Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
In case a reinforcing stimulus does not ensue as a result of a behavior, the probability of a repetition of such a behavior decreases. Again, if a behavior is followed by an aversive stimulus, the probability of a repetition of such a behavior decreases. The removal of an aversive stimulus by an experimenter results in a negative reinforcement. If an aversive stimulus, which follows a certain type of behavior, is removed, the chance of repetition of such a behavior increases. The operant conditioning behavioral theory may find applications in the educational sphere for understanding and manipulating the behavior of students. However, it may not always be possible for teachers to determine positive and negative reinforcements for every situation or behavior. (Davis, 2006)
Another behaviorist whose theories added to the understanding of human behavior and how it influences personality was Albert Bandura. According to Bandura, people may learn new behavior by…
Boeree, C. George. (2006) "Alberta Bandura: 1925-Present" Retrieved 28 March,
2009 from http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/bandura.html
Colarelli, Stephen M. (2003) "No best way"
Greenwood Publishing Group.
However, if Margarita indicates that she feels lonely and wishes she had another best friend after the death of her previous best friend, this may provide the means for her to move on from the death and re-establish a level of enthusiasm for life in general.
Her anger seems to stem from a Napoleonic type complex where she feels insecure about physical looks and her personality. Such beliefs cause her to feel uneasy socially and at a loss to feel comfortable or interactive with peers and colleagues. So far, this attitude has not affected her job performance however, an introverted attitude will be noticed given the responsibilities inherent in her position and will cause problems professionally. The county should provide therapy for hiring her with a mental disorder as she is mentally unfit to perform the social demands inherent to her position. This is the problem of the county hiring…
Branch, R. (2010). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. New York, NY: Wiley.
Frankel, V. (2004). Man's Search for Meaning. New York, NY: Ridder
Martin, B. (2011). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Psych Central. Retrieved from: http://psychcentral.com/lib/2007/in-depth-cognitive-behavioral-therapy/
Roth, D. (2010). Making Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Work. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Behavioral and Cognitive Behavioral Theories
Psychodynamic and Cognitive Behavioral Theories
In this paper, there is going to an examination of Cognitive Behavioral and Psychodynamic theories. This is accomplished by focusing on: the two theories, their theoretical concepts, micro skills / techniques and a summary of these ideas. These elements will show how each one can address issues impacting the patient and the long-term effects upon them.
In the world of psychology, there are different theories which are used to explain how someone reacts to various stimuli. The result is that there has been contrasting ideas about the best way to understand human behavior. Two schools of thought which are very popular are the psychodynamic and cognitive behavioral approaches. (Okun, 2008)
To fully understand them requires examining each one. This will be accomplished by focusing on the two theories, their theoretical concepts, micro skills / techniques and a summary of these…
Larson, P. (2012). How Important is an Understanding of the Clients Early Attachments. Counseling Psychology Review, 27 (1), 10 -- 18.
Lucia, M. (2012). Therapeutic Activities and Psychological Interventions. Counseling and Psychotherapy Research, 12 (2), 118 -- 127.
Okun, B. (2008). Effective Helping: Interviewing and Counseling Techniques. New York, NY: Brooks and Cole.
Parpottis, P. (2012). Working with the Therapeutic Relationship. Counseling Psychology Review, 27 (3), 91-97
Compare and contrast 2 different behavioral theories/models of your choice.
Behaviorism vs. Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT)
The father of behaviorism is widely acknowledged to be B.F. Skinner. Skinner attempted to develop an 'experimental' approach to human psychology, and based many of his foundational theories upon experiments with rats rather than humans. Skinner believed that operant conditioning was the best way to motivate individuals to adopt new behaviors, or to extinguish existing behavior patterns. "When a particular Stimulus-esponse (S-) pattern is reinforced (rewarded), the individual is conditioned to respond" (Operant conditioning, 2012, Instructional Design). The focus of Skinner was upon externalities, rather than upon internal motivations of behavior.
For example, when dealing with someone who was a compulsive over-eater, rather than focusing on the psychological reasons the person felt compelled to overeat, Skinner instead would focus upon creating an environment that would reward healthy choices (such as buying a new…
Chin, Irene. (2012). An overview of behavioral theories. An Electronic Textbook on Instructional
Technology. Retrieved: http://viking.coe.uh.edu/~ichen/ebook/et-it/behavior.htm
Operant conditioning. (2012). Instructional Design. Retrieved:
Behavioral Approach Instruction Criticism
There are different benefits and strengths of instruction and classroom management that is done on the basis of behavioral theory. For starters, human beings learn by acting on the environment that they are in. This is in the sense that individuals act on the world, and transform it, and are in turn transformed by the implication of their actions. In particular, individuals effectively learn in a responsive environment. Having instruction and classroom management that is based on behavior provides such a setting. Teachers that use praise and also rewards with respect to the behavior and performance of the students facilitate the creation of such a learning setting. Another key advantage of this approach is the maintenance of inherent motivation. Through the use of tangible rewards dependent on the performance of a certain task or are rendered unexpectedly, fundamental motivation is maintained. According to Eisenberg et al.…
Behaviorist and Cognitive Theory
Psychology took a center stage and significant change in the early 20th Century when the behaviorism school of thought became dominant. This was a major change from other theoretical perspectives that existed before hence rejecting emphasis on unconscious and conscious mind. Behaviorism strove to see that psychology becomes a more scientific discipline in that focus will be mainly on observable behavior. This approach to psychology whereby the elements of philosophy, methodology and theory are combined. The primary tenet of behaviorism as it was expressed by JohnB.Watson, B.F Skinner in writing is that the primary concern in psychology should be the behaviors that can be observed both in humans and animals and not the unobserved events which take place within the minds of individuals. This school of thought maintains that behaviors can easily be described scientifically without recourse either to any psychological events that occur internally or…
Leahey, T.H., Greer, S., Lefrancois, G.R., Reiner, T.W., Spencer, J.L., Wickramasekera, I.E., & Willmarth, E.K. (2014). History of Psychology. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education. ISBN-13: 9781621785682
Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved September 17, 2014 from http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/cognitivethedef.htm
Gonzalez-Prendes, A. & Resko, S. (2009). Cognitive-Behavioral Theory.
Behavior Management Theories and Applications
The Theory of Planned Behavior & Theory of easoned Action
The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is one of the most commonly mentioned and used behavior management theories. It is one of a carefully interrelated family of concepts, which follows a cognitive strategy to describing behavior, which centers on individuals' behavior and values. The TPB progressed from the Theory of easoned Action, which posited intention to act as the best forecaster of behavior. The intention is itself a result of the mixture of attitudes towards behavior (Dunlap, 2012). That is a good or bad assessment of the behavior and its predicted results, and very subjective standards, which are the social pressures used on a person as a result of their views of what others think they should do and their tendency to adhere to these. The TPB included a third set of aspects…
Dunlap, L.L. (2012). What all children need: Theory and application. Lanham, Md: University Press of America.
Ellis, S. & Tod, J. (2013). Behaviour for Learning: Proactive Approaches to Behaviour Management. New York: Routledge.
Florian, L., & Hegarty, J. (2007). ICT and Special Educational Needs. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill International (UK) Ltd.
Henley, M. (2010). Classroom management: A proactive approach. Boston: Pearson.
Social learning theory states that an individual will learn from others through observation, modeling, and imitation (Bandura & McClelland, 1977). A person's behavior is dependent on the environment they come from and the models they grew up observing. Learning is believed to be a cognitive process that will take place in a social context. The social learning theory is often referred to as a bridge between cognitive and behaviorist learning theories because it covers memory, attention, and motivation. Albert Bandura proposed the theory, and it is one of the most influential development and learning theory. Bandura held to the belief that learning could not be fully accounted for by direct reinforcement. The theory proposed by Bandura was rooted in the traditional learning theory, but it added a social element. He argued that individuals could learn new behaviors and information by observing other individuals. Observational learning is the term he used,…
Akers, R.L. (2011). Social learning and social structure: A general theory of crime and deviance. Piscataway Township, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Akers, R.L., & Jensen, G.F. (2011). Social learning theory and the explanation of crime (Vol. 1). Piscataway Township, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Bandura, A., & McClelland, D.C. (1977). Social learning theory.
Cherry, K. (2011). Social Learning Theory an Overview of Bandura's Social learning Theory. The New York Times Company.(online article).
