuban History: Missile Crisis. Marxists.org. 25 June 2003. http://www.marxists.org/history/cuba/subject/missile-crisis/index.htm.

Crisis de Octubre: Cronologia." Informe Especial: 1960 and 1961. Centro de Estudios Sobre America.
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Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 Was a

Words: 2422 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63580664

Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 was a major cold war confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union. Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev decided to install ballistic missiles in Cuba although they had made a promise to the U.S. that they would not (Chayes). hen the U.S. discovered the construction of missile launching sites, President John F. Kennedy publicly denounced the Soviet actions, demanding that they remove the nuclear missiles from Cuba.

hen this did not work, Kennedy imposed a naval blockade on Cuba, threatening that the U.S. Days would meet any missile launched from Cuba with a full-scale retaliatory attack later, Soviet ships carrying missiles to Cuba went home. Khrushchev soon agreed to dismantle the missile sites. The U.S. ended its blockade within a month, and shortly after, all missiles and bombers were removed from Cuba.

Introduction

In 1962, the United States, the Soviet Union and the rest of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brugioni, Dino A. Eyeball to Eyeball: The Inside story of the Cuban Missile

Chayes, A. The Cuban Missile Crisis. Oxford University Press, 1974.

Crisis. Random House, 1991.

Hersh, Seymour. The Dark Side of Camelot. Little, Brown & Company, 1998.
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Cuban Missile Crisis

Words: 1650 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57016108

American President John F. Kennedy's handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis played an important role in averting nuclear war between the Soviets and Americans. hile critics (often rightly) accuse Kennedy of making mistakes, including creating the conditions for the crisis in his mismanagement of the Bay of Pigs, his overall performance during the crisis was helpful. Kennedy's choice to avoid a military attack on Cuba was especially important, as was his decision to negotiate diplomatically with Soviet President Nikita Khrushchev.

JFK and the Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962 was sparked by American president John F. Kennedy's discovery that the Soviet Union had nuclear missiles in nearby communist Cuba. President Kennedy learned of the buildup of nuclear weapons, which included the installation of offensive nuclear missiles, on October 16th, 1962. At that date, the Soviet Union's nuclear missiles in Cuba were just 90 miles from U.S. territory,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blanton, Thomas S. The Cuban Missile Crisis: 40 Years Late. Washingtonpost.com with Thomas S. Blanton, Executive Director, National Security Archive. Washingtonpost.com,

Wednesday, Oct. 16, 2002; 11 a.m. ET. Accessed October 26, 2005.

http://discuss.washingtonpost.com/zforum/02/sp_world_blanton101602.htm

Dyer, Gwynne. The Enigma of John F. Kennedy, 10 November 2003. Accessed October 26,
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Dark Side of Camelot by

Words: 879 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48279308



6. p. 8 -- When Joseph Kennedy made an enemy of FDR, he made an enemy of J. Edgar Hoover. This is important because Hoover intensely disliked John F. Kennedy, and this may partly explain it.

7. p. 92 -- reporters noticed that Kennedy was spending a lot of money in state primaries but could not prove vote fraud. This was a recurring pattern in Kennedy's campaign to get elected.

8. p. 06 -- Kennedy apparently did have an affair with Marilyn Monroe. Although it was well-known among a number of people, only rumors made it into the media.

9. p. 42 -- the Chicago Mafia helped get Kennedy elected president. This shows that politics, including Kennedy politics, were still quite corrupt by this election.

0. p. 203 -- "Taking out" Castro was always a part of the "Bay of Pigs" invasion plan. This at least partly explains why Castro's…… [Read More]

16. p. 326 -- Jacqueline was John Kennedy's second wife; he was married briefly to Durie Malcolm, a socialite. The family used its connections to remove records of the marriage from the Palm Beach County, Florida, courthouse.

17. p. 343 -- Kruschev knew about the Kennedy's plans to outs and/or assassinate Castro, and it was an important factor in Russia's choice to put missiles in Cuba. This demonstrates that what the public has been told about the Cuban missile crisis is a sanitized and incomplete version.

Hersh, Seymour M. The Dark Side of Camelot. New York: Little, Brown Y Co., 1997.
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Cuban Missile Crisis Policy Advice

Words: 2554 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25640028

Soviet missiles were only powerful enough to be launched against Europe but U.S. missiles were capable of striking the entire Soviet Union. In late April 1962, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev conceived the idea of placing intermediate-range missiles in Cuba. A deployment in Cuba would double the Soviet strategic arsenal and provide a real deterrent to a potential U.S. attack against the Soviet Union." (ThinkQuest Team, 1) This provides us with an imperative to undermine Khrushchev's conceptions either that we are indecisive or that we are unwilling to make the sacrifices implicated by a full-scale confrontation with the Soviets.

On the other hand, we must also strike a balance whereby these sacrifices are not necessary. Ultimately, it is our full understanding that the distinctions in the arms race between our tactical long-term abilities and superior stock of weapons and the Soviet Union's decidedly less capable and smaller stock do not constitute…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Divine, R.A. (1988). The Cuban Missile Crisis. Markus Wiener Publishers.

Dobbs, M. (2008). One Minute to Midnight: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and Castro on the Bring of Nuclear War. Random House.

Global Security (GS). (2008). Cuban Missile Crisis. Globalsecurity.org.

Paz, J.V. (1995). The Socialist Transition in Cuba: Continuity and Change in the 1990s. Social Justice, 22.
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Foreign Relations of the U S

Words: 3375 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80732255



A second lesson was found in Kennedy's management of the crisis. The basic lesson learned was that, in the midst of such a crisis, leaders need time away from the glare of the media to resolve their own thinking and communications, and they need the self-confidence to limit their objectives to only what is needed to resolve the crisis, not "win" it.

It is believed that the Soviet's lesson was that you can't mess with nuclear weapons. In other words, when it gets to the point that you know you might destroy millions of innocent people, that is the depth of fear that leaders must realize, confront, and not back away from. What they must do is back away from the unnecessary and catastrophic events their pride might trigger.

The lessons learned by European leaders were probably not good ones. Kennedy did not consult with them during this crisis. They…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barnett, R.J. "America in Vietnam: The Four Interventions (excerpted from the book: Intervention and Revolution)." 1968. thirdworldtraveler.com. 28 JUly 2009 .

Brenner, P. "The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962: Turning History on its Head." 2002. George Washington University. 29 July 2009 .

U.S. Dept. Of State. "Kennan and Containment, 1947." n.d. U.S. Department of State. 28 JUly 2009 .

"What ended the cold war?" 8 August 2003. Everything2.com. 28 July 2009 .
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John F Kennedy and the

Words: 4722 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70132838

" he spectacular effect achieved by the Russians therefore had a significant effect upon the minds of citizens around the globe (Dick, March 24).

he financial and political implications of the Apollo program became significant once the president made the decision to commit the United States to a Lunar landing. It was important to the president to set a goal that his country had a good chance of achieving before the Soviet Union. After a definite decision for the launch of the project was made, further important issues of politics and financing became deciding factors in the growth and development of the program.

he decision proved to be sound if the reaction of the nation could be used as a measure of effectiveness. he American imagination was captured, and they lent overwhelming support for Kennedy's decision to sponsor the moon landing. In the eyes of the nation, difficulty, expense and…… [Read More]

Transcript of Presidential Meeting in the Cabinet Room of the White House. Topic: Supplemental appropriations for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 21 November 1962.

Webb, James E. Letter to President Kennedy. October 29, 1962. NASA History

 http://history.nasa.gov/JFK-Webbconv/pages/james-letter.pdf .
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Crisis as Robert Kennedy Reveals

Words: 1066 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31211771

S. wanted Europe to respect its boundaries, but had no intention of respecting Europe's:

Imagine, Mr. President, what if we were to present to you such an ultimatum as you have presented to us by your actions. How would you react to it? I think you would be outraged at such a move on our part. And this we would understand…Our ties with the Republic of Cuba, as well as our relations with other nations, regardless of their political system, concern only the two countries between which these relations exist. And, if it were a matter of quarantine as mentioned in your letter, then, as is customary in international practice, it can be established only by states agreeing between themselves, and not by some third party. Quarantines exist, for example, on agricultural goods and products. However, in this case we are not talking about quarantines, but rather about much more…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Kennedy, Robert. Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis. NY: W.W.

