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Predicting the effect of bilingual education on student outcomes with the work done by Huddy and Sears, "Opposition to Bilingual Education: Prejudice or the Defense of ealistic Interests?" is problematical. The authors investigated the bases for parental prejudice against bilingual education; they did not investigate in any detail what the educational outcomes might be for the children involved. They made only incidental reference to the possibility that Latino, African-American or other minority students -- or even Anglos -- might experience diminished educational outcomes in the presence, or for that matter absence, of bilingual education. In fact, they were not investigating outcomes per se; they were investigating the source of prejudice.
Huddy and Sears proposed that current prejudice against bilingual education is of two kinds. One kind is the realistic interest variety. Those who practice this form of prejudice believe that spending money on bilingual education to serve Latinos…
Huddy, Leonie and David O. Sears. (1995) Opposition to Bilingual Education: Prejudice or the Defense of Realistic Interests? Social Psychology Quarterly, 58(2), 133-143.
The first federal Bilingual Education Act (BEA) was signed into law in 1968. This study sought to determine what effects the BEA had on local and state school districts in California, some who had previously initiated programs to address the Limited English Speaking (LES) students who were becoming an integrated part of the educational system in California. The study is important to the proposed paper in that it shows how good intentions on the part of the Federal government don't always translate into good results. The study found that there were a number of innovative and independent programs that were adversely affected by the increased oversight and enforcement that the federal program brought with it.
Petrzela, N.M. (2010) Before the Federal Bilingual Education Act: Legislation and lived experience in California, Peabody Journal of Education, ol. 85,
Bilingual education is not just a byword in the United States it…
Valenta, M. (2009) Who wants to be a travelling teacher? Bilingual teachers and weak form of bilingual education: The Norwegian experience, European Journal of Teacher Education, Vol. 32, Issue 1, pp. 21 -- 33
Examining the long-term effects of bilingual education in indigenous areas of less developed countries according to the German perspective is the primary focus of this article. The article examines how positive relationships between and within countries can be initiated and maintained throughout the years with successful teaching of ideas and concepts, especially regarding bilingual education. This is an important article in that it shows how Germany established bilingual teaching programs nearly three decades ago in underdeveloped countries and have been able to share the benefits of that education with their own citizens as well as the citizens of those countries where it was implemented.
Cortina, R.; (2010) Empowering indigenous languages and cultures: The impact of German bilateral assistance in Latin America, European Education, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 53 -- 67
Bilingual Education in Los Angeles
According to the Los Angeles Times articles, "Hundreds Wait for Bilingual Education," by Louis Sahagun and Nick Anderson (October 23, 1998), there are hundreds of students awaiting arrangements for bilingual classes; these students' parents have petitioned the Los Angeles (LA) school system to provide the resources and facilities their children need to learn the English language outside of total immersion classrooms. This article examines the impact of Proposition 227 which provides an alternative to the total immersion approach by offering classes bilingual classes taught in English with support in their native language. The problem cited in this article concerns the paucity of requests for exemption for in any given school, and at least 20 are required in order to form such bilingual classes in a single school.
eview of "Hundreds Wait for Bilingual Education" by Louis Sahagun and Nick Anderson (October 23, 1998)
Sahagun, L. & Anderson, N. (October 23, 1998). Hundreds Wait for Bilingual Education. Los Angeles Times. Available: http://www-rcf.usc.edu/~cmmr/NEWS/L.A.Times_Oct23.html .
America is a land of immigrants and has, therefore, always required bilingual education programs in some form or the other. In fact, bilingual education programs have existed in America since the late eighteenth century, when European immigrant children received educational instruction in their native languages. Recently, however, the issue of bilingual education appears to have grown somewhat contentious. This is evident by the initiatives taken by the States of California, Arizona, and Massachusetts to replace bilingual education with English immersion programs, and the likelihood of other States soon addressing the issue (Lipka, 2002). The move to replace bilingual education with English immersion programs is perhaps understandable in the light of mixed research findings on the efficacy of bilingual education (Rothstein, 1998). However, as this paper will demonstrate, there is a far stronger case to retain and persist with the system of bilingual education for pedagogical practice has now…
Brisk, M.E. "Bilingual Education: From Compensatory to Quality Schooling."
Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998.
Crawford, J. "Language Politics in the U.S.A.: The Paradox of Bilingual
Education." Social Justice. Vol. 25: 3, p. 50+
The factors affecting cost are numerous and not always easily identifiable; in addition to the purchasing of bilingual textbooks and other instructional supplies, there is often a perception that bilingual instruction leads to a greatly increased workload and number of class hours, and therefore a greater overall strain on the often-tight budgets of public education institutions and districts (Mora 2006). It is primarily the transitional costs, however, that many communities view as a barrier to implementing bilingual education; the reallocation of funds for such a purpose is highly unpopular in areas where students are not receiving basic educational needs already (Hu 2008; Mora 2006; NABE 2009).
The study conducted of Guatemalan bilingual education programs speaks to this issue to some degree, though its ramifications in that country are quite different tan what is seen in the United States. Patrinos and Velez (2009) found that educational costs in Guatemala were actually…
CABE. (2009). California association for bilingual education official website. Accessed 11 September 2009. http://www.bilingualeducation.org/
EPE. (2004). "English language learners." Editorial projects in education research center. Accessed 11 September 2009. http://www.edweek.org/rc/issues/english-language-learners/
Hu, G. (2008). "The misleading academic discourse on Chinese-English bilingual education in China." Review of educational reearch 78(20, pp. 195-231.
Krashen, S. (1997). "Why bilingual education?" ERIC digest. Accessed 11 September 2009. http://www.ericdigests.org/1997-3/bilingual.html
In terms of efficacy, Krashen addresses the position that bilingual education is not as effective as suggested by its proponents.
