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Evolution and Development of Behavioral Therapy
The 20th century approach to psychology is notable because, while there was an emphasis on the medical approach to treating psychological disorders, there was also a focus on nonphysiological therapies that began to gain some credence in the medical profession. While nonmedical interventions were generally dismissed, "at least some nonmedical practices were no longer widely regarded by either professionals or the general public as quackery. An important contributor to the increased acceptance and status of nonmedical therapies was their enhanced relationship with science" (O'Donohue & Krasner, Year). These nonmedical therapies gained greater and greater usage in the mental health arena, and eventually came to be regarded not only as complementary treatments to standard medical interventions, but as "necessary components in the treatment of problems such as depression, attention deficit disorder, schizophrenia, and many of the anxiety disorders"(O'Donohue & Krasner, Year). One of the areas…
Fishman, D. & Franks, C. (Year). The conceptual evolution of behavior therapy. In Book Title.
Glass, C. & Arnkoff, D. (Year). Behavior therapy. In Book Title. City: Publisher.
O'Donohue, W., & Krasner, L. (Year). Introduction. In Theories of behavior therapy:
feelings/Reactions ehavior Therapy
Every behavior in behavior therapy makes sense and they are to be believed to result from punishment and reinforcement patterns from the surroundings. The treatment itself does not focus on the base of the problem but on the changing the present factors of that particular behavior including tantrums, biased thinking and feared situations. ehavior therapy has full support of research as there are a lot of studies that support its effectiveness in the issues including addiction, schizophrenia, eating disorder, depression etc.(Wedding & Corsini, 2013).
Several studies demonstrate the different types of problems and people's reactions including depression, anxiety disorder, substance abuse etc. ehavior therapy uses different strategies that not only understands the core of the problem but also helps the individual to overcome it on their own strengths. Different behavior strategies have been found effective in the issue of anxiety disorder. A person under this problem experiences…
Wedding, D., & Corsini, R. (2013). Current Psychotherapies. Boston: Cengage Learning.
For them to survive crisis they are equipped with the skills to; self-soothing, thinking of the pros and cons, improving the moment and looking for destructive things to do. They can also exhibit acceptance skills by turning the mind to accept, radical acceptance and willingness vs. willfulness.
Individuals with under this therapy are taught how to regulate their emotions. This is because most of those suffering from this disorder are known to be angry, depressed, intensely frustrated and anxious among other behaviors. The steps taught towards emotional regulation include; identification and labeling of emotions, identification of obstacles to any change of emotion, reducing of vulnerability to having an emotional mind, by having more positive emotional events, giving the patient the ability to control the current emotions and wherever a negative one presents itself he/she can take the opposite action, and lastly, he/she can apply the distress tolerance techniques taught (Heard,…
Clarkin, J.F., Levy, K.N., Lenzenweger, M.F., & Kenberg, O.F. (2007). Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study. The American Journal of Psychaiatry, 164(6).
Heard, M.A.S.H.L. (2009). Dialectical behaviour therapy: distinctive features: Routledge.
Westen, D. (2000). The efficacy of dialectical behavior therapy for borderline personality disorder. Clinical Psychology. Science and Practice, 7(1), 92-94.
Willem H.J. Martens. (2012). Therapy on the borderline: effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy for patients with borderline personality disorder. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association.
Demographics of the Client (Age, Culture, Ethnicity)
Angelina Jolie Pitt is an American actress, filmmaker, and humanitarian.
Birthplace: Los Angeles, California, United States
Birthdate: June 4, 1975
• 25% German
• 25% Slovak
• 25% French-Canadian (approximately)
• 12.5% Polish
• 12.5% Dutch
• 1/1024 Huron Native Canadian
An Academy Award-winning American actress, Angelina Jolie, is also a filmmaker and a humanitarian. She is also known as Angelina Jolie Pitt. Her parents are John Voight (Jonathan Vincent Voight), also an Academy Award winner, and actress Marcheline Bertrand (Marcia Lynne Bertrand). His brother is James Haven, and her uncles are Chip Taylor, a songwriter, and Barry Voight, a volcanologist. She is married to Brad Pitt who is a well-known actor, too. Her father is half German and half Slovakian, while her mother is half French-Canadian, one quarter Polish and one quarter Dutch. According to Ethnic Celebs (2008), Angelina is also…
Behavior therapy uses rewards or reinforcements to create positive behaviors in order to replace destructive behaviors. Desensitizing is an important part of this type of therapy, where the patient confronts something they have been unable to deal with, such as a fear or anxiety, and gradually learns to become desensitized to the problem, which eliminates the negative behavior (Editors, 2006).
Basically, both therapies give the patient ways to deal with problems in their lives. The basic different between the two therapies is how they address and handle these problems. Psychotherapy attempts to give the patient ideas and tools to help them master their problems and reactions to problems, while behavioral therapy attempts to fully eliminate unwanted behaviors by desensitizing and behavior modification.
Editors. (2006). Psychotherapy: An overview of the types of therapy. etrieved from the Mayo Clinic Web site: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/psychotherapy/MH0000912 March 2007.
Little, N. (2006). Techniques in psychotherapy. etrieved…
Editors. (2006). Psychotherapy: An overview of the types of therapy. Retrieved from the Mayo Clinic Web site: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/psychotherapy/MH0000912 March 2007.
Little, N. (2006). Techniques in psychotherapy. Retrieved from the Anxiety-and-depression-solutions.com Web site: http://www.anxiety-and-depression-solutions.com/articles/conventional/psychotherapy/psychotherapy_techniques.php12 March 2007.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy- A Case Study
Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) Case Study
K is a forty-eight-year female who referred to Midlothian's clinical psychology psychosis service. K has a twenty-year history of mental health conditions. She first decided to contact mental health services because of the episodes of paranoia and severe depression she had experienced. During her initial contact with the mental health services she was diagnosed with schizo-affective disorder in 1996. When she was first referred to the mental health services department she was a single. She told of having only two close relationships in her past life. She however also said that she found these relationships challenging when it came to intimate contact. She also generally described that she found it somewhat difficult to form friendships or to trust people in her life. Despite the mental health conditions her general physical well-being was good. K was prescribed…
Bladek, M. (2014). Against memory: Acts of remembering in Jamaica Kincaid's My Brother. Retrieved from http://criticism.english.illinois.edu/2007%20Fall%20Documents/Affect%20Abstracts/Abstracts.htm
DeJong, P. & . Berg I.K (1998): Interviewing for solutions. Thomson: Brooks/Cole.
Drisko, J. (2014). Research Evidence and Social Work Practice: The Place of Evidence-Based Practice. Clin Soc Work J. 42:123-133 DOI 10.1007/s10615-013-0459-9
Freud, S. (1924) A general introduction to psychoanalysis. New York: Boni & Liveright.
theory make it the most appropriate for the client in the case study?
Ana lost her job and fears that she would soon have to be homeless because there is no money to support herself. Moreover her husband has been deployed in the war zone and she has to raise their son alone which overwhelms her. She also worries about her husband all the time resulting in stress and anxiety. Ana, is a determined and strong-willed woman who refuses to seek help from her rich family. Her main stress is the lack of support which has resulted in her losing ten pounds and loss of sleep. The Rational Emotive ehavior Therapy theory (RET) is appropriate for the client because it comprises of four factors that helps in the therapy of clients. The four elements ascribed in the RET theory: a) rational, b) emotive, c) behavior and d) therapy cover all…
Bandura, A. (1974). Behaviour Theory and the Models of Man. American Psychologist, 859.
Banks, T. (2012). Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy with Diverse Student Populations: Meeting the Mental Health Needs of All Students. Multicultural Learning and Teaching. Retrieved from Academia. Retrieved from: ttps://www.academia.edu/7361167/Rational_Emotive_Behavior_Therapy_with_Diverse_Student_Populations_Meeting_the_Mental_Health_Needs_of_All_Students
Dryden, W., & Branch, R. (2008). The Fundamentals of Rational Emotive Behavioural Therapy. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.
