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Behavior Modification Therapy
Effects of Behavior Modification Therapy on Children with Low Self-Esteem
Behavior modification therapy is used in changing the behavior of children, adolescents and adults. However, its use in modifying or dealing with self-esteem is not considered to be very effective and is not used frequently. This paper discusses the basic elements of behavior modification therapy along with the theoretical concepts involved in it. Later on in the paper, ten different studies are discussed mentioning the efficacy of the therapy with regards to low self-esteem in children. In the end, the conclusion about the effectiveness of the behavior modification therapy in treating children with low self-esteem is discussed.
Effects of Behavior Modification Therapy on Children with Low Self-Esteem
Behavior Modification Therapy
Majority of behavior modification research regarding children require management of extreme outcomes. There are basic methods involved in behavior modification therapy which are positive reinforcement and punishment.…
Bolger, K.E., Patterson, C.J., & Kupersmidt, J.B. (1998) Peer relationships and self-esteem among children who have been maltreated. Child Development, 69(4), 1171 -- 1197.
Haney, P., & Durlak, J. (1998). Changing self-esteem in children and Children: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 423 -- 433.
Kendall, P. (Ed.). (1991). Child and adolescent therapy: Behavior modification procedures. New York: Guilford Press.
Kernis, M.H., Brown, A.C., & Brody, G.H. (2000). Fragile self-esteem in children and its associations with perceived patterns of parent -- child communication. Journal of Personality, 68(2), 225 -- 252.
Behavior Modification of Drinking More Water
Water is one of the most important ingredients in the body to an extent that it constitutes 75% of the human body. As a result, it's an essential part of human existence that has several major benefits to the body. In the past few weeks, I have noted that I do not really drink much water as I ought to despite of its importance to my well-being and health. I have ignored drinking water because of increased consumption of carbonated drinks, which have significant health effects on my body. The decision to consume these drinks has been based on the flavor and taste they have over water that doesn't necessarily have much of a taste. Furthermore, this decision has been influenced by the attractive marketing and promotional strategies used by companies to market the flavored soft drinks.
In the past few weeks, I have…
Engelhardt, N. (2012, October 13). Behaviour Modification: Daily Water Intake.
Retrieved October 31, 2013, from http://prezi.com/pr-x1xv6sjus/behaviour-modification-daily-water-intake/
Ko, J., Hung, Y. & Chu, H. (2007). Mug-Tree: A Playful Mug to Encourage Healthy
Habit of Drinking Fluid Regularly. Retrieved from Walden University website: http://mll.csie.ntu.edu.tw/papers/Ubicomp2007LBR_1569054868_camera_ready.pdf
Behavior Modification and Skill Enhancement for High-Risk Students in Community Colleges
Community colleges traditionally maintain an open-door policy, often enrolling students who are poorly prepared to enter higher education.
Once these students are enrolled, they often find themselves struggling with severe skill deficiencies and, in a survey of 6,246 students attending a large, urban community college, Jack Friedlander (1981) discovered that, of the students who were not confident in one or more skill areas, less than 30% took advantage of available support services to help with issues of remediation.
This issue is one of great debate today, with many educators arguing that it is the responsibility of community colleges to assess underprepared and "at-risk" or "high risk" students to better provide the developmental support requisite to educational success.
This research project will define underlying causal factors for high-risk behaviors in community college students and compare/contrast outcomes when neurolinguistic programming is…
Bandler, R., & Grinder, J. (1975). The Structure of Magic. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books.
Bandler, R. & Grinder, J., Frogs into Princes, Moab, Utah: Real People Press, 1979.
Bandler, Richard, and John Grinder, Reframing, Moab, Utah: Real People Press, 1982.
Collingwood, Chris & Jules. (1996). Inspiritive: Teaching Lasting Life Skills Soft Shores Industries Pty Ltd.
While this will not necessarily change the behavior it will provide a blueprint for making the person more aware of what he eats and why it happens outside of hunger.
The next step would be stimulus control. This involves identifying the environmental cues that are associated with overeating and modifying them so that they are reduced as triggers.
Suggestions for ways patients can implement this strategy include:
eating only at the kitchen table without watching television;
keeping no snack foods in the house;
laying out exercise clothes the night before as a reminder to walk or jog in the morning (FOEYT, 2000)."
Cognitive restructuring is used to help the person become aware of himself. In addition it can help the person understand why he overeats and present a realistic expectation about the consequences of that behavior and what benefits are realistically going to come from not overeating.
Stress management is…
Foreyt, John P (2000) Successful Management of the Obese Patient.
American Family Physician
Mulcahy, Nicholas (2003) Psychotherapy may help the obese lose weight: behavior modification insufficient.(Clinical Rounds). From: OB GYN News
Tucker, Miriam E. (2005) Is binge eating disorder tied to obesity? Maybe: patients diagnosed with BED are demographically different from those with either anorexia or bulimia.(Psychosomatic Medicine) Clinical Psychiatry News
In using operant conditioning to modify temper tantrums, the most effective and efficient method uses a system of positive reinforcement that rewards a child for reacting to a situation in a manner other than a tantrum, and a negative reinforcement that involve taking away something a child if the child throws a tantrum. hen the child is presented with a situation that usually would result in a tantrum, the ideal response is to face it calmly. If the child behaves in this manner, positive reinforcement is used, and the child is rewarded. This reward could take the form of a sticker, a toy, a privilege, or another small but tangible reward. if, however, the child responds to the situation by throwing a tantrum, negative reinforcement is applied. The child is removed from the situation and something similar to that mentioned above is taken away. The key to the success of…
Skinner, B. (1953). Science and Human Behavior. Retrieved from http://www.bfskinner.org/BFSkinner/PDFBooks_files/Science_and_Human_Behavior.pdf
ECOLOGICAL BEHAVIO MODEL & BEHAVIO MODIFICATION TECHNIQUES
The behavior management technique that the teacher along with the assistant used was a form of negative reinforcement and punishment. When Megan displayed disruptive behaviors, she was likely spoken to, in some form of warning, and then removed from the activity, that despite her disruptive behavior, it was an activity in which she actually wanted to participate. The technique planned reinforced her behavior, clearly because as stated, her disruptive behaviors continued in frequency and intensity for group time. They did not support Megan in positive ways, so this approach was a negative reinforcement of Megan's behavior. Megan was furthermore punished for her behavior with her strategic removal from the activity. Megan in some way, received positive reinforcement because of her actions because she received more intense and direct attention from the assistant teacher and then the assistant teacher and the lead…
Dunlap, L.L. (2009). Chapter 13: Behavior Management. An introduction to Early Childhood Special Education. NJ: Pearson.
Computer programming also allows the student unlimited control of stimulus presentations. Computer-based reinforcers can also immediately follow responses. And computers allow concurrent or "cooperative" use (Goldsmith & Lelanc).
This creates a three-dimensional, computer-generate environment, where people can behave and interact (Goldsmith & Lelacn 2004). It has been shown effective in treating phobias, burn pain during wound care as adjunct therapy; self-mastery of wheelchair use by children with cerebral palsy; and movement by children recovering traumas and diseases. It can allow the elimination and gradual introduction of distracting stimuli, exaggeration and then gradual return to normal stimuli features and unlimited creation of exemplars to promote generalizations. It is also a safer alternative to skills commonly taught in the natural environment. Virtual reality training, however, is costly, has programming requirements and lacks knowledgeable clinicians and researcher to handle it. Nonetheless, technological advances and evolving lower-cost systems may make virtual reality…
Cautilli, Joseph D, Hancock, Margare a., Thomas, C.A., and Tillman, Chris. Behavior Therapy and Autism Issues in Diagnosis and Treatment. Behavior Analyst Today:
Behavior Analyst Online, 2002. Retrieved on March 20, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_6884/is_2_3/ai_n28132951?tag=content;col1
Goldsmith, Tina R. And LeBlanc, Lynda. Use of Technology in Interventions for Children with Autism, Journal of Early and Intensive Behavioral Intervention: Behavior
Analyst Online, 2004. Retrieved on March 20, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_6887/is_2_1/ai_n28246902
Learning Theory and Conditioning
Whether there are ethical objections to using learning theory to shape the behavior of oneself or others is a very interesting ethical question, which has no clear-cut answer. Learning theory is critical to teaching people, and, particularly with children, is a universal part of the behavior conditioning process. Moreover, many adults choose to use learning theory to help retrain themselves, eradicating bad habits and reinforcing good habits. The real ethical dilemma arises when one adult person is consciously using learning theory in a goal-directed manner to change the behavior of another adult person without that other person's permission.