The evidence presented by this position is however not sufficiently convincing to make a substantial case for immersion programs as being superior to bilingual curricula.
Krashen admits that there are still a number of problems associated with bilingual education that need to be addressed. The largest of these is the accessibility of books in either language to children taking part in bilingual programs. Books are essential in the learning process. In bilingual programs, particularly, it is not only a source of subject knowledge, but also of comprehensible input that is a valuable basis for transference as well as first-language development. The problem is that these learners have little access to books, either at home or at school.
James Crawford (1998) also addresses the bilingual education issue from both sides. According…
Crawford, James (1998). "Bilingual Education http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/biling.htm
Krashen, Stephen. (accessed 2007, March 13). "Why Bilingual Education?" Eric Digest. http://www.ericdigests.org/1997-3/bilingual.html
Meyer, Lois. (1998, Spring). "A Critical Look at the Unz Intitiative: 'English for the Children." San Francisco State University. http://www.hument.ucla.edu/hument/linguistics/people/grads/macswan/Unzguide.htm
National Association for Bilingual Education. (2004). "Does Bilingual Education Really Work? http://www.nabe.org/ education/effective.html
While students in two-way immersion programs and other bilingual education programs may have the occasion to feel bored when they are not be instructed in their language, teachers can create an environment in which they are stimulated. The National Association for Bilingual Education (2004) notes that the involvement of parents, materials provided by the school, and the support that the program gets are all important factors in the success of bilingual classrooms. In addition, these factors greatly affect student engagement, as it is difficult to engage students without the resources to run an effective class.
3. Faculty have many concerns going into the bilingual classroom. The National Association for Bilingual Education (2004) notes that teachers in a bilingual classroom do not have an easy job. In fact, the association implies that achieving a functioning bilingual classroom may be difficult for teachers. egardless, studies in 1991 through 2002 have shown that…
"Directory of Two-Way Bilingual Immersion Programs in the U.S." (2009). Retrieved
June 30, 2009, from http://www.cal.org/twi/directory/
National Association for Bilingual Education (2004A). "What is Bilingual Education?"
Retrieved June 30, 2009, from http://www.nabe.org/ education/index.html
Perhaps, here, the most telling words seem to be "the more intelligent class," "the better class," and "those of their countrymen who come here with good intentions." Indeed, one has to wonder which groups of immigrants would not wish to be considered as representatives of these words. Certainly, if an avocation against bilingual education will allow them full membership into a class of people who are "intelligent," of "better class," and "with good intentions," it would be tempting to say the least.
The simple truth is, a majority of those who oppose bilingual education are famously right-wing and typically Republican. In fact, under virtually every Republican Administration, issues of bilingual education have consistently been maligned (Ostrom, 1998). Consider, for example the remarks of 1996 Republican Presidential nominee Bob Dole, who asserted that teaching English is meant "to speed the melting of our melting pot," and that "...e must stop the…
CPJ. Center for Public Justice. "Racial Justice." Capital Commentary. 23 June, 1997. Retrieved from Web site on October 13, 2004 http://www.cpjustice.org/stories/storyReader$431
Farlex. "Bilingual Education." The Free Dictionary.com. 2004. Retrieved from Web site on October 13, 2004 http://encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Bilingual%20education
Krashen, Stephen. "Blingual Education: Arguments for and Arguments Against."
Georgetown University Roundtable on Languages and Linguistics. 06 May, 1999. Retrieved from Web site on October 13, 2004 http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/Krashen3.htm
Ianco-orrell (1972), for example, found that children who are exposed to a bilingual environment from an early age are more skilled at learning new words and their meanings in their first language.
Of course, there are other ways to help children increase their vocabulary in their first language. However, those other methods do not also bestow the many other benefits of bilingualism. And while there are additional costs to bilingual classrooms, proficiency in a second language helps students gain admission to universities as well as to be more competitive in the job market.
Students who become bilingual early on in school will bring those skills to the workplace and improve workplace productivity. Speaking multiple languages offers a competitive edge in the job market and provides a cultural bridge for successful workplace relations. Because of this, demand for bilingual speakers in the workplace is increasing and bilingual communication skills increase economic…
Baker, Colin. Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. (4th ed.) Multingual Matters: Buffalo. 2006.
The author provides a broad overview of the complexities involving teaching students in two languages at once and various possible ways to go about doing this. He also touches on the important issue of how to maintain the viability of minority languages.
Bilingual Education. Bilingual education. Retrieved from
An overview of the reasons why bilingual skills are important at work and as a citizen. Includes a history of bilingual education and competence in the United States.
Bilingual Education Methods: Pros and Cons
Once upon a time, perhaps, the art of teaching was relatively strait-forward. Each teacher used their own style, or that which had been handed down to them by those they learned from. hile certainly a certain degree of theory has always been involved in teaching (after all, the so-called Socratic method of teaching was debated centuries before the birth of Christ, and is still cropping up as a controversial pedagogy), it was not until very recently that a great deal of academic attention was turned not just to the subject matter in schools, but to the way in which they were taught. Even so, the methodology of teaching second languages, as a separate study from general pedagogy, is even more recent. "The designer methods emerged in the 1970's, a period of great enlightenment as many would describe." (Brown, 1994) According to Jack Richards (2001),…
Brown, D. (1994) Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. Upper Saddle River: Prenctice Hall.