Dryden, W. (n.d.). What is Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy (REBT)?: Outlining the Approach by Considering the Four Elements of its Name. Goldsmiths University of London, 1-28. Retrieved from: http://www.windydryden.com/cms/files/rebt_4_elements_article.pdf
The choice to do so and then controlling oneself, rather than being pushed and pulled by controls beyond oneself is as difficult and heart-wrenching as being controlled by others. Likewise, reconnecting to the world is difficult if the world is feared and seen as the source of pain. Counselors teach the patients to not think of the past but to act and do directly those things that would make it positive today, finding a new connection and making a new plan. (Glasser, 2001)
Behavioral Therapy, Psyweb.com. (2006). etrieved September 5, 2006 at http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp
Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet
Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (evised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.
Glasser, W. (2001.) the Institute for eality Therapy. etrieved September…
Behavioral Therapy, Psyweb.com. (2006). Retrieved September 5, 2006 at http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp
Burns, D. (1980). Feeling Good - the New Mood Therapy. New York: Signet
Burns, D. (1999). Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (Revised edition). New York: Harper Collins Publishers.
Glasser, W. (n.d.) Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom, Chatsworth, CA the William Glasser Institute.
Therapeutic communities are important and valuable tools, but certainly not for all patients. Often, the community is made up of a certain ward or unit of the hospital, rather than the entire facility. Clearly, some patients, such as those suffering from serious debilitating diseases such as dementia or severe schizophrenia might not be physically or mentally able to exist in such a facility. However, for others, who have specific issues or health problems, and are in the facility hoping for a cure, the community concept can help them become more sure of themselves, more able to function outside the facility, and give them confidence in their decision-making abilities.
Often this term describes those in a substance abuse facility, but it can relate to other disorders and treatment facilities as well. Some of these communities are all group based, while others combine individual counseling and therapy with group activities. The main…
Butler, Gillian, and Freda McManus. Psychology: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Smith, David L. Approaching Psychoanalysis: An Introductory Course. London: Karnac Books, 1999.
Dysfunctions and Their Therapies
Dysfunctions and emedies involved
Treatment and Control of Dysfunctions
The Thought Focused Treatment System
The thought focused treatment systems are those which narrow down to thought processes and systems of belief. The system believes in the child developing process being the cause of dysfunction. Social learning and modeling of ideas result to the personalities of an individual. The personalities result to experiences such as thoughts and feelings, critical learning, and the imitation of these behaviors. For instance, the child develops thoughts and behaviors from the parents. If the parents hide their feelings and never cry, the child grows knowing that crying is not the solution. The environment directly affects the child's thoughts. Therefore, if an individual's development is distorted in any manner, there is likely to be an experience of dysfunctional issues or poor health. An individual learns how to cope with stress and problems in…
Grohol, J.M. (2004, September 21). Types of Therapies: Theoretical Orientations and Practices of Therapists. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/therapy.htm
Grohol, J.M. (2011). 15 Common Cognitive Distortions. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/lib/2009/15-common-cognitive-distortions/
The primary difference between the two however, is gestalt therapy concentrates more on the ability of the individual to make proper choices regarding their care. This theory or approach to therapy reminds the client of the connection between mind, body and spirit. The behavior approach is less concerned with the paradigm of holistic health, and more concerned with a therapist-driven approach to identifying problems and selecting appropriate solutions.
In this sense, gestalt therapy seems like it is a more effective approach, because it encourages the individual to make judgments about their health and understand the connections existing between their behaviors and emotions. Because gestalt therapy is patient-driven more so than psychotherapist drive as behavior therapy, many believe patients are able to realize relief and successful outcomes more quickly, as well as retain greater self-esteem (James & Jongeward, 1996; Palmer, 1996). If a patient wants patient-centered care that provides effective relief,…
Cleland, C., Foote, J. Kosanke, N., Mabura, S., Mahmood, D. & Rosenblum, a. (2005). Moderators of effects of motivational enhancements to cognitive behavioral therapy. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 31(1): 35.
Diemer, R.A., Hill, C.E., Lobell, L.K., & Vivino, B.L. (1996). Comparison of dream interpretation, event interpretation, and unstructured sessions in brief therapy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(1): 99.
Fine, M.A. & Schwebel, a.L. (1994). Understanding and helping families: A cognitive-behavioral approach. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.
James, M. & Jongeward, D. (1996). Born to win: Transactional analysis with gestalt experiments. Cambridge: Perseus Publishing.
These three seminal perspectives may possess a lot of similarities, yet each of them has contributed novel ideas that are consistent with its theoretical underpinnings. In many of the substance abuse treatment arenas, the significant aspects of all these three approaches are blended to provide for a cognitive-behavioral model that gives the best result in terms of all the other therapies. (Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy)
Three theorists who have influenced the behaviorist theories are:
1. Watson J.B. - One of the originators of behaviorism and a proponent of the reductionist approach to the study of human behavior.
2. Skinner B.F. - He was the one most responsible for the spread of the behaviorist philosophy.
3. Wolpe, Joseph. The method of systematic desensitization to deal with fear was created by him. (Theories and Theorists)
Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. etrieved at http://www.addictionalternatives.com/philosophy/briefcbtherapy.htm. Accessed on February 15, 2005
Bush, Winston John. (December 22,…
Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. Retrieved at http://www.addictionalternatives.com/philosophy/briefcbtherapy.htm. Accessed on February 15, 2005
Bush, Winston John. (December 22, 2003) "Learning theory: A fuller-fuller explanation of CBT" Retrieved at http://www.cognitivetherapy.com/learning.html Accessed on February 15, 2005
Cognitive Therapy for Depression" Retrieved at http://www.psychologyinfo.com/depression/cognitive.htm . Accessed on February 15, 2005
Grohol, John M. (July 21, 1995) "Theoretical Orientations and Practices of Therapists"
Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…
Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.
Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.
Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.
Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
He realizes and wants the reader to realize that those roots have merit and modern day approaches simply that the field of mental health to the next step or next level of the industry, but he stresses the importance of action therapy not reflection therapy. Each step is a building block toward the eventual goal of having answers more quickly and more accurate than the past answers, however without Freud and those who came after him the new theories would not be possible.
he book is a refreshing approach and puts Glasser's reality therapy into play by acknowledging the others who have developed theories and giving them their dues before moving on to examine the next step which he believes is his approach.
Glasser's book is based on an individual's power to choose. hey can choose how they react to life, they can choose how they react to people and…
This book is written in a style that a mental health professional can read it and pick up the underlying meanings and ideas but a layman can also read it and gain valuable insight about how to change the way they have been approaching their life. It is an exciting how to for those who are ready to use their power to choose and get their lives on track toward success and happiness.
Glasser, William (1989) Reality Therapy: A New Approach to Psychiatry Harper Paperbacks
Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy
Cognitive and behavioral techniques / therapy
Cognitive behavioral therapy or CBT as commonly referred to encompasses several techniques. One is behavioral experiments whereby the psychologist helps the client to do behavioral experiments to test their thoughts and help them change their behavior through self-criticism and self-kindness. Second is thought records whereby the psychologist helps the client to change their beliefs through recording thoughts and their consequences. Another technique is imagery exposure which helps to provoke memories and positive emotions in the client. In vivo exposure is also another technique whereby the patient is exposed to the feared stimulus gradually in order to help them resole an issue Schacter, Gilbert, & Wegner, 2010()
The case of the fat lady
Intervention strategy for making and maintaining relationships
In order to help Betty explore and reduce her inner conflict and be able to make and maintain relationships, a cognitive…
Holmes, J. (2002). All You Need Is Cognitive Behaviour Therapy? BMJ: British Medical Journal, 324(7332), 288-290. doi: 10.2307/25227348
Schacter, D.L., Gilbert, D.T., & Wegner, D.M. (2010). Psychology (2nd ed.). New York: Worth Pub
Sue, D.W., Capodilupo, C.M., Torino, G.C., Bucceri, J.M., Holder, A.M.B., Nadal, K.L., & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial Microaggressions in Everyday Life: Implications for Clinical Practice. American Psychologist, 62(4), 271 -- 286. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.62.4.271
Sue, S., Zane, N., Nagayama Hall, G.C., & Berger, L.K. (2009). The Case for Cultural Competency in Psychotherapeutic Interventions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60(1), 525-548. doi: doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163651
The teachers acknowledge that the other disruptive behaviors propagates the destruction of the school property therefore computer-based management results in the upstaging of the security of the school properties. This eminent vandalism is prominent in the cases where the students would like to have money selling the school properties.