Few people could argue that there are objections to using learning theory to shape behavior in children. Whether a person is an advocate of rewards-based behavior modification in children, whereby children are given rewards for participating in particular behaviors, or an advocate of punishment for children, whereby children…
Also termed "single-case research" (Sheperis, Young & Daniels, 2017), time series research is "any research that takes place over time, in which different people or cases may be looked at in each time point" (Neuman, 2003, p. 546). A results of a time series study of the behavioral problems of one young learner, Kaya, are presented below, followed by a description of an appropriate behavioral intervention and how its effectiveness will be measured using another time series study.
A breakdown of Kaya's observed behaviors during 3 separate weekdays during school hours is provided in Table 1 and depicted graphically in Figure 1 below.
Breakdown of observed behaviors
Frequency of Off-Task Behaviors (1)
Frequency of Physically Aggression (2)
Frequency of Verbal Aggression (3)
(1) = failure to maintain eye contact with task at hand for…
Gage, N. A. & Sugai, G. (2013, May). Truancy and zero tolerance in high school: Does policy align with practice? Education & Treatment of Children, 36(2), 117-119.
Guerra, N. G. & Boxer, P. (2005, May 1). A cognitive-ecological approach to serving students with emotional and behavioral disorders: Application to aggressive behavior. Behavioral Disorders, 30(3), 277-279.
Sheperis, C. J., Young, J. S., & Daniels, M. H. (2017). Counseling research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods (2nd ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Neuman, W. L. (2003). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches, 5th ed. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Environmental Cues Shape Behavior
Most people spend their daily lives completing tasks, which involve waiting or queuing on a line. With this situation of waiting like at ATMs, others avoid, postpone, or even abandon their endeavors. Other people endure the wait even though they feel frustrated or dissatisfied by the experience (Horowitz, 2007).
It is evident that irrelevant environmental cues like queue barriers used in airports, banks of ATMs serve as barriers that split people waiting in two categories. The first category comprises those who are within the system and the other category involves those outside the system. In-system people show increased persistence in task completion, action initiation and overall optimism (Ahmad & Prasad, 2012).
Situational cues have a substantial impact on behavior. For instance, wine shops that play French music have demonstrated an increase in the purchase of French wine. This suggests that cues not directly connected to a…
Ahmad, P. & Prasad, M. (2012). Environmental adaptations and stress tolerance of plants in the era of climate change. New York: Springer New York.
Cormier, L., Nurius, P., & Osborn, C.J. (2009). Interviewing and change strategies for helpers: Fundamental skills and cognitive behavioral interventions. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.
Horowitz, F.D. (2007). Exploring developmental theories: Toward a structural/behavioral model of development. Hillsdale, N.J: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Behavior therapy uses rewards or reinforcements to create positive behaviors in order to replace destructive behaviors. Desensitizing is an important part of this type of therapy, where the patient confronts something they have been unable to deal with, such as a fear or anxiety, and gradually learns to become desensitized to the problem, which eliminates the negative behavior (Editors, 2006).
Basically, both therapies give the patient ways to deal with problems in their lives. The basic different between the two therapies is how they address and handle these problems. Psychotherapy attempts to give the patient ideas and tools to help them master their problems and reactions to problems, while behavioral therapy attempts to fully eliminate unwanted behaviors by desensitizing and behavior modification.
Editors. (2006). Psychotherapy: An overview of the types of therapy. etrieved from the Mayo Clinic Web site: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/psychotherapy/MH0000912 March 2007.
Little, N. (2006). Techniques in psychotherapy. etrieved…
Editors. (2006). Psychotherapy: An overview of the types of therapy. Retrieved from the Mayo Clinic Web site: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/psychotherapy/MH0000912 March 2007.
Little, N. (2006). Techniques in psychotherapy. Retrieved from the Anxiety-and-depression-solutions.com Web site: http://www.anxiety-and-depression-solutions.com/articles/conventional/psychotherapy/psychotherapy_techniques.php12 March 2007.
8%) and all were s-commerce users. 58.2% were Korean natives, 14.6% were Chinese and 10.8% were American. 9.7% were European and 6.7% were Japanese. The majority used s-commerce to purchase tickets for entertainment (44.5%) and 67% had been using s-commerce for more than two years.
The study shows that transaction safety (.480) and reputation (.450) both at the .01 level of significance, most contribute to trust in an s-commerce platform. The combination of all seven factors explains .784 of all variation in the sample with regard to trust in s-commerce. This is statistically significant at the .05 level of confidence and shows that purchase intentions can be explained by the seven-factor model the researchers created (Kim, Park, 2013). The model of s-commerce security and reliability therefore is statistically sound and applies to the South Korean social e-commerce industry. Study limitation include the lack of cross-sectional design definition and the development…
Baird, C.H., and Parasnis, G., (2011). From Social Media to Social Customer Relationship Management, Strategy & Leadership, Vol. 39 Iss: 5, pp. 30 -- 37.
Rosa Diaz, I.M. (2013). Price assessments by consumers: Influence of purchase context and price structure. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 37(1), 13-20.
Hollenbeck, C.R., & Kaikati, A.M. (2012). Consumers' use of brands to reflect their actual and ideal selves on Facebook. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 29(4), 395.
Kim, S., & Park, H. (2013). Effects of various characteristics of social commerce (s-commerce) on consumers' trust and trust performance. International Journal of Information Management, 33(2), 318.
Managing Behaviors & Teaching Social Skills
Antisocial behavior in schools in on the rise and has become a concern in school systems, from both a learning perspective and from a safety perspective, as well. Previously, schools have dealt with such behaviors using punitive measures such as expulsion, or even law enforcement measures to attempt to discourage youth from behaving in an undesirable manner. These programs have had little or no effect on curbing behavior problems in schools. Second Step and Boys Town are programs, which implement a positive approach to behavior management. These programs teach youth alternatives to violence and stress problem solving, coping, and conflict management. These programs have had considerably greater success than their predecessors. This research will qualitatively explore the theoretical issues behind the success of these two programs and take a critical look at them to explore ways in which they may be further improved for…
Butterworth, F. (1998, July 26). Why the South's murder rate is so high. The New York Times on the Web. ( http://www.nytimes.com )
Capra. F. (1996). The Web of Life. New York: Anchor Books.
Carlson, N.R. (1994). Physiology of behavior. Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Cohen, D., Nisbett, R.E., & Bowdle, B.F. (1996). Insult, aggression, and the southern culture of honor: an "experimental ethnography." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 945-960.
E. Conflict Resolution
Conflict resolution is inclusive of several specific steps which are stated to include:
(1) Fact finding: Identify all individuals who are affected by the behavior and get complete history about the patterns of physician's behavior, preferably in writing (assuring the complainant about confidentiality). Identify probable risk to all affected individuals including patients and the organization itself. Make sure and document this step.
(2) Meetings: meeting comes when manager has got the most complete knowledge about the issue and its consequences. It is advised to plan for the meeting beforehand. Set the agenda for the meeting, communicate about the issues and how it is affecting staff and the workflow, and what is expected or desired. listen, listen, listen to the physician (sometimes just listening itself resolves the issue or gives you an idea about what to do). Stay focused on the issue, don't send mixed messages…
Bartholomew K. Ending Nurse-to-nurse Hostility. Marblehead, MA: HealthPro, 2006.
Brown D. At med schools, a new degree of diversity. Washington Post; June 1, 2007:A1.
Early P, Soon C, Soon a. Cultural Intelligence: Individual Interactions Across Cultures. Stanford University Press, 2003.
