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Change of behavior
The concept of behavior change is a common phenomenon of late and there are various approaches that people use to achieve this. There is the operant conditioning also known as instrumental conditioning which is learning or unlearning process that is instilled by punishments and/or rewards for the wanted behavior or unwanted behavior. In the operant conditioning, there is an association between the behavior and some form of consequence for that particular behavior as indicated by Kendra Cherry, (2011). The other approach that is mainly used ins the classical conditioning where the person or the subject is exposed to some stimuli in order to reinforce a behavior that is aimed at being learned. It was extracted from the Pavlov dog experiment and can be used today as well. However, in this paper, the operant conditioning will be applied. The idea of operant conditioning discovered by Skinner…
Kendra Cherry, (2011). Introduction to Operant Conditioning. Retrieved August 29, 2013 from http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/a/introopcond.htm
Development of a behavior is a gradual process through which it eventually becomes an automatic response. Such a process develops through frequent repetition and reinforcements. Good habits enable liberation, whereas bad habits are a cause of sufferings. Understanding how certain behavioral patterns are formed enables us to be aware of what we may be prone to acquiring as a behavior. (Jager, 2003)
According to behavioral theorists, learning experiences through time help shape the development of our personality. According to this theory, the influences that add to our learning experiences are from outside an individual, but within the immediate surroundings. Individuals can develop a particular behavior either by forming associations, suffering consequences or through simple observation. (Wood, Wood, Boyd, Eileen & Desmarais, 2008)
Cigarette smoking is a behavior that I acquired through time. eflecting upon the behavioral theory and analyzing certain external factors that may have contributed to the…
Dumont, F. (2010). A history of personality psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Jager, W. (2003). Breaking 'bad habits': a dynamical perspective on habit formation and change. Retrieved from http://www.rug.nl/staff/w.jager/jager_habits_chapter_2003.pdf
Wood, S.E., Wood, E.G., Boyd, D., Eileen, W., & Desmarais, S. (2008). The world of psychology. (5th ed.). Toronto: Pearson.
Behavior Therapy is generally an approach of psychotherapy which aims to treat any sort of psychopathology to eliminate undesired behaviors in a patient or subject (Masters, et. al., 1987). This type of psychotherapy is based on the learning theory. Behavior therapy generally attempts to help in solving certain behavioral problems; this type of therapy has a long history. In the early first century in ome, Pliny the Elder was known to try to cure alcoholics by putting putrid spiders in their drinking glasses. In today's behavior therapy, this would be known as aversive conditioning (Masters, et. al., 1987). During the eighteenth century, a boy whom was known as the "Wild Boy of Aveyron" was taught how to speak with maneuvers; today, this would be known as positive reinforcement and/or withholding of positive reinforcement. Alexander Maconchi of the nineteenth century whom was a prison warden at the time used a point-system…
Masters, J.C., Burish, T.G., Holton, S.D., & Rimm, D.C. (1987). Behavior therapy: Techniques and empirical findings. San Diego: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc.
Michael, J. (1975) Positive and negative reinforcement, a distinction that is no longer necessary; or a better way to talk about bad things. Behaviorism, 3 (1): 33-44.
Watson, J.B. & Reyner, R. (1920). Conditioned emotional reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology 3: 1-14.
Walker, L. (2004). Changing with NLP: a casebook of neuro-linguistic programming in medical practice. London: Radcliffe Medical Press, Ltd.
ehavior in Crisis Situations
The lack of concern for fellow citizens becomes a terrible habit (Darley). Darley and Latane explained a bystander to an emergency with a decision tree consisting of three questions; notice to the event, interpretation of the event as an emergency, and concluding whether they had responsibility to the situation or not. Only one path leads to intervention. Whether a victim receives help is also determined by how many bystanders are present. The more bystanders around, the less likely a victim will receive help.
Americans consider it bad manners to look too closely at people in public. Growing up teaches us to respect privacy and, when among strangers, to close our ears and avoid staring at people. This causes people in crowds to be less likely to notice potential emergency situations. ystanders tend to react the same way as everyone else in the crowd. In dangerous situations,…
Darley, J. & . (n.d.). When Will People Help in a Crisis? Retrieved from AP Psychology: http:/;/Iniland.com/AP%20Psych%20Documents/Ch%2013%20-%20Darley%20Latane%20Study.pdf
McLeod, S. (2007). The Milgram Experiment. Retrieved from Simply Psychology: http://panarchy.org/milgram/obedience.html
When this occurs, an adult assists him in finding an alternative activity.
Prepare peers by explaining that Derrick does not know how to appropriately greet them. Let them know that the teachers are working on teaching Derrick how to say "hi" and touch a friend nicely. Encourage the children to help Derrick say "hi" the correct way. Make an effort to monitor Derrick during high risk times or activities (e.g., children's arrival) to ensure that an adult is available to bridge him interactions with peers.
When Derrick approaches a center, provide him with instructions on how to play or initiate an interaction as he approaches a center. For example if he is approaching the kitchen say, "You can sit at the table and pretend to eat or stir the pot on the stove." You might also say "Anne, can you show Derrick where he can sit"? Provide a…
Peterson, R.B.D. & Workman, C.(1988). Child-Centered Skiing: The American Teaching
System for Children. Lakewood, Colorado: Professional Ski Instructors of America.
Wright, D.B. et al., (1994). Positive Intervention for serious Behavior Problems. State of California: RiSE (Resources in Special Education).
This should take me to approximately eleven o'clock (or earlier when I have less school work). Even if it still takes me an hour to fall asleep, I will have gained one full hour of sleep over my television watching days, and the payoff should be immediately observable.
Though I broke with my plan on the weekends (Friday and Saturday nights only; twice I fell asleep watching television on the couch and I watched more than my allotted hour the other two nights), I managed to restrict myself to single hour of television at a specific time every evening. Keeping track of exactly when I fell asleep was difficult (completely impossible, actually), but I was generally in bed and trying to sleep an hour to two hours sooner than I had been while watching television. I also appeared to be falling asleep sooner, as my last-remembered glances at…
Over the last several years, behavioral therapy has become a discipline many mental health professionals are embracing. However, like numerous schools of thought there are disputes about its effectiveness in changing the way someone reacts to different events. To fully understand the impact requires examining the ideas of the founders, the motivational constructs, the nature of maladjustment, the goals of counseling therapy and the techniques which are utilized. Together, these elements will highlight the long-term effects and how this will influence an individual's behavior. (McKay, 2009) (obbins, 1991) (Spiegler, 2009)
Founder(s) of the theory
The primary founders of behavior therapy include: Edward Thorndike, Joseph Wolpe and BF Skinner. Edward Thorndike is the original pioneer. In 1911, he concluded that an individual's behavior could be modified. Joseph Wolpe examined different types of therapy and their impact on patients. While BF Skinner, concentrated on using conditioning to influence the way…
McKay, M. (2009). The Dialectic Therapy Skills Workbook. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publishing.
Robbins, A. (1991). Awaken the Giant Within. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.
Spiegler, M. (2009). Contemporary Behavior Therapy. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
Being in love can have a series of benefits on the person, as it assists people in growing and improving their abilities in several ways. Numerous individuals are probable to acknowledge that they felt that they were in a somewhat uplifted state of mind at the time when they felt love. By allowing people to include their lovers into their lives, persons express their need for self-expansion. This can be associated with a type of motivation, a concept that fuels people to do everything in their power to go through experiences that increase their self-esteem and that generally make it possible for them to feel they play an important role in life in general.
Love is generally perceived as a positive concept in people's lives, taking into account that individuals associate it with happiness. However, it can also have a negative influence on the individual as well as on…
Liu, J. "CONCEPT ANALYSIS: AGGRESSION." Issues Mental Health Nurs. 2004; 25
Lopez, S.J. (2008). "Positive Psychology: Discovering human strengths." ABC-CLIO.
He then related this to the war in Vietnam where he states that the soldiers were told that they will go home only when their tour is over. Thus an analysis by the soldiers showed that if they disobey the orders, it was more likely for them to be "assigned rest and rehabilitation" (Steven Kerr, 1995).