Norton & Company, 1999. Print.

"Khruschev Letter to President Kennedy." Web. 10 Nov 2011.

Perkins, John. Confessions of an Economic Hit Man. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-
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Alpha 66 and Omega 7 Are Alpha

Words: 2156 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5637404

Alpha 66 and Omega 7

Are Alpha 66 and Omega 7 Domestic or International Organizations?

After Fidel Castro's evolutionary movement overthrew the Batista regime in Cuba and declared his country a Socialist nation allied with the Soviet Union -- the principle enemy of the United States at the time -- many Cubans opposed to Castro flocked to the United States. Many of these refugees and exiles were wealthy businessmen who were committed to overthrowing the Castro regime. The anti-Castro opposition by Cuban exiles took different forms, some of them advocating dialogue or diplomatic opposition, while others taking a hardliner position, engaging in militant activities (Garcia, 1998). The Cuban exile organizations known as Alpha 66 and Omega 7 were among the latter, resorting to violent activities inside and outside the United States, attacking persons and installations belonging to the Castro government and its allies as well as those in the United…… [Read More]

References

Bohning, D. (2005) The Castro Obsession: U.S. Covert Operations Against Cuba, 1959-1965. Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books, Inc.

Didion, J. (1987) Miami. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Garcia, M. (1998). Hardliners v. 'Dialogueros': Cuban Exile Political Groups and United States -- Cuba Policy. Journal of American Ethnic History, 17(4), 3. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Herman, E.S. (1982) The Real Terror Network: Terrorism in Fact and Propaganda. Boston: South End Press, 1982.
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Lessons Learned

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77734091

Disasters of the Twentieth Century

Most of the great disasters of the twentieth century became truly "great" precisely because there were not appropriate levels of planning or mitigation processes in place, and the San Francisco Fire of 1906 was no exception. Caused by an earthquake that disrupted what mitigation components that were a part of the city -- rupturing water lines to make fighting the fires all but impossible, ad breaking the city's alarm system to make warnings less effective -- San Francisco was nearly leveled by the two concurrent and directly related disasters that struck (Popular Mechanics, 2012). A lack of planning in the city's design made the buildings susceptible to the earthquake and the fire, with densely packed wooden structures and man-made ground both exacerbating the problem immensely (Popular Mechanics, 2012). With the mitigation systems compromised from the outset, there was little to be done.

The Spanish Flu…… [Read More]

References

JFK Library. (2012). The Bay of Pigs. Accessed 1 May 2012.  http://www.jfklibrary.org/JFK/JFK-in-History/The-Bay-of-Pigs.aspx 

Popular Mechanics. (2012). The top 10 worst disasters of the last century. Accessed 1 May 2012. http://www.popularmechanics.com/outdoors/survival/stories/10-disasters
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1962 Memo Recommending Presidential Action

Words: 1740 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62793215

(2) Blockade (Kennedy, .F., 1969), which would prevent the Soviet Union from carrying out its mission of establishing a Soviet missile base on the island of Cuba, and will send the message to the Soviet Union that they are attempting to cross the line where the United States can maintain a hands-off policy (Powell, Samantha, 2003, pp. 6-7). and, should the first two fail, (3) an air strike and invasion of the island wherein the United States will seize control of the island and work towards making it either a U.S. territory, or we will work to install a democratic government (Kennedy, .F., 1969).

These are the recommendations of this council.

eferences

Donald, .(dir) (2000), Thirteen Days (motion picture), Beacon Communications, USA.

Kennedy, .F., (1969) Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, New York.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=78888201

Powaski, .E. (1998). The Cold War…… [Read More]

References

Donald, R.(dir) (2000), Thirteen Days (motion picture), Beacon Communications, USA.

Kennedy, R.F., (1969) Thirteen Days: A Memoir of the Cuban Missile Crisis, W.W. Norton & Company, New York, New York.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=78888201

Powaski, R.E. (1998). The Cold War the United States and the Soviet Union, 1917-1991. New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved September 24, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=78888344
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Intelligence Community A History of

Words: 3041 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54262272

This would create a reactionary agency which, rather than gathering intelligence to the extension of its security, would approach what would come to be known as the 'containment theory,' using whatever resources and tactics were at its disposal to deflect against the spread of communism.

At its time, the 1947 Act would be seen as projecting considerable vision. As one conservative think-tank reports on this idea, "until fairly recently, CIA considered its appropriate time horizon to be fairly long. It was, I believe, generally longer than the focus of either the Defense Intelligence Agency or the State Department's Bureau of Intelligence and Research (INR). The Directorate of Intelligence made forecasts in some areas that went out 20 years, and collectors and analysts tried to anticipate events 'over the horizon' -- situations policymakers did not then know they were likely to be worrying about in the future. CIA did this because…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Answers. (2009). United States Intelligence, History. Answers Corp. Online at  http://www.answers.com/topic/united-states-intelligence-history 

Bush, G.W. (2002). The National Security Strategy of the United States of America. The White House.

Federation of American Scientists (FAS). (2008). A Framework for Reform of the U.S. Intelligence Community. Federation of American Scientists. Online at http://www.fas.org/irp/gentry/chapter2.html

Johnson, L.K. (2007). Strategic Intelligence. Greenwood Publishing Group.
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Assassination of John F Kennedy

Words: 1406 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29408550

Various versions of the conspiracy theories link the purported involvement of Giancana with Castro, Giancana with the CIA, and Oswald to one or the other, or to both. Finally, other conspiracy theories even linked then Vice

President Lyndon B. Johnson to the assassination plot, at least in terms of having been made aware of the operation in advance if not necessarily as a co-conspirator (Galanor,

1998).

Several specific individuals later emerged, providing information of their claimed involvement in the assassination conspiracy, including James Files and David Morales

(Benson, 1998). Files was linked to both the CIA after working as a former covert military operative in Laos as well as to organized crime through his association with Charles Nicoletti, a Mafia hitman operating in the Illinois area. Files specifically claimed to have been recruited by Nicoletti to act as a backup shooter positioned in the vicinity of the grassy knoll and…… [Read More]

References

Benson, M. (1998). Who's Who in the JFK Assassination: An a to Z. Encyclopedia.

New York: Citadel.

Galanor, S. (1998). Cover-Up. New York: Kestrel Books.

The President's Commission on the Assassination. (1992). The Warren Commission
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Death of President John F

Words: 620 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73973627

The Cold War defined the Kennedy administration, but did not sully the President's reputation as a solid leader. In fact, the way Kennedy handled the Bay of Pigs was criticized unduly. The President only reacted to common concerns that Communism was an immanent threat to the ideals of freedom, liberty and democracy. The involvement in the Vietnam War would become a continuation of an interventionist foreign policy that Kennedy supported only because it was considered the judicious approach to creating a better world after the Second World War. When Kennedy was assassinated, his Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson pursued a more aggressive strategy in the Far East than even Kennedy advocated. Kennedy remained a champion of American ideals: of labor union rights, of civil liberties, and social service.

As an applicant to University I not only seek to emulate President Kennedy but to surpass his political ideals by giving back…… [Read More]

One way John F. Kennedy changed American politics was through his legislation on civil rights. During the social revolutions taking place during the 1960s, John F. Kennedy did not resist the youth movement. Rather, he recognized the new ways of thinking that characterized youth culture in America. Young people became more enthusiastic about politics as a result of Kennedy's influence. Because Kennedy was relatively young compared with his colleagues, American youth could relate to him in ways they could not to his political opponents. The 1960 election earned Kennedy the office of president against his opponent Richard Nixon. Even though Nixon would go on to become President, Kennedy would have already proven himself a worthy leader and a champion of civil liberties.