English Raven. Suggestopedia. Principles and Methodology. ESL/EFL Resources. Retrieved July 2004 at http://www.englishraven.com/method_suggest.html
English Raven. Total Physical Response. Principles and Methodology. ESL/EFL Resources. Retrieved July 2004 at http://www.englishraven.com/method_TPR.html
Idioma. (2000) What Makes Us Different? Idioma OnLine. Retrieved July 2004 at http://www.idiomaonline.com/english/difer2.htm
When that one opportunity is taken away for the student to practice the language they are learning then their ability to learn the language is lowered. Additionally, the longer the student has to wait to learn the second language, the less likely they will develop any real proficiency in it.
The main argument to keep Bilingual Education in the schools is to promote a solid sense of culture in a growing minority population. Since there is no official language in the United States, forcing any population to speak one language or the other seems unjust, especially considering how this country was founded and built by immigration. Trends are already being developed where states with a large Spanish speaking population have signs and other literature in both English and Spanish to cater to those who only speak one language or the other. This idea supports what many feel is a fundamental…
This prioritization of education may perhaps best be validated by the cultural impact levied by the Chinese immigrant an descendent populations of the United States. The Chinese cultural impact today is felt in the population's extremely high level of visibility in the worlds of small business ownership and corporate leadership. As the text by Golden Venture (2009) reports, "Chinese immigrants and Chinese-Americans have contributed much to the U.S. economy. In 2002, there were over 286,000 Chinese-owned firms in the U.S., employing more than 649,100 workers, and generating more than $105 billion in revenue. The number of Chinese-owned businesses, mostly in professional, scientific and food-related services, grew 13.2% between 1997 and 2002, and are steadily rising." (Golden Venture, p. 1)
And in the era of globalization, there is an increasing awareness in the United States of the role that Chinese-based multinational firms are having on the business culture and…
Asian-American Alliance (AAA). (2010). Asian-American Culture: Perspectives, Experiences, and Prospects. Asianamericanalliance.com.
Golden Venture. (2009). Chinese Immigration to the U.S. goldenventuremovie.com
Library of Congress (LOC). (2009). Chinese Immigration to the United States, 1851-1900. Loc.gov.
Nakanishi, D.T. (1994). The Asian-American Educational Experience: A Sourcebook for Teachers and Students. Routledge.
Flexible grouping practices were important to the success of the program: students had access to Spanish-only, English-only, or bilingual instruction throughout the school day depending on their individual linguistic and academic needs" (de Jong, 2006:3).
This ensured grade-level content learning in most academic subjects, but still allowed for ESL instruction, and social studies content that reinforced their home cultures. Also, bilingual teachers were paired with grade-level standard curriculum teachers to discuss the individual student's different rates of progression and to create an effective, evolving curriculum that supported both ESL and traditional academic instruction. It also gave students support from students experiencing similar struggles as themselves with learning English in a supportive environment combined with exposure to fluent native English speakers later in the day. Non-native speaking children were also paired with same-age learners in class who could give them aid when needed (de Jong, 2006:4).
This acknowledges the possibility of…
Works Cited de Jong, Ester. (2006). "Integrated Bilingual Education: An Alternative Approach."
Bilingual Education Journal. Spring 2006. Retrieved 10 May 2007. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3722/is_200604/ai_n17186149/pg_1
bilingual educated students are more likely to continue education past high school, increase their chances of professional careers, have competitive academic achievement scores, improved social skills and a stronger interest in school education programs. The government interest, certification procedures and selection process of hiring qualified teachers is critical. In this report the consequences of limited English proficiency on academic achievement, the positive effects of bilingual education, and the possible solutions and implication of programs will be discussed.
Limited English Proficiency students have received overall lower grades and below average test scores on Math and eading assessments as a result of the language barrier" (Borden 2001). Achievement test scores revealed that minority students tested way below that of Caucasian students. Children of welfare recipients had lower test scores as well.
The comparison of the standardized test scores between Black and Hispanic students are evidence that Limited English Proficiency is a significant…
Negotiating Identities: Education for Empowerment in a Diverse Society
Bilingual Education, Oil, and the Navajo Nation:
New challenges and opportunities in Arizona
The question before the researchers was to find the best means of providing the State of Arizona with the rights to pursue geological surveys of land in the Four Corners region of Arizona. This report is designed to provide Governor Brewer with the best possible information regarding the Navajo people, their language, the issues both positive and negative that may be present in this negotiation, and how the law of the state will be affected by this issue. The introduction covers the tribe and the language proposal and then two separate proposals ranked in order of viability (first is most viable and so on) are provided with the pros and cons of each.
The Navajo Nation
United States law has decreed that American Indian tribes have governance over their own land and that the tribal…
CSKT. "The Indian Reorganization Act of 1934." 2003. Web.
Environmentally Friendly Drilling Systems (EFD). "Know More: Use Less." 2012. Web.
Mahoney, Kate, Marilyn Thompson, and Jeff MacSwan. "The Condition of English Language Learners in Arizona: 2004." Arizona State University, 2004. Web.
Navajo Nation Government. "Government." The Navajo Nation, 2012. Web.