The above examples shows that giving an incentive is as important as giving the right incentive. A reward not wanted by a person might not motivate him enough to give all he has got. This even holds true for organizations trying to achieve their desired goals. It is highly important for an organization to reward their workforce for the positive reasons. This would enable them to be efficient and work hard for the organization's benefit whether they desire that benefit for the organization or not. They want their reward and will work hard to…
1) Steven Kerr - "On the folly of rewarding A, while hoping for B" [online website] Available at http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Forum/1650/rewardinga.html[Accessed on: 11/09/2005]
inferiority. The main action here is school, thus the ad will want to be set in a school environment.
Stage Five, the adolescence stage, spans from age 12 to 18 and has a conflict of identity vs. confusion. The main action here is peer relationships, thus an advertisement campaign will want to use characters in a close, positive friendship relationship. Stage six, the young adulthood stage, last from age 18 to 40 and has a conflict o intimacy vs. isolation. The main action here is love relationships, thus the ad campaign will want to feature a positive, happy couple. Stage seven, the middle adulthood stage, last from age 40 to 65 and has a conflict of generativity vs. stagnation. The main action here is parenting, thus the ad campaign should focus on how the product can benefit the viewer as a parent. The final stage, Stage Eight, is maturity and…
Marcia, J.E. (1966): "Development and validation of ego identity status." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 3. 551-58.
Gale Group. (2001): "Erikson, Erik. (1902-1979)." Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. 2nd ed.
The story "Injustice" reveals many very real concerns about the social structure in schools today. In this story, a seemingly normal boy, Rolf Mannington, becomes the victim of peer violence in the cafeteria at his school. This attack appears to be without clear motive. After all, why should other students have a problem with a boy with a neat, clean appearance, good grades, and a wealthy family? However, upon closer inspection Rolf Mannington can be seen to already have been isolated from his peers. Rolf did not fit in, and this segregation could have been a warning that a threat of violence existed. However, there are few people honestly looking out for the well-being of students. Harassment, emotional abuse, and outright violence are common in most schools, but these things are passed off as "normal" bullying or clique activity. Understanding that "bullying" of any kind is something which must…
Harris, Sandra and Petrie, Garth. "A study of bullying in the middle school." National Association of Secondary School Principals. NASSP Bulletin. December, 2002.
Rubiner, Betsy. "Combating cliques: help kids build the confidence to stand up to school cliques and rely on themselves." Better Homes & Gardens. March, 2004.
Spivak, Howard. "Bullying: Why All the Fuss?" Pediatrics. December, 2003.
Behavior Science esearch
A researcher studies the average distance that 130 people living in U.S. urban areas walk each week.
What is the size of sample?
The sample size is 130 people.
Identify the population?
The population is people living in U.S. urban areas that walk each week.
Seventy three people are stopped as they leave a popular grocery store, and the number of fruit and vegetable items they purchase is assessed.
What is the size of the sample?
The size of the sample is 73 people.
Identify the population.
The population is people who are stopped leaving a popular grocery store who purchased fruit and vegetable items.
Is the average calculated in Exercise 1, a descriptive statistic or an inferential statistic if it is used to describe the 130 people studied?
The average calculated in exercise 1 is a descriptive statistic. Descriptive statistics is "the term given to the…
AERD Statistics (2012) Descriptive and Inferential Statistics. Retrieved from: https://statistics.laerd.com/statistical-guides/descriptive-inferential-statistics.php
The findings indicated that the game was effective in simultaneously decreasing a variety of inappropriate behaviors including inappropriate verbalizations, touching, negative comments cursing and drumming.
The Good Student Game was also found to be an effective classroom management tool for meeting the needs of today's diverse classrooms by Allison E. Babyak, Gayle J. Luze, and Debra M. Kamps (2000). The game was applied to three classrooms composed of student with attention problems, learning and/or behavioral difficulties, limited English proficiency, and giftedness. Data collected in all three classrooms demonstrated increases in the percentage of time students were in seat and quiet during independent work periods.
Barry L. McCurdy, Amanda L. Lannie, and Ernesto Barnabas (2008) incorporated a non-classroom setting to investigate the impact the Good Behavior Game on the disruptive behaviors of students in grades K -- 6 in an urban school cafeteria. The modified design which they refer to as…
Babyak, a.E., Luze, G.J., & Kamps, D.M., (2000). The good student behavior game:Behavior management for diverse classrooms. Intervention in school and clinic, 35 no4 216-23 Mr. 2000
Barrish, H.B., Saunders, M., & Wolf, M.M., (1969) . Good behavior game: Effects of indiviual contingencies for group consequnces on disruptive behavior in a classroom. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 1969, 2, 119-124 number 2 (Summer 1969).
Harris, W.V., & Sheerman, J.A., (1973). Use and analysis of the "good behavior game" to reduce disruptive classroom behavior. Journal of applied behavior analysis, 1973, 6, 405-417 number 3 (Fall 1973).
McCurdy, B.L., Lannie, a.L., & Barnabas, E., (2008). Reducing disruptive behavior in an urban school cafiteria: an extension of the good behavior game, Journal of school psychology, 47 (2009) 39-54
Positive and Negative Punishment
Because of their use related to value judgments, the terms “positive” and “negative” are frequently misconstrued. In the social sciences, the use of “positive” and “negative” often refer to the presence or absence of a variable, respectively. Thus, positive punishment refers to the introduction of a stimulus and negative punishment refers to the removal of a stimulus. Both positive and negative forms of punishment purportedly achieve the same goal of behavioral change: specifically the extinguishing of an undesirable behavior.
Positive punishment refers to the introduction of some adverse or uncomfortable stimulus. The subject chooses either to endure the stimulus and continue the behavior or to avoid the stimulus by ceasing the behavior. With negative punishment, something perceived of as pleasurable is removed or taken away. The subject chooses either to adapt to the absence of the pleasant variable or extinguishes a behavior in order to retrieve…
Kahan, D.M. (1998). Punishment incommensurability. Criminal Law Review 691(1997-1998).
Reed, C.G. & Godden, A.L. (1977). An experimental treatment using verbal punishment with two preschool stutterers. Journal of Fluency Disorders 2(3): 225-233.
Williams, K.D., Shore, W.J. & Grahe, J.E. (1998). The silent treatment. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations 1(2): 117-141.
Wright, C.N. & Roloff, M.E. (2009). Relational committment and the silent treatment. Communication Research Reports 26(1): 12-21.
Working with Clients: Reflections on the ProcessAccording to the American Psychological Association (APA) dictionary definition of Unconditional Positive Regard, the concept reflects an attitude of caring, acceptance, and prizing that the therapist offers to a client irrespective of his or her [client] behavior and without regard to the others personal standards (Unconditional Positive Regard, 2021). For example, even when counseling a client exhibiting frustrating behaviors, such as engaging in continued drug abuse after treatment, the therapist tries to see the clients world from the clients perspective. The therapist must understand what types of stressors may be leading to the clients behavior, such as a sense of emptiness, a desire to return to a familiar routine, and a lack of other pleasurable activities and hope in the future.Only if people feel safe to be honest can they change and grow; the therapists asking people how they feel, rather than passing judgement,…
Sheperis, D. (2017). Therapeutic contract. In J. Carlson, & S. Dermer (Eds.), The sage
encyclopedia of marriage, family, and couples counseling, 4, 1697-1700. SAGE Publications, Inc. Retrieved from: https://www.doi.org/10.4135/9781483369532.n508
The surprising benefits of unconditional positive regard. (2021). Nir and Far. Retrieved from:
Our society today faces one great challenge, and that is cheating. You can call it unethical behaviour, institutional misconduct or deception, it all points to the same thing. We have of late witnessed extreme instances of cheating through our mainstream media, some of which have proven costly to the victims. Nevertheless, such unethical acts recur over and over again in our society. Not only by the immoral, but also by the so-called morally upright, whenever they find an opportunity to cheat (Gino, 2015)
It is interesting how the cheating behaviour is formed in different individuals. There are those who will never take advantage of the situation, even if they know for sure they will never be caught. This virtue must have been instilled from a very young age, perhaps by that teacher who always reminded his students, “Don’t deceive yourself.” The other group of people resort to cheating once the…
Alexander, R. D. (1987). The biology of moral systems. Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.