Unfortunately Kennedy became embroiled in a fiasco of international conflict. The Bay of Pigs invasion and other clashes with Communism created political scandals even the charming Kennedy could not completely overcome. The Cold War defined the Kennedy administration, but did not sully the President's reputation as a solid leader. In fact, the way Kennedy handled the Bay of Pigs was criticized unduly. The President only reacted to common concerns that Communism was an immanent threat to the ideals of freedom, liberty and democracy. The involvement in the Vietnam War would become a continuation of an interventionist foreign policy that Kennedy supported only because it was considered the judicious approach to creating a better world after the Second World War. When Kennedy was assassinated, his Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson pursued a more aggressive strategy in the Far East than even Kennedy advocated. Kennedy remained a champion of American ideals: of labor union rights, of civil liberties, and social service.

As an applicant to University I not only seek to emulate President Kennedy but to surpass his political ideals by giving back to my community. Kennedy's interest in uplifting the downtrodden has inspired me. Whether or not his death was an accident, I intend to carry on his legacy as president by advocating the rights of the poor and of the working class. Kennedy knew first hand the scourge of prejudice. As a Catholic, Kennedy fought against deeply rooted biases that still linger in the 21st century. As a political leader in whatever capacity I can serve, I will also remain strong in the face of opposition like John F. Kennedy. Using his life as an example, I will give back to my community and to all other disenfranchised communities when I am entrusted with the ability and political power to do so. The University will offer the resources and networking opportunities to allow me and my schoolmates to achieve true social justice in the Kennedy tradition. Thank you for your consideration.
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Robert Kennedy Chair of the

Words: 1603 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90902123

The blockade will require the efforts of these military forces to identify and intercept and ship (or submarine) bound for Cuba and prevent it from reaching ports in Cuba. In addition, it would be advisable that once the blockade is instituted that high-level US. officials begin quiet negotiations with the Soviets in order to diffuse the crisis before it escalates. The removal of Soviet missile sites from Cuba could be countered with an offering to remove our own missile sites from an similarly strategically unimportant position in Europe (Alterman, 1997). Such a gesture would do little to affect the balance of power between the U.S. And the Soviets, would give the Soviets the false sense that they had "won" this conflict, and would show the world that the U.S. will respond forcefully when threatened by a foreign power.

orks Cited

Alterman, E. (1997, November 10). Profile in courage? The Nation,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alterman, E. (1997, November 10). Profile in courage? The Nation, 265(15), pp. 6-7.

Cuban missile crisis. (2000). The Columbia Encyclopedia. The Columbia University Press. 6th ed. p. 9980.

Manning, R. (1997, October 20). How close to the brink. Newsweek, 130(16), p. 18.

McComas, D. (1987, November 20). When the other guy blinked. Scholastic Update, 120(6), pp. 27-29.
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Kennedy and Flexible Response'so

Words: 2273 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11752300

The administration of J.F.K. determined that the mission and size of the U.S. advisory project must increase if the U.S.-backed government in Saigon was to survive and win the war. While some of Kennedy's cabinet advisors proposed a negotiated settlement for Vietnam similar to one that recognized Laos as a neutral nation, this was not to be. The administration had just suffered diplomatic setbacks and embarrassments in Berlin and Cuba. So that it did not repeat this, the covert military option was used, but unsuccessfully. The war continued to escalate, requiring more U.S. advisors and military and foreign aid. Unfortunately for the U.S., the covert operations to assist the South against North Vietnam escalated in the harassment and landing of covert forces until the U.S. Navy became embroiled in the Gulf of Tonkin incident that sealed the U.S. path to open military involvement in the conflict (ibid.).

Diplomatic options in…… [Read More]

References

Anderson, D.L. (1999). The military and diplomatic course of the vietnam war. Retrieved from  http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/vietnam/anderson.htm .

Kennedy considered supporting coup in south vietnam, august 1963. (2009, December 11). Retrieved

from http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB302/index.htm.

Lemnitzer, L. (1962). Operation northwoods. Retrieved from www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/news/20010430/doc1.pdf.
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Cuban Missile Crisis

Words: 2970 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46885298

Cuban Missile Crisis: Why we need more balance of power in the world.

Cuban Missile crisis in 1960s may raise a serious political question in retrospect i.e. should America be allowed to exist as the sole superpower and what could be the repercussions of such an existence? Now fifty years or so later, we are in a much better position to answer this question. United States or any other nation for that matter must not work as the sole superpower because it can cause many political upheaval as we recently witnessed. We will discuss the Cuban Missile crisis in detail but first we must establish that American history is fraught with events and wars that were fought on the false belief of America's superiority which made it an imperial power. Examples of these events include the Mexican-American War, the Spanish-American War and not to mention the current conflict with Iraq.…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Rothernberg. R.S. "Crisis Time." USA Today 130.2676 (2001)

Meagher. MR."In an Atmosphere of National Peril': The Development of John F. Kennedy's World View." Presidential Studies Quarterly 27.3 (1997):

Krenn ML. "Robert Weisbrot. Maximum Danger: Kennedy, the Missiles, and the Crisis of American Confidence." International Social Science Review (2002):

Nigro Jr. LJ. "High Noon in the Cold War: Kennedy, Khrushchev, and the Cuban Missile Crisis." Parameters 35.3 (2005)
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U S Intelligence in China the

Words: 4682 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99778763

"

The withdrawal was supposed to aid the Communists in controlling the areas vacated by the Japanese, who had succeeded in controlling vast portions of Manchuria.

Stalin's efforts were aimed at forcing "the GMD [Guomindang or Chinese Nationalist Party] to make economic concessions, to prevent a united China from allying with the United States, and to placate Washington on the international arena by giving in to American demands for withdrawal," but in actuality he not only laid the groundwork for the Communists' eventual victory, but also opened up a window for the possibility of a U.S.-Communist alliance that would have destabilized the Soviet Union's power; as will be seen, the United States failed to capitalize on this opportunity, but the fact remains that Stalin's withdrawal seems to have backfired.

Stalin's withdrawal was not directly aimed at ensuring a Communist victory, but rather was an attempt to destabilize the country so…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ashton, S.R. "Keeping a Foot in the Door: Britain's China Policy, 1945 -- 50." Diplomacy and Statecraft 15 (2004): 79-94.

Bjorge, Gary J. "The Third Chinese Revolutionary Civil War, 1945-49: An Analysis of Communist Strategy and Leadership." The Journal of Military History 74, no. 1 (2010):

297-9.

Boyd, James. "Japanese Cultural Diplomacy in Action: The Zenrin ky? okai in Inner Mongolia,
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Challenging the Beijing Consensus China Foreign Policy in the 21st Century

Words: 24240 Length: 60 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17194104

Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)

Structure of Chinese Foreign Policy

The "Chinese Model" of Investment

The "Beijing Consensus" as a Competing Framework

Operational Views

The U.S.-China (Beijing consensus) Trade Agreement and Beijing Consensus

Trading with the Enemy Act

Export Control Act.

Mutual Defense Assistance Control Act

Category B

Category C

The 1974 Trade Act.

The Operational Consequences of Chinese Foreign Policy

The World Views and China (Beijing consensus)

Expatriates

The Managerial Practices

Self Sufficiency of China (Beijing consensus)

China and western world: A comparison

The China (Beijing consensus)'s Policy of Trading Specialized Goods

Chapter 5

The versions of China (Beijing consensus)'s trade development

The China (Beijing consensus) Theory of Power Transition

eferences

Foreign Policy of China (Beijing consensus)

Chapter 1

Abbreviations

ACD arms control and disarmament

ACDA Arms Control and Disarmament Agency

ADB Asian Development Bank

ADF Asian Development Fund

APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

AF ASEAN [Association of Southeast…… [Read More]

References

Barnett, A.D. (1977). China (Beijing consensus) and the Major Powers in East Asia. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=34158088

Boorman, H.L., Eckstein, A., Mosely, P.E., & Schwartz, B. (1957). Moscow-Peking Axis: Strengths and Strains (1st ed.). New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=53424557

Sardesai, D.R. (1974). Chapter 6 India: A Balancer Power?. In Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power, Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.) (pp. 94-104). New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691923

Chawla, S., Gurtov, M., & Marsot, A. (Eds.). (1974). Southeast Asia under the New Balance of Power. New York: Praeger. Retrieved September 10, 2011, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14691822
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Kennedy's Presidency

Words: 1424 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12422979

JFK's Leadership

As that of any successful leader, Kennedy's leadership style is a complex combination of different qualities and characteristics. This paper will analyze several of them, as well as the leadership profile overall, with the purpose of understanding what made Kennedy an effective leader and whether this was indeed the case.