PSYCHOLOGICAL PESPECTIVES OF BEHAVIO AND MENTAL POCESSES
The behavioral theory by Watson, Pavlov, and Skinner provides a psychological perspective that facilitates the understanding of human behavior and mental processes. Ivan Pavlov investigated the classical conditioning while Watson used experimental laboratory techniques to reject introspective theories of behavior. However, Skinner focused on behaviorism related to common sense. Despite the variability of the researches conducted, they converge on an observable conclusion that behavior forms the basis of understanding one's mental activities. Environment plays a role in determining behavior. From their findings, observing one's behavior provides clues about their mental and psychological processes. Primarily, one's behavior is determined by the association between environmental stimuli and the magnitude of pleasure and pain that result from their actions. The stimuli have a profound effect on one's psychological and mental processes. The subconscious mind stores these pleasures and pain, which affects the mental process and…
Coon, D., Mitterer, J.O., Talbot, S., & Vanchella, C.M. (2010). Introduction to psychology: Gateways to mind and behavior. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Cengage Learning
The incident and accident theory is one of the major theories that has been developed in the literature to attempt to provide a model for accident causation. The theory has been defined as something of an addendum to the human factors theory of accident causation. Therefore, to understand the accident/incident theory fully, an overview of the human factors theory will first be provided. The accident/incident theory works to fill in some of the gaps that have prevented a human factors approach from being able to fully explain how many accidents occur. The theory adds several dimensions to the previous model such as consideration of ergonomic traps, the decision to err, and systems failure among others (Duffy, N.d. ).
Incident and accident theory
There are roughly seven different theories of accident causation that are typically cited in the literature. Such theories include the domino theory that focuses on mistakes,…
Duffy, S. (N.d. ). Theories of Accident Causation. Retrieved from Cleveland State University: http://academic.csuohio.edu/duffy_s/Section_03.pdf
Goetsch, D. (2010). Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved from Pearson: http://wps.prenhall.com/chet_goetsch_occupation_7/139/35769/9157107.cw/-/9157132/index.html
Psychology -- Cognitive theoies
Use of the Session Bidging Woksheet in Cognitive Theapy
The pupose of the Session Bidging Woksheet is to assess the client's insight and compehension of the pio theapy session (Beck, 1995). Being awae of the fact that they will be questioned concening the pevious session encouages the client to pepae fo the pesent session by eflecting on the session thoughout the week. If the client cannot emembe thei esponses o the significant concepts fom the pio theapeutic session, the counselo and client come togethe to figue out a way so that they can moe effectively ecall the elements of the pesent session. The Session Bidging Woksheet offes a way of getting this done. This is impotant because seveal studies have shown that inceased memoy and undestanding of theapeutic sessions has a diect impact on teatment outcome (Shephed, Salkovskis, & Mois, 2009). Also this technique equies that…
references. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 37(2), 141-150.
Whipple, J.L., Lambert, M.J., Vermeersch, D.A., Smart, D.W., Nielsen, S.L., & Hawkins, E.J. (2003). Improving the effects of psychotherapy: The use of early identification of treatment failure and problem solving strategies in routine practice. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58, 59-68.
Behavioral Finance Concept v. Efficient Market Hypothesis:
For more than a century, the concept of efficient markets has been the subject of numerous academic researches and huge debates. An efficient market is described as a market with a large number of balanced profit maximizers that are actively competing against each other to forecast the future market values for individual securities. The efficient market is also defined as a market where current information is nearly freely available and accessible to all participants. Generally, in an efficient market, competition will make complete effects of new information on essential values to be reflected instantly in real prices (Singh, 2010). The efficient market hypothesis has developed to become a significant cornerstone of contemporary financial theory even though the market seems to be more modern and characterized by increased inefficiencies. As a result, the standard finance for rational analysis framework has been placed in an…
"Analysis of Behavioral Finance Efficient Market Hypothesis for the Amendment and Innovation." (n.d.). Tastecaste.com. Retrieved July 25, 2012, from http://www.tastecate.com/freepages336095_Analysis-of-behavioral-finance-efficient-market-hypothesis-for-the-amendment-and-Innovation#
"Behavioral Finance -- A Challenge to the EMH." (2010). Accredited Portfolio Management
Advisor. Retrieved July 25, 2012, from http://www.cffpinfo.com/pdfs/APMA_Sample.pdf
Cunningham, L.A. (2002, January 6). Behavioral Finance and Investor Governance. Washington and Lee Law Review, 59(3), 767-837. Retrieved from http://scholarlycommons.law.wlu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1346&context=wlulr
Behavioral Finance and Analysis of American Financial Crisis
Financial theories are the cornerstone of the modern corporate world. They lay the foundation for most tools used in areas like asset pricing and investment banking. Most theoretical concepts like general equilibrium analysis and information economics are planted in the field of microeconomics. There are several different financial theories based on both consumer behavior, as well as how they impact decisions made by financial managers.
One financial theory that many business managers use is The Modern Portfolio Theory,
or MPT. It suggests how investors use diversification to enhance their portfolios, as well as how to price an asset based on the risk, in relation to the market as a whole. Modern portfolio theory displays the return of an asset as a variable, and the portfolio as a combination of all of the assets. The return of a portfolio is also a random…
Klier, Thomas H. "From Tail Fins to Hybrids: How Detroit Lost its Dominance of the U.S. Auto Market." Economic Perspectives 33.2 (2009), 2-17. Web.
Heakal, Reem, 2008. Macroeconomic Analysis: Retrieved on May 10, 2012 from:
Krumm, Paul, 2007. How Money is Created Retrieved on May 10, 2012 from:
Behavioral Inoculation and Health Status
Describe an example of behavioral inoculation that is being used currently in the media to bring about change in health status (health behavior). Do you think it will work? Explain.
There are a myriad of behavioral inoculation initiatives and strategies in place today, each highly targeted to a given demographic and psychographic segment of consumers. Of the many in process, the most compelling are those of AIDS prevention and the need for having safe sex. What is particularly effective about these behavioral inoculation programs is the social and cultural context cues they use to create a more effective motivation for behavioral change (Maibach, Parrott, 1995). One of the most powerful aspects of these AIDS public service announcements is the implication of how devastated friends and especially immediate family would be with an unexpected illness and death. Sexually transmitted diseases with lethal consequences (like AIDS) underscore…
Lee, J.S., & Davie, W.R. (1997). Audience recall of AIDS PSAs among U.S. And international college students. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 74(1), 7-22.
Maibach, Edward and Roxanne l. Parrott. (1995). Designing health messages: Approaches from communication theory and public health practices.
Pfau, M. (1995). Designing messages for behavioral inoculation. Designing health messages: Approaches from communication theory and public health practice, 99-113.
Pfau, M., Bockern, S.V., & Kang, J.G. (1992). Use of inoculation to promote resistance to smoking initiation among adolescents. Communications Monographs, 59(3), 213-230.
ehavioral Finance and Human Interaction a Study of the Decision-Making
Processes Impacting Financial Markets
Understanding the Stock Market
Contrasting Financial Theories
Flaws of the Efficient Market Hypothesis
Financial ubbles and Chaos
The stock market's dominant theory, the efficient market hypothesis (EMH) has been greatly criticized recently for its failure to account for human errors, heuristic bias, use of misinformation, psychological tendencies, in determining future expected performance and obtainable profits.
Existing evidence indicates that past confidence in the EMH may have been misdirected, as the theory's models do not show a thorough understanding of trading operations in a realistic light.
Researchers have suggested that a variety of anomalies and inconsistent historical results demand that traditional financial theories, namely the EMH, be reconstructed to include human interaction as a key decision-making process that directly affects the performance of financial markets.
This research paper aims to determine whether or not there is a…
Barrett, Larry. (January, 2001). Emotional investing a recipe for disaster. CNET News.com.
Bernstein, Peter. (1998). Against the Gods: The Remarkable Story of Risk. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Brennan, Phil. (March 12, 2002) The Great Stock Market Scam. NewsMax.com.
Business Week. (September 29, 1997) The Perils of Investing Too Close to Home.
By praising a child every time they do something correctly instead of reprimanding him every single time he does something wrong, can better his self-esteem and show him that he is in control of his actions and feelings. A program that gives rewards for every accomplishment in form of tokens or tickets which can then be redeemed for things such as movie tickets or restaurant vouchers (something that is practical and useful) can be a motivator in children with mood disorders. A goal of a certain number or tickets could be set so that the child is often motivated to behave appropriately in order to attain the desired prize. Tickets or tokens should never be taken away or revoked since previous desired behavior has already earned them the current number of tokens or tickets, but not giving the redeemable tickets or tokens will be a better option. Ignoring his attention…
Perry, S.E., Hockenberry, M.J., Lowdermilk, D.L., & Wilson, D. (2009).