The teachers separately attribute the poor morals of the students to inexperience and the ignorance of the students. Involving of computer-based programs in the student behavior management clears the doubt in the effectiveness of the management of the issues entailed. The perspective to the approach assists in the enhancement of the Developmental period of the basis of the Phase learner. They view the approach to increase the contact between the teacher and the student in the countering of the trends emergent in the process. They attribute the computer approach to the advancement in the mastery of the life skills for the…
Dziegielewski, S.F. (2010). DSM-IV-TR in action. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
O'Donnell, a.M., Reeve, J., & Smith, J.K. (2011). Educational psychology: Reflection for action. Hoboken, N.J: Wiley.
Spiegler, M.D., & Guevremont, D.C. (2010). Contemporary behavior therapy. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.
Leaman, L. (2009). Managing very challenging behaviour. New York: Continuum
personal theories about change and therapy as part of developing a personal therapeutic approach and process. The exploration begins with examining personal beliefs regarding health, normalcy, and change. The author also includes a discussion about the theoretical foundations influencing personal style of therapy. A description of a personal therapy process and culturally responsive therapy is also included in the article. The final section provides a theory of therapy diagram based on cognitive behavioral therapy.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Michael White and David Epston have played a crucial part in explaining family therapy for nearly two decades through contributing to the emergence of numerous concepts in textbooks and handbooks of family therapy (amey et. al., 2009, p.262). One of the concepts in family therapy is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, which is used to treat people with several problems including mental health issues. The use of such theoretical approaches is based on the fact…
Beck, J. (n.d.). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved April 23, 2015, from http://www.beckinstitute.org/cognitive-behavioral-therapy/#q-n-a-1773
"Cognitive Behavior Therapy." (n.d.). Beck Institute. Retrieved April 23, 2015, from http://www.beckinstituteblog.org/cognitive-behavioral-therapy/
Hays, P.A. (2012). Culturally responsive cognitive-behavioral therapy in practice. Washington,
D.C.: American Psychological Association.
The always developing field of psychology and the tools used to develop this science, have provided many patients with much need relief. The constant evolution of the mind requires that clinical practices within mental health treatments also evolve and grow with the human race. The purpose of this essay is to discus Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT), as a useful method of treating mental and psychological issues.
First CBT will be discussed in general, and useful ideas presented about the approach will be introduced. A practical example of this therapy will also be highlighted to contextualize the information. Next, this essay will address CBT can be used specifically for the treatment for depression and the issues associated with that idea. Finally, this essay will address how computerized CBT software programs are assisting in treating these types of issues.
Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) is simply a form of psychotherapy that…
Barlow, DH, Gorman, J.M., Shear, M.K., & Woods, S.W. (2000). Cognitive-behavioral therapy, imipramine, or their combination for panic disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Jama, 283(19), 2529-2536.
Boyes, A. (2012). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Techniques That Work. Psychology Today, 6 Dec 2012. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/in-practice/201212/cognitive-behavioral-therapy-techniques-work
Dobson, K.S. (Ed.). (2009). Handbook of cognitive-behavioral therapies. Guilford Press.
Martin, B. (2007). In-Depth: Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Psych Central. Retrieved from http://psychcentral.com/lib/in-depth-cognitive-behavioral-therapy/000907
Multiple studies support the use of cognitive behavioral approaches in individual therapy combined with group therapy sessions to support self-care behavior, self-efficacy and positive patient outcomes (Van der Ven, et. al, 2005; Bernard & Goodyear, 1002; Alterkruse & ay, 2000). Altekruse & ay (2000) also support the notion that group therapy may be interchangeable with individual therapy to promote positive outcomes among patients.
esults of the studies reviewed suggest a new approach to group therapy should include individual and group sessions that encourage patients to focus on their successes rather than failures. At this time the evidence supporting group therapy over individual therapy is conflicting. Much of the research suggests that both approaches may be equally effective. egardless many therapists still advocate group therapy as a primary modality for overcoming patient issues.
Pre-group training sessions may help members of the group adopt a new attitudes toward therapy that enables…
Altekrsue, M. & Ray, D. (2000). "Effectiveness of group supervision vs. combined group and individual supervision." Counselor Education and Supervision, 40(1):19.
Bernard, J., & Goodyear, R. (1998). Fundamentals of clinical supervision (2nd ed.).
Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Classen, C. (2000). "Group therapy for cancer patients: A research-based handbook of psychosocial care." New York: Basic Books.
Dialectical Behavioral Therapy
Dialectical behavior therapy treatment (DBT) falls within the category of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Its main focus is on psychosocial characteristics. Based on the theory that emotions can trigger intense reactions in some persons (especially in family/friend or romantic situations), DBT proposes that the extreme swings in feeling can be better controlled by enabling the individual to more easily identify the kinds of thoughts and feelings that have an intense impact and prepare the person cognitively to approach these emotional surges in a new way.
Anderson et al. (2015) show that DBT can be an effective strategy for helping young patients with bulimia nervosa, but that because of limitations inherent within the treatment, it can best be applied in conjunction with family-based therapy. The rationale for this is that DBT naturally lends itself to family-based therapy, because it focuses on relationships and the individual's response to them. By incorporating…
With this approach, consultation psychology focuses on the issues of the group as a whole and therefore typically uses group discussions, interviews and observations as opposed to singling out specific individuals. The result is that, by using consultation psychology in the field of industrial and organizational psychology, the focus is on the group and the roles the individuals who make up the group play. With this focus, industrial and organizational psychology is better able to meet its goals of increasing organizational productivity, well-being and success.
In the case sample cited in the introduction of this paper, the issue was how consultation psychology could be utilized as a method for providing industrial and organizational psychological services to a mental health related organization. From the overview provided in the previous section, it can be seen that utilizing consultation psychology, as opposed to clinical psychology, will be the best method of…
Bass, Bernard M. (1960): Leadership, Psychology and Organizational Behavior. New York: Harper and Brothers.
Bass, Bernard M., and Pieter JD Drenth. (1987): Advances in Organizational Psychology: An International Review. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.
Brehm, S.S., Kassin, S. And Fein, S. (2005): Social Psychology. Boston: Charles Hartford.
Cameron, Kim S., and Robert E. Quinn. (2006): Diagnosing and Changing Organizational Culture Based on the Competing Values Framework. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Chaney Allen Cognitive-Behavior Therapies
One approach that has gained a great deal of attention, particularly in the treatment of substance abuse, is cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Originating with classical conditioning and operant learning, combined with social learning theory and the role of cognitive experiences in determining behavior, CBT merges into a model that assumes most psychological and psycho-social problems derive from a fault coping or thinking process. There are, of course, any number of observable and latent factors that contribute to substance abuse, most early non-cognitive therapies focusing then on only the observable dynamics. Over time, however, research and mediation models have shown that CBT represents more of an integration of principles derived from both behavioral and cognitive theories, and allows for the treatment of a broader range of issues through social learning, cultural framing, and the appraisals, self-efficacy expectations, and individual attributions (an individual's explanation of why an event occurred)…
Chaney Allen Women's Continuum of Care. (2011). The Crossroads Center. Cited in:
Allen, C. And Mayfield, E. (1976). I'm Black and I'm Sober. Center City, MN:
Over the last five years research has indicated that the brain of an adolescent is not as developed as researchers once thought. In fact, advances in technology have made it possible to further examine the development of the human brain. esearchers have found that part of the frontal lobe, referred to as the pre-frontal cortex that is believed to be the management center for the body, is not fully developed in adolescents (Sowell et al., 2001; Cobb, 1998). The article explains that the lack of development in this part of the brain explains some of the behaviors that are displayed by teenagers because it is responsible for advanced cognition ("Adolescence, Brain Development..,"2004). Advanced cognition permits human beings to prioritize thoughts, visualize, think in the abstract, predict consequences, plan, and manage impulses ("Adolescence, Brain Development..,"2004). With these things being understood the underdevelopment of this part of the brain could explain why…
Achenbach T.M. (1978). "Psychopathology of childhood: Research problems and issues." Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46,759-776.
