Behaviorist and Cognitive Theory
Psychology took a center stage and significant change in the early 20th Century when the behaviorism school of thought became dominant. This was a major change from other theoretical perspectives that existed before hence rejecting emphasis on unconscious and conscious mind. Behaviorism strove to see that psychology becomes a more scientific discipline in that focus will be mainly on observable behavior. This approach to psychology whereby the elements of philosophy, methodology and theory are combined. The primary tenet of behaviorism as it was expressed by JohnB.Watson, B.F Skinner in writing is that the primary concern in psychology should be the behaviors that can be observed both in humans and animals and not the unobserved events which take place within the minds of individuals. This school of thought maintains that behaviors can easily be described scientifically without recourse either to any psychological events that occur internally or to a hypothesis that has been constructed such as thoughts and beliefs.
As early as he 19th Century, the behaviorist school of thought was running concurrently and shared common things with Gestalt and psychoanalytic movements in psychology right into the 20th century. The main influences to this theory were Ivan Pavlov who looked into...
This demonstrated that behaviors could be learned through conditioned associations. Other contributors like Edward Lee Thorndike and John B. Watson rejected introspective methods and decided to restrict psychology to mainly experimental methods. The other contributor B.F Skinner carried out research con operant conditioning. Behaviorism began to loose its hold of psychology but its basic principles remained widely used.
Cognitive theory is based on the premise that an individual's thoughts control their actions, their personality and to some extent their circumstances. This theory attempts to give an explanation of human behavior through the understanding of the thought process. The main idea behind this theory is that a person ends up into what they think. The behavior of an individual is as a result of what they think and hence they can be controlled. The main assumption in this theory is that in human beings, the primary determinant of behavior and emotions is their thoughts. This theory holds the claim that the thinking processes and patterns in an individual can be easily changed if they learn how to recognize both correct and destructive tendencies. There are others who believe that entire life circumstances as well as outcomes can be controlled directly through the process of thinking. According to the cognitive theory, an individual can be able to encourage or unlock new ways and [patters of thinking through meditation. The cognitive theory gained a lot of stronghold between 1980's and 1990s (Fritscher, 2014).
However, pure cognitive theory disputes behaviorism based on the fact that behaviorism reduces any complex human behaviors to a simple cause and effect. However, t6here has been a trend over the past decades towards the merging of these two theories. This merger allows therapist…
Behavior Therapy is generally an approach of psychotherapy which aims to treat any sort of psychopathology to eliminate undesired behaviors in a patient or subject (Masters, et. al., 1987). This type of psychotherapy is based on the learning theory. Behavior therapy generally attempts to help in solving certain behavioral problems; this type of therapy has a long history. In the early first century in Rome, Pliny the Elder was known
c. Other theorists (Modern Attachment Theories) Upon the establishment and strengthening of Bowlby and Ainsworth's Attachment Theory, other theorists have developed new studies which either tested the theory or sought to apply it in different contexts or scenarios. Inevitably, most scenarios and contexts that new theorists and psychology researchers took is the path to explaining grief and bereavement. Others, however, have centered on specific aspects of the theory and sought to
Management Theories Behavior Management Theories and Applications The Theory of Planned Behavior & Theory of Reasoned Action The theory of planned behavior (TPB) is one of the most commonly mentioned and used behavior management theories. It is one of a carefully interrelated family of concepts, which follows a cognitive strategy to describing behavior, which centers on individuals' behavior and values. The TPB progressed from the Theory of Reasoned Action, which posited intention to
Communication The McDonald's Menu and Charles Berger's Uncertainty Reduction Theory In the field of communication, extant theories and models aim to provide explanations about the nature and dynamics of relating and interacting with other people. These theoretical frameworks also delve into various kinds of communication, such as verbal or non-verbal and intrapersonal, interpersonal, group, and organizational. One of the most important aspects among these kinds of communication concern theories about interpersonal relationships,
" (Teasdale, 1995, pg. 25) These elements are important, because they are showing how this form of treatment can be effective in dealing with patients that are recovering. The problem is, making sure that there is: consistent follow up and dealing with some of the changing the thoughts they will experience over the long-term. (Teasdale, 1995, pp. 25 -- 39) As a result, this approach is effective at dealing with
Feminist theory can get very political and insistent, but that can and should be tempered by a realistic understanding of what can be accomplished when people all agree to work together in order to see a positive change in the way people are treated. When people become focused on the race or gender of a person, or they become too focused on the words used without clarifying the intent of