Maternal Child Nursing Care. Mosby. 4th Edition.
kbarlowe. (2010, July 7). 5- to 12-year-old, mood disorder NOS...help! Child and Adolescent Bipolar Foundation. Retrieved on May 30, 2011 from http://www.bpkids.org/connect/forums/general-discussion/5-yr-old-mood disorder-noshelp
Flanagan, Dr., Samantha, Psy. D. (2011) University of Maryland. Department of Psychology.
Theory Management Organization Development
Theory and Management of Organization Development
I work for a medium-sized company that provides services to more than 500 clients. The company was founded by the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the company and has been in operation for more than a decade now. In particular, I work for the IT department of my organization as an IT/network administrator. In essence, my main task is to ensure that different devices across different departments in the organization are connected together to create networks that are not only fast, but also efficient. More so, I am accountable for maintaining the links and solving any issues that might come about with regard to computer networks.
One of the issues perceived within the job realm is compensation handed towards the employees within the IT department. It is imperative to point out that the IT department is well structured and fitted…
Cummings, T., & Worley, C. (2014). Organization development and change. Cengage learning.
French, W. L., Bell, C. (1999). Organization Development: Behavioral Science Interventions for Organization Improvement (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
leadership theories and how they are influencing an organization. As, we carefully examine the different ones and discuss how this will impact the long-term sustainability of the firm. This is the point that we can determine how and when these different ideas should be used to motivate subordinates.
When most people hear the word leadership they will often think of a person that is sure of themselves. As they are using: their experiences and courage to help inspire everyone around them during the most challenging of times. Yet, when you look a little further, it is clear that genuine leadership is more than just an image or an ideal. Instead, it is common form of thinking and a way of life that can help to transform the world as we know it. To fully understand how this is taking place requires: providing a basic definition of this concept and examining…
Alasdair MacIntyre, 2011, Wikipedia. Available from: [10 Nov. 2011].
Concepts of Leadership, 2010, NW Link. Available from: [9 Nov. 2011].
Traditional Theories of Leadership, 2011, E How. Available from: [10 Nov. 2011]
Cherry, K, 2011, Leadership Theories, About. Available from: [9 Nov. 2011].
The mixture of public and private endeavors and effects that many bureaucracies, especially those related directly or indirectly to various governments, has made this effect even more apparent, to the point that many bureaucracies can be seen as almost wholly subservient to their client in ways beyond the traditional assumptions of supply and demand. This can make network organization, especially in mixed public-private endeavors, far more complicated and essential than it already is for most bureaucracies.
The resistance to change that many bureaucracies possess due to their size and complexity is actually a strength in an increasingly volatile world. The intense level of network organization which can be seen as a reducer of efficiency also ensures that undue and repetitive change are less likely to occur, thus forming two positives out of bureaucratic aspects that are generally viewed as negatives. This size and complexity also gives bureaucracies a broader…
Crime Theories and Juvenile Delinquency
There are many theories of crime that aim at determining or explaining why individuals resort to criminal and/or violent behavior. Among the different types of offenders are juvenile delinquents who are driven to deviancy for a number of reasons. By examining two theories of crime, behavioral and psychodynamic, one can gain a better understanding of the motivating factors behind juvenile delinquency.
One of the most relevant behavioral theories in criminology is the social learning theory. Albert Bandura posited that "people learn by what they see" (Arrigo, 2006, p. 87). He believed that violent tendencies were not inherited, but rather that they were modeled on three distinct principles: reinforcement from family members, the media, and the environment (Isom, 1998). Thus, people behave in ways that are "consistent with what we are exposed to and thus familiar with as a byproduct of our environment" (Arrigo, 2006, p.…
Arrigo, B. (2006). Criminal behavior: a systems approach. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Isom, MD (1998, Nov 30). Albert Bandura. The Florida State University College of Criminology
and Criminal Justice. Retrieved 8 March 2013, from http://www.criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/bandura.htm
Sigmund Freud. (n.d.). The Florida State University College of Criminology and Criminal
Contingency Theories Leadership • Situational Approach (chapter 5) • Contingency Theory (chapter 6) • Path-Goal Theory (chapter 7) Behavioral Learning Objectives: Students explore contingency theories leadership identify theory employ .
Contingency Theories of Leadership
Leadership is the process in which a person influences others towards achievement of a common goal. It is a social influence process and can only exist where there is a leader and some followers Waldman et al. 823
( ADDIN EN.CITE )
Leadership theories have been developed to explain some of the concepts and practice of leadership. Some of the early theories focused on behaviors and characteristics of successful leaders while the later theories consider the role of the followers and the nature of leadership.
Situational Leadership approach
Situational approach sees leadership as being specific to the situation at hand. Some situations may lead to an autocratic leadership style while others require a participative approach. Situational…
Elenkov, Detelin S., William Judge, and Peter Wright. "Strategic Leadership and Executive Innovation Influence: An International Multi-Cluster Comparative Study." Strategic Management Journal 26.7 (2005): 665-82. Print.
Herold, D.M., et al. "The Effects of Transformational and Change Leadership on Employees' Commitment to a Change: A Multilevel Study." Journal of Applied Psychology 93.1 (2008): 346-57. Print.
Hill, Linda. Becoming a Manager: How New Managers Master the Challenges of Leadership. New York: Harvard Business School Publishing Corporation, 2003. Print.
Northouse, P.G. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE, 2009. Print.
These three seminal perspectives may possess a lot of similarities, yet each of them has contributed novel ideas that are consistent with its theoretical underpinnings. In many of the substance abuse treatment arenas, the significant aspects of all these three approaches are blended to provide for a cognitive-behavioral model that gives the best result in terms of all the other therapies. (Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy)
Three theorists who have influenced the behaviorist theories are:
1. Watson J.B. - One of the originators of behaviorism and a proponent of the reductionist approach to the study of human behavior.
2. Skinner B.F. - He was the one most responsible for the spread of the behaviorist philosophy.
3. Wolpe, Joseph. The method of systematic desensitization to deal with fear was created by him. (Theories and Theorists)
Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. etrieved at http://www.addictionalternatives.com/philosophy/briefcbtherapy.htm. Accessed on February 15, 2005
Bush, Winston John. (December 22,…
Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy." NIDA. Retrieved at http://www.addictionalternatives.com/philosophy/briefcbtherapy.htm. Accessed on February 15, 2005
Bush, Winston John. (December 22, 2003) "Learning theory: A fuller-fuller explanation of CBT" Retrieved at http://www.cognitivetherapy.com/learning.html Accessed on February 15, 2005
Cognitive Therapy for Depression" Retrieved at http://www.psychologyinfo.com/depression/cognitive.htm . Accessed on February 15, 2005
Grohol, John M. (July 21, 1995) "Theoretical Orientations and Practices of Therapists"
unsuccessful leaders in modern society, one will notice modern leaders considered successful are those that embrace change and work to empower subordinates and followers in a non-threatening manner, and in a manner that is consistent with other's ideologies and spiritual beliefs (Siegel, 2001). This confirms the theory of transformational leadership where leaders work to enable change in an uncomplicated and organized fashion. This theory of leadership is possible and logical today because so much of our time is invested in change, whether it is technological in nature (Couillard & Lapierre, 2003) or strategically based.
Complicating matters are modern notions of "transactional leadership" which suggest leaders, especially those working in an organizational context, must work to motivate people using an exact system. This system would reward and punish those who accomplished or failed to accomplish their goals (Gerzon, 2003). This seems illogical however, if one considers how far leadership has come…
Barker, R.A. (2001) the nature of leadership. Human Relations, 54(4): 469-93.
Barnett, T. & Shubert, E. (2002) Perceptions of the Ethical Work Climate and Covenantal
Relationships. Journal of Business Ethics, 36(1): 280-90.
Bennett, N., Wise, C., Woods, P., & Harvey, J. (2003) Distributed Leadership.
Dominant Learning Theories
Excellence in the field of pedagogy depends on an understanding of the major learning theories and models along with an ability to use them when appropriate. Even if one doesn't agree with these major learning theories, it's still important to be aware of them as a professional. A strong comprehension of the major learning theories can also help to guide one's actions and choices as an educator, scholar or general pedagogue.