Adams, Gerald R., Raymond Montemayor, and Thomas
Gullota, eds. Psychosocial Development during Adolescence. Thousand Oaks, CA, Sage Publications (1996).
Adolescence, Brain Development and Legal Culpability. (2004) Juvenile Justice Center
Dana is a young and beautiful woman with family members that seem to constantly put her down whenever they get together. They appear to be self-centered and attention seeking. The mother has set expectations she places on her family and seems angry whenever they do not meet those expectations. For example, the mother suggested Dana get breast enlargement surgery to appease her boyfriend Matt. Her sister, Joanie also commented on Dana's appearance, making sure to let Dana know she appeared overweight or had a large rear end. These comments can and do affect people's self-esteem especially when the source of such comments are from people that person loves or is supposed to trust.
Dana takes everything and says nothing, agreeing with the remarks and feeling like she truly is overweight even if objectively people see her as very attractive. She also cannot say how she feels even around her boyfriend.…
Arendt, K., Thastum, M., & Hougaard, E. (2015). Homework Adherence and Cognitive Behaviour Treatment Outcome for Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders. Behavioural And Cognitive Psychotherapy, 44(02), 225-235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/s1352465815000429
Gingerich, W. & Peterson, L. (2013). Effectiveness of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy: A Systematic Qualitative Review of Controlled Outcome Studies. Research On Social Work Practice, 23(3), 266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049731512470859
Hayes, S., Levin, M., Plumb-Vilardaga, J., Villatte, J., & Pistorello, J. (2013). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Contextual Behavioral Science: Examining the Progress of a Distinctive Model of Behavioral and Cognitive Therapy. Behavior Therapy, 44(2), 180-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2009.08.002
Hofmann, S., Asnaani, A., Vonk, I., Sawyer, A., & Fang, A. (2012). The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses. Cognitive Therapy And Research, 36(5), 427-440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10608-012-9476-1
Shift From First-order to Second-Order Cybernetics in the Family and Systemic Therapies
The strategic family therapy model came up in the 1950s and was inspired by two primary works: the works of Milton Erickson who came up with revolutionary paradoxical interventions which took advantage of people's resistance to change to help alter psychiatric symptoms first; and the works of Gregory Bateson and the Palo Alto Group that made use of cybernetics in communication patterns of the family. The style of a therapist changes as he or she gets better as a person and as they develop professionally, and also as per what is in fashion at the time. An older person has the chance to look at what happened in their past and see what worked and what failed. This gives them a better perspective of what works and what might not work for a given situation. The path is…
Asen, E. (2004). Outcome research in family therapy. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, vol. 8, pp. 230-238
Asen, K.E., Berkowitz, R., Cooklin, A., et al. (1991). Family therapy outcome research: a trial for families, therapists and researchers. Family Process, 30, 3-20.
Baron, P. (2007). Ecosystemic psychology; first and second order cybernetics.
Baucom, D., Shoham, V., Mueser, K., et al. (1998). Empirically supported couple and family interventions for marital distress and adult mental health problems. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66, 53-88.
afternoon, light rain falling and predictions of thunder storms on the way. Client was eight minutes late to his appointment. "It doesn't matter that you're a few minutes late, I am glad to see you -- but is everything going okay this afternoon?" he was asked by therapist.
Client seems defensive when no pressure at all is put on him. First he said his watch stopped, then he admitted he lost track of time because he was into playing a new video game. He asked if video games are a bad thing and was assured that entertainment was his choice.
"Oh, also," he added. "After I was in my car I went back to my apartment to get my umbrella." Client is trying to maintain a good relationship with the therapist.
The client was sweating when he sat down, and it was humid in the room so we agreed the…
Action Effective for Resolving Inappropriate School ehavior Towards Staff and Peers
At focus in this study is a child named Ed who has exhibited inappropriate behavior at school including fighting, profanity and disrespect towards staff at the school and towards his peers. There have been several meetings with teachers to attempt to resolve the situation but the behavior of Ed only continues to escalate. This study will identify the appropriate measures for dealing with this situation and will incorporate different systems available to the parents and child.
Positive ehavioral Interventions
The work entitled 'Positive ehavioral Interventions & IDEA 2004: New Opportunities for Teaching & Learning' reports that the idea of the use of positive approaches in assisting students to learn new behavioral skills "is not new. What is new is the requirements under the individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that for the student with disabilities who exhibits inappropriate or…
Positive Behavioral Interventions & IDEA 2004. New Opportunities for Teaching & Learning. (2004) Partners Resource Network. Retrieved from: http://www.partnerstx.org/PDF/Positive_Behavioral_Interventions.pdf
What Are the Benefits of Behavior Therapy (2012) My Child Without Limits Advisory Committee. Retrieved from: http://www.mychildwithoutlimits.org/?page=benefits-of-behavior-therapy
Brown, J., Cohen, P. Johnson, J.G. (1999, ecember). Childhood abuse and neglect: specificity of effects on adolescent and young adult depression and suicidality. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 38(12), 1490-1496.
The authors conducted this study in order to investigate the magnitude and independence of the effects of childhood neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse on depression and suicidal behavior in adolescents and adults. Over a 17-year period, a cohort of randomly selected children was assessed for a range of environmental, familial, and childhood risks and psychiatric orders. The history of abuse was verified through official records of abuse and by the retrospective self-report of the 639 youths in the study. The subjects were between the ages of one year and 10 years at the beginning of the study, with a median age of five years.
The results of the study showed that adolescents…
Dehlinger, E., Steer, R.A., and Lippmann, J., (1999). Two-year follow-up study of cognitive behavioral therapy for sexually abused children suffering post-traumatic stress symptoms. Child Abuse & Neglect, 23(12), 1371-1378.
The researchers were interested in learning if 2-year gains found in the earlier research by Dehlinger, et al. (1996) would also be shown in this research with 100 children who had been diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of being abused as children. The research by Dehlinger, et al. (1996) involved 12-session pre-test and post-test randomly assigned therapeutic treatments with sexually abused children and their non-offending mothers. The random group assignments were cognitive-behavioral treatments for the child only, for the mother only, for the mother and the child, or for a community comparison condition. The study participants were followed and assessed at 3-months, 6-months, one year, and two years after treatment.
The data was analyzed through the use of a repeated MANCOVA, while controlling for the pre-test scores. Three measures of psychopathology were taken at the assessment intervals, examining specifically for the following: depression, externalizing behavior problems, and PTSD symptoms. The researchers found that the Dehlinger, et al. (1996) study was basically replicable, with the pre-treatment and post-treatment improvements shown and maintained during the 2-year period.
Anti-Social Behavior in Adolescents
Current essay is a discussion of the antisocial behavior disorder amongst adolescents. The author critically reviewed studies on the topic. The literature suggests that neighborhood and peer holds a great influence as regards antisocial behavior amongst adolescents. Previous research has confirmed socialization experiences outside of the family shape what goes on inside of the family. Also there is possibility that peer and neighborhood characteristics are related to parenting and family relationships. Presence of violence in neighborhood may cause stress among parents resulting in poor parenthood quality.
Mediating Effects of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior
Anti-Social Behavior in Adolescents
The importance of socialization contexts outside of the family has been well documented. In particular, neighborhood (e.g., violence, collective efficacy) and peer relationship (e.g., relationship quality, peer deviancy) factors both have been linked to a number of adolescent outcomes, such as self-esteem, academic…
Barnes, J., Belsky, J., Broomfield, K.A., Melhuish, E., & the National Evaluation of Sure Start Research Team (2006). Neighborhood deprivation, school disorder and academic achievement in primary schools in deprived communities in England. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 30, 127-136.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Capaldi, D., DeGarmo, D., Patterson, G.R., & Forgatch, M. (2002). Contextual risk across the early life span and association with antisocial behavior. In J.B. Reid, G.R. Patterson, & J. Snyder (Eds.), Antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: A developmental analysis and model for intervention (p.123-145). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Chapple, C.L. (2005). Self-control, peer relations, and delinquency. Justice Quarterly,22, 89-106.