Hald-Mortensen (2007) looks at three different areas where Kennedy excelled and that contributed to making Kennedy an effective leader: vision, decision making and delegation. He points out, first of all, that Kennedy had vision, something essential for an effective leader. In practical terms, vision meant that he knew where the U.S. should end up in the future and molded his policy accordingly.

One such example of a clear vision for Kennedy was the space program and the Moon Project. The space program involved not only the vision that competition for the outer space would be the next area…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Barnes, John A. (2005). John F. Kennedy on Leadership: The Lessons and Legacy of a President. AMACOM

2. Hald-Mortensen, Christian, (2007). John F. Kennedy -- Leadership Qualities That Moved A Nation. Graduate Faculty of Graduate School of Public and International Affairs.

3. Sabato, Larry, (2013). Lead like John F. Kennedy. The Washington Post.
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How Was the Cold War Represented in Cinema

Words: 5793 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9347766

Cold War and Film

Generally speaking, the Cold War has been depicted as an era of spy games and paranoia in popular films from the 1960s to the present day, but the reality of the era was much more complex. The Cold War was a period of military and political tension from 1947 to 1991, or from the end of WW2 to the collapse of the Soviet Union, in which the "politics of war" masked the business and social agendas of multinationals and ideologues. The era was marked by myriad issues: East-West mistrust, proxy wars, espionage, the threat of nuclear war, domestic and foreign propaganda, the rise of the military-industrial complex and multinational corporations, assassinations, detente, de-colonization, new nationalism, neo-colonialism, the vying for control of resources, alliances (NATO, Warsaw Pact), and an inculcation of the "deep state." [footnoteRef:1] It can be divided into five basic periods: 1947-53, 1953-62, 1962-79, 1979-85,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dominik, Andrew, dir. Killing Them Softly. NY: Weinstein Company, 2012. Film.

Eliot, T.S. "Burnt Norton." The Four Quartets. Web. 10 May 2015.



Frankenheimer, John, dir. Seven Days in May DVD Commentary. LA: Warner Home
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Post WWII United States Military Strategy

Words: 3377 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72638079

American Way of War

Many people point to an American way of war. The author of this report will explore whether there is any content or credence to that statement. There are some common themes and trends when it comes to American wars and how they are fought. There has also been a lot of variance, even from war to war and in the same arenas. The class for which this essay is being completed focuses on the United States and its military history from 1945 to the present. Even with that tight of a window, the evolution and shifts that have happened in terms of how American has and has not fought wars has been massive. While some themes and trends regarding Americans and war have not changed all that much, many of the tactics, what is deemed acceptable, what is not deemed acceptable and so forth have changed…… [Read More]

Bibliography

2011. "MANUEL NORIEGA 1989-1990: Chasing Pure Evil." MHQ: Quarterly Journal Of Military History 24, no. 1: 28. MasterFILE Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed March 9, 2016).

Bariagaber, Assefaw. 1996. "The United Nations and Somalia." Journal Of Asian & African Studies (Brill) 31, no. 3/4: 162. Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed March 9, 2016).

Belloni, Roberto, and Francesco Strazzari. 2014. "Corruption in post-conflict Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo: a deal among friends." Third World Quarterly 35, no. 5: 855-871. Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost (accessed March 9, 2016).

Bin Abdel Aziz, Fahd. 1990. "Iraq invasion of Kuwait." Vital Speeches Of The Day 56, no. 22: 675. History Reference Center, EBSCOhost (accessed March 9, 2016).
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The US Military Intervention Reasons and Motives

Words: 507 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33501504

military has participated in military action both in Syria and in Turkey (among numerous other places) -- but these two separate interventions expose a single aim -- the destabilization of Assad, through direct support of mercenaries and through the direct assistance of Turkey, whose President Erdogan is a known collaborator with ISIS (a point which indicates that the world's "police" are still very active in pursuing courses of action which have two levels of objectives -- on the surface, the provision of a defense of democratic rights; below -- the attainment of American-Israeli-Saudi interests).

Action

In 2012, the U.S. deployed 400 troops along with 2 Patriot missile batteries to Turkey to serve as a defense of that country from Syrian attack.

Two years later, the U.S. military illegally entered into Syria (uninvited) to conduct operations against ISIS.

The ise of the Military-Industrial Complex: 3 aspects of U.S. history since 1865…… [Read More]

References

Gleijeses, P. (1995). Ships in the night: The CIA, the White House and the Bay of Pigs.

Journal of Latin American Studies, 27(1): 1-42.

Herrmann, R. (1986). The power of perceptions in foreign-policy decision making: Do

views of the Soviet Union determine the policy choices of American leaders? American Journal of Political Science, 30(4): 841-875.
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Dangerous Mismanagement

Words: 6133 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99577375

Intelligence Failures

In an ever increasingly complex governmental infrastructure, the importance of communication, mission and strategy are of the utmost importance. The Department of Defense (DOD) and all of its law enforcement agencies are in a pervasive struggle to attain both accurate and actionable intelligence in order to perform their duties to the best of their capabilities and intentions.

The purpose of this research paper is to explore the failure of the intelligence process due to extraneous levels of bureaucratic organization. This essay will attempt to explain the many failures of the Department of Defense law enforcement entities as a result of this type of organization.

In order to understand this argument, this essay will first look at the problem itself and try to identify the root cause of these failures. Past failures of intelligence gathering will be examined to help contextualize the argument and give credence to the idea…… [Read More]

References

Chesney, R. (2011). Military-Intelligence Convergence and the Law of Title 10/Title 50 Debate. J. Nat'l Sec. L. & Pol'y, 5, 539.

Clapper, J. (2011). How 9/11 Transformed the Intelligence Community. The Wall Street Journal 7 Sep 2011. Retrieved from http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424053111904537404576554430822300352

Foust, J. (2013). Throwing the Intelligence Community Under the Bus. Beacon Journal 29 Oct 2013. Retrieved from http://www.beaconreader.com/joshua-foust/throwing-the-intelligence-community-under-the-bus

Gusterson, H. (2011). Atomic Escapism? American Scientist, Jan -- Feb 2011. Retrieved from  http://www.americanscientist.org/bookshelf/pub/atomic-escapism
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U S Policy an Indefatigable Icon

Words: 881 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44680176

The extent of the personal involvement with Cuba among the exile community was viewed in macabre media frenzy over whether or not to return Elian Gonzalez to his father in Cuba. Many Cuban exiles used the young boy as a political pawn, oddly clamoring to wrest the boy from his father. The nearly insane fiasco illustrates the intensity of opinions over American foreign policy towards Cuba.

These opinions are further intensified in light of the "complex humanitarian emergency" that might result should Castro's regime fall suddenly and without institutional contingency plans (p. 83). American foreign policy towards Cuba has occasionally entertained the use of force, but Kennedy's Bay of Pigs invasion has since made military means untenable from a practical or a political standpoint. Still, the Bush administration championed plans that intended to "hasten" the demise of the Castro regime (p. 87). Those plans evoked frightening visions of another Iraq:…… [Read More]

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Truman in Hypothetical Crisis as

Words: 5310 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62428097

Kennedy recognizes the need to establish a bond with all the South American leaders, thereby isolating Chavez-Chavez politically as ineffective leader in South America. Kennedy perceived the Third orld in terms of the "national military establishment," and vulnerable to the manipulations of the Soviet Union (Schwab, Orrin, 1998, 1). Kennedy had already gone around with Cuba, and did not wish to repeat his mistakes in Venezuela, but he also had no intention of surrendering Venezuela to the Soviet Union in the way in which Cuba had been surrendered before him.

President Kennedy saw South American diplomacy as the route to turning Venezuela away from bonding with the Soviet Union. He recognized that he could not alienate the rest of South America from the United States, or that would drive them into the sphere of Venezuela's influence over them towards the Soviet Union.