Behaviorism, for example, is a major learning theory which asserts that the bulk of learning that occurs in human beings is done through conditioning. This is important as it puts a lot of focus on the power of the environment and how the environment can shape a person's behaviors through the stimuli acquired. Behaviorism is a school of learning which pays very little attention to mental states, finding things like moods and emotions to be too…
Cherry, K. (2014). What Is Behaviorism? Retrieved from about.com: http://psychology.about.com/od/behavioralpsychology/f/behaviorism.htm
Euromedinfo.eu. (2013). Behavioral, cognitive, humanist approaches. Retrieved from euromedinfo.eu: http://www.euromedinfo.eu/behavioral-cognitive-humanist-approaches.html/
Fritscher, L. (2014). Cognitive Theory. Retrieved from about.com: http://phobias.about.com/od/glossary/g/cognitivethedef.htm
There are many different theories pertaining to the development of one's personality. While our personalities develop, we adopt different habits over the years. Some of the habits stay with us for the rest of our lives, while the others we abandon either because of social pressure or because our personality is evolving continuously and therefore our habits change. One of my habits that I would like to analyze in this paper that I have a habit of making 'things-to-do -- list."
Analysis of my habit
From the very beginning, since I was a child, I have been very organized. I always make sure that all my tasks are completed and done on time. As I grew up and life became complex and busier, some of the things that I had to do would get missed every now and then. Also, I would feel very confused as to what I…
Cherry, Kendra. (2013). "Theories of Personality - Personality Psychology Study Guide." About.com Guide.
Sincero, Sarah M. (2012). "Social Cognitive Theories of Personality."
The DSM explicitly "strives to be atheoretical, using merely observationally referent terms. The hope with this is to make the manual as acceptable as possible to professionals with different theoretical orientations (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). Specific criteria and systematic descriptions are offered as guidance for making diagnoses. "Essential features, associated features, prevalence rates, sex ratios, family patterns, and differential diagnoses are listed" and it is noted when "alternative or additional diagnoses…should be considered," such as the possibility that a manic episode could mask itself as schizophrenia (Gilles-Thomas 1989, Lecture 2). This might occur if the clinician was unacquainted with the patient and the patient's past history of depression, for example, and/or mood disorders in the patient's family.
Also key to the efficacy of the DSM in approaching the ideologically and theoretically charged world of abnormal psychology is its multiaxial system. The multiaxial system "allows for a more holistic and comprehensive…
Abnormal psychology. (2009). a2psychology. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://www.a2zpsychology.com/articles/abnormal.htm
Gilles-Thomas, David L. (1989). Definitions. Abnormal psychology: Lecture 1. University of Buffalo. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://ccvillage.buffalo.edu/Abpsy/lecture1.html
Gilles-Thomas, David L. (1989). Classifications. Abnormal psychology: Lecture 2. University
of Buffalo. Retrieved September 23, 2009 at http://ccvillage.buffalo.edu/Abpsy/lecture2.html
Additionally, Edward C. Tolman was essentially aiming to understand cognitive processes through the implementation of behavioral methods. Through his experiments using rats, Tolman posited the idea that behavior was not simply a reaction to a particular stimulus (Walker 1984). ather, he believed that the concept of the mind could make actual connections between various stimuli. His concept of latent learning illustrates how the mind can learn without having to express an explicit response to a present stimulus. Instead, the mind learns with less obvious reinforcement that can occur after the removal of the stimulus that triggered the learning in the first place. Essentially, the knowledge gained from latent learning is not always expressed immediately, and rather develops inside the mind through unconscious processes that are drawn upon only when the environment would require them. The mind holds on to these pieces of memory to assist in more overt learning later…
Kazantzis, Nikolaos, Reinecke, Mark a., & Freeman, Arthur. (2009). Cognitive and Behavioral Theories in Clinical Practice. Guilford Press.
Walker, Stephen. (1984). New Essential Psychology: Learning Theory and Behavior Modification. Methuen Publishing.
Different Ways of Organizing in Supervision and Management
Organizing constitutes a crucial management function. It is essentially concerned with task allocation, division of labor, chain of command, lines of authority and communication, delegation, span of control, as well as supervision and coordination (Shafiee, Razminia & Zeymaran, 2016). The manner in which these processes are organized significantly influences organizational effectiveness and efficiency. It determines how quick or slow decisions are made and implemented. This is particularly important in a constantly evolving environment, in which agility is a crucial parameter of competitive advantage (Felin & Powell, 2016). Organizational structure also shapes relationships between superiors and subordinates (Shafiee, Razminia & Zeymaran, 2016).
There are different ways through which the organizing function may be executed. For instance, organizational structure may adopt either the centralized or decentralized form. The former entails concentrating decision-making authority in top organizational positions, while that latter involves distributing…
MASLOW'S THOEY VS. HULL'S THEOY
Integrating Two Theories of Motivational Psychology
Maslow Hierarchy of needs vs. Hull's Drive eduction Theory
Motivation is common term, but it is not easily defined. This is due to the many studies, which provide different definitions for the term. While some define it as a set of beliefs, values, interests, others define it as a cognitive decision making process. For this paper, motivation is central to a set of processes, which induce, direct, and maintain actions towards an objective. It is not similar to job performance, but it is a contributor to job performance (Linder, 1980). Motivation is a crucial component in the workplace, which explains why organizations are borrowing concepts from the motivation theories. There are many motivational theories, but they either fall under the content or process categories. Content theories assume that individuals have similar needs, and process theories emphasize the importance of…
Brewer, E.W., & McMahan-Landers, J. (2003). Job satisfaction among industrial and technical teacher educators. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, 40(2), 65.
Benson, S.G., & Dundis, S.P. (2003). Understanding and motivating health care employees:
integrating Maslow's hierarchy of needs, training and technology. Journal of nursing management, 11(5), 315-320.
Jensen, R. (2006). Behaviorism, latent learning, and cognitive maps: Needed revisions in introductory psychology textbooks. Behavior analysis fall, 29(2), 187-209.
The four lanchard leadership styles include:
3) coaching; and 4) delegating. (Clawson, 1989)
2) House's Path Goal Theory of Leadership - the motivational function of the leader consists of increasing personal payoffs to subordinates for work-goal attainment and making the path to these payoffs easier to travel by clarifying it, reducing roadblocks and pitfalls, and increasing the opportunities for personal satisfaction en route. (Clawson,1989)
V. CHARISMATIC THEORY
Charismatic leadership is measured by: (1) Followers' trust in the correctness of the leader's belief; (2) similarity of followers' beliefs to the leader's beliefs; (3) unquestioning acceptance of the leader by followers; (4) followers' affection for the leader; (5) followers' willing obedience to the leader; (6) emotional involvement of followers in the mission of the organization; (7) heightened performance goals of followers; and (8) belief of followers that they are able to contribute to the success of the group's…
Liu, W., Lepak, D.P., Takeuchi, R., and Sims, H.P (2003) Matching Leadership Styles with Employment modes: Strategic Human Resource Management Perspective. Human Resource Management Review. 13 (2003).
Clawson, J.G. (1989) Leadership Theories. University of Virginia Darden School Foundation. Charlottesville, VA. Online SSRN Research.
Stodgills Handbook of Leadership (1981) revised Bernard M. Bass New York: The Free Press 1981.
Mintzberg, Henry (1973) Mintzberg's Ten Managerial Roles -the Nature of Managerial Work 1973.