Ford, John (2010) Contextualizing Disruptive Behavior in Health Care as a Conflict Management Challenge (nd) Conflict Management Practice Notes. Online available at: http://johnford.blogs.com/jfa/2009/03/contextualizing-disruptive-behavior-in-health-care-as-a-conflict-management-challenge.html
Activities to Reduce Inappopiate Behavios Displayed by Childen With Autism and Othe Developmental Disabilities
The pupose of this dissetation study is to test the effectiveness of an eveyday activities-based potocol (Holm, Santangelo, Fomuth, Bown & Walte, 2000) fo managing challenging and disuptive behavios of 13- to 23-yea-old esidential students (male and female) with Autism who live at Melmak Homes, Inc., of southeasten Pennsylvania, and attend school o adult day pogams. Applied behavio analysis and a focus on eveyday occupations (activities) will be combined duing the intevention phase. Reinfocement will be fo subtask completion and duation of paticipation, NOT fo absence of taget maladaptive o disuptive behavios. Behavio analysts, howeve, will document the fequency/duation of the taget behavios duing each condition. Inteventions will occu daily, Monday though Fiday. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, acoss-subjects design with nine subjects will be used to evaluate change in behavios unde altenating conditions. Data will be analyzed…
references, and favorites)
Child and Family Assets
(Abilities, strengths, skills, accomplishments, and capabilities)
Functional and Meaningful Interactions
(Purposeful interactions; ways interests and assets are used in everyday life)
Human Behavior Social Environment
This paper begins with an observation of a 4-year-old boy at the train station setting. The surrounding company is the family that consists of father, mother, a son, and three-daughters. The goal of the observation is to establish the boy's entire behavior together with his reaction to punishment and reinforcement. The method used was the Systematic Observation consisting of event sampling and specimen record that lasted for 53 minutes.
The report gathered information through "Systematic Observation." I formulated the design through the simple form of recording data through event sampling and specimen record. In most cases, researchers can record descriptions of the entire scope of behavior using this method (Hutchison, 2008). Further, the particular behavior instances of the specified period were recorded.
The Piaget Cognitive Development Theory was used in analyzing the behavior of the child. The child is at proportional stages of between two…
Freeman, K.A. (Spring 2000). Positive behavior support: Expanding the application of applied behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst 23 (1): 85 -- 94.
Germaine, C.B and Bloom, M. (1999). Human Behavior in the Social environment: an ecological view. New York: Columbia University Press.
Gilligan, C. (1993). In a different voice: psychological theory and women's development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Greene, R.R. (2008). Human behavior theory and social work practice. New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Publishers
This claim is supported by other researchers cited in the work including Albin, Lucyshyn, Horner, & Flannery (1996).
The applied behavioral and positive behavior approach developed by Symon considers individual and family needs for patients with autism as part of the larger system and factors that might influence a child's behaviors, in order to develop more comprehensive support interventions.
The author supports use of applied behavioral analysis procedures where parents would work with their children via a clinic or at home in a controlled setting that encourages one-on-one interaction. The role of the parent in this situation would be to present children with "a variety of discrete instructional tasks" that would require on-step commands. The child participating would be rewarded for giving correct responses and punished for not giving correct ones, in order to train children to respond to different commands and reinforcing positive behavior.
The approach suggested by the…
Schoen, Alexis a. "What Potential Does the applied Behavior Analysis Approach Have for the Treatment of Children and Youth with Autism?" Journal of Instructional Psychology, 30(2), (2003):125
Symon, Jennifer B. "Parent education for autism: Issues in providing services at a distance." Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 3(3), (2001):160
Applied Behavior Analysis
Organizational Behavior Case
This case is interesting because it portrays the cultural variances that an employee might find in different cultures from a first person perspective. First, an American employee shares his perspective about his experience working on a project in Germany. He finds that the employees are extraordinarily methodological during the planning phase of the project; then rather autonomous throughout the duration of the project. In his experience American firms generally set a goals and performance targets earlier in the project and do not require that the entire team comes to a consensus about the underlying ideologies that are driving the project while also expecting that the team leader takes a more authoritarian type approach.
From the German perspective, they feel as if they can devote all of the team's resources and energies in the planning phase then they can save a bunch of time down the road because…
Luthans, F., Youssef, C., & Rawski, S. (2011). A Tale of Two Paradigms: The Impact of Psychological Capital and Reinforcing Feedback on Problem Solving and Innovation. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 333-350.
Somewhat unsurprisingly, an instructional strategy that these teachers frequently used was modification. Our analysis identified the following modifications: reteaching the material, using instructional materials, prompting/cueing, modeling, changing the task, and giving students more practice on the task.... If the teacher believed that the modification was not sufficient in aiding student learning, she typically reevaluated the student's learning difficulty and state of mind and then selected a new modification to apply. (Stough & Palmer, 2003)
These are the types of decisions and criteria for the student with special needs that must be evaluated when attempting any type of no only cognitive modification, but any type of intervention.
Since the late nineties strategy interventions such as cognitive modification have been increasing in use in the area of special education. The has been an array of cognitive interventions put into practice such as, specific problem-solving skills, advanced organizational skills, approaching reading with…
Bouck, E.C. (2004). Exploring Secondary Special Education for Mild Mental Impairment: A Program in Search of Its Place. Remedial and Special Education, 25(6), 367-377
Bray, P., & Cooper, R. (2007). The Play of Children with Special Needs in Mainstream and Special Education Settings. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 32(2), 37-48
Gersten, R., Schiller, E.P., & Vaughn, S. (Eds.). (2000). Contemporary Special Education Research: Syntheses of the Knowledge Base on Critical Instructional Issues. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Neenan, M., & Dryden, W. (2004). Cognitive Therapy: 100 Key Points. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
South Australia Ambulance Service
Organizational Behaviour Case Analysis
ay Main should develop a system which empowers the culture of organization along with the shift towards automation and excellent customer service.
Has to do what
The leadership of South Australia Ambulance Service is required to do the following:
To set a strategic direction for SAAS this would be compatible to the new strategic plan.
Meet the service expectations of the clients by focusing more on efficient customer services.
Empower the service delivery personnel fully and hold them accountable for every action.
The expectations of donators and community should be aligned.
Make SAAS compatible to respond to mass casualties.
Workforce retention should be increased.
Emergency sector and healthcare should be integrated to respond efficiently to any casualty.
Interventions should be prioritized.
The impact of any change should be evaluated on the patient as patients' life is more important. (Daniels 2009)
Steven McShane, Sandra Steen, (2008). Canadian Organizational Behaviour, Seventh Edition. McGraw-Hill Ryerson Higher Education; Canadian edition
Abernathy, W.B. (2006). Designing and managing an organization-wide incentive pay system. Memphis, TN: Abernathy & Associates.
Abernathy, W.B. (2006). The sin of wages: Where the conventional pay system has led us and how to find a way out. Memphis, TN: PerfSys Press.
Alvero, A.M., Bucklin, B.R., and Austin, J. An objective review of the effectiveness and essential characteristics of performance feedback in organizational settings. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management vol. 21 (2001). pp. 3 -- 29
Assessing Problematic Behavior
Assessing problematic behavior in children requires a careful assessment design. elying solely on subjective measurements is likely to skew the "results" to reflect the pre-observation biases or beliefs of the observer. This statement is not meant to imply that observers are in any way dishonest or lacking in integrity. ather, because children who are exhibiting problematic behaviors are likely to exhibit a number of behaviors in a short period of time and may well exhibit more than one behavior at a time. Without a clearly established method for identifying and calculating the presence of these behaviors, it is nearly impossible to create an accurate record of the behaviors given the overwhelming wealth of data that will be presented to the observer in the course of even of short and seemingly simple and straightforward observation.
The subject at hand, Kaya, has demonstrated a number of problematic…
Cale, S. et al. (2009). Context-Based Assessment and Intervention for Problem Behavior in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder. Behavior Modification 3(6): 707-742.
Parents can team up with teachers and schools by asking for school conferences where they can address the issue of bullying, (Barreto). The parents can also keep a record of incidents of harassment and the ways in which the school handled these situations. They should also insist on the putting up of a bullying prevention committee if one is not already in place. In order for the committee to be effective, it needs to have representatives from administration, teachers, school mental health teams and parents.
2. Teachers should be encouraged to involve the students in creating rules for the classroom regarding bullying. They should have a serious talk with the bully and explain the unacceptability of the behavior as well as its negative consequences. Reports of bullying should not be left to deal with bullying on their own in the hope that the experience will make them stronger individuals, bullying…
Barreto, Steven. Bullying and Harassment Stop When Parents Help Break the Silence. 2005.