Kennedy calls a meeting with Chavez-Chavez, in private,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brown, Seyom. Faces of Power. New York: Columbia University Press, 1994. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100986354

Clark, General Wesley K. Waging Modern War: Bosnia, Kosovo, and the Future of Combat. New York: Public Affairs, 2001. Questia. 15 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100986356.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=65362550

DeConde, Alexander. A History of American Foreign Policy. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1963. Questia. 15 Nov. 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=65362550.
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Perceptions of Presidents With Disabilities

Words: 5791 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1358067

He would sometimes be wheel chaired to the door through which he would enter to make a public appearance, but once at the door, his leg braces would be put on him, and he would rely on his son's arm for support and balance (43-48). Later, with his son's support, he was able to use a cane, and the extent of his disability was successfully downplayed by the force of his political platform and the attention he commanded with powerful words and the presentation of himself in a dignified way with strong posture (43-48).

"Deeply concerned that the image of a 'permanently crippled man' seeking to lead a crippled nation out of the Depression would be damaging to his campaign, oosevelt's aides every effort to portray the Democratic nominee as a man who had conquered polio and who could walk. As he traveled across the country, his leg braces, without…… [Read More]

Reference List

Bardes, Barbara A., Shelley, Mark C., Schmidt, Steffen W. (2008).

American Government and Politics Today: The Essentials,

Coates, Peter A. (2006). American Perceptions of Immigrant and Invasive

Species: Strangers on the Land,
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Intelligence and Politics Origins and

Words: 2906 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77948109

Franks (along with the Bush war cabinet, including Vice President Dick Chaney) "met repeatedly" to plan the attack on Iraq. It was groupthink through and through. At the same time Bush was saying publicly he was "pursuing a diplomatic solution" (Hamilton, 2004), "intensive war planning" was going on during the whole year 2002. It "created its own momentum" in the administration, Hamilton wrote.

In oodward's book, which was recognized as conveying authentic details about the Bush war planning and strategies, he covers much of the pre-war discussions Bush had with top members of his administration, along with decisions Bush made on his own and with help from people like his Foreign Policy Advisor, Condoleezza Rice. But according to an excerpt from oodward's book, Bush waited until the last minute (among his top staff) to brief Secretary of State Colin Powell, who had not been an advocate of going to war,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bar-Joseph, Uri, and Levy, Jack S. 2009, 'Conscious Action and Intelligence Failure', Political Science Quarterly, vol. 124, no. 3, pp. 461-489.

Bar-Joseph, Uri. 1995, Intelligence Intervention in the Politics of Democratic States: The United States, Israel, and Britain. The Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park, Pennsylvania.

Gentry, John a. 2008, 'Intelligence Failure Reframed', Political Science Quarterly, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 247-260.

Hamilton, William. 2004. 'Bush Began to Plan War Three Months After 9/11.' Washington Post, April 17, 2004, p. A01.
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Kennedy True Compass Book Review

Words: 1416 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41078909

Another related type of argument is to assert how he became interested in the various facets of politics that he made an impact on. For example, as a result of a plane crash and convalescing, he writes, "I realized that access to health care was a moral issue" (Kennedy 225). In other words, the way that he develops his political interest is determined by his personal experience. His view on the Vietnam War changed after an interview trip there. He uses this personal experience as the foundation for the ideas that he talks about, and it is convincing as a result. This argument from experience convinces the reader that Kennedy was authentic. Kennedy also includes many historical facts, which only adds support to his experience. ecause he was so involved, his interpretation of the facts is persuasive.

The primary thing that makes one keep reading this book is the connection…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kennedy, Edward M. True Compass: A Memoir. New York: Twelve, 2009.
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Singular Events Can Have Profound

Words: 2179 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 961984

Because of the widespread stigma against homosexuality in the United States and worldwide, medical research was thwarted and the disease became virtually synonymous with homosexuality.

It would take the death of one of America's most beloved, and seemingly straight, movie stars to prove that AIDS could affect anyone (Hiller 1985). When ock Hudson died of the disease in 1985, Americans could see not only that homosexuality was normal and pervasive in society but also that AIDS was spreading more rapidly than was previously thought. The subsequent spread of the disease to straight communities also showed that AIDS was a disease transmitted primarily through sexual contact and blood transfusions; homosexuality had nothing to do with the illness whatsoever. Final hypothesis: The death of ock Hudson forced Americans to rethink homosexuality and to face the AIDS epidemic squarely.

The 1990s: The First Gulf War

The decade opened with a literal bang when…… [Read More]

References

1950s

About the Case." Brown v. Board of Education. Brown Foundation for Educational Equity, Excellence and Research. Retrieved Jun 14, 2008 at http://brownvboard.org/summary/

Cozzens, L. (1995). Brown v. Board of Education. Early Civil Rights Struggles. Retrieved online Jun 14, 2008 at  http://www.watson.org/~lisa/blackhistory/early-civilrights/brown.html 

1960s
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Intel Reform Over the Past

Words: 3379 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80993523

The historical experiences of Cuba, Chile, Turkey, and even the Iran Contra affair fueled the discussions over a tighter control exercised over the Agency's structure and strategies. However, the Cold War demanded for secret operations especially taking into account the high degree of uncertainty that characterized the political environment at the time. The ideological confrontation between the West and Communist forces was often defused on the territories of third parties and the advantage of information and influence played a crucial role.

The period following the Watergate scandal weighted heavily on the evolution of the CIA. Richard Nixon, along with his Secretary of State, Kissinger was the proponents of an increased power given to the CIA because the presidential control could thus be exercised without any legislative hindrance from the Congress. The 1971 presidential decision to gather the budgets of all national intelligence services under a single unitary one was just…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alexandrovna, Larisa, Muriel Kane. New documents link Kissinger to two 1970s coups. June 26, 2007, accessed 15 October 2007, available at  http://rawstory.com/news/2007/Intelligence_officers_confirm_Kissinger_role_in_0626.html 

An Intelligence Community Primer. 2007, accessed 15 October 2007, available at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/wmd/pdf/appendix_c_fm.pdf

Federation of American Scientists. Aspin-Brown Commission on the Role and Capabilities of the United States Intelligence Community. The Need to Maintain an Intelligence Capability. 1996, accessed 15 October 2007, available at http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/int005.html

Goodman, Melvin a. "CIA: The Need for Reform." Foreign Policy in Focus, February 15, 2001.
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U S Intelligence Revolution the Transformations

Words: 2090 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96271380

As the Cold War began, U.S. found itself in a war with the U.S.S.R. On several levels and the only method that could have given U.S. The supremacy it desired was through the good use of intelligence. Espionage, military, industrial, and technological developments were all part of the weapons used during the Cold War. This is why the intelligence revolution was very much needed and useful in the end.

In the 1950s and 1960s, the CIA was one of the most respected organizations in the U.S., given its role in resisting against the expansion of influence of the Soviet Union and the spread of communism. These were the main missions of the organization. As the results of having a well-organized and well-trained intelligence agency paid off and as U.S. managed to prove itself superior to the Soviet Union in many instances, CIA became the main instrument for guiding the U.S.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Kahn, David. The Code-Breakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet. New York: Scribner, 1997

Knight, Judson, CIA (United States Central Intelligence Agency), available at http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ch-Co/CIA-United-States-Central-Intelligence-Agency.html;

O'Neal, Michael J., United States Intelligence, History, available at http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ul-Vo/United-States-Intelligence-History.html;

O'Neal, Michael J., CIA, Formation and History, available at http://www.espionageinfo.com/Ch-Co/CIA-Formation-and-History.html;
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CIA Become More Prominent in

Words: 1583 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62045424



Overall, the Central Intelligence Agency was an important, if not essential, element of the general tactics used by the U.S. In the Cold War. The reason was the limited access to information on the situations in the countries around the world in an era of non-military confrontation. The threat of communist supremacy made the U.S. And the western world rely heavily on the advantages covert operation missions had. Still, the ambiguity and ever-changing nature of the international conditions at the time made it impossible for the CIA to act on a hundred percent success rate. In conclusion, the activity of the Agency is praised and criticized at the same time. Nonetheless, it represented a crucial segment of the conduct of American foreign policy during the Cold War.

ibliography

Goodman, Allan E., "Reforming U.S. Intelligence," Foreign Policy, 1987.