Various Theories on Depression, and Respective Treatments
Depression is a complex mood disorder that is characterized by various emotions, including sadness, self-blame, absence of pleasure and an overall sense of worthlessness, and by physical responses relating to sleep, appetite and motor symptoms. According to statistics, one in four adults will suffer from a depressive episode at some point in life. With a quarter of the population affected by depression, it is no wonder that one sees so many advertisements both on television and on billboards relating to the disorder. It is also understandable that many intellectual fields of study would give an opinion on what depression truly means and how it can be treated. This paper will thus examine psychological, sociological, cultural and biological theories on depression and will describe various treatments that take into account expertise from these various areas of study to better understand this complex…
Lastly, with respect to biological theory-based treatments, scientific research is vital. A study conducted in 2010 states that the finding of "various structural and chemical abnormalities in the brain through neuroimaging" has been the foundation in depression research in the last year. This study further states that the research combines various brain areas to arise specific symptoms, and that the new data could contribute to further understanding and treating depression. Specific treatments are not given as part of this study, but "biological" treatments will usually include medication, such as anti-depressants. [20: Papageorgiou, G. (2010). Biological theory of depression in the light of new evidence. Retrieved April 11, 2011, from http://www.annals-general-psychiatry.com/content/9/S1/S47 . ]
This paper has discussed various theories of depression and has expanded upon treatments that take into account these theories. Some treatments have been proven effective, and others have been illustrated simply as examples or as evidence of much needed field research. Depression has been shown to be a complex illness explained by various intelligent minds in different ways, yet in order to treat this disorder, one must take into account all this knowledge, and hope that advances in scientific research, such as that illustrated above, will provide for better treatments and, finally, more effective relief from depressive symptoms.
personal theories about change and therapy as part of developing a personal therapeutic approach and process. The exploration begins with examining personal beliefs regarding health, normalcy, and change. The author also includes a discussion about the theoretical foundations influencing personal style of therapy. A description of a personal therapy process and culturally responsive therapy is also included in the article. The final section provides a theory of therapy diagram based on cognitive behavioral therapy.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Michael White and David Epston have played a crucial part in explaining family therapy for nearly two decades through contributing to the emergence of numerous concepts in textbooks and handbooks of family therapy (amey et. al., 2009, p.262). One of the concepts in family therapy is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, which is used to treat people with several problems including mental health issues. The use of such theoretical approaches is based on the fact…
Beck, J. (n.d.). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved April 23, 2015, from http://www.beckinstitute.org/cognitive-behavioral-therapy/#q-n-a-1773
"Cognitive Behavior Therapy." (n.d.). Beck Institute. Retrieved April 23, 2015, from http://www.beckinstituteblog.org/cognitive-behavioral-therapy/
Hays, P.A. (2012). Culturally responsive cognitive-behavioral therapy in practice. Washington,
D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Morgan's Case Study
Morgan is a bi-racial 16-year-old adolescent male whose mother is Japanese-American and the father is African-American. His parents divorced when he was 3 years old and have negative feelings towards each other even though they both love him. Morgan's parents have remarried and have children. He has very good relationships with his father, stepmother, and younger sisters but has struggled to have a good relationship with his mother after she remarried. The family situation is quite stressful since it's difficult for Morgan to see his mother who relocated to another state while the father lost his job and the family is experiencing tremendous financial challenges. While Morgan has developed feelings for one young woman in his social group, he is skeptical of asking her out on a date for fear of rejection. In the past year, he has demonstrated behavioral changes including identifying himself as African-American instead…
Counseling Staff. (2015, June 1). Five Counseling Theories and Approaches. Retrieved from The Family Institute at Northwestern University website: https://counseling.northwestern.edu/five-counseling-theories-and-approaches/
Han, H.S., West-Olatunji, C. & Thomas, M.S. (2011). Use of Racial Identity Development Theory to Explore Cultural Competence among Early Childhood Educators. SRATE Journal, 20(1), 1-11.
Ivey, A. E., D'Andrea, M. J., & Ivey, M. B. (2012). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy. A multicultural perspective. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.
Jones-Smith, E. (2012). Theories of counseling and psychotherapy: an integrative approach. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Inc.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy is a more current theory than classical psychotherapy. This theory is based upon the reaction of the mind to external stimuli, and how this is internalized. The cognitive reaction to stimuli then manifests as behavior. When behavior becomes extreme or destructive, it is unacceptable, and therapy becomes necessary.
Therapy focuses upon finding the stimuli that originally caused the behavior. Much like client-centered therapy, the responsibility for healing lies with the client. The therapist's role is merely to guide the client towards the target behavior. One of the ways in which to do this is to provide the client with gradual behavior modification exercises until the target behavior is reached.
The role of the subconscious is based upon habit-forming cognitive activities. Perpetual external stimuli will for example form habits. Good habits can be formed by means of gradual cognitive-behavioral therapy.
My tendency is to prefer the cognitive-behavioral theory. The…
"Our leadership development and training programs push each and every delegate to gain a rigorous personal insight into what makes them tick and then, with that understanding of themselves, to stretch the boundaries of what's comfortable for them" (Leadership development - Leadership skills and training, 2008, Impact Factory). Leadership training through the organization stresses emotional rather than technical skills, unlike GE. Human perception, creativity and out-of the box thinking is what is defined as leadership skills by Impact Factory and by the companies that use its services to train new and older employees alike, employees defined as leaders, and lower level employees as well. Key to success for individuals and the organization as a whole include: "Determining how well you perceive what's going on around you...polishing interpersonal skills and communication skills" (Leadership development - Leadership skills and training, 2008, Impact Factory).
The influence of leadership theory of a 'great man'…
General Electric: Imagination at work. (2008). GE. Retrieved 1 Sept 2008. http://www.gepower.com/commitment/en/integrity.htm
Ethos. (2008). The Impact Factory. Retrieved 1 Sept 2008 at http://www.impactfactory.com/ factory.shtml
Impact Factory. (2008). Impact Factory Homepage. Retrieved 1 Sept 2008 at
Business Psychology/consulting/Industrial Psychology
Business Psychology/consulting/industrial Psycholog
Transformational leadership plan is a process moving leadership positions from one person to another or from one generation to another. Two major theories in relation to leadership transition plan are contingency theory and behavioral theory. Contingency theory emphasizes that there is no leadership style, which can stand alone as a proper leadership style. From the internal and external environmental factors, a leader should adapt to any given situation because leading has no redefined path. Behavioral theory emphasizes that great leaders are not born but made. The theory states that any leader can be more effective through teaching, experience, and observation. The theories can be applied in case of a sudden departure, for strategic leadership succession, and a possible planned departure (Ismail & Yusuf, 2011).
Merger transition plan is a process where two or more companies joined such that they can benefit on large capitals,…
Bass, M.B. (1990). From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Leaning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics. Volume 18, Issue 3: 19 -- 31
Cohen, A. & Golan R. (2007). Predicting absenteeism and turnover intentions by past absenteeism and work attitudes: An empirical examination of female employees in long-term nursing care facilities. Career Development International, Vol. 12 Iss: 5, pp.416 -- 432
De Dreu, C.K. W & Weingart, L.R. (2003). Task vs. relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 88(4), Aug 2003, 741-749. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.4.741
Emery, M. (2010). When the Cure is the Cause: the Turnover and Absenteeism Problems. The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal, Volume 15(1), Article 6: 1-17
The Rogerian Model
This is a theory of communication introduced by psychologist Carl Rogers (Lee 2011). It is founded on trust and emphasizes common goals. This theory proposes that an argument or situation should begin with a brief and objective definition of the problem. Rogers believes that communication will be more effective if trust exists. The nurse or therapist should make a neutral analysis of the patient's position so in order to show understanding of his views. She should also establish and present a neutral analysis of her own position. She should then analyze the goals and values they have in common. Their problem situation should construct a proposed solution that recognizes the interests of both sides, rather than one of them dominating and winning the problem situation (Lee).
This is a client-centered, directive method meant to encourage the patient's intrinsic motivation to change by discovering and handling…
Bozarth, G.O. 2011, 'How to use person-centered therapy for mental health,' eHow:
[Online] Available at http://www.ehow.com/how_2092776_use-person-centred-therapy-mental.html
Lee, L.W. 2011, 'What is the Rogerian model?, ' eHow [Online] Available at http://www.ehow.com/facts_7264316_rogerian-model.html
Lussier, Marie Therese 2007, 'The motivational interview in practice,' 53 (12) Canadian
Riley's Behavior Analysis
Theories of moral and cognitive development can be used in understanding Riley's case and behavior. According to the Piaget's theory of development, children go through various stages in life. Theories of development reveal that when a student is in high school or the 10th grade, he or she undergoes through a period of personal development through the creation of identities. At this stage, individuals are preparing for adulthood and gaining more independence just as adolescents become experimenters in their lives. Piaget proposed a theory of development where moral reasoning for children develops from what he calls a naive understanding of morality. This naive understanding is usually based on behavior and outcomes. However, as they develop, they can have a more advanced understanding that is based on intentions. This means that Riley is using his independence in the wrong way. The identity crisis as described in the theories…
maturation, and why is Piaget's theory a good example of a maturational theory of children's cognitive development?"