Becker, G. S. (1968). Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach. The Journal of Political Economy, 76(2), 169-217.
Gino, F. (2015). Understanding ordinary unethical behavior: why people who value morality act immorally. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 3, 107-111.
Patrzyk, P. M. (2014). Would you cheat? Cheating behavior, human nature, and decision-making. Retrieved from http://www.inquiriesjournal.com/articles/871/would-you-cheat-cheating-behavior-human-nature-and-decision-making.
Shalvi, S., Dana, J., Handgraaf, M. J., & De Dreu, C. K. (2011). Justified ethicality: Observing desired counterfactuals modifies ethical perceptions and behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 115(2), 181-190.
7. Fenn, P., & Ashby, S., 2004. Workplace risk, establishment size, and union density. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 42, 461 -- 480.
8. Griffin, M.A., & Neal, A., 2000. Perceptions of safety at work: A framework for linking safety climate to safety performance, knowledge, and motivation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 5, 347 -- 358.
9. Neal, A., Griffin, M.A., & Hart, P.M., 2000. The impact of organizational climate on safety climate and individual behavior. Safety Science, 34, 99 -- 109.
10. Hechanova-Alampay, R.H., & Beehr, T.A., 2001. Empowerment, span of control and safety performance in work teams after workforce reduction. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 275 -- 282.
11. Kaminski, M., 2001. Unintended consequences: Organizational practices and their impact on workplace safety and productivity. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 6, 127 -- 138.
Turner, N., & Parker, S.K., 2004. The effect of teamwork on safety processes and…
Prejudice and social psychology
Gender-based stereotypes and influence of society
Cultural impact of host cultures
The contribution of Stanley Milgram has been significant in the field of social psychology. Milgram conducted experiments of human behavior in a laboratory setting and concluded that obedience to authority usually disregards moral or legal normative standards. An individual's behavior is thus shaped by the environment, people around, and his figure of authority. "Because humans are social animals, human behavior is strongly influenced by behavior of other humans; this influence is often very direct"(Aarts & Dijksterhuis, 2003; Pg. 18). The current paper investigates as to what extent the human behavior is influenced by others. The paper adopts an investigative approach and cites peer reviewed articles to substantiate the discussion. Social identity theory is also an important theoretical explanation that explains how and why an individual voluntarily gets influenced from socially constructed relationships.
Aarts, H., & Dijksterhuis, A. (2003). The silence of the library: Environment, situational norm, and social behavior. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(1), 18-28.
Bearden, W.O., Netemeyer, R.G., & Teel, J.E. (1989). Measurement of consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence. Journal of consumer research, 15(4), 473-481.
Blass, T. (2009). The man who shocked the world: The life and legacy of Stanley Milgram. Basic Books (AZ).
Brewer, M.B., & Kramer, R.M. (1986). Choice behavior in social dilemmas: Effects of social identity, group size, and decision framing. Journal of personality and social psychology, 50(3), 543-549.
Behavior Change Chart
Janesta takes the doll Emily was playing with.
Emily bit Janesta.
Emily was picked up and told, "We don't bite," and held in lap for a few minutes before she runs to play with blocks.
Emily bit someone that was taking something from her in order to defend herself and received individual attention.
Without provocation Emily bites a boy
Emily bit the boy on the shoulder.
Emily was picked up by the assistant and moved her to the reading area where a book is read to her. Emily stayed there for ten minutes, quietly turning pages.
Emily bit the boy because she learned that she would get individual attention when she acted out in this way.
CE300 Unit 6 Project: Behavior Change Chart
How would you change the antecedent?
What do you expect to happen and why?
Behavior unraveled. (2011). Retrieved from http://behaviorunraveled.com/
Thus, each counselor in training was exposed to identical client situations and cues. Their behavior and general strategy in reacting to those cues was then what was measured through quantitative analysis. Perceived rapport was then measured by the trained client replicate with a measurable scale of one to five. Such data was recorded with an electronic device which reported levels of rapport minute by minute during the context of the session. Out of the total fifty nine interviews, 2773 minutes were highlighted for analysis. The data collected from this time duration of interviews was then statistically analyzed using MANOVA based on the number of variables within counselor behavior that can affect the rapport with the client. This method effectively provided study designers with a reliable and measurable way to assess therapist behaviors and their effectiveness in building rapport.
What did the research claim to show?
Based on the data analysis,…
Christopher F. Sharpley, Emma Fairnie, E Tabary-Collins, Rebecca Bates, Priscilla Lee. Counseling Psychology Quarterly. Abingdon: Mar 2000. Vol. 13, Is. 1; pg. 99, 18 pages
Parents can team up with teachers and schools by asking for school conferences where they can address the issue of bullying, (Barreto). The parents can also keep a record of incidents of harassment and the ways in which the school handled these situations. They should also insist on the putting up of a bullying prevention committee if one is not already in place. In order for the committee to be effective, it needs to have representatives from administration, teachers, school mental health teams and parents.
2. Teachers should be encouraged to involve the students in creating rules for the classroom regarding bullying. They should have a serious talk with the bully and explain the unacceptability of the behavior as well as its negative consequences. Reports of bullying should not be left to deal with bullying on their own in the hope that the experience will make them stronger individuals, bullying…
Barreto, Steven. Bullying and Harassment Stop When Parents Help Break the Silence. 2005.
23 May, 2010
Batsche, G.M., & Knoff, H.M. "Bullies and their victims: Understanding a pervasive problem in the schools." School Psychology Review, 22.6 (1994): 165-174.
behaviors inherent in e-tailing (in business-to-Consumer relationships / communications). Note the communications medium in which each behavior occurs.
Explain how each medium enables e-commerce.
E-tailing is the business of electronic retailing or retailing over the Internet (*). There are three types of e-tailing behavior: independent, intervening variables, and dependent variables.
The independent retailer will want to know two variables of the people who generally resort to e-commerce. These are: (a) personal characteristics and (b) environmental characteristics. The retailer will want to know the buying habits of the consumers in order to target a given market. These demographics include age, gender, marital status, occupation and income.
The retailer, too, will want to know the environmental variables, namely background variables of what or who influence the consumer; where the consumer shops; what the consumer would like to buy and so forth. This is so in order that the retailer would know…
Clark, Brian. 2010. Ten Timeless Persuasive Writing Techniques. CopyBlogger Media, LLC. Retrieved from http://www.copyblogger.com/persuasive-writing/
Turban, E., King, D., McKay, J., Marshall, P., Lee, J., & Viehland, D. (2006). Electronic commerce Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Cost behaviors in health care organizations are complex, and the costs are classified according to the relationship they have with the volume of the care provided. It is, therefore, important to address the cost allocation and how health care organizations can leverage costs to operate more effectively. There are five ways in which health care is funded. These include taxation of a municipality, state, or county, private (voluntary) health insurance, payments made out-of-pocket by patients, socialized health insurance (such as government-run options), and donations that are made to health care charities (Bond & Bond, 1994). Most countries offer a mix of those models for paying health care costs, and what the health care organizations do with that money is dependent on the needs of the organization itself and the patients in need of health care from that organization. In cost allocation, a business unit (a department, for example)…
Bond, J. & Bond, S. (1994). Sociology and Health Care. New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone.
Simmons, J. (2009). Primary Care Needs New Innovations to Meet Growing Demands. HealthLeaders Media.
Tulenko, et al., (2009). Framework and measurement issues for monitoring entry into the health workforce. Handbook on monitoring and evaluation of human resources for health. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009.