Education, especially bilingual education and its evolution in the United States, has paved its way in every state with differences in approaches and choices of language being taught. A part of US schooling history is its rich history and practice of native language teaching and bilingual education. Ovando (2003), in his study, found that it was about two hundred years ago that American communities first started assembling large numbers of young children to educate them. Instruction typically took place in languages besides English, and in two or more languages (e.g., Dutch and German in Pennsylvania, German and Spanish in Texas, and the French language in Louisiana). The toleration and use of several languages for education and interaction suggest a wide linguistic pluralism ideology in this era (Ovando, 2003). Keeping in mind the variations and interactions of the different languages, one sees a rich and vibrant culture of bilingual education that…
Bilingual Education and English as a Second Language
One among the many important topics in multiculturalism in the U.S. is centered on the many diverse languages in the country. One of the topics of quite often-heated discussion is the way in which English, as a language should be taught to Americans, whose mother tongue is not English. This is particularly so with foreign immigrants as their assimilation of English eases their assimilation into the culture of America. The number of immigrants is increasing day by day especially from Asia and Asian immigrants constitute more than twenty five percent of all foreign immigrants. Each state has to decide how these immigrants are educated in English. (A Critique of Transitional Bilingual Education and English Immersion)
Bilingual education is a topic that is very controversial in the current American education scenario. It was initially legislated as a language tool to solve the problem…
'A Critique of Transitional Bilingual Education and English Immersion" Retrieved from http://www.andrew.cmu.edu/user/jacobc/Critique%20of%20Bilingual%20Ed.doc Accessed 11/25/2004.
"Bilingual Education" Retrieved from http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/biling.htm Accessed on
"English Language Learners: The Difference between English as a Second Language and Bilingual Education Programs." Retrieved from http://wilearns.state.wi.us/apps/default.asp?cid=722 Accessed on 11/25/2004.
Such limitations seem necessary because of the limited resources that schools have and the need for students to learn English as soon as possible so that they can receive all the benefits of a public school education.
It is evident that this issue will be present for years to come. The increase in the number of children for whom English is not their first language is an indication of the importance of this subject. It is also evident that the issue must be resolved so that all of the children in this nation are able to receive the education needed to become viable members of society.
Brisk, Maria, Maria Estela Brisk. Bilingual Education: From Compensatory to Quality Schooling. 2005 Routledge
Calhoon, Mary Beth, et al. "Effects of a Peer-Mediated Program on Reading Skill Acquisition for Two-ay Bilingual First-Grade Classrooms." Learning Disability Quarterly 30.3 (2007): 169+. Questia. 9…
Brisk, Maria, Maria Estela Brisk. Bilingual Education: From Compensatory to Quality Schooling. 2005 Routledge
Calhoon, Mary Beth, et al. "Effects of a Peer-Mediated Program on Reading Skill Acquisition for Two-Way Bilingual First-Grade Classrooms." Learning Disability Quarterly 30.3 (2007): 169+. Questia. 9 July 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5023349521 .
De Ramirez, Romilia Dominguez, and Edward S. Shapiro. "Curriculum-Based Measurement and the Evaluation of Reading Skills of Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners in Bilingual Education Classrooms." School Psychology Review 35.3 (2006): 356+. Questia. 9 July 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5017755652 .
Montano, Theresa, Sharon H, Ulanoff, Rosalinda Quintanar-Sarellana, and Lynne Aoki. "The DEbilingualization of California's Prospective Bilingual Teachers." Social Justice 32.3 (2005): 103+. Questia. 9 July 2008 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5015870966 .
Bilingual education should not be required in our nation's schools. This does not mean, it should be noted, that foreign language education should be banned, not that supplemental or resource room help in the English language should not be accorded to students who require such assistance. However, bilingual education programs more often than not require a long period of assimilation for students of immigrant status, or parentage, whereby part of the day is taught in English and part of the rest of the day is taught in that student's native language. It is this form of duality of educational environments that must be avoided, so children are not subjected to a further bifurcation of home and American identity, of parental and educational attitudes in culture and in language.
It is argued that it is difficult, and an added burden, for students who speak a different language in the home than…
According to Malfaro, just a single year of English is not essentially sufficient to effectively make the initiative to reading and writing. (Tozzi, 1998)
Supporters give an instance of a study undertaken in the year 1991 approved by the National Academy of Sciences mentioning that the children who have are able to speak a foreign language are able to comprehend English more quickly and perform better educational development on the whole after receiving many years of teaching in their regional language. (Leon, 2001) Jay Greene belonging to the Manhattan Institute employed more accurate statistical instruments compared to those employed in the earlier researches and discovered that bilingual education possess encouraging effects. He inferred that attempts to eradicate the use of local language in teaching does damage to the children by refuting them access to beneficial methods. Almost every researcher who has made an assessment of the scientific research has inferred…
Alvarez, Roberto. (2002) "Bilingual Education" St.: James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture.
Brisk, Maria Estela. (November, 1999) "Education Quality Bilingual Defining Success" Presented at the Symposium on Language Policy. Bar Ilam University, Israel.
Brisk, Maria Estela. (2000) "Defining Success: Quality Bilingual Education" LAB at Brown University.
Cummins, Jim. (9 February, 1998) "Beyond Adversarial Discourse: Searching for Common Ground in the Education of Bilingual Students. Presentation to the California State Board of Education. Sacramento, California. Retrieved at http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/cummins.htm. Accessed on 26 November, 2004
In Chapter 4 of the work the authors suggest that teachers act as catalysts, engaging students and enabling them to achieve the best use for their multiple language skills. Ovando also describes how students actively create their own cultural identity (92). They are not simply passive learners. They do this by comparing information they are receiving in the classroom with their own experiences and forming their opinions and self-image based on their cultural background and experiences as well as the experiences they reap from the environment exposed to every day. This environment a product of classroom learning and experiences.
Cultural Conflict Students Face In Schools
Bilingual and bicultural students often face much cultural conflict and unique learning challenges when in school. In fact these very challenges and conflicts influence student cognitive acquisition and language acquisition because they inhibit students from achieving their highest potential. It is important that educators acknowledge…
Brisk, M.E. (1998). Bilingual education: From compensatory to quality schooling.
Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Clayton J.B. (1993). Your land, my land: The process of acculturation for four international students in an elementary school setting in the United States. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Boston University, Boston.
Conklin N.F., & Lourie M.A. (1983). A host of tongues: Language communities in the United States. New York: The Free Press.