Maturation is the way an infant gets to learn to become a proper individual by various maneuvers all through the early stages in life. The term maturation has different connotations in the theory of development if viewed from different angles. There are many theories of development that have links or are a part of the theory of maturation. The theories that try to explain the cognitive development are the behavioral theory propounded by Skinner which says that learning is a result of the environment. By creating a better environment, learning can be directed and shaped. Children introduced to a better environment learn to give better responses and the behavior theory seem to work where special education is required. Freud and Eriksson believed that children came with drives that had to be channeled in…
Alexander, Patricia A; Winne, Philip H. (2006) "Handbook of educational psychology"
Anderson, Norman H. (1996) "A Functional Theory of Cognition." Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates: Mahwah, NJ.
Application of Schools of Criminal Thought
Within the classical school of thought (rational choice framework from economics), the charges against the perpetrator would be considered both logical and effective. Under classical thought, criminology holds that punishment is an effective deterrent to crime, and that punishment should be rationally aligned with the severity of the crime. The positivist school of thought (functionalist or biological, psychological, and sociological framework) would consider the crime and the punishment against a background of social and genetic influence. Within positivist criminology, the offender is viewed as having a flawed personality and character, brought about by significant deprivations during impressionable years, and that may at least be ameliorated through integrated therapies and treatment. The neo-classical school of thought (empiricism framework) considers crime -- and makes and implements policy -- through a rationalist, scientific, and evidence-based lens.
Theoretical Criminology Frameworks
Social bonding theory. Social bonding theory stems…
For any company or organization to function smoothly, there must be some elaborate management system in place. This is crucial as proper leadership would focus on guiding the company or organization through teamwork projects and is needed to keep everyone in the team motivated and willing to keep working no matter what. Understanding the leadership concepts and the different leadership theories makes those in charge better leaders. Some of these notable theories include:
The Leadership Exchange (LMX) theory
This theory focuses on the building of individual one on one relationship between the leader and every employee in the team rather than leading the team as a whole (Lunenburg, 2010). Since each relationship is bound to vary in quality, the leader will always have a good relationship with majority of the team regardless of the few bad relationships. These relationships (commonly referred to as dyads) give the leader a better…
Komives, S., & Dugan, J. (2010). Contemporary Leadership Theories (pp. 111-119). Sage Publications.
Lunenburg, F. (2010).Leader-Member Exchange Theory: Another Perspective on the Leadership Process. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration, 13(1), 2-4.
Malloch, K. (2014). Beyond Transformational Leadership to Greater Engagement. Inspiring Innovation in Complex Organizations, 60-62.
Russell, E. (2011). Leadership Theories and Style: A Transitional Approach. Military Leadership Writing Competition.
biological theories, sociological theories, and psychological theories of crime.
Biological explanations of criminal behavior
Lombroso's Theory dates back to the late 1800s, and is not widely accepted today. Lombroso believed that a person's body type and constitution can tell a researcher whether or not the person is "a born criminal" (Crossman, 2011). Lombroso believed that criminals inherited their deviance, and that the body type of a person, if it resembled "primitive men," meant that individual was a criminal through a biological connection.
Typically, Lombroso believed that if a person had five or more characteristics from this list (" ... large monkey-like ears, large lips, a twisted nose, excessive cheekbones, long arms, and excessive wrinkles on the skin") then that individual would likely be a "born criminal" (Crossman, p. 1). Females, according to Lombroso, needed just three of these characteristics to qualify as a "born criminal."
Another biological crime theory comes…
Crossman, A. (2011). Biological Explanations of Deviant Behavior. About.com.
Retrieved November 21, 2015, from http://sociology.about.com .
Jrank. (2010). Crime Causation: Sociological Theories -- Labeling Theory / Social Learning.
Theory. Retrieved November 21, 2015, from http://law.jrank.org .
Leadership Style & Theories, Self-Assessment
esources: Leadership in Organizations, Organizational Behavior
To be understood and be believed as fully accountable, any individual must convincingly convey an affective as well as truly influential vision of the future for the organization, or subdivision / sub-directive of this organization, to project that needed charisma. When the subject in question can align his or her behavior alongside the principles of these values as a charismatic leader, then, is the first step to conquer in being believed to live up to the depiction projected. This individual must display a character for everyone in the room to befriend; must draw the imagery of that charismatic personality that everyone will both want to resemble or simulate in style, as well as assist in the here-and-now.
Compare and contrast leadership theories in the textbooks to gain understanding of relevant theories to your leadership approach:
Conger, J.A., & Kanungo, R.N. (1987). Toward a behavioral theory of charismatic leadership in organizational settings. Academy of Management Review, 12, 637-647.
Conger, J.A., & Kanungo, R.N. (1988). Charismatic leadership. The elusive factor in organizational effectiveness. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Conger, J.A., & Kanungo, R.N. (1992). Perceived behavioral attributes of charismatic leadership. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 24, 86-102.
Conger, J.A., & Kanungo, R.N. (1994). Charismatic leadership in organizations - Perceived behavioral-attributes and their measurement. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 439-452.
Theory Help You to Make Sense of Your Own Organization and the Management Practices in Your Organization?
Too often, individuals get an idea stuck in their heads and they cannot dislodge it no matter how hard they try. In actuality though, most people who can only contrive a particular system for working, whether that be managing or running an organization, and there is no interest in change. I realize that falling back to a secure position is comforting, but it is also damaging from a growth standpoint. And, growth is the object in business; that is, aside from the fact that making money is probably the primary concern.
But making money has led to some troubling consequences in the world as businesses have grown greedy and managers have become overly authoritarian and sure of their stagnant methods. The reality is that "managing and organizing are not isolatable objects of study…
Akella, D., (2008). A reflection on critical management studies. Journal of Management and Organization, 14(1), 100-109.
Bourn, D. (2011). Global skills: From economic competitiveness to cultural understanding and critical pedagogy. Critical Literacy: Theory & Practice, 6(1), 3- 20.
Das, H., & Long, B.S., (2010). What makes management research interesting?: An exploratory study. Journal of Managerial Issues, 22(1), 127-140.
Delbecq, A.L., (1999). Rethinking management education. Administrative Science Quarterly, 44(2), 439-442.
What are the major concepts of Ainsworth's theory?
Ainsworth's attachment theory is rooted in Bowlby's research on the bonds that develop between parent and child. Building on Bowlby's research, Ainsworth conducted a groundbreaking experiment known as the Strange Situation. esults of the Strange Situation experiment revealed three different categories of attachment styles. Ainsworth found secure attachment, ambivalent-insecure attachment, and avoidant-insecure attachment (Cherry, n.d.). Moreover, four categories of attachment style behaviors were observed. These four categories include separation anxiety, which refers to the emotional reaction to the caregiver leaving. The infant's willingness to explore in the caregiver's absence is another feature of attachment. Stranger anxiety refers to how the infant responds to strangers when the primary caregiver is absent. Finally, Ainsworth studied reunion behavior, which was how the child reacted to the return of the caregiver. Using these four parameters of attachment-related behaviors, Ainsworth developed the three primary attachment styles:…
Benoit, D. (2004). Infant-parent attachment. Pediatric Child Health 9(8): 541-545.
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Attachment theory. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/loveandattraction/a/attachment01.htm
Fraley, R.C. (n.d.). A Brief Overview of Adult Attachment Theory and Research. Retrieved online: http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/~rcfraley/attachment.htm
Main, M. & Solomon, J. (1986). Discovery of an insecure-disorganized/disoriented attachment pattern. Affective Development in Infancy. 95(124).
Theory of Group Development
Cognitive Behavior Therapy
Cognitive Behavior Therapy is one of the group development theories or models that are used in today's societies and institutions. The validity of making and developing groups is geared towards equitable management of the available group and behavior of people within an institution or place of work. According to Cognitive Behavior Therapy, group development is a lucrative endeavor that has to be worked on in every institution. Group behavior development refers to the concept of relaying equitable avenues of growth and development within a unified sector of human and material togetherness. There is no doubt that all human beings exist in a form or the form of groups in society. The existence and services of these groups is detrimental to the general performance and productivity of the people.
Group working and development surpasses individual performances in many regards. This is the…
Agazarian, Y. (2004). Cognitive Behavior Therapy. London: Karnac.
Agazarian, Y., & Peters, R. (1995). Cognitive Behavior Therapy: Two perspectives on group psychotherapy and group process. London: Karnac Books.