For example, an upscale restaurant, mid-market clothing store, hardware store, and general store could all be sampled, and over the course of four days shoppers could be asked to respond to a survey at the check-out counter about their perceptions of the store and shopping experience. The data could then be analyzed demographically, in terms of consumer perceptions, and also precisely what the different shoppers bought on different days, as opposed to what they said they would buy. This would also allow repeated testing -- using the same four-day musical format over different periods of the year at different stores. The article's study takes the form of a posttest only study design: the independent variable of the music (or in the case of the control group, the lack thereof) is applied, and then subjects record their responses.
The advantage to the test is that there is no 'learning,' necessary to…
North, Adrian C. & David J. Hargreaves. (1998). The effect of music on atmosphere and purchase intentions in a cafeteria. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 28 (24):
Many overweight people for example would attest to the fact that they have pictures of some skinny models in their rooms to motivate them to lose weight. Many would actually lose weight like that because it is a reminder of how they can look if they are able to lose weight. Setting ambitious goals is important because even if you are unable to go that far and really achieve those ambitious targets, you would still be far ahead of where you had started. It is like saying I will walk three miles in half an hour today. Then you start out and run like mad alternating with some fast walking only to realize that it is not entirely possible to walk three miles in half an hour but you will also notice that you reached very close to your goal and are far ahead of where you had started or…
For example, the fact that I am calm and in control helps me make good decisions based on analyzing the facts of a situation, rather than relying on emotions or factors that cannot be controlled. In my opinion, such characteristics are very important for managers. Also, I am interested in theoretical aspects, in identifying patterns and innovation oriented, which is extremely useful for entrepreneurs. I am logical and critical in work situations, which allows me to correctly assess various situations.
I am systematic, I enjoy making plans, developing schedules and procedures, I have a structured and strategic thinking. These are characteristics that managers must have, given the importance of the planning process within companies. I am interested in identifying the advantages and disadvantages of a situation before making a decision.
However, this type of personality reveals that I must improve my communication skills. This is because I have the tendency…
2. In your opinion, would stakeholders benefit from external reports that use variable costing for reporting? Give examples.
Variable costing is a costing method under which those costs of production that vary in relation to output are treated as product costs, it is commonly compared to absorption costing which is a method that treats all production costs as product costs regardless whether they are fixed or variable. Using variable costing can be beneficial to stakeholders due to the advantages in holds over the absorption costing. For instance, under variable costing, profits move in the same direction as sales since the profit for a period is not affected by changes in inventories considering factors such as costs, selling prices etc. are constant. This is an advantage to the stakeholders who are more concerned about the profits from which they benefit. When variable costing is used it is also easier to estimate…
Accountingformanagement.com (2009). Advantages of variable or direct or marginal costing system. Retrieved on March 27, 2010 from http://www.accountingformanagement.com/advantages_of_variable_costing.htm
Eldenburg, L.G. & Wolcott, S. (2005). Cost management: Measuring, monitoring, and motivating performance. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pg. 86-99
Behavior of Concrete in ivers and Marine Areas
The marine atmosphere and also the river atmosphere are infamously harsh on man-made structures; furthermore, the materials employed for construction are seriously examined through these elements and how they would impact each other. Strengthened concrete is among the materials frequently employed for near shoreline, as well as off the shore, structures. These structures, whether submerged in or suspended within the marine or river area are susceptible to high amounts of chlorides, sulphates and magnesium -- all of which are hazardous to the surrounding environment. Furthermore, they are also exposed to high velocity of waves, the potentially harmful results of that are well recorded. This paper will indicate whether another method of strengthened concrete design, inside the limits from the codes, for marine as well as river structures may be more beneficial in the perspectives of engineering, construction, sturdiness and financial aspects. This…
Castro P., Rincon O.T. de and Pazini E.J., (2001), Interpretation of chloride profiles from concrete exposed to tropical marine environments, Cement and Concrete Research, 31, 529 -- 537. Taken from: Overbeek, J and Van Der Horst. (2006). Revaluation of Concrete Design in Marine Engineering. Delta Marine Consultants.
Choong K.Y. (2003), Durability performance of fifties years old concrete jetties in tropical marine environment, International Conference on Port and Maritime R&D and Technology, 97 -- 103, Singapore. Taken from: Overbeek, J and Van Der Horst. (2006). Revaluation of Concrete Design in Marine Engineering. Delta Marine Consultants
Costa A. And Appleton J. (2002), Case studies of concrete deterioration in marine environment in Portugal, Cement & Concrete Composites, 24, 169 -- 179.
Dehwah, H.A.F., Maslehuddin, M., and Austin, S.A. (2002). Effect of Cement Alkalinity on Pore Solution Chemistry and Chloride-Induced Reinforcement Corrosion, ACI Materials Journal, V.99, No.3, pp. 227-233. Taken from: Islam, M., Islam, S., Mondal, B.C. And Islam, M.R. (2010). Strength behavior of concrete using slag with cement in sea water environment. Journal of Civil Engineering (IEB), 38 (2): 129-140.
ather, it is essential to convey the fact that walk-throughs are merely a means for instructors to learn about how to better their performance, and subsequently increase the knowledge and retention levels of their students. The important thing is to not make instructors feel defensive or overly-scrutinized, but to view the entire walk-through process in a positive means in which they can refine and improve their prowess as a pedagogue.
In terms of communicating the findings or the results from the walk-through to a particular teacher, it is important to do so in a manner that is encouraging and in which both professionals, -- the principal and the teacher -- are at ease. One of the ways to do so would be during a 'lunch and learn', informal lunchtime setting. It is probably best if the principal has some sort of written documentation delineating bot the positives and areas of…
Ellis, R. (2003). Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Raven, R. (2010). "The sandwich technique." Bright Hub Project Management. Retrieved from http://www.brighthubpm.com/resource-management/56534-the-sandwich-technique-for-giving-feedback/
Woodward, J.R. (2010). "Taking Learning to Task by Jane Vella: A Proactive Report." Jrwoodward.net. Retrieved from http://jrwoodward.net/2010/03/taking-learning-to-task-by-jane-vella-a-proactive-report/ .
As mentioned above, communication issues are frequent in this company in the case of top-down communication. This is probably because managers do not appreciate the importance of communication, or they prefer not to include their subordinates in the decision making process. The availability of top managers for their subordinates is another issue that must be modified in order to develop a fair organizational culture.
The Glaser test has also revealed some interesting facts about my company that I did not manage to observe previously, probably because of the involvement in the company's processes. For example, the rather high score in the teamwork and conflict scale reveals that the company is characterized by frequent conflict. Although the atmosphere at work is a rather friendly, collegial, and supportive one, small conflicts tend to develop quickly. This can be attributed to the reduced level of control exerted by the managers as a result…
1. Moss, N. (2001). Quiz: What Is your Corporate Culture? Retrieved March 4, 2011 from http://www.inc.com/articles/2001/08/23312.html# .
Nonetheless, despite Alex's impersonal and intimidating style of management, she has proven to be an effective motivator throughout all aspects of her role in the company, successfully spearheading the rebranding campaigns of two major skin care products while earning promotions along the way. In the 9:00PM section of the case study timeline, the reader is privy to a conversation between Alex's boss Sam Glass and his senior counterpart in the company, and their glowing appraisal of her managerial presence bodes well for her potential for future career success at Landon Care Products, Inc. When Sam Glass says "Alex makes waves, but that's the price you pay for having such a star," he is showing that executive management prioritizes performance and productivity over the personal feelings of low-level workers. By dismissing the concerns voiced by many of Alex's coworkers simply the waves made by star management material, Sam Glass shows that…
The product that will be analyzed in this case is represented by loose green tea. The product is sold to customers in clip sealed bags of different weights.
There is little design associated with this product. Basically, the tea leaves are hand-picked and taken through the production process. The quality standards on the product's appearance must be followed.
Procurement document control
In the tea industry, products must follow specific quality guidelines. Each loose green tea supplier must provide documents attesting the quality standards their products reach. Although tea price is settled by the stock exchange, specific price offers between suppliers and buyers in this industry reflect the level of quality of each tea type.