S. is a worthwhile goal, but the No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 is a poorly conceived approach whose deficiencies may actually do more to undermine many aspects of education than any meaningful improvement inspired by its programs.
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their
Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. etrieved September 8, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. etrieved September 8, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169.
Forgary, . (1997) Brain Compatible Classrooms. Andover, MA: Skylight Publishing.
Hendrie, C. (2002) Taking a Chance on Choice; Education Week, Oct 23, 2002. etrieved September 8, 2008, from www.edweek.org/ew/ewstory.cfm?slug=08choice.h22
Murray, C. (2006) Acid Tests: No Child Left Behind…
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their
Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. Retrieved September 8, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. Retrieved September 8, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/ documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169.
All respondents also engage in code-switching on a linguistic level to clarify meaning when referring to both stories. The linguistic responses were not culturally monolithic -- rather, bilingual speakers showed a remarkable ability to fuse the two cultures and languages in which they were fluent. Although the different English and Greek scenarios elicited different responses, when speaking about their feelings the study subjects were able to delve into both vocabularies to find the right word to express their ideas. The study suggested that "1) one's emotional reaction shifts with language (and cultural context) and (2) all emotion terms (and reactions) are available to bilingual speakers, almost regardless of the context" (Panayiotou 2004: 132). Their use of different linguistic tropes also highlighted how language and culture were inexorably intertwined, given that the subjects' expressed emotional responses were substantially different, depending on whether the scenario was presented as about a Greek or…
Bishop, M.M., & Peterson, M. (2010). Impact of media context on consumers' responses to code-switched advertising. Journal of Advertising, 39(3), 55-67.
Panayiotou, N. (2004). Switching code, switching codes: Bilinguals' emotional responses in English and Greek. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 25 (2&3),
Qing, X. (2012). A tentative analysis of code-switching in college bilingual education.
Fifth, the NCLB is devoid of any meaningful consequences for failing to achieve federal objectives other than the publication of such failures in conjunction with the rights of parents to request transfers of their children to better-performing academic institutions (Darling-Hammond 2004). Critics have suggested that the most likely result of enforcement of such limited consequences for noncompliance is the overcrowding of institutions who fulfill the federal requirements to their detriment by virtue of diminution in their ability to meet the educational needs of increased enrollment of low-achieving students (Sonnenblick 2008). Likewise, the NCLB Act authorizes increased federal funding of home schooling and for-profit institutions that further reduces necessary funds to public institutions.
Sixth, whereas George H. Bush articulated the connection between adequate nutrition and access to healthcare and preparedness to learn in school, the NCLB Act ignores this element entirely. Many critics and career educators believe that any proposed educational…
Adams, D. & Hamm, M. (1994). New Designs for Teaching and Learning: Promoting Active Learning in Tomorrow's Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Caillier, J. (2007) No Child Left Behind Act: Are States on Target to Make Their Goals?; Journal of Negro Education, Fall 2007 Issue. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200710/ai_n25139930/pg_10
Crawford, J. (2004) No Child Left Behind: Misguided Approach to School Accountability for English Language Learners. National Association for Bilingual Education. Retrieved June 26, 2008, at http://www.nabe.org/ documents/policy_legislation/NABE_on_NCLB.pdf
Darling-Hammond, L. (2004) NCLB Implementation Challenges: The Local Superintendent's View; Peabody Journal of Education, 80, 156-169. Forgary, R. (1997) Brain Compatible Classrooms. Andover, MA: Skylight Publishing.
But in any case, a shortage of qualified bilingual teachers usually makes it impossible. For example, public schools in California enrolled recently arrived immigrants from 136 different countries in 1994, but bilingual teachers were certified in only 17 languages - 96% of them in Spanish. To the extent that LEP [ESL] children received help in other tongues, they received it almost entirely from teacher aides" (Crawford, 1997, "Babel' in the Schools"). A combined blend of immersion and resource support, or a transitional approach is often necessary from an administrative and logistical as well as an ideological point-of-view -- there are simply not enough teachers.
hat approach is best?
Beyond the rhetorical fury of those who are 'English Only' advocates, devout multiculturalists, or concerned parents, it is often hard to find unbiased, quality research about the outcomes of current programs and strategies. The most sophisticated evaluation study of different approaches was…
Berlitz. (2007). Official Webpage. Retrieved 9 Jul 2007 at http://www.berlitz.com/
Crawford, James. (1997). "Babel' in the Schools." Our World. Retrieved 9 Jul 2007 at http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/can-bil.htm
Crawford, James. (1997). "Bilingual Education." Our World. Retrieved 9 Jul 2007 at http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/biling.htm
Crawford, James. (1997). "Controversy over the National Research Council Report: Does
The world is changing and recent influxes of immigrants into America have presented a dilemma for educators. Some believe the bilingual education is necessary for those that do not speak English as their first language; others feel that bilingual education gives people an excuse not to learn English. The purpose of this discussion is to provide a casual analysis of this issue. The discussion will begin with background information about bilingual classes. The paper will also contain a current evaluation of the situation. The discussion will also present a casual argument of the topic and a counterclaim. This discussion will seek to prove that bilingual education in its current form must be reformed or eliminated.
Background/History Bilingual Classes book entitled Bilingual Education: From Compensatory to Quality Schooling explains that bilingual education refers to "the education of children whose home language is not English." (Brisk) According to an article in…
Amselle, Jorge. 1997. Adios, Bilingual Ed. Policy Review. 86; 52+.
Brisk Mar'a. 1998. Bilingual Education: From Compensatory to Quality Schooling. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Place of Publication: Mahwah, NJ.