Difficulty of Treating Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety disorders are difficult to treat for a multitude of reasons; first, there is no 100% proven-to-be-effective method of therapy that acts as a one-size-fits-all treatment for patient. Behavioral therapy is used by some therapists; others utilize medical therapy, such as Zoloft, Paxil or other prescriptions. Psychosurgery is also an option for patients who do not respond well to either treatments, but such surgery requires literally burning part of the brain and is noted as only having a 50% success rate (Psych Guides, 2015). The bottom line is that anxiety disorders are a complicated manifestation of an underlying issue within the human psyche for which medical science only has a limited understanding.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most difficult to treat primarily because it requires a strong and durable commitment to transformative behavior therapy such as cognitive behavior therapy. In cases where patients…
Psych Guides. (2015). Obsessive Compulsive Disorder. Retrieved from http://www.psychguides.com/guides/obsessive-compulsive-disorder-treatment-program-options/
Sasson, Y., Zohar, J., Chopra, M., Hendler, T. (1997). Epidemiology of obsessive, compulsive disorder: A world view. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 12(12): 7-10.
Wexler, E. (2013). Clinical neurologists: behavioral management of inherited neurodegenerative disease. Neurologic Clinics, 31(4): 1121-1144.
Hritek is a 14-year-old boy who is psychologically impaired by Asperger's. He is the only child of Abdon (father, male), aged 41 and Padma (mother, female), aged 39. Abdon is a college graduate who works for a biotech company. His mother is a high school graduate and does not work. She serves as the primary caregiver for Hritek since she and Abdon divorced.
Reason for Referral
Hritek's mother has presented Hritek because he cries uncontrollably when asked to do something he does not want to do, reads about murder stories on the Internet, fantasizes about killing people, and throws wild hysterics in order to avoid leaving the house.
Hritek's academic performance was so poor that he was going to be held back a year in 6th grade, but his mother decided to home school him so as to avoid that. Since then, his grades have…
Thus, each counselor in training was exposed to identical client situations and cues. Their behavior and general strategy in reacting to those cues was then what was measured through quantitative analysis. Perceived rapport was then measured by the trained client replicate with a measurable scale of one to five. Such data was recorded with an electronic device which reported levels of rapport minute by minute during the context of the session. Out of the total fifty nine interviews, 2773 minutes were highlighted for analysis. The data collected from this time duration of interviews was then statistically analyzed using MANOVA based on the number of variables within counselor behavior that can affect the rapport with the client. This method effectively provided study designers with a reliable and measurable way to assess therapist behaviors and their effectiveness in building rapport.
What did the research claim to show?
Based on the data analysis,…
Christopher F. Sharpley, Emma Fairnie, E Tabary-Collins, Rebecca Bates, Priscilla Lee. Counseling Psychology Quarterly. Abingdon: Mar 2000. Vol. 13, Is. 1; pg. 99, 18 pages
(eysteher) This is significant, because it shows the impact that the ideas of Freud would have not only the world of psychology, but upon society. Where, these different ideas would become increasingly popular, as way of analyzing the different personalities. ("Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory")
How Freud is Viewed in Modern Times
In modern times, Freud is viewed with increasing amounts of controversy. This is because Freud himself was: known to create controversy when he was alive. With him, calling for people to accept his ideas as fact, those who disagreed with him were: viewed as out of touch with reality or blind to what is happening. This would shape how people would view his ideas in the future. As new forms of psychology developed, these views would create competing fields of study. Over the course of time, this would lead to divisions, as to which thinkers had the most correct analysis…
"The Dismal Theory of Freud's Psychoanalysis." UK Apologies. 2005. Web. 21 Jul 2010-
"Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory." Depression Guide. 2005. Web. 21 Jul. 2010
Beysteher, Kristan. "Psychoanalysis." Personality Research. 2001. Web. 21 Jul. 2010
Houser, Nancy. "Reflections on How Freud's Theories Standup.' Helium. 2010. Web. 21 Jul. 2010
From this discussion, Dubin (2009) then moves to presenting a new and unique model for implementation in both marriage and family counseling contexts. The current article models the "Basic Needs Genogram" as the primary method to be tested in contemporary therapy structures. This is a genogram that is based off the works of Glasser (1998) and breaks down our complexity of needs into five basic categories: "self-preservation, love and belonging, power or self-worth, freedom or independence and fun or enjoyment" (Dubin, 2009). These needs are interconnected and help drive behavior within the context of relationships, whether those relationships are marriage of familial structures. Dubin (2009) suggests that the Basic Needs Genogram will allow individuals, as well as family members to consider how current and past generational patterns influence the formation of their 'picture albums,'" which then dictate how their own relationships are formed and maintained (Dubin, 2009, p 17). It…
Duba, Jill A. (2009). Introducing the 'basic needs genogram' in reality therapy-based marriage and family counseling. International Journal of Reality Therapy, 28(2), 15-19.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a more current theory than classical psychotherapy. This theory is based upon the reaction of the mind to external stimuli, and how this is internalized. The cognitive reaction to stimuli then manifests as behavior. When behavior becomes extreme or destructive, it is unacceptable, and therapy becomes necessary.
Therapy focuses upon finding the stimuli that originally caused the behavior. Much like client-centered therapy, the responsibility for healing lies with the client. The therapist's role is merely to guide the client towards the target behavior. One of the ways in which to do this is to provide the client with gradual behavior modification exercises until the target behavior is reached.
The role of the subconscious is based upon habit-forming cognitive activities. Perpetual external stimuli will for example form habits. Good habits can be formed by means of gradual cognitive-behavioral therapy.
My tendency is to prefer the cognitive-behavioral theory. The…
Evidence has been cited suggesting that ECT is particularly efficacious with psychotic depression. Experimental research and reviews of the literature tend to conclude that ECT is either equal or superior to antidepressant medication in the treatment of severe depression. In one study both depressed men and women were helped by ECT, but women tended to improve more with ECT than with imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant. Men tended to improve more with imipramine. Both men and women improved more with ECT than with phenalzine, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI). It has been suggested that MAOIs and serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitors (SSIs) may be less clinically effective than heterocyclic antidepressants for severe depression. Thus, ECT's favorable comparison with imipramine is a strong endorsement.
The side effect of ECT that has received the most attention is memory loss. ECT results in two kinds of memory loss. The first involves quick forgetting of…
Breggin, P.R. (n.d.). Electroshock: Scientific, ethical, and political issues. Retrieved from http://www.sntp.net/ect/breggin1.htm
Electroconvulsive therapy. (2011). Retrieved from http://www.minddisorders.com/Del-
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). (2011). Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/electroconvulsive-therapy/MY00129
Crisis Counseling and Therapy
The precipitating events that are brought forward in the movie "Girl Interrupted" are the attempted suicide of a young girl on nineteen years. It concerned her parents that she failed to go forward and receive her high school diploma in a prestigious northeastern community. They also got to find out that their daughter was involved with an affair with one of their friend's husband. This involved the granting of sexual favors. She is depressed and also lacks a direction in life even after finishing her high school education in fact she does not want to go to college but instead wants to become a writer. She makes an attempt to get rid of her delusions and does this through the taking of vodka in combination with aspirin even though she denies and fails to consider her actions as being a suicide attempt rather she saw it…
Bolyn, M. (2011).Activities for teaching coping skills to the youth. Retrieved November 30, 2012 from http://www.livestrong.com/article/129996-activities-teaching-coping-skills-youth/
Salters-Pedneault, K. (2010). Coping Skills for Borderline Personality Disorder. Retrieved November 30, 2012 from http://bpd.about.com/od/livingwithbpd/a/Coping.htm
Constructivist Perspective of Brief Therapy
Understanding the basis of theories and therapy is a necessary element of the therapist's trade. Without some knowledge of why certain therapies are practiced, or where they came from, it is difficult to develop a personal theory and a personal view of how to conduct therapy. Since one of the basic concepts presently is that of brief therapy, it is necessary to see how that concept was formulated by other concepts. Thus, this paper examines how constructivist perspectives underlie brief therapy. This paper also gives the author the opportunity to voice a personal statement about how these findings coincide with personal constructions of therapy.
It is first necessary to understand the terms that are to be discussed. The two primary phrases to be discussed are constructivism and brief therapy. However, it is also necessary to grasp what brief therapies exist.