Arrow, H., Berdahl, J.L., & McGrath, J.E. (2000). Small groups as complex systems:
Formation, coordination, development and adaptation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Kellogg & Young in Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder offer a comprehensive explanation of the use of Schema Therapy for patients with BPD, by first explaining the disorder and how it is particularly prime for the use of schema therapy as the disorder itself and the behavior and emotions exhibited from it can be seen as an individual traversing through a short list of schemas and are reflective of the childhood origins of BPD. The modes of BPD are described by the authors as consisting of the angry and impulsive child mode, the detached protector mode, the punitive parent mode and lastly the healthy adult mode. According to the authors if these modes are lacking in integration and emotions cannot be traversed across each, or if the modes are significantly unbalanced they become schemas that override normal adult behavior. The particulars of Schema Therapy are then described after a…
Clarkin, J.F. Levy, K.N. Lenzenweger, M.F. Kernberg, O.F. (June 2007) Evaluating Three Treatments for Borderline Personality Disorder: A Multiwave Study Ameican Journal of Psychology 164:6, 922-928.
Clarkin, J.F. & Levy, K.N. (April 2003) a Psychodynamic Treatment for Severe Personality Disorders: Issues in Treatment Development Psychoanalytic Inquiry 23:2 248-268.
Kellogg, S.H. Young, J.E. (February 2006) Schema Therapy for Borderline Personality Disorder Journal of Clinical Psychology 62:4 445-458.
Kimball, J.S., & Diddams, M. (2007). Affect Regulation as a Mediator of Attachment and Deliberate Self-Harm. Journal of College Counseling, 10(1), 44.
theory: Its usefulness in the workplace today
Attachment theory has its origins in the study of animals. Watching geese 'imprint' upon the first living being they encounter after hatching or researchers observing how baby monkeys thrive when given terry cloth mothers, as opposed to wire mothers, are all examples of attachment theory in action. Attachment theory reinforces the psychodynamic notion that early experiences are seminal and seismic in shaping the human psyche and the way human beings relate to one another. As applied to humans, attachment theory suggests that parents who respond in a positive way to their infant's needs formulate the character of the child in such a way to enable him or her to feel secure in his or her relationships. In contrast, parents who create bonds of insecure attachment by being smothering or rejecting will foster behavioral patterns in their children that are negative, rather than positive.…
Attachment theory. (2002). Great ideas in personality research. Retrieved from:
Hinde, Robert A. (1976). On describing relationships. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 17, 1-19. Retrieved from:
ehavioral Therapy vs. Freud's Psychoanalysis
Amazing advances have been made in the treatment of mental illness throughout the years (Merck, 2004). An understanding of what causes some mental health disorders has resulted in a greater sophistication in customizing treatment to the underlying basis of specific disorders. Thus, many mental health disorders can now be treated almost as successfully as physical disorders.
Most treatment methods for mental health disorders are either categorized as somatic or psychotherapeutic (Merck, 2004). Somatic treatments include drug therapy and electroconvulsive therapy. Psychotherapeutic treatments include individual, group, or family and marital psychotherapy; behavior therapy techniques; and hypnotherapy. There are many others, as well
Research reveals that for major mental health disorders, a treatment plan involving both drugs and psychotherapy is more effective than either treatment method on its own. This paper will discuss two treatment methods -- behavioral therapy and psychoanalysis -- in an effort to…
American Psychoanalytic Association (1998). About psychoanalysis. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.apsa.org/pubinfo/about.htm .
Beystehner, K. (1997). Psychoanalysis: Freud's Revolutionary Approach to Human Personality. Northwestern University. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/beystehner.html .
Guterman, J. (July 1996). Doing mental health counseling: A social constructionist re-vision. Journal of Mental Health Counseling. American Mental Health Counselors Association. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.jeffreyguterman.com/writing/solution.html .
HealthinMind.com. (2004). Individual Therapies. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://healthinmind.com/english/individth.htm .
Adolescent Behavioral Traits
The 'era of the genome' officially began on April 12, 2003 when the entire human DNA sequence had been declared completed (Gannet, 2008). Although there was considerable resistance to the project from the beginning, the subsequent boom in medical and genetic advances are hard to ignore. For example, BAE and colleagues (2013) recently published a genome-wide association study that searched for and found specific DNA sequences significantly associated with agreeableness and long life spans. This study would not have been possible in the pre-genome era.
Despite these remarkable advances, however, genetic research has been going on for decades in the behavioral sciences, thereby laying a foundation upon which more recent genome era discoveries can be based. To better understand this foundation, a selection of studies examining the gene-by-environment influences on child and adolescent behavior will be reviewed and discussed in this essay.
Genetic Determination of…
Bae, H.T., Sebastiani, P., Sun, J.X., Andersen, S.L., Daw, E.W., Terracciano, A. et al. (2013). Genome-wide association study of personality traits in the long life family study. Frontiers in Genetics, 4(65), 1-9. Doi: 10.3389/fgene.2013.00065.
Feinberg, M.E. & Hetherington, E.M. (2000). Sibling differentiation in adolescence: Implications for behavioral genetic theory. Child Development, 71(6), 1512-1524.
Gannet, L. (2008). The human genome project. In E.N. Zalta (ed.) Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition). Retrieved from: http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/human-genome/ .
Heylens, G., De Cuypere, G., Zucker, K.J., Schelfaut, C., Elaut, E., Bossche, H.V. et al. (2012). Gender identity disorder in twins: A review of the case report literature. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 9(3), 751-757.
Social Control Theory of Juvenile Delinquency
Travis Hirschi's Social Control theory of deviance assumes that deviant behavior is largely a function of the connectedness of the individual to his or her society; more specifically, Hirschi's assumptions are that juvenile delinquency, and criminal deviance more generally, are inversely related to the following elements of connectedness between the individual and the community: involvement, commitment, attachment, and belief (Akers & Sellers, 2004; Huebner & Betts, 2002).
Structure of Theory
Hirschi used the concept of involvement to describe the manner and extent to which the individuals takes part in the so-called "conventional" activities, such as extracurricular school functions and other organized opportunities for socially productive youth recreation available in the community (Macionis, 2008). Hirschi used the concept of commitment, to describe the basic "acceptance" in the most general senses, of fundamental social and behavioral norms, values, and expectations in the individual's community…
Akers, R.L., and Sellers, C.S. (2004). Criminological Theories: Introduction,
Evaluation, and Application. California: Roxbury Publishing Company.
Button, D.M. "Social Disadvantage and Family Violence: Neighborhood Effects on Attitudes about Intimate Partner Violence and Corporal Punishment." American
Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 33 (2008):130 -- 147.
Organizational theory refers to the behavioral and social theories which help in the understanding of both informal and formal organizations. It makes references to a number of fields - anthropology, sociology, psychology, semiotics, economics, communications science, history and cybernetics (Sage Publications, n.d). The field has become popular with sociological researchers. Many of these researchers, drawn from such fields as medical sociology, social movements, political sociology and education, have realized the need to study this concept because of the role in empirical research that big organizations play. Scholars out of this field have always found discussions regarding organizational theory arcane. These scholars also hold the view that all that organizational theory concerns itself with is firms and so it is not applicable in other social situations. The formal or complex organization is the study object in organizational theory. Assumptions are made that there exists goals, rules, hierarchy and definitions of membership…
Ascher, W. (2000). Applying classic organization theory to sustainable resource & environmental management. Retrieved from http://law.duke.edu/news/papers/ascher.pdf
Boundless. (2014). Why Study Organizational Theory?. Retrieved from https://www.boundless.com/management/textbooks/boundless-management-textbook/organizational-theory-3/why-study-organizational-theory-28/why-study-organizational-theory-163-7564/
Cohen, D, & Prusak, L. (2001). In Good Company. How social capital makes organizations work. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Conner, D. (1990). The changing nation: Strategies for citizen action (Handout materials). Atlanta: ODR, Inc.ent document.
Kyle is a 42-year-old, single, Caucasian male, with 16 years of education. He works as a software programmer. Kyle reports that he is seeking assistance in helping to "kick his drinking problem." Kyle explains that his use of alcohol has gotten progressively worse over the last five years. He explains that he began drinking as a teenager in high school, but then only occasionally. He never felt that his drinking was problematic until he returned from the service and in the last five years it has gotten worse. He began drinking more regularly following his deployment in the Gulf War. As a reservist in the U.S. Marines Kyle served in Iraq and while on a weekend leave just before he was sent back to the United States Kyle was exploring a rural marketplace with several military colleagues. A bomb detonated at the market killing several dozen local civilians and one…
Cartwright, A.K. (1981). Are different therapeutic perspectives important in the treatment of alcoholism? British Journal of Addiction, 76 (4), 347 -- 361.