23 May, 2010
Batsche, G.M., & Knoff, H.M. "Bullies and their victims: Understanding a pervasive problem in the schools." School Psychology Review, 22.6 (1994): 165-174.
modification of the environment by public health practitioners in order to prevent injury and disease. Like, within mid 1850s, there was removal of a pump which had been handle from a contaminated well in London by Dr. John Snow for the purpose of stopping a deadly outbreak of cholera. There has been modern modification of the environment, for instance, airbags and seat belts have saved many lives. Some of the modification of the environment like, community parks and sidewalks has raised physical activities in the act of assisting to reduce obesity.
In 1960s, criminologists were interested specifically in recognizing environmental characteristics which are connected with crime. Such characteristics entail availability of weapon, physical design of a given space, figure of people within the space as well as the intention of being there. Such characteristics are related with immediate environment but not just wider social factors, like racism, poverty, gender inequality,…
CDC. (2007) "Youth risk behavioral surveillance." United States
Crowe TD. (2000) "Crime prevention through environmental design: applications of architectural design and space management concepts." Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Department of Education, National Center for Educational Statistics. (2006) "Indicators of school crime and safety" Washington, DC: Department of Education.
Mair JS, Mair M. (2003) "Violence prevention and control through environmental design." Annu Rev Public Health.
security behavior, a concept that touches on the behavior of consumers in regard to information technology systems is an important one to the global IT industry. Johnston and Warkentin (2010) for instance studied the influence of elements of fear appeal on the level of compliance of various end-users with the specific recommendations aimed at enacting specific individual IT security actions towards threat investigation. The authors performed an in-depth examination that yielded into the development as well as testing of a conceptual framework that represents an infusion of the concept of technology adoption and the theories of fear appeal. In this paper we investigate the concept of information security behaviors with a specific focus on consumer behavior and its related theories.
Extant literature has been dedicated to the concept of consumer behavior. The human information behavior has for a long time been studied under different environments and circumstances. Consumer…
Allen, C.T. And Madden, T.J. (1985), "A Closer Look at Classical Conditioning," Journal of Consumer Research, 12, December, pp. 301- 315
Barry, T.E. And Howard, D. (1990), "A review and critique of the hierarchy of effects in advertising," International Journal of Advertising, 9, pp. 121-135
Elliot, R. (1996), "Discourse analysis: exploring action, function and conflict in social texts," Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 65-68
Feinberg, R.A. (1986), "Credit Cards as Spending Facilitating Stimuli: A Conditioning Interpretation," Journal of Consumer Research, 13, December, pp. 348-356
Tourist Behavior Toward Nature-Based Tourism Activities
For most of the developing countries tourism industry is playing a very important role in boosting their economies. In 2004, it was found out that Asia Pacific was one of the fastest growing tourism regions (Cruey, 2005). According to WTO, up to 3% of world's tourism market is made up of Thailand, Indonesia, India and Sri Lanka. It was in 1970's that the development of Thai international tourism started (Mcdowall and Wang, 2007). Tourism industry accounts for 5.1% of Thailand's National Gross Domestic Product (Tourism Authority of Thailand, 2009). For the purpose of providing a proper development direction, the National Economics and Social Development Plan (NESDP) served as a guide (Mcdowall and Wang, 2007). The result of the survey which was conducted by the Universities of USA and Thailand, showed that Thailand stood on the first place as best hospital city for all the…
Blamey, R.K. (2001). Principles of ecotourism. In Encyclopedia of Ecotourism, Weaver D (ed). CAB International: Wallingford, England; 5 -- 22.
Brass, J.L. (1997). Community Tourism Assessment Handbook. Western Rural Development Centre, Utah State University, ed.
Business Day, (2005). Tourist Sector Wins 3.65BN Baht Budget. [Electronic bulletin board], February 24, 2005.
Carter, R. And Fabricius, M. (2007). UNWTO Conference in Topic is Creating campetitve advantage for your destination, Budapest, UNWTO Consultants (TEAM tourism Consulting).
Environmental Cues Shape Behavior and Implications for the Environment
Humans are responsive creatures, and a wide array of environmental cues serves to shape human behavior. In some cases, the responses to environmental cues are strictly in the self-interests of the consumer, but in other cases, these responses can be modified to promote improved outcomes. Because people may not be able to gauge the impact of their individual behaviors on the environment, it is important to identify those environmental cues that promote and sustain environmentally responsible behaviors. To this end, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning how environmental cues shape behavior and how behavior can be modified to support sustainability to limit the negative impact on the environment. Finally, the paper provides two possible solutions that could successfully change behavior and habits to lessen negative environmental impact followed by a summary of the research and…
Dane-Staples, E. (2012, September). Gendered choices: Mascot interactions in minor league baseball. Journal of Sport Behavior, 35(3), 286-291.
Fulton, R. (2012, December). Perceptions of reality: 'Poverty tourism' often sits uneasily in the range of sightseeing options open to travellers in underdeveloped countries.
Geographical, 84(12), 52-59.
Henson, H.K. (2006, Summer). Evolutionary psychology, memes and the origin of war.
Most of the research has focused on ADHD with a hyperactive component, because this poses more behavioral problems in the classroom. Also, ADHD-I tends to show less of a positive response to medication (Pfiffner, 2007). Focusing on social skills training for disruptive youths that is the usual curricula of behavioral modification programs ignored "the profound differences in attentional problems and impairments between the two major types of ADHD... those with ADHD-I have more severe alertness/orientation problems, including more symptoms of sluggish cognitive tempo" or daydreaming (Pfiffner 2007). The success of the approach tailored to a specific subpopulation's need, with "less focus on disciplinary strategies and greater focus on improving homework routines, independence, and organizational and time-management skills to improve academic problems" was not only highly successful, but highlights the need for greater specificity in diagnosis and treatment of ADHD students. The randomized control study of 69 children involved using social…
cultures have customs and traditions involving body modifications and while some generate serious controversy in the contemporary society, others are widely accepted. Some are inclined to associate body modifications with vulgar ideas and believe that people who have them are uncivilized. The fact that most body modifications involve a form of self-mutilation further contributes to making it seem that a person would have to be out of his or her mind in order to do something like this. The reality is that body modifications are an active concept today and some people believe that they are a good way to express their feelings and thinking in general.
'Normal' body modifications
Numerous individuals believe that there is nothing wrong with having a tattoo or having a part of one's body pierced. Most of the modern society promotes the idea that it is perfectly normal for girls to have their ears pierced…
Leone, Lori, "The Art and History of Body Modification," Retrieved August 25, 2013, from http://www.lightspeedmagazine.com/nonfiction/the-art-and-history-of-body-modification/
Miah, Andy, "Make me a superhero: The pleasures and pitfalls of body enhancement," Retrieved August 25, 2013, from http://www.theguardian.com/science/2009/may/01/body-enhancement-cosmetic-surgery-genetics
"Illegal ink: reading meaning in criminal tattoos," Retrievd August 25, 2013, from http://mindhacks.com/2008/02/03/illegal-ink-reading-meaning-in-criminal-tattoos/
"Scarification: Ancient Body Art Leaving New Marks," Retrieved August 25, 2013, from http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/07/0728_040728_tvtabooscars_2.html
Ethical Behavior Theory in Organizations
This analytical research report discusses the debatable issue of the much-needed ethical behavior in working milieu. The research paper highlights the fundamental characteristics, a well-drafted research design, a separate section of suggestions; a orks Cited an appendix featuring important data and relevant diagrams pertaining to the organizational behavior theory and the underlying ethical issues. The orks Cited nine sources in MLA format.
ETHICS AND ORGANIZATIONS
Ethics and ethical behavior: a challenge for organizations
UNETHICAL BEHAVIOR IN ORGANIZATIONS
Reasons for unethical behavior in organizations
Prevalent justifications of unethical behavior
Results from Baucus and Near's research model
SOCIAL SYSTEMS AND BEHAVIORS
NEED FOR ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORAL THEORY
hat is organizational behavior?
Purpose of organizational behavior
An overview of organizational behavior and its cardinal components
Basic models of organizational behaviors
PRAGMATIC SUGGESTIONS FOR AMELIORATION
Drucker P. Claremont Graduate Univ., Managing Oneself., Harvard Business
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Copyright © 2000 by Houghton Mifflin Company.
This study used quantitative techniques to measure the dependent variables, but the answers obtained have a high level of subjectivity present in them.