Instructions, procedures and drawings
The quality of green tea can be significantly affected by several activities: tea leaves picking, plucking, withering, rolling, fermentation, firing, sorting and packing (Nathmulls, 2014). The duration of each of…
1. Tea Manufacturing Process (2014). Nathmulls. Retrieved February 15, 2015 from http://www.nathmulltea.com/manufacturing.html .
2. Tea Quality Parameters (2014). UPASI Tea Research Foundation. Retrieved February 15, 2015 from http://www.upasitearesearch.org/tea-quality-parameters/ .
Fifteen questions used to measure willingness to AC were assembled into a questionnaire designed to examine the personality measures and items regarding employee response to various safety issues, adequacy of safety training, and attitudes toward other safety related issues. The most pertinent questions relating to AC were:
If I know a coworker is going to do a hazardous job, I am willing to remind him/her of the hazards (even if the employee is familiar with the job),
I am willing to warn my peers about working unsafely am willing to do whatever I can to improve safety, even confronting my peers about their unsafe acts.
The responses to these questions, measured on a 5-point Likert scale, were added to attain an AC score. The Likert technique presents a set of attitude statements. Subjects are asked to express agreement or disagreement of a five-point scale. Each degree of agreement is given…
Asfahl, C.R. (1999) Industrial safety and health management, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
Coopersmith, S. (1967). The antecedents of self-esteem. San Francisco: Freeman.
Curtis, S.L., (1995) "Safety and total quality management," Professional Safety, Jan., pp.18-20
DiPadova, L.N., and Faerman, S.R. (1993). "Using the competing values framework to facilitate managerial understanding across levels of organizational hierarchy," Human Resource Management, 32(1), 143-174
Watch at least three different episodes of the same television program. Analyze what behaviors are repeatedly observed, what influence these behaviors may have on individuals who watch the program regularly, what stereotypes are reinforced by the program, and what long-term effects may result from the program. Also examine the advertising content with regard to the target market of the ads (gender, age, socioeconomic status (SES)). Be sure to include SCHOLALY* research to help make sense of your results (with proper citations).
History of the Simpsons
The Simpsons is a TV sitcom that is full of stereotypes and that has been used for entertainment for years. In fact, it is the longest running sitcom in American history (Susman, 2003). The show is ranked 17th of today's most popular shows and is ranked 25th of all time. The program features the typical American dysfunctional family exaggerated to a comedic extent. There is…
Davis, Brian. (2009, October 12). Ratings: The Great Wife Hope. Message posted to http://www.simpsonschannel.com/2009/10/ratings-the-great-wife-hope/
Graves, SB (1999) Television and Prejudice Reduction: When Does Television as a Vicarious Experience Make a Difference? Journal of Social Issues
Volume 55, Issue 4, pages 707 -- 727,
Susman, Gary. (2003, January 17). Ay, Carumba. Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved from http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,409190,00.html
Scientific management can best be defined as a method for conducting business operations by implementing a scientific approach to a company's business practices. Scientific management is normally associated with the methodology used by manufacturing companies who employed assembly line workers on a large scale. The methodology emphasized the manner in which the employees were employed, especially concentrating on labor, time and measurement of performance of each employee. Early scientific management methods were also implemented in other areas (outside of manufacturing) such as; the railroads. One article states "that scientific management techniques were far more widespread in railroading than has been thought" (Aldrich, 2010, p. 503) and then went on to explain that "while most studies of scientific management in industry have emphasized incentive pay and time studies, in the railroads there were less important than standardization, production scheduling and routing, and assembly line repair methods" (Aldrich, p. 503).…
Aldrich, M.; (2010) On the track of efficiency: Scientific management comes to railroad shops, 1900 -- 1930, Business History Review, Vol. 84, Issue 3, pp. 501 -- 526
Koll, S.; (2009) Is bureaucracy compatible with democracy?, South African Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 28, Issue 2, pp. 134-145
Collective behavior" and the tonewall Riots
The term "collective behavior" refers to behavior that militates against social norms and conventions regarding the way that individuals should behave in society and differing to the way that they normally behave when not in a crowd environment. A crowd environment causes certain spontaneity to actions and a certain animal emotion that is lacking in regular 'separate existence'. cholars have devoted considerable attention to assessing why such is the case, and have generated various theories that may explain the phenomena.
Examples of instances of collective behavior include religious revivalist meetings where individuals behave in unusual ways, oftentimes totally contradictory to their private persona; panic in a burning location; or the spectacle of Black Friday where frenzy climbs and swirls around bargain hunting. The phenomenon of collective behavior too was clearly evident in the debacle of the "The tonewall Riots" and we will, therefore, take…
Armstrong, Elizabeth A., & Crage, SM. (2006) Movements and Memory: The making of the Stonewall Myth American Sociological Review 71. 724-751. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 14 Nov. 2011.
Baird, Robert M. (1995. ) Homosexuality: debating the issues. Amherst, N.Y.: Prometheus Books, Print. Notes on Stonewall (PGS 23-30)
Berk, Richard. (1974.). Collective Behavior W.C. Brown Co
Blumer, H. "Collective Behavior," in A.M. Lee, ed., Principles of Sociology, New York, Barnes & Noble, 1951
security behavior, a concept that touches on the behavior of consumers in regard to information technology systems is an important one to the global IT industry. Johnston and Warkentin (2010) for instance studied the influence of elements of fear appeal on the level of compliance of various end-users with the specific recommendations aimed at enacting specific individual IT security actions towards threat investigation. The authors performed an in-depth examination that yielded into the development as well as testing of a conceptual framework that represents an infusion of the concept of technology adoption and the theories of fear appeal. In this paper we investigate the concept of information security behaviors with a specific focus on consumer behavior and its related theories.
Extant literature has been dedicated to the concept of consumer behavior. The human information behavior has for a long time been studied under different environments and circumstances. Consumer…
Allen, C.T. And Madden, T.J. (1985), "A Closer Look at Classical Conditioning," Journal of Consumer Research, 12, December, pp. 301- 315
Barry, T.E. And Howard, D. (1990), "A review and critique of the hierarchy of effects in advertising," International Journal of Advertising, 9, pp. 121-135
Elliot, R. (1996), "Discourse analysis: exploring action, function and conflict in social texts," Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 65-68
Feinberg, R.A. (1986), "Credit Cards as Spending Facilitating Stimuli: A Conditioning Interpretation," Journal of Consumer Research, 13, December, pp. 348-356
The teachers acknowledge that the other disruptive behaviors propagates the destruction of the school property therefore computer-based management results in the upstaging of the security of the school properties. This eminent vandalism is prominent in the cases where the students would like to have money selling the school properties.
The teachers separately attribute the poor morals of the students to inexperience and the ignorance of the students. Involving of computer-based programs in the student behavior management clears the doubt in the effectiveness of the management of the issues entailed. The perspective to the approach assists in the enhancement of the Developmental period of the basis of the Phase learner. They view the approach to increase the contact between the teacher and the student in the countering of the trends emergent in the process. They attribute the computer approach to the advancement in the mastery of the life skills for the…
Dziegielewski, S.F. (2010). DSM-IV-TR in action. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
O'Donnell, a.M., Reeve, J., & Smith, J.K. (2011). Educational psychology: Reflection for action. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
Spiegler, M.D., & Guevremont, D.C. (2010). Contemporary behavior therapy. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Leaman, L. (2009). Managing very challenging behaviour. New York: Continuum
organizational Behavior Matter?
Organizational behavior is basically the study of how establishments can be structured more successfully, and how more than a few events in their outside circumstances result administrations. Learning a lot in regards to organizational behavior in today's commerce environment could aid those that are supervisors that are building up a better work that relates to an understanding of themselves and their supplementary. Organizational behavior matters because it is everything an organization cares about. Organizational behavior can assist a person in becoming more betrothed as an organizational member. Being able to get along with other people, finding a good job, bringing the level of stress, making decisions that are effective, and working successfully with a group. All of these things are good attributes and Organizational behavior addresses them! Organizations are all over the place. hen we come into this world, we are in an organization, we live, and…
Baker, H.K. (2005). Career Paths of Corporate CFOs and Treasurers. Financial Practice and Education. Journal of Applied Finance, 9(2), 38-50.