Freedman, Samuel. It's Latino Speaking Parents Speaking out of Bilingual Education. The New York Times. July 14, 2004
McKeon, Denise. Different Types of ESL programs. 1987 ERIC DIGEST
teach students who first language is not English continues to be one of the most contested and misunderstood issues facing educators in the U.S. today. wo main educational philosophies and lines of research prevail. Proponents of dual language education assert that the long-term education of students benefits from a bilingual approach primarily because it facilitates cognitive development and is, thereby, a better method to address an achievement gap (Jost, 2009). he opposing educational camp argues that students whose first language is not English should be given support in their first language through bilingual education, but only for a short time (Jost, 2009). he watershed for these two approaches appears to be a long-term focus vs. A short-term focus (Jost, 2009).
he policy problem associated with English as second a language academic programs is fundamentally two-fold: o address the need for acceleration of the development of English language skills and linguistic…
The tendency is to think of bilingual education as focusing on Hispanic students, but this is decidedly a limited perspective (Haas, 2009). Students who need to learn English in order to fully participate in the schools they attend cross all grade levels (Haas, 2009). Moreover, the number of foreign languages represented in any given school can be quite large (Haas, 2009). During the time of the public brouhaha of the Umz Initiative, one teacher reported that, "I have had 32 different languages spoken in my classroom over a 25-year period. Eighty-four languages are spoken in our district" (Anonymous, 1998). With this level of diversity, teachers who are frustrated by the bureaucracy of educational institutions and the lag of simply choose to "just teach in the way that you know is effective" (Anonymous, 1998). Essentially, that means to many teachers that they must reach out to their students in whatever language makes them want to learn and be able to study (Haas, 2009).
Assimilation is a focus for proponents of immersion programs in which students receive instruction only in English. This movement is supported by demonstrations
Curriculum and Policy
DaSilva Iddings, Combs, and Moll (2012) discuss policies surrounding English language learners in the United States (ELL). The article begins by considering the nature and prevalence of this population, postulating that students from this category have come to outnumber native English speakers in American schools. This emphasizes the importance of effective English language instruction for such learners, since it would empower them to access better opportunities in the future and to become contributing members of society. According to the authors, however, educational policy in certain states hinders the ability of these students to access adequate language learning in English.
In Arizona, for example, the policy is based upon Proposition 203, which was approved for Arizona in November 2000. This initiative essentially replaces bilingual education in the state with what was known as "Structured English Immersion (SEI), by which students are to learn English only by means of…
DaSilva Iddings, A.C., Combs, M.C., and Moll, L. (2012). In the Arid Zone: Drying Out Educational Resource for English Language Learners Through Policy and Practice. Urban Education, 47:495
Therefore, instead of requiring non-science majors to enroll in general studies science courses such as biology, chemistry, or "physics for non-majors," the only mandatory science instruction should be courses that relate more directly to useful information. For example, obesity is a virtual epidemic in American society; therefore, a science class in practical nutrition makes mush more sense than the traditional focus of science courses for non-majors. Similarly, computer use classes would be more useful, as would classes emphasizing the logical scientific method rather than substantive science subject matter. Perhaps if mandatory scientific courses related more directly to useful information and to beneficial intellectual processes, American presidential election politics would not feature potential candidates with college (and advanced academic) degrees who still believe that Creationism or "Intelligent Design" are more plausible explanations for the existence of human life than Darwinian evolutionary theory.
As pertains to the study of foreign languages, it…
Carter, J. (2001) an Hour Before Daylight: Memories of a Rural Boyhood. New York: Touchstone.
Gardner, H. (1991) the Unschooled Mind: How Children Think and How Schools Should Teach. New York: Basic Books.
Gerrig, R, Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life. 17th Edition.
New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Moreover, if a student asked to be transferred to a mainstream class he or she did not receive approval. Errors in the U.S. school system have made it possible for African-American students to be involved in bilingual classes. So far, nothing seems to be out of the ordinary, but the strange thing is that they've been put to learn alongside Chinese speaking students also involved in bilingual programs. The motive for this is that the only available places that the black students could fill had been in the Chinese bilingual classes. (Chavez & Lyons)
Parents are not willing to accept having their English-speaking children being sent to bilingual classes any more. Students that aren't literate in English or Spanish are being prevented from learning English and from fitting in the American society.
The people that are not fond of bilingual education programs claim that the theory that children have to…
Krashen, Stephen. "Why Bilingual Education?," Retrieved February 23, 2009, from Ericdigests Web site: http://www.ericdigests.org/1997-3/bilingual.html
Linda Chavez, and James J. Lyons, "Q: Is Bilingual Education Failing to Help America's Schoolchildren?," Insight on the News 3 June 1996, Questia, 23 Feb. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000358053 .
Mar'a Estela Brisk, Bilingual Education From Compensatory to Quality Schooling (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998) 1, Questia, 23 Feb. 2009 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=14165477 .
Natalie Cerda & Christina M. Hernandez, "Bilingual Education,"Retrieved February 23, 2009, from Bilingual Education Web site: http://www.freewebs.com/cerdahdz/historyofbilingualed.htm
According to the book, studies have shown non-native speaking students or students who have special needs physical or behavioral struggle depression because they are in a different country and away from family. "Psychologist David Pillemer has analyzed memories of school, and suggests that such memories have much to tell us about students' perception of success or failure. When I talk to people about their education, from factory workers to physicians, from middle-school to doctoral students, it is telling how many of them call up resonant and emotional memories of events in school that, they claim, have had a potent effect on so many things: their sense of their intelligence, their social competence, their bearing in public spaces" (p. 244 -- 245). Scholars argue whether this is the implication of the alienation to students who form the mainstream population or just one of the effects of being drenched in a multicultural…
Immigration Education in California
Few issues create long-lasting controversy, the type of controversy that engages nearly every member of society regardless of their economic, ethnic, intellectual, political, religious, or social background. Examples of such issues are abortion, crime, the death penalty, racism, rape, etc. Another example of such an issue is immigration education in California. hile California has traditionally embodied the "melting pot" image that the United States so ardently embraces, the issue of immigration education in California has created (and continues to create) quite a stir.