Murphy, David E., Serghei a. Kondrasev, and George ailey. attleground erlin: CIA vs.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Goodman, Allan E., "Reforming U.S. Intelligence," Foreign Policy, 1987.

Murphy, David E., Serghei a. Kondrasev, and George Bailey. Battleground Berlin: CIA vs. KGB in the Cold War. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.

Jeffreys- Jones, Rhodri. The CIA and American democracy. Yale UP. London. 1989.

Ranelagh, John. The Agency: The Rise and Decline of the CIA. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1986.
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Cuban Missile Crisis What Happened

Words: 419 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62966374

In the tense days that followed, Khrushchev offered to withdraw the missiles in exchange for a U.S. pledge not to invade Cuba and to remove U.S. missiles deployed in Turkey. Kennedy privately assured the Soviets about withdrawal of missiles from Turkey but publicly gave only a non-invasion pledge. The crisis was averted when Khrushchev, also wary of the danger of a nuclear confrontation, announced on October 28 that he would remove the missiles from Cuba in return for a U.S. pledge not to invade. ("Cuban Missile Crisis, 2006; Hershberg, 1995)

The Cuban missile crisis was the closest that the U.S. And the U.S.S.. came to a nuclear war during the Cold War period. For a few tense days in October 1962, there was very real danger of a nuclear holocaust, which was only averted due to the good judgment and prudence shown by Kennedy and Khrushchev at the edge of…… [Read More]

References

Cuban Missile Crisis." (2006). Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia, 2006. Retrieved on November 18, 2006 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761579929_2/Cuban_Missile_Crisis.html

Hershberg, J. (1995) "Anatomy of a Controversy." The National Security Archive: The George Washington University. Retrieved on November 18, 2006 at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/moment.htm
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Politics Some Say That World

Words: 3064 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33301639



yan Dawson (2011) helps illustrate the way ideology shapes foreign policy by digging into Project for a New American Century files and showing how the PNAC reports are basically a lobbying tool for Israel. Dawson refers viewers of his documentary to PNAC many times in his attempt to show how the papers lay out the blueprint for American foreign policy post-9/11: "The policy of 'containment' of Saddam Hussein has been steadily eroding over the past several months. As recent events have demonstrated, we can no longer depend on our partners in the Gulf War coalition to continue to uphold the sanctions or to punish Saddam when he blocks or evades UN inspections." Such reports coupled with the yellow cake uranium story and the WMDs hoax, and of course the "harboring terrorists" myth, and the American public was read to back a war against Iraq -- even though Iraq was no…… [Read More]

Reference List

1962-Year in Review. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.upi.com/Audio/Year_in_Review/Events-of-1962/Cuban-Missile-Crisis/12295509437657-6/

BusinessMate. (2009). Max Weber's Theory of Bureaucracy. BusinessMate.org.

Retrieved from  http://www.businessmate.org/Article.php?ArtikelId=30 

Chayevsky, P. [writer]. (1976). Network. Los Angeles: MGM.
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Fated to Fail the March

Words: 934 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23639223



Despite some questionable choices in examples, however, Tuchman was able to supply an ample amount of evidence for her thesis in her information about the corruption plaguing the Catholic church prior to the eformation. This fact, while certainly acknowledged in history books, rarely receives the importance it deserves. This example, and perhaps that of Vietnam, were the most convincing ones that leaders throughout history have displayed an inherent proclivity that is decidedly "contrary to the way reason points and enlightened self-interest suggests" (Tuchman 1985, 1). Her chronicles of America's imperialist appetites and the wanton destruction it achieved in a fruitless siege in Vietnam for years should be taught as much as, if not more, than certain other areas of U.S. history.

Aided by the surety of hindsight, Tuchman's analysis of the evolutionary Way in the U.S. is equally adept and indicates the extent to which policy in British government contributed…… [Read More]

References

Tuchman, Barbara. The March of Folly: From Troy To Vietnam. New York: Ballantine Books, 1985.
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Presidents in the History of

Words: 2083 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76845855

He was one of the youngest presidents in history (the same age as JFK when he took office, forty-three. He also was an avid outdoorsman and appreciative of the American West (he had a ranch in North Dakota), and his far-seeing vision created one of America's most enduring traditions, the U.S. Forest Service and protected wild lands. oosevelt's accomplishments may not have been as well-known as some of the other presidents, but they were certainly far reaching. First, he was the first president to establish an area in the White House specifically for journalists (oller, 1988, p. 200). He was an extremely popular president, and he was the first to travel outside the country, to the Panama Canal, during a presidency. He also helped create the Panama Canal Project, one of the most important building projects of the time, and still a vital link between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.…… [Read More]

References

Boller, P.F. (1996). Presidential anecdotes (Revised ed.). New York: Oxford U.S..

Bursey, L.G. (1988). 4 Abraham Lincoln. In Popular images of American presidents, Spragens, W.C. (Ed.) (pp. 67-94). New York: Greenwood Press.

Cronin, T.E., & Genovese, M.A. (1998). The paradoxes of the American presidency. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hart, John. (1995). The presidential branch: From Washington to Clinton (2nd ed.). Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers.
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John F Kennedy Rhetorical Context The Audience

Words: 920 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11806998

John . Kennedy

Rhetorical context: The audience is a conservative political group that advocates smaller federal government and the right for local communities and states to control as much of their needed government as possible. The occasion is their annual meeting, and the purpose is to demonstrate that although Kennedy was a liberal in many ways, he was still a great, if flawed, man.

John . Kennedy: the very name makes political conservatives cringe. However, his short role in the political history of the Presidency was so pivotal that is necessary to consider what kind of President he really was beyond the hype and the active public relations campaign that kept his many flaws out of the news media. Because the media remained silent about his personal flaws, the country was able to nearly canonize him after his untimely death.

He was a Liberal. Of that there is no doubt.…… [Read More]

For all his flaws, John F. Kennedy was a great president who understood the Communist threat at the most important level. Because he was willing to stand up to the Russians during the Cuban Missile Crisis, the United States triumphed over our greatest enemy without a single battle. By doing this, he made the end of the Cold War inevitable.

Source:

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/state/monarchs_leaders/kennedy_celebrity_01.shtml
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Diplomatic Problems The Cuban Missile

Words: 2791 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98385838

Many did not agree with this action because Senators Fulbright and Russell believed it would lead to an air strike on est Berlin or a blockade of that city. They knew it would lead to war. Kennedy had few choices but instead did not back down and lead the country through the crisis. He never "lost sight of the fact that once military action started, there was no telling at what level of escalation it could be stopped" (Stern 2003, p. 108).

Timing caused many of the problems Kennedy faced during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Many critics surmise the failure of the blockade but really its lack of strength came down to the fact Kennedy hesitated because he waited for OAS approval. This allowed for Soviet ships to arrive safely to Cuba before the escalation and this represents weakness on Kennedy's part. hy couldn't have acted aggressively? He was not…… [Read More]

Works Cited

1997. Cuban Missile Crisis Left Kennedy with Little Choice But to Act, Congressional

Leaders No Help To President. Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 21. Oct.

Bennis, W. 1989. On Becoming a Leader. Reading, Massachusetts:

Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
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Criminal Justice - Intelligence Does

Words: 2835 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93963443



The major participants in the Cuban Missile Crisis were in many ways driven by intelligence information to make the decisions upon which the crisis centered. The Soviet Union and its puppet nation Cuba relied on the heavy detail they received from their own agencies and believed that as a result of the failure and humiliation of the U.S. during the infamous Bay of Pigs incident that America would be blind at worst to its nuclear build up in Cuba and impotent at best. "At the time of the crisis, the United States possessed many more weapons than the Soviet Union, and thus had a military advantage. Khrushchev had formulated the plan...when he was searching for a place to install nuclear warheads that could not be detected by the U.S. early warning system..." ("Cuban Missile Crisis," 2002, p. 18) Simultaneously, the Americans both feared the Soviets and resented the clear violation…… [Read More]

References

Cuban Missile Crisis. (2002). Cuban Missile Crisis. Politics & World Affairs: Cold War, 18.

In Defense of Civil Liberties (2004, September 20). The New York Times, p. A24.