Graham, L.A. (1999). What Does a Graduate Need?: Conflict in CFO and Student Opinions. Financial Practice and Education, 60-67.
Zich, J. (2003, September 6). Ideas: We're All is This Together. Retrieved from Stanford Business: http://www.gsb.stanford.edu/community/bmag/sbsm9809/ideas.html
HM Organizational Behavior, Theories, Frameworks and the Links Between Individual and Organizational Performance
This work in writing conducts a critical evaluation of HM Organizational Behavior Theories Frameworks that link performance.
Defining and measuring the effectiveness and performance of workers is a specific part of the HM manager's work. The question presenting is one that asks how the skills, behaviors and attitudes that are needed by workers to successfully and effectively perform their roles is defined. One way of measuring this is linking the performance of individuals to the organizational goals. This is generally accomplished through use of competencies which are described as "the integrated knowledge, skills, judgment, and attributes that people need to perform a job effectively. By having a defined set of competencies for each role in the business, it shows workers the kinds of behaviors the organizational values…" (MindTools, 2011) Lawrence (1998) reports that people are "multifaceted and…
Alderfer, C.P. (1972). Existence, relatedness, and growth. New York: Free Press.
Argyris, C. & Schon, DA (1996) Organizational Learning II Theory, Method, and Practice. Reading MA: Addison-Wesley.
Beer, M. (1980) Organization Change and Development: A Systems View. Santa Monica, CA, Goodyear.
Castellano, William G. (nd) A New Framework of Employee Engagement. Center for Human Resource Strategy Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.
Environmental Cues Shape Behavior and Implications for the Environment
Humans are responsive creatures, and a wide array of environmental cues serves to shape human behavior. In some cases, the responses to environmental cues are strictly in the self-interests of the consumer, but in other cases, these responses can be modified to promote improved outcomes. Because people may not be able to gauge the impact of their individual behaviors on the environment, it is important to identify those environmental cues that promote and sustain environmentally responsible behaviors. To this end, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning how environmental cues shape behavior and how behavior can be modified to support sustainability to limit the negative impact on the environment. Finally, the paper provides two possible solutions that could successfully change behavior and habits to lessen negative environmental impact followed by a summary of the research and…
Dane-Staples, E. (2012, September). Gendered choices: Mascot interactions in minor league baseball. Journal of Sport Behavior, 35(3), 286-291.
Fulton, R. (2012, December). Perceptions of reality: 'Poverty tourism' often sits uneasily in the range of sightseeing options open to travellers in underdeveloped countries.
Geographical, 84(12), 52-59.
Henson, H.K. (2006, Summer). Evolutionary psychology, memes and the origin of war.
Environmental Cues Shape Behavior
Most people spend their daily lives completing tasks, which involve waiting or queuing on a line. With this situation of waiting like at ATMs, others avoid, postpone, or even abandon their endeavors. Other people endure the wait even though they feel frustrated or dissatisfied by the experience (Horowitz, 2007).
It is evident that irrelevant environmental cues like queue barriers used in airports, banks of ATMs serve as barriers that split people waiting in two categories. The first category comprises those who are within the system and the other category involves those outside the system. In-system people show increased persistence in task completion, action initiation and overall optimism (Ahmad & Prasad, 2012).
Situational cues have a substantial impact on behavior. For instance, wine shops that play French music have demonstrated an increase in the purchase of French wine. This suggests that cues not directly connected to a…
Ahmad, P. & Prasad, M. (2012). Environmental adaptations and stress tolerance of plants in the era of climate change. New York: Springer New York.
Cormier, L., Nurius, P., & Osborn, C.J. (2009). Interviewing and change strategies for helpers: Fundamental skills and cognitive behavioral interventions. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.
Horowitz, F.D. (2007). Exploring developmental theories: Toward a structural/behavioral model of development. Hillsdale, N.J: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Counterproductive and Productive Behavior in Organization
Productive and Counterproductive Behaviors Paper
In today's organizations, employees are meant to work effectively by utilizing the resource available in an organization efficiently in order to attain optimum productivity of labor. It is expected by the management that the employees should exhibit productive behaviors in essence contributing towards and organization's goal of optimality and objective targeting (Nathan & Gary, 2010). It appreciated that, absence of productive behavior within an organization result to adverse effects in operations and performance (Diego & izzi, 2010).
Definition of Productive and Counterproductive behaviors
Productive behaviors within an organization are the behaviors exhibited by employees that contribute positively towards achieving organizational objectives and goals (Britt & Jex, 2008). Productive behaviors are those that attend to employees' positive contribution to the organizational needs and set objectives. The positive productive behaviors are expected to increase an employee's productivity and thus contribute to…
Bowling, N.A., & Hammond, G.D. (2008). Ameta-analytic examination of the construct validity of the Michigan Organizational Assessment Questionnaire Job Satisfaction Subscale. . Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73, 63-77.
Britt, T.W., & Jex, S.M. (2008). Organizational Psychology: A Scientist-Practitioner Approach. New York: Wiley.
Diego, P., & Rizzi, C. (2010). Understanding Socialization Practice: Factors fostering and hindering its evolution. Society and Business Review, 5(2), 144-154.
Feather, N.T., & Rauter, K.A. (2004). Organizational citizenship behaviours in relation to job status, job insecurity, organizational commitment and identification, job satisfaction and work values. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77, 81-94.
Criminal Acts and Offender Behavior
Theoretical Dimensions of Criminal Behavior
Laws exist to maintain order and peace and provide for the safety and well-being of all members of society. Acts that disrupt and threaten this system of order are deemed criminal in nature and are therefore punishable by law. The psychology of criminal behavior addresses the thought processes that result in deviant acts and the motivations that drive them. It is believed that criminal types operate from a self-centered framework that shows little, if any regard, for the safety and well-being of others (Merton, 1968).
There are generally three broad theoretical models of criminal behavior: biological, psychological, and sociological. Most theoretical models overlap in their analysis and point to the genetic predisposition of some individuals toward criminal behavior, as well as environmental influences (Morley & Hall, 2003). Most commonly both play a part in developing a person's tendency to engage…
Holmes, S.E., Slaughter, J.R., & Kashani, J. (2001). Risk factors in childhood that lead to the development of conduct disorder and antisocial personality disorder. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 31, 183-193.
Merton, Robert K. (1968). Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press.
Morley, K., & Hall, W. (2003). Is there a genetic susceptibility to engage in criminal acts? Australian Institute of Criminology: Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 263, 1-6.
Raine, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q Wilson & J. Petrsilia (Eds.) Crime: Public policies for crime control. Oakland: ICS Press.
MANAGING CONSUME BEHAVIOS & UNDESTANDING CONSUME PECEPTIONS
Understanding consumer behavior is a pursuit that answers why, when, how, and where people buy or do not buy products. Consumer behavior is an area that combines topics such as economics, media studies, sociology, and psychology. Predicting and understanding consumer behavior is a challenge for experts and novices alike. Perception can be a biological process by which a person's brain interprets and organizes stimuli so as to gain awareness and understanding of one's environment. Perception can also be psychological and social phenomena. The paper surveys literature that proves the correlations and implications between consumer perception and consumer behavior.
Managing Consumer Behaviors & Understanding Consumer Perceptions
Perception is a large determinant or factor apart of behavior. Therefore, gaining understanding of consumer perceptions can illuminate the reasons behind certain types of consumer behaviors. With accurate data reflecting the connection between consumer behaviors and…
Christandl, F., & Garlin, T. (2011) The Accuracy of Consumers' Perception of Future Inflation Prices. Journal of Psychology, 219(4), 209 -- 216.
Schneider, B. (1973) The Perception of Organizational Climate: The Customer's View. Journal of Applied Psychology, 57(3), 248 -- 256.
Schneider, B., & Bowen, D.E. (1985) Employee and Customer Perceptions of Service in Banks: Replication and Extension. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70(3), 423 -- 433.