This paper analyzes and examines the multitude of issues related to immigration education in California. Part II discusses the materials and methods utilized. In Part III, the problem of immigration education in California and the probable causes is outlined. Part IV examines the research methods employed. Lastly, this paper concludes with recommendations and potential solutions.
II. MATERIALS AND METHODS
This study was conceived…
Hayne, Sarah. "Immigration News: California Proposes Higher Education for Immigrants." 6/29/01. Retrieved at http://www.usvisanews.com/memo1345.html. On November 12, 2002.
FactBook 2002: Immigration Status of Students- Proposition 187 of 1994 and Welfare Reform Act of 1996." Retrieved at http://www.cde.ca.gov/resrc/factbook/immigstatus.htm . On November 12, 2002.
Immigration Education Issues Pathway: Immigration Policies and Laws." Retrieved at http://eric-web.tc.columbia.edu/pathways/immigrant_issues/impol.html. On November 12, 2002.
Immigration News: California Won't Keep Bilingual Education Programs." 12/30/99. Retrieved at http://www.usvisanews.com/memo825.html. On November 12, 2002.
opportunities, including education, employment, and entrepreneurship that immigrants have in America.
America provides opportunities for all races:
America guarantees that one will not be discriminated on the basis on of his race,
National origin, gender, age etc.
All citizens in America have the right to an equal education, which includes a bilingual education.
Teaching immigrants the English language on an academic level allows them to communicate on a level equivalent to other professionals in the work place.
Immigrants who learn the English Language on a communicable level gives him or her the same equal legal rights as natural born Americans, for example-no hidden surprises in legal contracts.
Foundations help immigrants start up their own businesses in America.
Immigrants, upon receiving citizenship, have the same rights to own businesses in America as Native Americans.
Immigrants of other countries are allowed to contribute their uniqueness to this country when they open…
Frost, Martin, (01/22/1999)
Where-Freedom Seekers Yearn to be Free; Halting Immigrants Deprives America of Fresh Talent that Keeps in on Top
Knight-Ridder News Service
Kelley, S., (9/18/2002)
More importantly, our appreciative and participatory stance with our co-researchers has allowed us to witness and learn about the cutting edge of leadership work in such a way that is and feels qualitatively different from other research traditions we have used in the past, because it is built on valuing. Even though it is challenging at times (Ospina et al. 2002), our inquiry space is enhanced by our collaboration with the social change leaders. (Schall, Ospina, Godsoe and Dodge, nd)
Qualitative Research Methods
Qualitative research methods are those of:
(1) Phenomenology -- this is a form of qualitative research in which the researcher focuses on gaining understanding of how an individual or individuals experience a phenomenon.
(2) Ethnography -- qualitative research that focuses on the culture of a group and describing that culture.
(3) Case Study Research -- form of qualitative research that provides a detailed account of a case…
Betts, Dion E. (2008) Professional Learning Communities and Special education: We Are Gathering Student Performance Data, Now What? PA Administrator.
Blaydes, John (2004) Survival skills for the principalship: a treasure chest of time-savers, short-cuts, and strategies to help you keep a balance in your life. Corwin Press, 2004.
Condelli, Larry and Wrigley, Heide Spruck (2004) Real World Research: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research for Adult ESL paper was presented at the National Research and Development Centre (NRDC) Second International Conference for Adult Literacy and Numeracy, Loughborough, England, March 25-27, 2004.
Cotton, K. (1996). School size, school climate, and student performance (School Improvement Research Series, Close-Up #20). Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Retrieved September 30, 2006, from http://www.nwrel.org/scpd/sirs/10/c020.html
During the last century, the United States has seen a high rate of immigration from other countries, with inevitable effects on our educational system. During the past decade, immigration from Asian nations in particular to the United States has reached an historically unprecedented level. Data indicate that Korea has been one of the top ten sources of immigration during the past two decades, and a large number of these Korean immigrants have settled in California, (Su-Je, et. al., 2002) but our country has many new residents from all Asian countries as well as many others. In the classroom this presents an educational problem as teachers may be faced not only with students who don't understand English yet, but multiple such students each speaking a different language. hile many of these students come from cultures that put great importance on academic achievement.
However, students who don't speak English and…
1) Yeh, 2002. Christine. "Difficulties and coping strategies of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean immigrant students." Adolescence: Spring. 10 pp.
Bhattacharya, Gauri. 2000. "The school adjustment of south Asian immigrant children in the United States." Adolescence: Spring: 7 pp.
Buchanan, Patrick J. The Death of the West: How Dying Populations and Immigrations Imperil Our Country and Civilization. New York: St. Martin's Press. 2002.
Cho, Su-Je, Singer, George H.S., and Brenner, Mary. 2000. "Adaptation and Accommodation to Young Children with Disabilities: A Comparison of Korean and Korean-American Parents." Topics in Early Childhood Special Education: Winter.
By working toward and arriving at a workable and agreeable solution, Tombaugh's principal and teachers together demonstrated the power and effectiveness of collective leadership.