Kaplan, Morton A. (2002). Intelligence Failures. World & I, 17, 12.

U.S. Has "No Objections" to China's Nuclear Buildup (2001). The New American, 17, 13.
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Affects of Pressure

Words: 1917 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47904605

Pressures to Conform or Obey

Western nations pride themselves on allowing their citizens freedom to choose for themselves their paths and destinies. However, psychological and sociological pressures often trump government-granted freedoms, especially in certain situations.

Sociology is the examination of the social lives of humans, groups, and societies, often defined as the study of social interactions. It is a relatively new academic discipline that evolved in the early 19th century throughout Europe and America. It deals with the social rules and processes that bind and separate people not only as individuals, but as members of associations, groups, and institutions.

In fact, sociology is concerned with our behavior as social beings; as a result the sociological field of interest ranges from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous individuals on the street to the examination of global social processes. In a broad sense, sociology manifests the scientific examination of social groups,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Orwell, George. (1949). 1984. New York: Bantam.

Janis, Irving. (1972). Groupthink. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Aperture. (2005). The New Workplace. New York: Aperture.

KidsHealth.org. (2005). Dealing with peer pressure. http://kidshealth.org/kid/feeling/friend/peer_pressure.html.
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Hemingway Eichmann Stranger in a

Words: 2643 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42408228

With him, this vital energy goes its own way, independent of the pessimism and the disillusionment so typical of the age.' Hemingway did not go to the awards ceremony due to illness, some time before that same year his plane crashed and he lived to read his own obituaries. y then he was already experiencing the results of his fast paced lifestyle and at the end of his life he dealt with sicknesses such as mental depression, and eventually a form of paranoia. This was written of his last days 'After Hemingway began talking of suicide his Ketchum doctor agreed with Mary that they should seek expert help. He registered under the name of his personal doctor George Saviers and they began a medical program to try and repair his mental state. The Mayo Clinic's treatment would ultimately lead to electro shock therapy. According to Jefferey Meyers Hemingway received "between…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. We didn't start the Fire, Billy Joel,  http://www.teacheroz.com/fire.htm 

2. Frederick W. Turner III, 1971

3. Morgan Kathryn, Associate Director for Special Collections Alderman Library, University of Virginia / Charlottesville, Virginia / 22903

4. Shelton Robert, Bob Dylan: "20-year-old singer is bright new face at Gerde's Club" September 29, 1961 New York Times.
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U S History President Harry S

Words: 686 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70717938

would help alter the social and political landscape of the nation. However, Kennedy also engaged in controversial and potential volatile encounters such as the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba and the Vietnam War. The Vietnam War would prove to be one of the most tumultuous periods in modern American history and when Kennedy was assassinated in 1963 his vice president and successor Lyndon Baines Johnson continued the bloody and extended process of engaging and then withdrawing from Southeast Asia. Lyndon Johnson's problems in Vietnam were partially offset by the great strides his administration made in securing Civil ights laws. Moreover, Johnson would initiate other social service programs such as Medicare. Johnson's legacy would nevertheless be perpetually obscured by his more dynamic predecessor and successor: Kennedy and Nixon, respectively.

Johnson's successor, epublican ichard M. Nixon will probably be remembered most for his participation in the Watergate Scandal and his resignation…… [Read More]

References

Dwight D. Eisenhower." Wikipedia. Retrieved Aug 4, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwight_D._Eisenhower

Harry S. Truman." Wikipedia. Retrieved Aug 4, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harry_S._Truman

John F. Kennedy." Wikipedia. Retrieved Aug 4, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_F._Kennedy

Lyndon B. Johnson." Wikipedia. Retrieved Aug 4, 2006 at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lyndon_B._Johnson
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U S History and Foreign Policy

Words: 3087 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44277503

The events leading to the Vietnam conflict were determined by the administration in place at that time (VIETNAM CONFLICT (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War).

Initially it was decided that Vietnam would be occupied by Chinese and British troops and that they would supervise the surrender of Japan.

In 1960 Hanoi instructed the southern communists to establish an organization called the national liberation front. The purpose of this organization was to overthrow the government of the south. The organization was made up of two groups. The intellectuals of the South and who opposed the foundation of the government of South Viet Nam and the communists who had remained in the south after the partition.

The Di-m government was initially able to cope with the insurgency with the aid of U.S. advisers, and by 1962 seemed to be winning. Senior U.S. military leaders were receiving positive reports from the U.S. commander, Gen. Paul D. Harkins of…… [Read More]

References

CONTAINMENT of SOVIET UNION

http://www.foreignaffairs.org/19870301faessay7847/george-f-kennan/containment-40-years-later-containment-then-and-now.html

An Outline of American History (1994) http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1994/ch11_p5.htm

CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
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Ernesto Che Guevara's Identity Throughout

Words: 1602 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80126262

The research also showed that Guevara's trip throughout Latin America as chronicled in his book, the Motorcycle Diaries, was a formative experience for him and transformed him into a revolutionary in spirit as well as in deed. Finally, the research also showed that unlike the reports of other iconographic figures from the 1960s, Guevara's death was confirmed by empirical observation but his popular identity continues to be developed through the use of famous photographic images and his legacy continues to be reinforced by people in search of heroes today.

ibliography

arbas, Samantha. "James Hopgood, Ed. The Making of Saints: Contesting Sacred Ground,"

iography, 29 no. 2 (2006), 354.

enavides-Vanegas, Farid Samir, "From Santander to Camilo and Che: Graffiti and Resistance

in Contemporary Colombia," Social Justice, 32 no. 1 (2005), 53-56.

Gott, Richard. "Che Guevara and the Congo," New Left Review, a no. 220 (1996), 3-33.

"Guevara, Che." The Columbia Encyclopedia,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barbas, Samantha. "James Hopgood, Ed. The Making of Saints: Contesting Sacred Ground,"

Biography, 29 no. 2 (2006), 354.

Benavides-Vanegas, Farid Samir, "From Santander to Camilo and Che: Graffiti and Resistance

in Contemporary Colombia," Social Justice, 32 no. 1 (2005), 53-56.
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American Dreams by HW Brands

Words: 695 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82253544

American Dreams by H.. Brands

American Dreams chronicles the history of the United States after the defeat of the Axis powers until the present day. After orld ar II, America emerged as the major world power. It had an atomic capacity and had been less scarred, economically and politically, than Europe. How America managed this new role and how Americans' self-perceptions of themselves have changed over the subsequent decades is the subject of H.. Brand's brief social history.

The book is organized into three sections. The first section, called Visions of Omnipotence (1945-1965), details the heady postwar time when America was first beginning to establish its authority in the world. It played a critical role in revitalizing the fortunes of Europe through the Marshall Plan and contained communism through the establishment of NATO and the Berlin airlift. This was also the era of the Korean ar, the Bay of Pigs,…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Brands. H.W. American Dreams. New York: Penguin, 2010.
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Clinton's Speech After Lewinsky's Scandal

Words: 4945 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25316762

Clinton's Lewinsky Speech

Presidential scandal speeches should be considered a unique form of discoursed that follow a common pattern and have similar elements. All of these may not be found in every single speech but most certainly will, including ichard Nixon's Second Watergate Speech (1973), onald eagan's Iran-Contra Speech (1987), and Bill Clinton's Monica Lewinsky Speech (1998). All the presidents used strong, direct and active voice when making these speeches, with Clinton seeming to be particularly prone to narcissism and use of the first-person singular. A standard feature of all such speeches is for the president to take responsibility for what went wrong, express regret, and then call on the country to move on so the government can return to dealing with the nation's 'real' business. Both Nixon and Clinton also had a strong tendency to blame their political enemies for their predicament, and with good reason, although in Nixon's…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Clinton, B. (1998). Monica Lewinsky Speech.

http://www.cnn.com/ALLPOLITICS/1998/08/17/speech/transcript.html

Nixon, R. (1973). Second Watergate Speech.

http://watergate.info/nixon/73-08-15watergate-speech.shtml
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Movement the Cold War of the Communist

Words: 2971 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50764200

Movement

The Cold War of the communist and the capitalist countries gay way to spying worldwide, together with the political and military meddling in the inside matters of the poor countries. Some of these developments led to a negative consequence which called for much of the distrust and uncertainty towards the government that came after the cold war. Examples of these outcomes are the serious reaction of the Soviet Union towards the famous uprising against communism, which included the Hungarian evolution of 1965, also the invasion in 1961 of the Cuban Bay of Pigs by the U.S. And the Czechoslovakia's Prague Spring in 1968. The lie of Dwight D. Eisenhower, president of the U.S. In 1960, about the extent of the U2 episode led to an even greater distrust amongst the public against the government (Eisenstadt, 1956).