Schneider, B., Hanges, P.J., Goldstein, H.W., & Braverman, E.P. (1994) Do Customer Service Perceptions Generalize? The Case of Student and Chair Ratings of Faculty Effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(5), 685 -- 690.
Because other research has indicated that nonverbal cues can be laden with emotion, and even be important indicators of deception, understanding the use of nonverbal cues in response to certain questions by therapists can give those therapists an important point of reference in evaluating responses.
Unfortunately, despite some significance in the statistical findings of Hill and Stephany (1990), there are complications and limitations to the usefulness of this research study. In theory, this could be an incredibly useful research study because it could provide therapists with a new, statistically proven, tool for evaluating the responses of clients and improving their therapeutic methods. Unfortunately, even Hill and Stephany (1990) admit that they had difficulty reconciling their findings with the research already extant or hypothesized in the relevant literature. For example, previous research has indicated that less controllable nonverbal cues such as leg movements or posture shifts should be more significant than…
Hill, C.E. And Stephany, a. (1990). Relation of nonverbal behavior to client reactions. INSERT REMAINING CITATION INFORMATION
Behavior therapy uses rewards or reinforcements to create positive behaviors in order to replace destructive behaviors. Desensitizing is an important part of this type of therapy, where the patient confronts something they have been unable to deal with, such as a fear or anxiety, and gradually learns to become desensitized to the problem, which eliminates the negative behavior (Editors, 2006).
Basically, both therapies give the patient ways to deal with problems in their lives. The basic different between the two therapies is how they address and handle these problems. Psychotherapy attempts to give the patient ideas and tools to help them master their problems and reactions to problems, while behavioral therapy attempts to fully eliminate unwanted behaviors by desensitizing and behavior modification.
Editors. (2006). Psychotherapy: An overview of the types of therapy. etrieved from the Mayo Clinic Web site: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/psychotherapy/MH0000912 March 2007.
Little, N. (2006). Techniques in psychotherapy. etrieved…
Editors. (2006). Psychotherapy: An overview of the types of therapy. Retrieved from the Mayo Clinic Web site: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/psychotherapy/MH0000912 March 2007.
Little, N. (2006). Techniques in psychotherapy. Retrieved from the Anxiety-and-depression-solutions.com Web site: http://www.anxiety-and-depression-solutions.com/articles/conventional/psychotherapy/psychotherapy_techniques.php12 March 2007.
Accordingly, a McDonald's restaurant team is successively inter-reliant (Daft, 2008). Deprived of everyone working in unison and having adequate inspiration to deliver respectable and rapid good service, all members of the team usually fail. Consequently of one person losing inspiration or flopping to sufficiently achieve his duties, clients can protest and business can fail and be lost. Although most workers are trained to achieve multiple errands at numerous stations, they are not typically able to achieve all of these responsibilities concurrently.
Organizational justice which is really based on equity theory] and organizational citizenship behavior [OCB] have now really finally come into a worldwide business and cross-cultural research point-of-view. The investigation of these two theoretical frameworks really has unraveled over the past couple of years. From Adams' (Northouse, 2007) the equity theory has evolved into the idea of organizational justice and from Bateman and Organ progressed the idea of…
Corporation, M., 2009. Corporate. [Online]
Available at: www.mcdonalds.com/corp.html
[Accessed 7 February 2012].
Daft, R.L., 2008. The Leadership Experience.. Mason-Ohio: s.n.
What seems clear is that while not all criminality is stable, those people who begin offending at relatively young ages are generally those who are lifelong offenders. In this way, it can be said that some criminality is stable over time.
The stability of criminal behavior can have a significant impact on criminal justice policy. When rehabilitation efforts proved largely unsuccessful, there was a conservative swing back towards incarceration to drive down crime rates. While incarceration does not have the blanket effect of reducing crime rates, it does reduce crime rates when high-rate offenders are incarcerated. "Moreover, the incarceration of high-rate offend-ers is cost-effective, meaning that the financial cost of keeping them locked up off-sets the costs of the crimes they would commit if free. The same cannot be said of locking up low-rate offenders" (Wright et al., 2008). There is the idea that understanding the stability of criminal behavior…
Wright, J.P., Tibbetts, S.G., & Daigle, L.E. (2008). Criminals in the making. Thousand Oaks:
Sage Publications Inc.
The choice to do so and then controlling oneself, rather than being pushed and pulled by controls beyond oneself is as difficult and heart-wrenching as being controlled by others. Likewise, reconnecting to the world is difficult if the world is feared and seen as the source of pain. Counselors teach the patients to not think of the past but to act and do directly those things that would make it positive today, finding a new connection and making a new plan. (Glasser, 2001)
Behavioral Therapy, Psyweb.com. (2006). etrieved September 5, 2006 at http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp
Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet
Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (evised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.
Glasser, W. (2001.) the Institute for eality Therapy. etrieved September…
Behavioral Therapy, Psyweb.com. (2006). Retrieved September 5, 2006 at http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp
Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet
Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (Revised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.
Hipster Consumer Behavior
Following the publication of Norman Mailer's essay, "The White Negro" in 1957, the term "hipster" has become part of the American lexicon. The image of hipsters has changed in fundamental ways since that time, though, and marketers interested in this segment are therefore faced with some significant challenges in fine-tuning their marketing mixes to appeal to young adults who define themselves as hipsters or who are attracted to the image for other reasons. This paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning hipster consumer behavior, including a background, a description of the lifestyle branding theoretical foundation that can be used to formulate marketing initiatives, and the findings that emerged from the research. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
Although adults of any age may be regarded as "hipsters," this category is commonly regarded as…
Clark, L.S. (2007). Religion, media, and the marketplace. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers
Fabre, J. (2005). Smart nursing: How to create a positive work environment that empowers and retains nurses. New York: Springer.
Greif, M. (2010, November 15). A hipster's paradise: In the late 1990s, a down-at-heel 'hood in New York's Lower East Side became an enclave for rich white kids. New Statesman,
Alcoholism researchers developed this model. The model presumes that a consumer is in one phase of change at any given time. This model entails Maintenance, action, maintenance, preparation or pre-contemplation (Patrick 189). The concept is that consumers have to shift from one stage to the next. The stages prepare them to move to the next ones sequentially. This suggests that if consumers hurry through or if they skip stages they are likely to experience setbacks. In addition, different stages apply different strategies. For instance, a person who is addicted to smoking and is at the pre-contemplation stage: this means that the person is not even thinking of quitting the habit. Probably, such a person is always not ready to consider making a list of alternatives (Lucas 920).
This model has been successful in areas such as drug abuse, smoking, and alcohol. However, the model has been applied in changing health…
Biederman, J et al. Are girls with ADHD at risk for eating disorders? Results from a controlled, five-year prospective study. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2007 Aug;28(4):302-7.
Busko, Marlene. Girls With ADHD Are at Increased Risk for Eating Disorders and Depression.
Nov 08, 2007. Medscape News Today. Web.
8%) and all were s-commerce users. 58.2% were Korean natives, 14.6% were Chinese and 10.8% were American. 9.7% were European and 6.7% were Japanese. The majority used s-commerce to purchase tickets for entertainment (44.5%) and 67% had been using s-commerce for more than two years.
The study shows that transaction safety (.480) and reputation (.450) both at the .01 level of significance, most contribute to trust in an s-commerce platform. The combination of all seven factors explains .784 of all variation in the sample with regard to trust in s-commerce. This is statistically significant at the .05 level of confidence and shows that purchase intentions can be explained by the seven-factor model the researchers created (Kim, Park, 2013). The model of s-commerce security and reliability therefore is statistically sound and applies to the South Korean social e-commerce industry. Study limitation include the lack of cross-sectional design definition and the development…
Baird, C.H., and Parasnis, G., (2011). From Social Media to Social Customer Relationship Management, Strategy & Leadership, Vol. 39 Iss: 5, pp. 30 -- 37.