Aside from the independent and dependent variables, almost every study has a number of factors present that affect the results obtained in the study and the ability to interpret them. In this study, there are a number of factors that must be addressed in regards to the teacher responses to the survey. Confounding variables can be internal or external factors over which the researcher has no control. It id difficult to find a study that has absolutely no confounding variables that could affect the results.
In this study, the first confounding variable is dependent on the interactions of other confounding variables. The student's type and severity of emotional disturbance are the first factors that affect the results obtained in this study. Neither the teachers, nor…
Hyatt, K. & Filler, J. (2007). A Comparison of the Effects of Two Social Skill Training
Approaches on Teacher and Child Behavior. Journal of Research in Childhood
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Lane, K., Wehby, J., Robertson, J. & Rogers, L. (2007). How Do Different Types of High
But al-Mart has been more successful where Kmart has failed. The author of the study explains this difference with the treatment, importance and role played and offered to the human resource. "Kmart and al-Mart are virtually identical, right? Yet most people prefer to shop at al-Mart. Kmart recently declared bankruptcy. Could the reason for this be as fundamental as leadership style and the resultant employee attitude? I believe so. Kmart has been said to use the "control" method of leadership, while al-Mart has used an "empowerment" model. Thus, there is a subtle, yet big, difference between the customer relationship with employees of each corporation" (ork Motivation Incentives, 2004-2005).
Otherwise put, al-Mart allows its staff members to make their statement and to voice their opinions. And this often proved beneficial for the organizational well-being. For instance, Tim Gebauer was once talking to an employee who suggested putting an extra product line…
Kliger, M., Tweraser, S., Motivating Front Line Staff for Bottom Line Results, McKinsey & Company, Retrieved at http://www.mckinsey.com/practices/retail/knowledge/articles/Motivatingfrontlinestaff.pdfon May 16, 2008
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Humans Behavior: Discriminative Control of Punished Stereotyped Behavior
The problem of controlling behavior in humans who are challenged in their mental scope is of concern. While the majority of people shun the use of force, and punishments and the modern thinking on enforcing appropriate behavior is leaning to therapeutic and learning modes, altering the environment and peer pressure, there could be some truth in the use of punishment being effective in controlling impulsive and undesirable behavior. These traits and appropriate settings for the same have to be seen in the general light of the literature in psychology over the issue. For example researchers have gone deep into the exact use of discriminative control and response is still in infancy, and using the background of mental retardation, Doughty et al. (2007) have researched the results of the use of differential punishment and the antecedent stimulus using three adults with mental retardation…
Biderman, Albert D; Zimmer, Herbert. (1961) "The Manipulation of Human Behavior." John
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Co-Occurrence of Substance Use-Behaviors in Youth
Co-occurrence of Substance Use Behaviors in Youth
Author Biographies: Biographical information of the authors is not made available in the research bulletin. A search online indicates that Carl McCurley shares a passion for analyzing and improving outcomes for court-involved children, youth and families that he was able to apply in the Models for Change program at the National Center for Juvenile Justice. McCurley, Director Administrative Office of the Courts/Washington State Center for Court esearch (WSCC). McCurley joined the Administrative Office of the Courts in 2007As the newly hired WSCC director, he sought to broaden the Center's work, expanding beyond the customary focus of court operations to analyze the courts' impact on the lives of those they served.
Howard N. Snyder is considered to be the foremost expert on juvenile justice data, policy, and is now employed by the Bureau of Justice Statistics,…
Malgarini, M. (2005, November). Efficient sample design and weighting methodologies: Analysis of key issues and recommendations. [Paper presented at the Joint European Commission - OECD Workshop on International Development of Business and Consumer Tendency Surveys in Brussels on November 14 -- 15, 2005, for the Task Force on Harmonisation of Survey Operation and Technical Design}. Retrieved http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/12/37/35493506.pdf
Monitoring the Future. Retrieved http://monitoringthefuture.org/purpose.html
Since long the necessity for quality health care for veterans is considered to be a critical issue with widespread implications in respect of health care system of the nation. Irrespective of the incessant pressure on converting the Veteran Administration into a business model it has been alleged vehemently on the ground that the approach is not conducive to the satisfaction of most veterans, the legislators and even the providers of the health care. The problem of extending acceptable quality health care for the veterans of the nation is to be resolved by constituting public consensus on the issue. Irrespective of its increasing challenges it is believed that the provision of quality health care for the veterans of the nation is considered to be an appropriate objective for this country to maintain. Acknowledging the sacrifices of the veterans, the death of millions of Americans in service, 1.5 million returning…
Alqarni, Abdul Rahman. "The Managerial Decision Styles" A dissertation submitted to the School of Information Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. School of Information Studies: The Florida State University. http://etd.lib.fsu.edu/theses/available/etd-11242003-215328/unrestricted/Alqarni.Dissertation.pdf Accessed on 25 February, 2005
'Leadership Challenges in Non-Governmental Organisations" (2004) Organisational
Organizational behavior is the study of the way people interact within an organization. The aim of organizational behavior is to facilitate efficiency within the organization. The better understood the interaction of workers within a group, the more likely it will be for the group to achieve its outcomes, as management will adopt strategies designed to support the group. Since patterns of behavior can impact and affect any organization, especially a healthcare organization. The provision of quality care relies upon health care providers working together to provide continuity of care, safe care and effective care—and if the organizational behavior of the healthcare facility is subpar, the patients and care providers themselves will suffer as a result. Leadership plays a substantial role in overseeing organizational behavior and, as Schyns and Schilling (2013) have shown, the less effective an organization’s leaders are, the less likely the organizational behavior of the workplace is…
The strategy allowed better communications between the hotels and their culturally diverse customers.
Communication is the key to any success, but even more so to a business triumph. The process is understood as the mechanism by which people exchange information. This is pivotal within any economic entity in order to transmit the most adequate data at the required time. Additionally, it is compulsory that the information transmitted be accurate and reliable and as such able to support the decision making process.
d. Business Ethics
As mentioned in the introductory part, the role of business ethics has significantly grown throughout the past decades. The concept is generically defined as the set of norms and regulations which help the individual make the right decision in a context of raised morality issues. Business ethics refers to all types of relationships and actions undergone by the company and it is obvious at…
Clark, D., 2008, Organizational Behavior, http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadob.html last accessed on June 22, 2009
McNamara, C., 2008, Organizational Culture, Management Help, http://managementhelp.org/org_thry/culture/culture.htm last accessed on June 22, 2009
2007, Organizational Culture Guidelines, Organizational Culture 101, http://www.organizationalculture101.com/sample-organizational-culture.html last accessed on June 22, 2009
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Culture must not simply be inclusive to an organization. Organizational internal culture must shift with the larger national cultural context in light of the needs posed by globalization.
Chapter 12: Strategic Competency and Organizational Design
IBM, showed a constructive ability to engage in organizational learning. Despite facing political obstacles such as 9-11 and prejudice against technology companies after the dot-com bust it has remained a huge, complex technological powerhouse. IBM's longer-term outlook is bright today, despite the obstacles it has faced, because the infrastructure within the organization allows growth. It has sound decision making chain of command that has stood it well over the years. Firms need to adjust to their environments and contexts as well as to influence them, and IBM has shown itself capable of doing so in terms of the firm's environment, size and…
Figure 2, Guiding Principles at Toyota, shows the conceptual model of this initiative in the context of Toyota's strategic human resources plan.
Figure 2: The Toyota Way 2001
Source: (Toyota Code of Conduct, 2007)
Training a Core Cultural Component
What has become accentuated in the Toyota culture is the intense focus on training and certifications. For production staff members to be promoted they must go through three weeks of pre-promotion training and review of key production center and lean manufacturing concepts. In order to advance in manufacturing it is critical for employees to both study intensively for these courses, and also pass the assessments, then get the recommendations of their current supervisors to gain a promotion. For managers, the training requirements are even more intensive, with this group of employees required to spend up to four months a year in complex problem-solving and personnel system training and education programs. In…
Environmental and Social Report (2003) - From Toyota Corporation, Japan.. Comprehensive Report on all aspects of their operations. Employee Section. Accessed from the Internet on August 19, 2007 from location:
Environmental and Social Report (2005) - From Toyota Corporation, Japan.. Comprehensive Report on all aspects of their operations. Employee Section. Accessed from the Internet on August 19, 2007 from location:
ORGANIZATIONAL EHAVIOR: ARE QUALITY CIRCLES EFFECTIVE
Quality Circles became popular during the mid 1980s, when buzzwords such as Total Quality Management and efficiency teams became popularized in U.S. companies seeking to gain a competitive advantage over international production giants including Japanese manufacturers. A great deal of controversy exists however, as to whether or not quality circles truly accomplish what they are set out to do: improve organizational efficiency, worker productivity and performance. While many companies have argued that quality circles have resulted in dramatic cost savings, a large body of research suggests that quality circles have generally failed in a majority of companies that have implemented them. The aim of this study is to examine the nature of quality circles, and to ascertain whether or not they are effective mechanisms for organizational improvement.