Fritscher, L. (2009). Brief therapy. Retrieved from http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/brieftherapydef.htm
Levenson, H., Speed, J., & Budman, S.H. (1995). Therapists' experience, training and skill in brief therapy: A bicoastal survey. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 49(1), 95-106.
Maturana, H.R. & Varela, F, J. (1998). The tree of knowledge: The biological roots of human understanding (Revised Edition). boston: Shambhala
Presbury, J.H., Echterling, L. G, & McKee, J.E. (2008). Beyond brief counseling and therapy: An integrative approach (2nd Ed.). New Jersey: Pearson/Merill Prentice-Hall.
Perceptions are generally based on the present, and therefore, the need to explore the past by delving into it in great detail becomes totally unnecessary. Glasser felt that even if the person exhibited bizarre and extremely strange types of behavior at a particular time, it was because of an innate reason of trying and attempting to find the best solution in order to meet the person's needs at that particular time in his life, and therefore, it was logical and sane to him, if not to others who would sometimes label him as strange or insane. (the Use of eality Therapy in Guidance in second Level Schools) delinquent would make choices based on the best way to meet his basic needs at that time, and therefore, must not be criticized. This, in essence formed the theory of eality Therapy of William Glasser, wherein the concept of 'Choice Theory' was emphasized…
Hazelden, Paul. "Reality Therapy" Retrieved at http://www.hazelden.org.uk/gr01/art_gr003_reality_therapy.htm . Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Historic Overview of Psychiatric Care" Retrieved at http://www.jcjc.cc.ms.us/faculty/adn/jmcmillan/psychcl1.html. Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Lennon, Brian. "From Reality Therapy to Reality Therapy in Action" Retrieved at http://www.socc.ie/~wgii/articlebl.htm. Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Lennon, Brian. "The Use of Reality Therapy in Guidance in second Level Schools" Retrieved at http://www.ncge.ie/handbook_docs/Section1/Reality_Therapy_Guide_Sch.doc . Accessed on 30 November, 2004
Personality is very complex. Individuals can differ considerably from one another, because of the wide variety of traits possible. In addition, a person can act a certain way in one situation and completely different in another, or have internal processes that manifest themselves through very different external actions and behaviors. Because of this diversity and complexity, psychologists have developed a number of theories to explain personality phenomena, as well as suggest yet unknown possibilities. This report, based on the book Perspectives on Personality by Charles Carver will discuss these theories and how they can be applied for behavioral change through therapy.
Two theories fall under the dispositional perspectives category, which emphasize that people display consistency or continuity in their actions, thoughts and feelings: The "trait and type" theory and the "needs and motives" theory. The first concludes that people can be divided into different types or categories. Nomothetic…
It also relaxes them and helps build rapport, and it can give you ideas to use for treatment...Everybody has natural resources that can be utilised. These might be events...or talk about friends or family...The idea behind accessing resources is that it gives you something to work with that you can use to help the client to achieve their goal...Even negative beliefs and opinions can be utilised as resources. (p. 451)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy also works with negative aspects of the client's life as a way to increase the positive aspects of his or her life. Cognitive behavioral therapy is a more established therapy than in solution-based therapy, although the two are conceptually twinned. The major goal of cognitive behavioral therapy is to solve difficulties that arise in the client's life as the result of the presence of behaviors and cognitions (that is, thoughts) along with emotions that are dysfunctional (Albano…
Jones, D. (2008). Becoming a brief therapist: Special edition. London: Lulu Enterprises.
McCullough, J.P. (2003). Treatment for chronic depression: Cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy. London: Guilford Press.
Miller, S.D., Hubble, M.A., Duncan, B.L. (1996). Handbook of solution-focused brief therapy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
O'Connell, B. (1998). Solution focused therapy. Los Angeles: Sage.
"Briefly, feminists believe the personal is political. Basic tenets of feminism include a belief in the equal worth of all human beings, recognition that each individual's personal experiences and situations are reflective of and an influence on society's institutionalized attitudes and values, and a commitment to political and social change that equalizes power among people. Feminists are committed to recognizing and reducing the pervasive influences and insidious effects of oppressive societal attitudes and society" (Chappell 2000). In its current incarnation, feminist therapy's stress upon liberating individuals from oppressive social attitudes does not just pertain only to gender, but all negative social attitudes. Thus, at its most universal, feminist therapy's central tenant that the personal and political are intermeshed, and that one's political reality creates one's cognitive reality, can be applied to many contexts beyond gender.
Although it deals with the psychology created by oppression, feminist therapy still stresses personal choice…
Chappell, Marcia. (2000). Feminist therapy code of ethics. Feminist Therapy Institute.
Retrieved August 14, 2009 at http://www.feminist-therapy-institute.org/ethics.htm
Reality therapy. (2008). International Journal of Reality Therapy.
Retrieved August 14, 2009 at http://www.journalofrealitytherapy.com/realitytherapy.htm
Because other research has indicated that nonverbal cues can be laden with emotion, and even be important indicators of deception, understanding the use of nonverbal cues in response to certain questions by therapists can give those therapists an important point of reference in evaluating responses.
Unfortunately, despite some significance in the statistical findings of Hill and Stephany (1990), there are complications and limitations to the usefulness of this research study. In theory, this could be an incredibly useful research study because it could provide therapists with a new, statistically proven, tool for evaluating the responses of clients and improving their therapeutic methods. Unfortunately, even Hill and Stephany (1990) admit that they had difficulty reconciling their findings with the research already extant or hypothesized in the relevant literature. For example, previous research has indicated that less controllable nonverbal cues such as leg movements or posture shifts should be more significant than…
Hill, C.E. And Stephany, a. (1990). Relation of nonverbal behavior to client reactions. INSERT REMAINING CITATION INFORMATION
Tragically, it harms the most vulnerable among us -- children. This must stop
Please, send Senate Bill 1172 to the Assembly floor for a vote. It is the right thing to do. Thank you. (Domi,, 2012 ).
Advocates of conversion therapy are correct in maintaining that as long as the therapy helps a quantifiable amount of people, and these people voluntarily choose that theory, it should be maintained. The question is, however, how many other people has it harmed, and what is the extent and intensity of this harm... As in every other aspect, an approach that is harmful needs to be curtailed by the government. The government restricts smoking and drugs since harmful to the person. Advocates label this system as 'therapy', and therefore, say that a patient can choose the type of therapy that he or she wishes. However, the Ninth Circuit addressed this point in…
American Psychological Association, February 2008 (PDF) Answers to Your Questions: For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality http://www.apa.org/topics/sexuality/orientation.aspx?item=8
Buchanan, W (September 29, 2012). State bans gay-repair therapy for minors. San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/State-bans-gay-repair-therapy-for-minors-3906032.php
Domi, T (June 26, 2012 ) UPDATE: Prop 8 Witness Ryan Kendall Testifies on Conversion Therapy; Committee Approves 5-2
William Glasser wrote the book reality therapy in 1965. Since its publication, it has gained increasing prominence in the United States, as well as the world. Dr. Glasser developed his ideology to address the limitations he found in the Freudian model of psychology. The methods and practices intrinsic to reality therapy differ substantially from conventional therapy. Dr. Glasser challenges several widely accepted notions of psychiatry, such as mental illness and the role of therapists. Glasser founded the William Glasser Institute to encourage the spread of his ideas into psychiatric practice.
Over the last thirty-five years, Glasser's ideology has proven to be an effective form of therapy, with successes in both institutional settings and private practices.
Reality therapy concentrates on the client's needs and getting them to confront the reality of the world. In Reality Therapy, these needs are classified into power, love and belonging, freedom, fun, and survival.…
Corey (2000). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy, 6th Ed. Brooks/Cole, 2001.
Glasser, Naomi (1989). Control Theory in the Practice of Reality Therapy. New York: Harper & Row.
Glasser, Carleen and William (2000). Getting Together and Staying Together. New York: HarperCollins.
Glasser, William (1965) Reality Therapy: A New Approach to Psychiatry. New York: Harper & Row.