Rosa Diaz, I.M. (2013). Price assessments by consumers: Influence of purchase context and price structure. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 37(1), 13-20.
Hollenbeck, C.R., & Kaikati, A.M. (2012). Consumers' use of brands to reflect their actual and ideal selves on Facebook. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 29(4), 395.
Kim, S., & Park, H. (2013). Effects of various characteristics of social commerce (s-commerce) on consumers' trust and trust performance. International Journal of Information Management, 33(2), 318.
attitudes emotions influence behavios -Explain ways pesonality values influence behavios -Ceate a plan incease employee motivation, satisfaction, pefomance -Discuss topics comfotable -Discuss stuggle -Discuss elate oganiazation (human esouces) • Use ONLY pesent tense! NO PAST TENSE a -wite equested. Souces
The influences of attitudes and emotions on behavios
The behavio of individuals is influenced by seveal factos. Some of the most impotant factos that influence human behavio ae epesented by upbinging, education, pesonal expeience, the envionment, leaned behavios, thei thinking style, and othes. These factos basically shape the geneal lines of human behavio. Thee ae also othe factos that influence it.
The attitudes and emotions of individuals influence thei behavio on contextual basis. In othe wods, the behavio of individuals can be diffeent in situations that have little diffeence between them. This is because duing the situations in case, the individual can be affected by cetain attitudes and…
references of employees are addressed by different approaches. In addition to this, the different values of employees determine them to respond to different motivational factors. In other words, employees are motivated by different factors. What motivates certain employees, does not motivate others. Therefore, the company analyzes the behavior of employees and identifies their personality, their values, and the emotions that affect them.
The company struggles with identifying these issues. This is because in order to identify them, the employees must provide this information. In case they do not want to offer such information about themselves, it is difficult for the company to identify their motivational factors. This means that it is difficult to develop a motivational strategy that can increase their satisfaction. It is important to develop strategies that influence employees and their productivity.
1. Fargus, P. (2000). Measuring and Improving Employee Motivation. Pp 45. Prentice Hall. Retrieved March 18, 2013 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=-0VYAAAAYAAJ&q=employee+motivation&dq=employee+motivation&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=8V9HUdn1NIvltQbJooCoAw&ved=0CEkQ6AEwBQ .
2. Griffin, R. (2000). Management. Pp. 509. Cengage Learning. Retrieved March 18, 2013 from http://books.google.ro/books?id=7_NuZvMEvdgC&pg=PA509&dq=employee+motivation&hl=ro&sa=X&ei=8V9HUdn1NIvltQbJooCoAw&ved=0CFgQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=employee%20motivation&f=false .
As explained by Gelles and Strauss in their works, "With the exception of the police and the military, the family is perhaps the most violent social group, and the home the most violent social setting, in our society. A person is more likely to be hit or killed in his or her home by another family member than anywhere else or by anyone else." (Gelles & Straus, 1985, p. 88). Therefore it is evident from this theory that the social connections and settings can impact upon a person's conduct and emotions and could force them to act violently, proving this theory to be true in explaining the biological connection with criminal behavior.
Another biological theory mentions that the gender differences, especially in cases of men, generate strings of violent reactions to the opposite gender. This theory argues that the natural superiority instincts in men push their brain functions to act…
Barkow, J., Cosmides, L., & Tooby, J. (1992). The Adapted Mind. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bartol, C.R., & Bartol, a.M. (2007). Criminal Behavior: A Psychosocial Approach (8th Edition). Prentice Hall.
Dawkins, R. (1986). The Blind Watchmaker. Harlow, UK: Longman.
Gelles, R.J., & Straus, M.A. (1985). In Crime and the Family. Springfield, U.S.: Thomas.
respondent behavior and operant behavior, and give a real-Life example of each.
Operant behaviour encompasses the actions of an individual that are purposefully driven to produce a desired effect. Examples of operant behavior would include a driver pushing the gas pedal in a car to produce a faster speed and giving a child a much-desired gift with the expectation of seeing the child's glee in response. Respondent behavior encompasses the actions of an individual that are not purposefully driven but are nonetheless actions that result from external stimulation. These types of behaviours are frequently referred to as reflexes as they are involuntary responses to an environmental stimuli. Examples of respondent behavior include an individual's yelp of pain when he or she hits his or her finger with a hammer or when an individual involuntarily closes his or her eyes when he or she sneezes.
Distinguish between positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement,…
Therapeutic communities are important and valuable tools, but certainly not for all patients. Often, the community is made up of a certain ward or unit of the hospital, rather than the entire facility. Clearly, some patients, such as those suffering from serious debilitating diseases such as dementia or severe schizophrenia might not be physically or mentally able to exist in such a facility. However, for others, who have specific issues or health problems, and are in the facility hoping for a cure, the community concept can help them become more sure of themselves, more able to function outside the facility, and give them confidence in their decision-making abilities.
Often this term describes those in a substance abuse facility, but it can relate to other disorders and treatment facilities as well. Some of these communities are all group based, while others combine individual counseling and therapy with group activities. The main…
Butler, Gillian, and Freda McManus. Psychology: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Smith, David L. Approaching Psychoanalysis: An Introductory Course. London: Karnac Books, 1999.
The shopping experience for the typical American has changed dramatically over the last few years. Due to economic circumstances plaguing both the global and domestic economy, shoppers are now more apprehensive about their purchasing behavior. Likewise, other economic circumstances such as the decreasing trend of the average Americans income are also contributing to the extreme bout of pessimism the nation is currently experiencing. It is no secret that the economy is in shambles with unemployment around 8%. Many states such as Florida and Nevada are experiencing unemployment rates still near the 10% range. As such, shoppers are attempting to save more money and are foregoing luxury purchases until they feel more secure in their finances. From my interview, I also realized the prevalence of government intervention on the overall sentiments of the average American shopper. As I will allude to in the following pages, American shoppers are fearful…
NIKE Marketing Analysis
Business environment consists of numerous factors and forces that impact the business organizations' ability to operate competitively and profitably in their industry. These forces exist at both micro and macro levels and require the business organizations to show quick response to the uncertainties and complexities which may arise in the business environment from time to time (Cadle, Paul, & Yeates 2010). These forces impact each and every aspect of the business operations like marketing decisions, segmentation, targeting, and positioning strategies, consumers' buying behavior, marketing or promotional activities, and others (Lamb, Hair, & McDaniel 2012). This paper presents a report on the marketing analysis of Nike, Inc. -- a well-recognized brand in the clothing, sportswear, and footwear manufacturing industry of the world. The major sections include; impacts of micro and macro environments on Nike's marketing decisions, the segmentation criteria which it uses in different markets, the…
Cadle, J., Paul, D., & Yeates, D. 2010, Business Analysis, 2nd Edition. Swindon: British Informatics Society
Kurtz, D.L., MacKenzie, H.F., & Snow, K. 2010, Contemporary Marketing, 2nd Edition. Toronto: Nelson Education
Lamb, C., Hair, J., & McDaniel, C. 2012, Essentials of Marketing, 7th Edition. Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning
Nike, Inc. 2012, About Nike, Inc. Available from [Accessed September 30th, 2012]
The relevance of understanding group behavior as well as group properties cannot be overstated. This is more so the case for those keen on becoming effective managers and/or members of various groups. Managers who happen to be familiar with group behavior within organizations are more likely to fast track the accomplishment of the various goals and objectives of their respective organizations by amongst other things using groups more effectively.
Nature of Groups and Group Behavior within Organizations
A group according to Griffin and Moorhead (2011, p.240) "is two or more people who interact with one another such that each person influences and is influenced by each other person." It is however important to note that apart from this definition, several other definitions of a group have been proposed by various authors.
Types of Groups
In basic terms, groups can be divided into two. On one hand…
Griffin, R.W. And Moorhead, G. 2011. Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. 10th ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Hellriegel, D. And Slocum, J.W. 2007. Organizational Behavior. 11th ed. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.
Martin, J. 2005. Organizational Behavior and Management. 3rd ed. Bedford Row, London: Thomson Learning.