ORGANIZATIONAL EHAVIOR: ARE QUALITY CIRCLES EFFECTIVE
According to research, more than 50% of the…
Ahire, S.L. (1996). "TQM Age vs. Quality. An Empirical Investigation." Production and Inventory Management Journal" 18-23.
Blair, John D. And Whitehead, Carlton J. (1984). "Can Quality Circles Survive in the United States?" Business Horizons, 27 (September-October): 17-23
Buehler, Vernon; Shetty, Y.K. "The Quest for Competitiveness: Lessons from America's Productivity and Quality Leaders." Quorom Books, New York: 1991.
Bowman, James S. "Quality Circles: Promise, Problems, and Prospects in Florida." Public Personnel Management, Vol. 18, 1989.
By praising a child every time they do something correctly instead of reprimanding him every single time he does something wrong, can better his self-esteem and show him that he is in control of his actions and feelings. A program that gives rewards for every accomplishment in form of tokens or tickets which can then be redeemed for things such as movie tickets or restaurant vouchers (something that is practical and useful) can be a motivator in children with mood disorders. A goal of a certain number or tickets could be set so that the child is often motivated to behave appropriately in order to attain the desired prize. Tickets or tokens should never be taken away or revoked since previous desired behavior has already earned them the current number of tokens or tickets, but not giving the redeemable tickets or tokens will be a better option. Ignoring his attention…
Perry, S.E., Hockenberry, M.J., Lowdermilk, D.L., & Wilson, D. (2009).
Maternal Child Nursing Care. Mosby. 4th Edition.
kbarlowe. (2010, July 7). 5- to 12-year-old, mood disorder NOS...help! Child and Adolescent Bipolar Foundation. Retrieved on May 30, 2011 from http://www.bpkids.org/connect/forums/general-discussion/5-yr-old-mood disorder-noshelp
Flanagan, Dr., Samantha, Psy. D. (2011) University of Maryland. Department of Psychology.
elationship Among Self-Esteem, Stress, Coping, Eating Behavior, and Depressive Mood in Adolescents
What is the research problem? Is the problem statement easy to locate and is it clearly stated? Does the problem statement build a cogent and persuasive argument for the new study?
The research problem explores the relationship between coping strategies, emotional problems and the tendency to overeat in adolescence. The problem statement is easy to identify and is contained in a properly labeled separate section located at the beginning of the study. The problem statement uses statistical data about the need to control obesity and adolescents as the key persuasive argument for the study.
Does the problem have significance for nursing? How might the research contribute to nursing practice, administration, education, or policy?
The study has significance for the nursing profession due to the health related problems that are caused by obesity. The problems do not end with…
Martyn-Nemeth, P., Penckofer, S. & Gulanick, M. et al. (2009). The relationships among self-
esteem, stress, coping, eating behavior, and depressive mood in adolescents. Res. Nurs. Heatlh. 2009 Feb;32(1):96-109.
Brand Equity and Customer Purchasing Behavior
Taking into account the numerous modifications witnessed in the marketing milieu- viz. The accessibility to plethora of knowledge through various electronic devices, the emergence of modern methods of buying, the ability of the companies to use technology to target consumer more specifically, getting a feel of customer tendencies is still more difficult. Purchasing activities is the sequence of choice and actions of individuals occupied in procuring and consuming the same. An enterprise must evaluate its purchasing activities. Purchaser's responses to the marketing technique of the enterprise put an enormous influence on the achievement of the enterprise. The marketing perception highlights that an enterprise must build up a unique blend of marketing initiatives that makes the customers happy, and hence the urgency to evaluate the substance, the place, the time and the purchasing pattern of consumers and by way of addressing this, marketing personnel can…
Aaker, David A. 1996. "Measuring Brand Equity across Products and Markets" California Management Review. Volume: 16; No; 2; pp: 43-47
AMR Research Report. 2004. "POS Data: The Beginning of DDSN for Consumer Products Manufacturers" February.
Anderson, J.C; Cleveland, G; Schroeder, R. 1989. "Operations Strategy: A Literature Review" Journal of Operations Management. Volume: 8; No: 1; pp: 56-64
Baker, M. 2000. Marketing Management and Strategy" Macmillan Business.
In order to ensure higher levels of commitment to the organizational causes, the president of EL should consider the simultaneous implementation of several strategic actions. A first example refers to the vertically integrated hierarchy, in which responsibilities and rewards are granted in unclear manners. In order to address this matter, the managerial team ought to consider the development of a clear-and-cut plant that states the times and the chores to be completed in order to achieve professional promotion. Then, all operations should be conducted in a transparent manner and the employees should be informed, and at times even consulted, in reference to corporate decisions.
Additionally, promotions and salary raises should be offered in accordance with a logic schedule that will tell employees why or why not are they subjected to modifications in their status and/or payment. Foremost, the management should consider the introduction of premiums and bonuses, alongside with other…
front line of defense and the first line of offense of American might, the United States military plays an essential role in maintaining the integrity of the nation's interests at home and abroad. In sharp contrast to the highly motivated and professional armed forces that are in place today, though, the U.S. military struggled to overcome the legacy of its conscription-based approach to maintaining adequate manpower during the Vietnam War where relatively short enlistment periods and high attrition rates resulted in diminished combat readiness and dangerously low levels of troop morale. This paper examines how the U.S. armed forces overcame this legacy to emerge as the preeminent military power in the world today. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
Organizational Behavior in Today's Military
Over the past half century, the United States armed forces have experienced a number of changes to their…
Gates, R.M. (2008, September 29). National Defense University. U.S. Department of Defense
Greenberg, J. (2003). Organizational behavior: The state of the science. Hillsdale, NJ:
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Deliberate self-harm (DSH) or self-injurious behavior (SI) involves intentional self-poisoning or injury, irrespective of the apparent purpose of the act. (Vela, Harris and Wright, 1983) Self-mutilation is also used interchangeably with self-mutilation, though self-mutilation is one aspect of DSH. Approximately 1% of the United States population uses physical self-injury as a way of dealing with overwhelming feelings or situations, often using it to speak when no words will come. There are different ways in which DSH is manifested: cutting, burning, and abusing drugs, alcohol or other substances. This occurs at times of extreme anger, distress and low self-esteem, in order to either create a physical manifestation of the negative feelings which can then be dealt with, or alternatively to punish yourself. Extremely emotional distress can also cause DSH -- this is sometimes linked with hearing voices, particularly as a way of stopping the voices.
DSH is also often called parasuicide,…
Vela, J., Harris, J., and Wright, J.K. "Self-Mutilation." Journal of Trauma 23 (1983): 165-67.
Favazza, A.R. "What Do We Know About Affective Disorders?" Am J. Psychiatry 143.10 (1986): 1328.
Why Patients Mutilate Themselves." Hospital Community Psychiatry 40 (1989): 137-45.
Pies, R.W., and Popli, A.P. "Self-Injurious Behavior: Pathophysiology and Implications for Treatment." J. Clin Psychiatry 56.12 (1995): 580-8.
The author of this report has been asked to review and assess a functional behavior assessment that was completed for a patient. Within this brief summary, the behavior itself and the function of the same behavior will be analyzed and summarized. Parts of the description will include the background of the student, a narrative description of the behavior, the setting or settings within which the behavior occurs, the frequency of the behavior, the intensity of the behavior, the duration of the behavior, previous attempted interventions and the educational impact of all of the above. For the function of the behavior, this would include the affective regulation/emotional reactivity, the cognitive distortion, the reinforcement, the modeling, the family issues, the psychological/constitutional issues, the communicative need and curriculum/instruction facets of the behaviors and outcomes thus far. While the situation with the student could be much worse, there are some troubling signs…
Check all that apply x ( Observation | x ( Student Interview |x
Ronan must feel welcome and accepted in this setting in order for constructive growth to occur. For this reason, the therapist goes to great lengths to establish a positive rapport with him. This encompasses mutual planning and goal setting. Both determine that behavior shaping is the most feasible and compatible technique to implement. This requires social support, and Ronan finds both his girlfriend and parents equally eager to assist him in his therapy. What's more, his covert receptiveness to treatment enhances therapeutic attempts.
