Behavior Essays (Examples)

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Positive and Negative Punishment

Words: 1251 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28390078

Positive and Negative Punishment
Because of their use related to value judgments, the terms “positive” and “negative” are frequently misconstrued. In the social sciences, the use of “positive” and “negative” often refer to the presence or absence of a variable, respectively. Thus, positive punishment refers to the introduction of a stimulus and negative punishment refers to the removal of a stimulus. Both positive and negative forms of punishment purportedly achieve the same goal of behavioral change: specifically the extinguishing of an undesirable behavior.
Positive punishment refers to the introduction of some adverse or uncomfortable stimulus. The subject chooses either to endure the stimulus and continue the behavior or to avoid the stimulus by ceasing the behavior. With negative punishment, something perceived of as pleasurable is removed or taken away. The subject chooses either to adapt to the absence of the pleasant variable or extinguishes a behavior in order to retrieve…… [Read More]

References

Kahan, D.M. (1998). Punishment incommensurability. Criminal Law Review 691(1997-1998).

Reed, C.G. & Godden, A.L. (1977). An experimental treatment using verbal punishment with two preschool stutterers. Journal of Fluency Disorders 2(3): 225-233.

Williams, K.D., Shore, W.J. & Grahe, J.E. (1998). The silent treatment. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 1(2): 117-141.

Wright, C.N. & Roloff, M.E. (2009). Relational committment and the silent treatment. Communication Research Reports 26(1): 12-21.


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Rebuilding Organizational Character

Words: 695 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98502623

Our society today faces one great challenge, and that is cheating. You can call it unethical behaviour, institutional misconduct or deception, it all points to the same thing. We have of late witnessed extreme instances of cheating through our mainstream media, some of which have proven costly to the victims. Nevertheless, such unethical acts recur over and over again in our society. Not only by the immoral, but also by the so-called morally upright, whenever they find an opportunity to cheat (Gino, 2015)
It is interesting how the cheating behaviour is formed in different individuals. There are those who will never take advantage of the situation, even if they know for sure they will never be caught. This virtue must have been instilled from a very young age, perhaps by that teacher who always reminded his students, “Don’t deceive yourself.” The other group of people resort to cheating once the…… [Read More]

References

Alexander, R. D. (1987). The biology of moral systems. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.

Becker, G. S. (1968). Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach. The Journal of Political Economy, 76(2), 169-217.

Gino, F. (2015). Understanding ordinary unethical behavior: why people who value morality act immorally. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 3, 107-111.

Patrzyk, P. M. (2014). Would you cheat? Cheating behavior, human nature, and decision-making. Retrieved from http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/articles/871/would-you-cheat-cheating-behavior-human-nature-and-decision-making.

Shalvi, S., Dana, J., Handgraaf, M. J., & De Dreu, C. K. (2011). Justified ethicality: Observing desired counterfactuals modifies ethical perceptions and behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 115(2), 181-190.