For example, Jones and Charlton note that it is possible to develop appropriate problem-solving techniques in the following four major areas:
1. Identifying the goal which is appropriate and achievable;
2. Identifying exceptions to the usual pattern of problems;
3. Measuring the student's progress towards achieving the goal; and,
4. Providing useful and positive feedback.
Finally, SFBT can be used either as a "stand-alone" counseling approach or in tandem with other techniques. For example, Linton (2005) emphasizes that SFBT ". . . can operate as a stand alone approach or in conjunction with traditional models of treatment. Solution-focused mental health counselors do not view SFBT and traditional models of treatment as incompatible. Collaborating with clients to create counseling goals, be they directed towards abstinence, self-help group attendance, changes in thinking errors, or some other goal of the client's choosing, selves to enhance motivation to change" (p. 298). Likewise, Jones and…
de Shazer, S. (1979, Summer). Brief therapy with families. American Journal of Family
de Shazer, S. (1986). An indirect approach to brief therapy (Family Therapy Collections, Vol.
19, pp 48-55, Aspen Systems). Milwaukee, WI: Brief Family Therapy Center.
It assumes a person is in control of their own fate and not a victim to it. Starting at an early age, a unique style of life is created by the person and that life-style stays relatively constant throughout the remainder of life. Working toward success, connectedness with others, and contributions to society are considered hallmarks of mental health, as well as being motivated by goals, dealing with the tasks faced in life, and social interest. Birth order is considered important in understanding a person's current personality, yet the therapy is future-minded, rather than retrospective. (Psyweb Pro, 2006)
In Adlerian therapy, the therapist will gather as much family history as possible. This data will be used to help set goals for the client and to get an idea of the clients' past performance. This will help ascertain whether the goal is too low or high, and if the client has…
Adlerian Psychology, Psyweb.com 2006, http://psyweb.com/Mdisord/MdisordADV/AdvPsych.jsp (Retrieved August 20, 2006)
Corey, Gerald (1991) Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy
Carlson, Neil R. (1995) Foundations of Physiological Psychology
CTA: Cognitive Therapy Associates, http://www.cognitive-therapy-associates.com/therapy/adlerian-therapy.php
Structural family approach
Major contributors of Structural family approach
Structural family approach mainly operates by considering problems within the family structure, it emphasizes on dealing with the individual symptom through examination of the whole family interaction pattern. Furthermore, this theory does not insist on the relation between family interactions and pathology but, it associates the symptoms with family's interaction. Structural family theory has three operating areas, these include; the family, the problem itself and the change process. First stage entails, the therapist knowing the kind of family he/she is dealing with, the composition and hierarchy of the family. he/she tries to fit in the family's environment so as to capture the real picture. In the second stage, the therapist identifies is specifically stopping the family from living harmoniously. he/she also finds out the function and position of the problem behavior Goldenberg & Goldenberg, 2008()
History of Structural family…
Bobrow, E., & Ray, W.A. (2004). Strategic Family Therapy in the Trenches. Journal of Systemic Therapies, 23(4), 28-38. doi: 10.1521/jsyt.126.96.36.199840
D'Angelo, S.L. (1995). The Milan approach to therapy revisited. PsycCRITIQUES, 40(4), 352-352. doi: 10.1037/003578
Goldenberg, H., & Goldenberg, I. (2008). Family Therapy: An Overview: Thomson Brooks/Cole.
Rosen, K.H. (2003). Strategic family therapy. In L.L. Hecker & J.L. Wetchler (Eds.), An introduction to marriage and family therapy. (pp. 95-121). Binghamton, NY U.S.: Haworth Clinical Practice Press.
Conversion therapy is a topic that has both critics and supporters and has been recently in the news ever since California came out with a law banning conversion therapy for teenagers and children (Buchanan, 2012). Critics say that the therapy is an example of pseudo-science that it forcibly tries to change the gay's person's sexual tendencies and that, since this is unnatural and impossible, only eventuates in guilt and depression. Supporters, on the other hand, maintain that, as like every other therapy, conversion therapy cannot be expected to help all. More so, there are some individuals who do wish to change their sexual tendencies and, therefore, they should be enabled to sign up for conversion therapy would they so wish. Finally, the government has no right to interfere unless conversion therapy has been shown to be destructive to all clients; and this is has not yet evidenced itself to be.…
American Psychological Association, February 2008 (PDF) Answers to Your Questions: For a Better Understanding of Sexual Orientation and Homosexuality http://www.apa.org/topics/sexuality/orientation.aspx?item=8
Buchanan, W (September 29, 2012). State bans gay-repair therapy for minors. San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/State-bans-gay-repair-therapy-for-minors-3906032.php
Gans, Laura A. (1999) Inverts, Perverts, and Converts: Sexual Orientation Conversion Therapy and Liability, The Boston University Public Interest Law Journal 8
Haldeman, Douglas C. (2002), Gay Rights, Patient Rights: The Implications of Sexual Orientation Conversion Therapy, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 33 (3): 260
Society Feels About Animals
As a first order primate, humans have a natural affinity with animals of all types that has contributed to their mutual relationships throughout history. In fact, animals of different types have been since the time of the ancient Greeks to improve the emotional and functional status of humans (Mccauley, 2006, p. 358). Animal-assisted therapy (AAT) has grown in popularity in recent years based on its proven efficacy in treating a wide range of healthcare and mental health conditions. Although dogs and cats are most commonly used in AAT settings, horses, rabbits and even fish can also be used. For instance, according to Macauley, "The use of animals ranges from companion animals that provide camaraderie and emotional support to assistance animals that provide direct physical-functional support to therapy animals that aid with the habilitation-rehabilitation in physical, occupational, speech-language, and recreation therapy" (2006, p. 358). Moreover, some researchers…
Becker, D. (2013, August 26). "Four-Legged Therapy for Military Veterans with PTSD."
Healthy Pets. [online] available: http://healthypets.mercola.com/sites/healthypets / archive/2013/0.
Bleich, A. (2004, October 1). "Mental Disability." The Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related
Sciences, 41(4), 235-237.
An Adlerian approach to the case of B.A., the 14-year-old Guatemalan-American boy whose case was described by Layla, should primarily focus on B.A.'s feelings of inferiority and his sense of community and social being. Adlerian therapy generally concentrates on these two areas, and it is worth examining each specifically for B.A.
We can probably act from the assumption that B.A.'s feelings of inferiority are largely related to his family environment. Alfred Adler held that early childhood contains a lot of clues for how to interpret subsequent behavior -- in Corey's words, the Adlerian view is that "at around 6 years of age our fictional vision of ourselves as perfect or complete begins to form into a life goal." (Corey 99). In the case of B.A., he has had no physical contact with his mother from the age of five months -- too young to have any memories at…
Corey, G. (2008). Theory And Practice Of Counseling & Psychotherapy, 8th Edition. Belmont, CA: Brooks / Cole.
I would imagine that being a co-therapist for W.M. using person-centered or ogerian technique would present some interesting difficulties. The first thought that occurs to me is instinctual: W.M. is a young man who has experienced some traumatic life events, but also uses (in Karen's words) "dark humor and attention-getting language" to express himself. My instinctive response is to wonder how to respond to W.M.'s humor within the context of ogers's famous "unconditional positive regard" shown by therapist to client (Corey 2013).
In some sense, W.M.'s dark humor is a bit of a trap for the ogerian therapist. Outside of a therapy session, humor is an important social mode for a 21-year-old male. Women his age will frequently say they are searching for a great sense of humor in selecting a boyfriend, and group dynamics among late adolescents frequently center around shared jokes. In some sense, not to…
Corey, G. (2013). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. (Ninth Edition). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
Carl ogers and Abraham Maslow Treatment Approach for Outpatient Therapy
Carl ogers and Abraham Maslow treatment approach for out-patient therapy.
The study of human psychology is important in understanding personality of individuals. One can study personality of individuals, but there is no scientific method of studying personality of the whole humanity. Human are different from person to person and vey unique to some degree. This paper prompts a thesis, and it digs into the psychology of humans. It dwells on the person-Centered approach by Carl ogers and on the Humanistic Approach by Abraham Maslow.
Both Carl ogers and Abraham Maslow have an influence on today's outpatient therapy. Both scholars have had an influence on the humanistic psychology and personal centered approach to therapy. Although humanistic psychology gained its popularity in the mid 20th century, both scholars have further entrenched theories and practices that make it important in today's outpatient therapy.…
Kazantzis, N., Reinecke, M.A., Freeman, A. (2009). Cognitive and Behavioral Theories in Clinical Practice. New York: Guiford press
Clark, A.J. (2010). Empathy: An integral model in the counseling process. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88(3), 348-356.