Since success is largely contingent upon the support of family and friends, the therapist encourages Ronan to enlist the aid of his girlfriend and parents. This means engaging their help with specific techniques. All parties are asked to chart the undesired behavior so as to create a more accurate description of the predicament. Then, positive reinforcement should immediately follow the performance of the targeted behavior, in this…
Autism is one of the most severe and disruptive of all childhood disorders - a level of disruption that of course lasts well into adulthood. With both genetic and environmental elements at work, autism (which affects boys at least three times more often than girls and is found in all races and throughout the world) is a communicative disorder that interferes with an individual's ability to form social relationships as well as to communicate with others.
The inability to communicate easily with others is devastating for many children with autism. Being disconnected from other members of the human community is always a difficult condition, but it is especially difficult to the young. An adult who finds himself or herself unable to communicate will already have established connections with other people.
But a child with autism often has the greatest possible difficulties communicating and so establishing those connections to begin with.…
Einfeld, S., & Tonge, B. (1994). The Developmental Behavior Checklist: The development and validation of an instrument to assess behavioral and emotional disturbance in children and adolescents with mental retardation. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 25, 81-101. http://www.behavior.org/autism/index.cfm?page=http%3A//www.behavior.org/autism/autism_causes.cfm http://cecp.air.org/fba/default.htm
Koegel, R., Rincover, A., & Egel, A. (1982). Educating and Understanding Autistic Children. San Diego: College-Hill.
Kozloff, M. (1983). Reaching the autistic child: A parent teaching program. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.
Paluszny, M. (1979). Autism: A Practical Guide for Parents and Professionals. NY: Syracuse University Press.
For learning to effectively take place, a number of concepts must be brought together and these include but are not in any way limited to environmental, emotional as well as cognitive influences. One of the most prominent learning theories is the social learning theory whose fronting was most prominently done by Albert andura amongst others.
The Social Learning Theory
The social learning theory is founded on the view that most learning is undertaken within the social context. However, according to Ronald L. Akers, the social learning theory must not only be taken to be a theory of peer influence.
With that in mind, the key concepts in this case include; modeling, imitation as well as observational learning. The social learning theory has four basic principles with the first principle stating that most of the learning is informed by an observation of behavior. Here, the reasoning is that the…
Akers, Ronald. Social Learning and Social Structures: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance. Transaction Publishers, 2009
Griffin, Ricky Organizational Behavior: Managing People and Organizations. Cengage Learning, 2009
Sarafino, Edward. Self-Management: Using Behavioral and Cognitive Principles to Manage Your Life. John Wiley and Sons, 2010
Ronald Akers, Social Learning and Social Structures: A General Theory of Crime and Deviance (Transaction Publishers, 2009), 25.
The U.S. would be the attractive woman, minimally dressed, as well as the snake which sometime represents male reproductive prowess. The UR would be a general feeling of sexual excitement targeted toward men but could be experienced by either gender. The brand of vodka is the CS while the intended CR is a feeling of sexual excitement when viewing the brand.
Figure 1 - Smirnoff Ad (Crooked Brains, 2012)
3.How could stimulus control be used in the following behavior-modification programs? Be sure to describe the specific procedures that must be implemented in order for the treatment to work.
1. To treat drug abuse
This one is difficult because drug abuse has intrinsic conditioning already associated with it. After a drug user takes a drug, the sense of euphoria often becomes associated with the drug itself. Therefore, when a user simply sees the drug they could experience some euphoria. However, if…
Crooked Brains. (2012, December 29). 20 Creative Smirnoff Advertisments. Retrieved from Crooked Brains: http://www.crookedbrains.net/2007/12/creative-ads-by-smirnoff.html
Experiment Resouirces. (N.d.). Classical Conditioning. Retrieved from Experiment Resources: http://www.experiment-resources.com/classical-conditioning.html
Prize, N. (2001, May 15). Pavlov's Dog. Retrieved from Nobel Prize: http://www.nobelprize.org/educational/medicine/pavlov/readmore.html
Bay-Cheng, L.Y. (Aug., 2001). SexEd.com: Values and norms in Web-based sexuality education. Journal of Sex Research, 38(3), 241-251.
Beebe, T.J., Asche, S.E., Harrison, P.A., & Quinlan, K.B. (Aug., 2004). Heightened vulnerability and increased risk-taking among adolescent chat room users: Results from a statewide school survey. Journal of Adolescent Health, 35(2), 116-123.
Borzekowski, Dina L.G. & Rickert, Vaughn I. (2001b). Adolescent cybersurfing for health information: A new resource that crosses barriers. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 155, 813-817.
Brown, J.D. (Feb., 2002). Mass media influences on sexuality. Journal of Sex Research, 39(1), 42-45.
real problems faced by real people in the world, it might seem foolish to analyze a fictitious character. But sometimes it is easier to understand human nature when we look to art or fiction, in part because art provides us with some needed distance at times and in part because fictitious characters are often relatively pure distillations of character types. This is the case with the character of Grace from the television show "Grace Under Pressure." This paper provides an analysis of this character using first the Adlerian therapy model, then analyzing her through a behavior model and then finally suggesting a treatment plan for a person with the profile of Grace.
Grace's character - to begin with a thumbnail of her - is presented in the series as a no-nonsense, take-no-guff survivor of a bad marriage that was often abusive (at least in psychological terms). After eight years of…
Amen, D. (2000). Change your brain, change your life. New York: Times Books.
Corsini, R. & Wedding, D. (2000). Current Psychotherapies. New York: FE
Fernandez, E. (2002). Anxiety, depression, and anger in pain: research findings and clinical options. New York: Advanced Psychological Resources.
Foster, R.P., Moskowtiz, M. & Javier R.A. (Eds.) (1996). Reaching across boundaries of culture and class: Widening the scope of psychotherapy. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.
Psychology is a term derived from two Greek words that translate to life explanation, which makes it an important element of daily life. The field of psychology can be described as a discipline that focuses on the study of mind and behavior (Stangor, 2010, p.7). This discipline is characterized by several concepts and approaches that are used by psychologists in understanding human behavior. Since psychology is a broad field, psychologists not only use these concepts and approaches but also conduct scientific research that enables them to understand human behavior. Some of the most common psychological concepts that are used to modify or change an individual's behavior include operant conditioning, positive and negative punishment, and positive and negative reinforcement.
Operant condition can be described as a learning method that is used to modify or change a person's behavior through experiences and consequences. While it is part of the process…
Stangor, C. (2010). Introduction to psychology. Washington, DC: Flat World Knowledge, L.L.C.
Create a job description for a retail sales associate. Create an organizational behavior modification (OBM) plan to define a set of three (3) key behaviors that are necessary for job performance.
Job Description for etail Sales Associate
• Greet customers and determine their needs and wants
• Discuss potential merchandise purchase of customers
• ecommend merchandise based on discussion with customer
• Advise customers on utilization and care of merchandise
• Upsell related products or services
• Answer customer questions
• Explained return policies and discounts
• Keep merchandise displays in order
Organizational Behavior Modification Plan (OBM)
Key Performance Behaviors
Greet customers within 5 minutes of entry into sales area (allow time for browsing before contact).
a. Sales associate make mental note of customer response and encourages survey feedback for all completed sales with customers given assistance. Measurement: An on-your-honor system with sales associate fine-tuning approach to customer…
Lindberg, E. (2011). Effects of Management by Objectives: Studies of Swedish Upper Secondary Schools and the Influence of Role Stress and Self-efficacy on School Leaders. Journal of Educational Administration, 49, (1), 62-74. Retrieved
Perry, J.L., Engbers, T. A, and Jun, S.Y. (2009). Back to the future? Performance-related pay, empirical research, and the perils of persistence. Public Administration Review • January | February. Retrieved http://sites.duke.edu/niou/files/2011/05/Perry-Engbers-and-Jun-Back-to-the-Future.pdf
Zaccaro, S.J., Rittman, A.L., and Marks, M.A. (2001). Team leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 12, 451 -- 483. Fairfax, VA: Psychology Department, George Mason University. Retrieved http://www.qub.ac.uk/elearning/media/Media,264498,en.pdf
Tricia the new store director, and her three new assistants are on a mission to restructure the store. Each assistant was given a task, and a job, which made the retail store run more effectively. There was structure, organization, and a peaceful work environment about the four ladies. Tricia held daily contest, making it fun to come to work, showing more motivation with the sales going up. Performance -- to-outcome was most affected. When all four ladies where on the same page, working to achieve a goal, and having team members who were more like family made everyone want to work, this created motivation within the team members . Sales started to go up, production was seen on the sales floor, and organization in the back room with retail made it possible to locate items for the customer .