Drummond, D.C., Cooper, T., & Glautier, S.P. (1990). Conditioned learning in alcohol
dependence: implications for cue exposure treatment. British Journal of Addiction, 85(6), 725-743.
Hembree, E.A., & Foa, E.B. (2004). Promoting cognitive change in posttraumatic stress disorder. In M.A. Reinecke & D.A. Clark (Eds.), Cognitive therapy across the lifespan: Evidence and practice (pp. 231 -- 257). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Skinner's radical behaviorism has been used to provide explanations for a number of behavioral phenomenon including criminal behavior (Skinner, 1966). For instance, the crime of burglary offers an example of how antisocial behaviors are learned through reinforcement. Members of society that commonly engage in theft or burglary learn their trade via the reinforcing aspects of stealing. The need to steal may be initially activated by means of some form of need or desire to have material gain; however, for many individuals who habitually engage in thievery repeated stealing is positively reinforced by the tangible acquisition of goods provided by these activities. For many of these individuals this behavior is reinforced by the notion that it is easier to steal from others then to apply oneself, work hard, and take the chance on getting the lees than desired rewards. However, many habitual criminals actually put in as much effort into…
Andrews, D.A. & Hoge, R.D. (1999). The psychology of criminal conduct and principles of effective prevention and rehabilitation. Forum on Corrections Research. Special Edition. 12 -- 14. Retrieved on April 1, 2013 from http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/pblct/forum/special/espe_b-eng.shtml
Bandura, A. (1977). Social leaning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Raine, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q Wilson & J. Petrsilia (Eds.) Crime:Public policies for crime control. Oakland: ICS Press.
Skinner, B.F. (1966). The phylogeny and ontogeny of behavior. Science, 153, 1204 -- 1213.
Humanistic psychology has made a tremendous impact on the overall field of psychology and the social sciences in general. Since Rogers first introduced the concepts of unconditional positive regard, the ideals of professional competence in psychotherapy have changed towards client-centered perspectives and practices (McArthur & Cooper, 2017). However, humanistic psychology often eschews quantitative research methods, diverges considerably from the views in cognitive psychology, psychoanalysis and behaviorism, and has been occasionally perceived or portrayed of as too soft to be relevant to the social sciences (Wong, 2017). More recently, humanistic psychologists have gained ground in acquiring greater credibility for the contributions of their paradigm. In particular, humanistic psychology has a greater potential to offer multimodal interventions than other approaches to psychology, For example, psychological wellness is conceived of in a broad-minded manner encompassing multiple domains of life including the interpersonal, community, occupational, psychological, physical, and economic (Duff, Rubenstein &…
Nola Pender - Background and Overview
Dr. Nola Pender is credited with developing the Health Promotion Model, which is internationally adopted for education, practice and research. In the course of her career as researcher, Dr. Pender tested the Health Promotion Model on adolescents and adults. She also formulated the "Girls on the Move" program with the aid of her research group, and started intervention studies into the Health Promotion Model's usefulness in assisting adolescents in adopting lifestyles that are physically active. The team developed various instruments to measure the model's components. In retirement, Dr. Pender is a health promotion research consultant, nationally as well as internationally (School of Nursing, 2015).
Dr. Pender worked for more than forty years as a nurse educator. She taught PhD, masters, and baccalaureate students all through her career and has also mentored numerous post-doctoral fellows. She was the 1998 recipient of the University Of…
Vitamin a for Autism Spectrum Disorder
The Theory of Using Vitamin a as Treatment for Autism Spectrum Disorders
There is widespread linkage of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and Oxytoxin. There are reports that any decrease in the pathway of Oxytocin, is a possible causative factor to the development of autistic situation (Munese-et-al., 2008). Decrease in Oxytocin comes about because of mutations in its receptors, which lead to a reduction on the amount of Oxytocin released to the body posing possible chances for the development of autistic conditions (Lerer et-al., 2008). There is partial dependency of Oxytocin secretion to a protein found, in the cellular membranes of certain red blood cells. The scientific reference of these proteins is CD38, and whenever they mutate there develops a risk of Autism. Mice engineered without the oxytocin receptor gene have been shown to display socially anomalous behavior such as a deficiency of maternal behavior…
Andari-et-al. (2009). Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in high functioning autism spectrum disorders Department of Psychiatry 1-6
Ebstein R., Mankuta D. Yirmiya N., Maravasi F. (2011). Are retonoids potential therapeutic agents in disorders of social cognitions including Autism. EEBS letters: journal homepage. 1529-1536
Campbell et-al. (2010). Association of oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variants with multiple phenotype domains of autism spectrum disorder J. Neurodevelop Disord 101-112
Higashida H., Kikuchi M., Yokoyama S., Munesue T. (2012). CD38 and its role in Oxytocin secretion and social behavior Hormones and behavior journal homepage 351-358
Shaping of Virtues in a Child
There have been many debates on the behavioral patterns of children and how they will grow up. Indeed, some scholars like Aristotle have indicated that virtues are innate and each child is born with his own set of virtues. The question that hence lingers in many minds is then how should one bring up a child if these virtues are innate?
The answer to this challenge is not a straight jacket answer that fits all but in this paper there will be attempt to try and explain how both nature and nurture marries to develop the real, not ideal, person that lives in the contemporary society. Many arguments abound on whether behavior is developed by nurture or endowed by nature, and the long running debate has come to a conclusion that behavior is shaped by both and these two play crucial roles in the…
Joseph, J. (2001). Is crime in the genes? A critical review of twin and adoption studies of criminality and antisocial behavior. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 22, 179-218. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/jones.html
Strategic Policy Brief, (2009). Theories of the Causes of Crime. Retrieved April 26, 2014 from http://www.justice.govt.nz/justice-sector/drivers-of-crime/publications-and-background-information/documents/spb-theories-on-the-causes-of-crime
If these perspectives can be successfully reinforced with programming such as F wrestling, are already aligned with violent behavior (McLellan, 2002). The television shows are reinforcing their need to reinforce and actualize this world view and mind set. These perspectives, if the children who play video games for hours every day could also be seeking out those video games in an attempt to actualize their violent thoughts and feelings. Demographics evidence would also agree with this statement, since those who are not at a high risk to commit violent crimes are likely not seeking out the violent television programming and video games.
Attention Deficit Disorder and Television
Some studies show a strong correlation between the amount of television a child watches and the likelihood that they will suffer from ADD later in life (Schmidt and Vandewater, 2008). Other studies show no correlation between them at all. Television has the unique…
Dudley, William. "Media Violence Causes Youth Violence. "Opposing Viewpoints: Mass Media. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2005. Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. CUNY - Central Office. 1 Dec. 2009.
Jensen, Elizabeth. "Study Finds Test Scores Not Lowered By Television. " The New York Times. (Feb 27, 2006): C6(L). New York State Newspapers. Gale. CUNY - Central Office. 4 Dec. 2009.
McLellan, Faith. The Lancet. London: Feb 9, 2002. Vol. 359, Iss. 9305, p. 502 (1 pp.)
Schmidt, Marie Evans, and Vandewater, Elizabeth A. "Media and Attention, Cognition, and School Achievement." Future of Children. Spring 2008. Vol. 18, Iss.1. (2008).
There are many organizations that use strategic planning to implement change in their services so that the facility runs in a more effective manner. Thus, the overall responsibility of healthcare providers is to offer the best level of care to their patients. For those organizations that follow the plan process, they have had solid outcomes with staff and patient feedback. During my period of research, I generally noticed that many healthcare providers shared the same mission, which was to serve patients with the highest quality care through performance measurements and improvement processes. The ways in which the effectiveness of organizational change will be determined once implemented is through a strong and thorough understanding of roles and positions. This can be achieved through deadlines and guidelines being set so that the protocol is followed in all aspects through measurement. Measurement offer the ability to gather quantitative values to subjective…
Battilana, J., & Casciaro, T. (2014). Change Agents, Networks, and Institutions: A Contingency Theory. Academy of Management Journal , 1-21.
Buchanon, D. (2013). Illusions and Delusions in the Organizational Change Process. Journal of Critical Postmodern Organizational Science, 7-15.
Oreg, S. (2011). Change Recipients' Reactions to Organizational Change. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 461-524.
Thomas, R., & Hardy, C. (2011). Reframing resistance to organizational change. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 322-331.