Wong, P.T. (2011). Reclaiming Positive Psychology A Meaning-Centered Approach to Sustainable Growth and Radical Empiricism. Journal of Humanistic Psychology,
Solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) radically transforms the therapeutic process and relationship. As the name suggests, solution-focused brief therapy is about "being brief and focusing on solutions, rather than on problems," ("About Solution-Focused Brief Therapy," n.d.). Instead of drawn-out and costly sessions with therapists, the client receives highly focused therapeutic intervals that do not delve into the past other than what is absolutely necessary. Only three to five sessions are generally warranted for solution-focused brief therapy (Iveson, 2002). The underlying principle of being solution-focused is that therapy should be proactive. The Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Association (n.d.) claims, "so much time and energy, as well as many resources, are spent on talking about problems, rather than thinking about what might help us to get to solutions that would bring on realistic, reasonable relief as quickly as possible." In fact, during the intake interview, the client might not even be asked about…
"About Solution-Focused Brief Therapy," (n.d.). Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Association. Retrieved online: http://www.sfbta.org/about_sfbt.html
Iveson, C. (2002). Solution-focused brief therapy. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment 8. 149-156.
Counseling Therapy Theories
Solution focused brief therapy (SFBT)
The solution focused brief therapy (SFBT) is a type of therapy that is used much in counseling and a lot of time referred to as talking therapy that is based on the social constructionist philosophy. This therapy focuses on the aim or goal of the customer rather than the problem that drove him to seek help. It does not focus on the past events but primarily pays attention to the future.
The SFBT at times referred to as solution-focused or solution-building therapy was initiated and developed by Steve Shazer (1940-2005) in collaboration with Insoo Kim Berg (1934-2007) and their colleagues from the late 1970's in Wisconsin. This therapy is future focused, focuses on the goals and the solutions rather than on the problem (Institute for Solution-Focused Therapy, 2011).
Here, it is the duty of the counselor to invite the client to try…
Alan Car, (1998). Michael White's Narrative Theory, Contemporary Family Therapy. Human Sciences Press Inc. http://resources.metapress.com/pdf-preview.axd?code=j42386l16060v3q0&size=largest
Cynthia Good Mojab, (2006). Solution-Focused Brief Therapy. Retrieved September 6, 2011
Freedman, J. & Combs, G. (1996). Shifting paradigms: From systems to stories. In Freedman, J. & Combs, G., Narrative therapy: The social construction of preferred realities, chapter 1. New York: Norton.
Thus, giving the patient a 'bird's eye view' of his/her life gives him/her a chance to reconsider past actions committed and change these to improve his/her relations with a partner or family member. As in family brief therapies, reconstructing a family's life according to each member's interpretation and reflection helps the therapist identify the family member who adopts a constructive or destructive view of the 'reconstructed family life.' Through SFT, the therapist is able to create a therapeutic process that would be time-efficient and beneficial to patients.
itter and Nicoll (2004) elucidated effectively the effectiveness of brief therapy treatment for couples and families (64):
brief therapists seek to establish in their clients a renewed faith in self as well as optimism and hope for their immediate and long-term futures. It is caring, however, that guarantees the client support and a safe return in a future session, now matter how the…
Bury, D. (2000). "Constructivist paradigms in other therapies." Journal of Constructivist Psychology, Vol. 13, Issue 4.
Bitter, J. And W. Nicoll. (2000). "Adlerian brief therapy with individuals: process and practice." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 56, Issue 1.
____. (2004). "Relational strategies: two approaches to Adlerian brief therapy." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 60, Issue 1.
Disque, J.G. And J. Bitter. (2004). "Emotion, experience, and early recollections: exploring restorative reorientation processes in Adlerian therapy." Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 60, Issue 2.
Collaborative language systems focuses on the collaborative dialogue between therapist and client, where the two analyze and change the client's use of language about his or her problems to formulate a workable solution (Postmodern therapy, 2009, Depression Guide).
Another type of postmodern therapies is narrative therapy, which tries to help clients see how cultural narratives have shaped the subject's way of being in the world. By seeing their life narratives as constructed, clients are free to rewrite those narratives in a more positive fashion. Similarly, solution-focused therapy focuses on "the construction of solutions to problems" and building new connections: the focusing past is not meaningful, because the past is always interpreted through the lens of the present, so what is more important is creating a fruitful approach to living today (Postmodern therapy, 2009, Depression Guide). The therapist acts as a facilitator, and since there are no universal truths, the goal…
Notes: Postmodern therapy. (2009). Retrieved August 23, 2009 at http://www.hsu.edu/uploadedFiles/Faculty/williaw/O-H%20Notes%2013%20Postmodern%281%29.pdf
Postmodern therapy. (2009). Depression Guide. Retrieved August 23, 2009 at http://www.depression-guide.com/postmodern-therapy.htm
eparative Therapy for Homosexuals
The issue of homosexuality needs to be a major controversy within the social environment. All across the world people are still struggling with the idea that they may or may not be, homosexual, especially within the context of society that tends to look down and discriminate against individuals based on sexual orientation. In the light of this controversy, there are some therapeutic methods which have been created and regarded by many within conservative or religious institution as being effective in helping remold one's sexual identity. Also known as reparative therapies, these are psychological or other style implementations of therapeutic methods designed at rewiring one's sexual identity. Still, the majority of psychologists and professionals view these therapies as more harmful than beneficial; this makes it crucial for pastor therapist to help guide potentially concerned individuals towards more productive use of therapeutic models that would focus on self-acceptance…
Herek, Gregory M. (2012). APA council of representatives passes resolution on so-called reparative therapy. Resolution 97. Web. http://psychology.ucdavis.edu/rainbow/html/resolution97.html
National Committee on Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Issues. (2000). Reparative and conversion therapies for lesbians and gay men. National Association of Social Workers. Web. http://www.naswdc.org/diversity/lgb/reparative.asp
Schumacher-Matos, Edward. (2012). The furor over gay conversion therapy. NPR. Web. http://www.npr.org/blogs/ombudsman/2011/08/05/138963061/the-furor-over-gay-conversion-therapy
The researcher will gather all of the information collected from the self report questionnaires and analyze using a variety of techniques including summary, interpretation, classifying and describing. The author will use the data to measure change that occurs among the populations using HT therapy.
In conducting the study the researcher will undoubtedly run into some obstacles including determining how to measure change in the participants health and well being, examining the extent of change and the attributes of change for purposes of the study (King, 2001). Measuring change is a key concept vital to longitudinal research design (Kind, 2001). As this study is qualitative in nature the data will be presented via narratives, observations and transcripts from the survey to record and measure data appropriately (King, 2001).
The researcher will attempt to explain change and identify causal relationships between the independent and dependent variables. Data managing, reading, describing,…
Baldo, T.D., Schneider, M.K, & Slyter, M. (2003). "The impact of menopause:
Implications for mental health counselors." Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 25(4): 311.
Gambacciani, M., Ciaponi, M., Cappagli, B., Monteleone, P. Benussi, C., Bevilacqua, G.,
Vacca, F., Genazzani, A.R. (2005, Feb). "Effects of low dose, continuous combined hormone replacement therapy on sleep in symptomatic postmenopausal women." Maturitas, 50(2): 91-7.
ahman's session with Daniel was fascinating for me to read. Because my own goal in pursuing this degree is to work as a life coach, the fact that Daniel is approaching therapy not because of serious behavioral disturbances but because he is interested in exploring and thinking about the direction his life is taking made him seem precisely relevant to the sort of work I hope to do. His presenting symptom admittedly appears to be anxiety, but it seems like a sort of anxiety we have all experienced, and Daniel's problems sound like ordinary problems. In some sense, the mystery is why someone in Daniel's position wants to seek therapy in the first place. ahman lists his goals as "to be more altruistic, to be open to inspiration, and to be more organized and peaceful." These are all admirable goals in therapy, but I do think it's worth…
Corey, G. (2013). Theory and Practice of Counseling and Psychotherapy. (Ninth Edition). Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.