4. Using the 5 different styles of reacting to conflicting (avoiding,…
Organizational Change and Personal Development Plan
Many organizations globally strive to achieve their desired growth and sustainability. Effective leadership and management promote the realization of the strategies by ensuring that organization's activities are executed in accordance with the development strategies. Therefore, this paper analyzes some of the strategies used by Judy Stockley in promoting the realization of the downsizing goals of the Advanced Medium ange Air-to-Air Missile Company in Eglin Air force Base, Florida. It also provides a personal leadership development plan for Judy Stockley.
Practices that successful project managers apply in exercising their leadership and management roles
The management strategies adopted in an organization influence the degree of success. Most project managers employ the effective use of their leadership and interpersonal skills to ensure success of their projects. This entails adopting strategies aiming at motivating their employees to work together effectively and work towards attaining a common goal. Project…
Richman, L.L. (2012). Improving your project management skills. New York: American Management Association
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a more current theory than classical psychotherapy. This theory is based upon the reaction of the mind to external stimuli, and how this is internalized. The cognitive reaction to stimuli then manifests as behavior. When behavior becomes extreme or destructive, it is unacceptable, and therapy becomes necessary.
Therapy focuses upon finding the stimuli that originally caused the behavior. Much like client-centered therapy, the responsibility for healing lies with the client. The therapist's role is merely to guide the client towards the target behavior. One of the ways in which to do this is to provide the client with gradual behavior modification exercises until the target behavior is reached.
The role of the subconscious is based upon habit-forming cognitive activities. Perpetual external stimuli will for example form habits. Good habits can be formed by means of gradual cognitive-behavioral therapy.
My tendency is to prefer the cognitive-behavioral theory. The…
By educating patients on early warning signs of hepatotoxicity, this rare but potentially fatal consequence could be detected early to allow appropriate intervention." (Wright and Vandenberg, 2007) it is extremely critical to understand the nature of psychiatric nursing in today's clinical environment.
IV. ROLE of NURSE PRACIIONER in RANSIION
Specifically stated in the work of Kathryn R. Puskar entitled; "he Nurse Practitioner Role in Psychiatric Nursing" published in the Online Journal of Issues in Nursing is: "Commercialization of psychiatric care is underway. Psychiatric inpatient admissions have decreased, admissions to general hospitals have decreased, while outpatient admissions are increasing. Academic centers are purchasing smaller hospitals as affiliates; satellite clinics and networks of services are being established. Physicians in solo practice are merging into group practices. New health care professional roles must be restructured and "cross trained" to maintain competitiveness by offering flexible, cost-saving effective care. his is the background environment in…
To improve participation in outpatient programs, social workers can identify and address client barriers to keeping appointments, such as inadequate transportation, non-cooperative employers or family members, limited financial or child care resources, or even poor client motivation. Pairing newly diagnosed patients with "diabetic sponsors" -- individuals who are experienced and successful at managing their diabetes -- also may enhance attendance. Rather than relying on clients to come to clinics, social workers may need to bring the clinics to clients by organizing diabetic health fairs, outreach, or training programs in work settings, church facilities, or community centers. It is related that: "For people with Type 2 diabetes, Medical Nutritional Therapy (MNT) is often the "first-line therapy of choice" (Lipkin, 1999). The goal of MNT is to maintain near-normal glucose levels by matching dietary consumption with actual caloric (energy) needs, necessitating that the right foods in correct proportions be eaten at prescribed times for many MNT may include a secondary goal -- weight loss. Nutritional self-management or compliance with a prescribed diet can be handicapped by many of the same factors that impede self-care knowledge and skill mastery. In MNT, food assumes an almost medicinal quality, and many may resist altering long-held consumption patterns, inasmuch as food plays a part in their cultural heritage or serves as a source of pleasure; therefore, dietary changes are interpreted as loss of either function. For some patients, making these lifestyle changes may require assistance with concrete resources. As resource brokers, social workers can assess needs and link clients with community agencies for nutritional assistance, fitness training, additional diabetic education (professionals or material), medical care, health insurance, insulin and glucose monitoring supplies, prescription assistance, transportation, and counseling or support groups" (Lipkin, 1999)
VII. RESOURCE-BROKERING and COLLABORATION AMONG PROFESSIONALS
The social worker is also experienced in 'resource brokering' and as related by Lipkins (1999): "As a therapist, the social worker may practice independently or in conjunction with other professionals (such as psychiatrists and psychologists) to treat more serious mental health issues inhibiting the management of diabetes. In this role a social work practitioner may screen and treat illnesses with high rates of comorbidity among diabetes patients, such as major depression or eating and anxiety disorders. The social worker also may ensure the management of preexisting chronic mental illnesses like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and alcohol or substance abuse." (Lipkin, 1999) the social worker also has the capacity to: "...coordinate a comprehensive assessment, treatment plan, and intervention, striving for an optimal level of collaboration among professionals, patients, and families. Financially, social work case management can effectively and efficiently use community resources, creating an optimal environment that promotes glycemic control to delay complications and reduce hospitalizations."
Obesity is a serious social problem in America. The effects of obesity in childhood are well documented in both the social science literature and medical journals. During the last 30 years, the percentage of obese children between the ages of 6 and 11 has risen 200% while the percentage of obese children between 12 and 19 has tripled (CDC, Preventing Childhood Obesity, 2010). Obesity in the nited States has increased among all cohorts and ethnicities, spans across generations, and is not limited to income or educational levels. However, the incidence of obesity among African-American women is of particular concern given the prevalence and severity of the issue in America.
Public health issue
More than two-thirds of Americans are now obese or overweight (Ogden et al., 2010).
Rates of adult obesity now exceed 20% in 49 states and D.C and 25% in 40 states. By way of comparison, in 1991, rates…
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Vital Signs: Prevalence, Treatment, and Control of Hypertension -- United States, 1999 -- 2002 and 2005 -- 2008
Ward, S., Gray, A., Paranjape, A. (2008). African-Americans' perceptions of physician attempts to address obesity in the primary care setting. The Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(5), 579-584.
Coenen, K.R., Hasty, A.H. (2007). Obesity potentiates development of fatty liver and insulin resistance, but not atherosclerosis, in high-fat diet-fed agouti LDLR-deficient mice. Retrieved from: http://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/293/2/E492.short
In fact, PBS is an inclusive approach since it becomes increasingly applicable to different segments of society such as multicultural youth and urban youth (Utley, Kozleski, Smith, & Draper, 2002). Perhaps, the reason this form of support applies so universally because it uses a collaborative team of people whom know and care about the troubled teenager. hese individuals such as family members, teachers, counselors, and administrators come together and determine functionally the processes which this individual performs and which ones he/she has trouble with or, in other words, together -- with the assistance of the student too -- they put together a functional behavioral assessment and then determine the specific, individualized needs of the student (Carr, 2002). Based upon that particular student's needs, the team derives approaches to help reduce the problem behavior and replace it with appropriate behavior. he reason that this process is said to have lasting effects…
Twenty-second Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disability Act. Washington, D.C.: Author.
Utley, C.A., Kozleski, E., Smith, A., & Draper, I.L. (2002). Positive Behavior Support: A Proactive Strategy for Minimizing Behavior Problems in Urban Multicultural Youth. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 4(4), 196+. doi:10.1177/10983007020040040301
doi:10.1177/10983007030050020301Warren, J.S., Edmonson, H.M., Griggs, P., Lassen, S.R., Mccart, A., Turnbull, A., et al. (2003). Urban Applications of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Critical Issues and Lessons Learned. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5(2), 80+.