The establishment in the U.S. was disintegrated into political and military framework after…… [Read More]

References

Bellah, Robert. "New Religious Consciousness and the Crisis of Modernity." In The New Religious Consciousness, edited by Charles dock and Robert Wuthnow, 1976.

Braungart, Margaret M. And Richard C. Braungart. "The Life-Course Development of Left- and Right-Wing Youth Activist Leaders from the 1960s." Political Psychology, 1990, 11:243-82.

DeMartini, Joseph R. "Social Movement Participation, Political Socialization, Generational Consciousness, and Lasting Effects." 1983, Youth atul Society 15:195-223.

Dunham, Charlotte Chorn, and Vern L. Bengtson, "The Long-Term Effects of Political. Activism on Intergenerational Relations." Youth and Society, 1992, 24:31-51.
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Advancements in the Humanities

Words: 2016 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80276501

Vietnam and the Two-Sided American Dream

The Vietnam era began under a cloud. Kennedy had inherited a government neck-deep in covert operations and rather than check the rate at which the U.S. exercised military might in foreign countries, he accelerated it. The American Empire had been doing so for nearly two decades since the end of WW2. With the Cold War in full force, the ay of Pigs fiasco behind him, and the Cuban Missile Crisis causing panic worldwide, the last thing Americans wanted was more war. With the assassination of Kennedy in 1963 and the installation of pro-ground forces Lyndon Johnson, Americans were stripped of the carefree innocence of the 1950s. Camelot was ended. The 1960s and the 1970s became decades of radicalism in which American youth would rebel against the authoritarian tone of American foreign and domestic policy. They would rebel in their dress, in their speech, in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fisher, W. (1973). Reaffirmation and Subversion of the American Dream. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 59(2): 160-167. Fisher identifies the nature of the American Dream as being two-fold, at once materialistic and moralistic, with the materialistic half winning out in the end. It implies that the idealist Americans who support the moral cause of the 60s and 70s are outnumbered by the militant materialists. Written just after the election of Nixon to the White House over McGovern, it is historically contextual in terms of being relevant to this essay. It views the "American experiment" as dying under Nixon's watch. I agree with this assessment as the evidence presented by Fisher sufficiently demonstrates the dual nature of the Dream and the how the weightier materialistic side of it gained traction in the 70s.

Fisher, W. (1982). Romantic Democracy, Ronald Reagan, and Presidential Heroes. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 46(3): 299-310. Fisher identifies the "romantic strain in American history/politics" and links it to the Dream of the 60s and 70s, implying that the Dream was doomed to fail by the 80s because of its romantic root. I agree with the assessment, as the ideals of the French Revolution, embodied by idealists of the 60s and 70s were rooted in Romanticism.

Miller, J.Y. (1964). Myth and the American Dream: O'Neill to Albee. Modern Drama, 7(2): 190-198. Miller decries the American Dream by analyzing the works of playwrights of the 20th century, culminating with Albee, whose The American Dream skewers the idealism of the post-WW2 era. "This is how the Dream works," Miller states (p. 190) and I agree: it sucked in generation after generation with phony promises and then forced them, ultimately, to sell out to materialism.

Stone, O., Kuznick, P. (2012). The Untold History of the United States. NY: Gallery Books. The book provides an account of American foreign policy under the powerful sway of the military-industrial complex in the 20th century. It implies that American politics have been beholden to militarism and imperialism for over 100 years and that whenever an opportunity to reverse course and adopt a more humane policy has arisen, pressure has been applied to keep such a change from happening. Stone and Kuznick view the Vietnam War as "morally indefensible" (p. 386). I agree with their evaluation based upon the evidence they provide -- which is that the War was fought not for "democracy" but rather for Empire.
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Economic Social and Moral Changes in America

Words: 4537 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38458864

economic, social, and moral changes in America since the end of World War II

Since the end of World War II, the American people have seen an extraordinary change in the economic, social and moral priorities of the nation and its people. Three generations have grown up since the war, each positively and negatively influenced by their parents and social change.

Who They Are

The WWII generation represents the most affluent elderly generation that the United States will see in a long time. This generation benefited from an expanding economy and skyrocketing real estate prices. Its members were the beneficiaries of generous government programs, from the GI ill to government aid in buying their first home. (Wilkinson) high school education was sufficient to get well paying, secure jobs in their adult years. The lower level of education is one reason why members of this generation tend to see things differently…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Wilkinson, Ron. Boomers vs. Gen X Cooperation Clash. BCFM Human Resources Committee, 2002.

Chicowitz, Hershel. Defining G-X'ers. BBHQ, 2002.

Peppard, Nancy. Ties that Blind: Social Disconnects And The Shifting Generational Profiles That Cause Them.College of Law Practice Management, 2001.

International Association of Baby Boomers
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Cuban Missile Crisis

Words: 775 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99008170

Cuban Missile Crisis

In October 1962 the world came closest to a nuclear holocaust than it has ever done before or since in a critical standoff between the two major nuclear powers (the U.S. And the U.S.S..) over the deployment of missiles in Cuba by the Soviet Union. This paper discusses the causes and consequences of the Cuban Missile Crisis and assesses President Kennedy's handling of the crisis.

Causes

After the Spanish-American War of 1898 that ended the Spanish Empire and Spain's control of Cuba, the United States had given itself the right to intervene in the internal affairs of Cuba and U.S. businesses established extensive interests on the island. All of this ended with the Cuban evolution under Fidel Castro in 1959. The U.S. was not prepared to accept a leftist revolution so close to its borders and the CIA carried out several covert and overt attempts to dislodge…… [Read More]

References

Cuban Missile Crisis." (2003) Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD-ROM Version, 2003

Brenner, Philip. (2002) "Turning History on its Head." The National Security Archive. The George Washington University Web Site. Retrieved on June 1, 2003 at http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/nsa/cuba_mis_cri/brenner.htm

May, Ernest and Zelikow, Philip. (Feb 1998) "Eavesdropping on History: Kennedy and the Cuban Missile Crisis." Encarta Yearbook, 1998

Through the passing of the Platt Amendment by the U.S. Congress in 1901 that backtracked on the Teller Amendment passed before the War pledging the U.S. intention of not annexing Cuba
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History of US Space Program

Words: 2217 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86230318

Space Program

hen the Soviets successfully launched Sputnik I, the first ever artificial satellite, in orbit on October 4, 1957, the event took the Americans and the entire western world by surprise. Sputnik I was just a 2-foot sphere with nothing more than two tiny radio transmitters on it, but the symbolic significance of the event -- the implication that Communist Russia had taken a significant technological lead over the United States was a massive blow to the American nation's pride. It signaled the start of the Cold ar space-race between the two major super powers of the time and developed into a race for putting the first man on the moon that culminated in the historic "giant leap for mankind" on July 20, 1969 when Neil Armstrong became the first man to walk on the moon. This paper focuses on the history of the U.S. Space Program, the role…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chaikan, Andrew. "Space Exploration." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003

Ezell, Clinton E. And Linda Neuman Ezell. "The Partnership: A History of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project." NASA Special Publication-4209,1978 Chapter 1: The Space Race Competition vs. Cooperation: 1959-1962. April 21, 2004  http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/SP-4209/ch1-4.htm 

History of the Space Programme." Scenta Website. March 16, 2004. April 21, 2004. http://www.scenta.co.uk/news/viewFeature.cfm?ciid=207&iCurrSubSection=2

Koman, Rita G. "Man on the Moon: The U.S. Space Program as a Cold War Maneuver." Organization of American Historians. Reprinted from the OAH Magazine of History