Cushman (March 1997) further points out that in today's changing and increasingly demanding educational environment, with the best, most dedicated faculty often not given much credit for all they accomplish, and with increasing pressure placed on educational leaders and faculty alike due to national standards and emphasis on test score performance nationwide, the traditional school hierarchy of principal as leader and the rest as followers, works far less successfully than in the past. As Cushman states, leadership must instead spring from "reciprocal processes" that help to identify, and work toward, a common purpose. In other words, in today's complex and increasingly demanding educational environment, schools need all the leaders, working together, that they can get. It is also crucial to optimal school success, Cushman adds, that…
Cushman, K. (March 1997). Essential leadership in the school change Process. Horace. 13(4). Retrieved October 4, 2005, at http://www.essentialschools.org/cs/resources/view/ces_res/101.html .
Green, J.P, Forster, G., & Winters, M.A. (July 2003). Apples to apples: An evaluation of charter schools serving general student populations.
Educational working paper No. 1. The Manhattan Institute for Policy Research. Retrieved October 4, 2005, from: http://www.manhattan-institute.org/html/ewp_01.htm .
Turnbull, B. (2001). The longitudinal evaluation of school change and performance in Title 1 schools. Policy Studies Associates. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved October 4, 2005, at http://www.policystudies.com/studies/school/lescp.html.
Lives on the Boundary by Mike ose
The achievements of ose with his students were successful and exceptional because most of his students were in the circumstances he was once in the discredits most of the educational fallacies and stereotypes that are applied on remedial students and literacy. He also shows how one can succeed in life despite of the background as it is seen when he becomes a teacher and later a director at UCLA
The main theme in this book is to show how life can be hard for the remedial students who he argues that they do not fail as a result of intelligence and poor skills but due to limited opportunity and little understanding. He tells this through his own life experience to show how both social and economic forces play a big role in influencing performance and perception of the unprepared students. He does not…
Rose Mike, 1990, Lives on the Boundary: A Moving Account of the Struggles and Achievements of America's Educationally Underprepared, Penguin Books publishers.
INGLEBY, E., JOYCE, D., & POWELL, S. (2010).Learning to teach in the lifelong learning sector. New York, NY, Continuum International Pub. Group pp 7-15
FRANCIS, M., & GOULD, J. (2009). Achieving your PTTLS award: a practical guide to successful teaching in the lifelong learning sector. Thousand Oaks, CA, SAGE Publications. Pp 5-25
AVIS, J., FISHER, R., & THOMPSON, R. (2010).Teaching in Lifelong Learning: A Guide to Theory and Practice. Milton Keynes, Open University Press. P 21
Owing to contemporary trends such as globalization, refugee and migrant influx, increased social and geographical mobility, and global education dissemination, progressively more multilingual and multicultural settings have been emerging worldwide (Trisnawati, 2017). Such settings have led to the growth of bilingualism (and multilingualism) in population groups. Consequently, this research will address the subject of how bilingual persons (those who speak their native tongue, as well as the language, is spoken in the place they have migrated to) maintain their identity within multilingual/ multicultural contexts. Familiarity with their native tongue accords them a sense of pride and internal strength about their heritage.
Problem and its context
The chief topic of discussion in this research will be how multilingual or bilingual persons retain their ethnic/cultural identity within multilingual/multicultural contexts. Evidence to support the research will be collected from several related multilingual/multicultural contexts. But the specific context for the research is multicultural…
Bankston III, C. L., & Zhou, M. (1995). Effects of minority-language literacy on the academic achievement of Vietnamese youths in New Orleans. Sociology of education, 1-17.
Danbolt, L. D. (2011). The challenge of bilingualism in a multilingual society: The Bolivian Case. Journal of Intercultural Communication, ISSN, 1404-1634.
Giles, H., Taylor, D. M., & Bourhis, R. Y. (1977). Dimensions of Welsh identity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 7(2), 165-174.
Imbens-Bailey, A. L. (1996). Ancestral language acquisition: Implications for aspects of ethnic identity among Armenian American children and adolescents. Journal of language and social psychology, 15(4), 422-443.
Phinney, J. S., Romero, I., Nava, M., & Huang, D. (2001). The role of language, parents, and peers in ethnic identity among adolescents in immigrant families. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 30(2), 135-153.
Rosenthal, D. A., & Cichello, A. M. (1986). The meeting of two cultures: Ethnic identity and psychosocial adjustment of Italian-Australian adolescents. International Journal of Psychology, 21(1-4), 487-501.
Schmidt, D. (2019). How to Maintain Your Culture When Moving to Another Country. The Spruce.
Trisnawati, I. K. (2017). MAINTAINING THE IDENTITY OF BILINGUAL INDIVIDUALS IN MULTICULTURAL/MULTILINGUAL SETTINGS. Englisia: Journal of Language, Education, and Humanities, 5(1), 8-16.
Baker High School serves a diverse community, and consists of about 50% Caucasian, 20% African American, 20% Hispanic, and 10% of students from other ethnicities including Asian and Pacific Islander. Over the past five years, Baker has improved its overall performance in terms of measurable outcomes such as test scores and retention rates. The school covers grades 9 through 12. There are about 1100 students enrolled on average every school year, and a total of 95 full-time teachers working at Baker High.
Last year, the Principal who had served the school for over ten years retired. The Principal was well liked for her performance and democratic leadership style; albeit occasionally criticized for resisting change. The incoming Principal ended up being almost the opposite in terms of disposition, leadership style, and educational philosophy. The new Principal, called Skinner for purposes of maintaining anonymity, introduced a series of…
Klotz 266) the standards of the system have had to rely on standardized accountability curriculum to attempt to make this cooperative concept work. The difficulties are also answered with community emphasis on technology and social growth as well a community involvement in schools and district affairs.
In one of the most poignant addresses to congress, in this case Montana, one of the congressmen demonstrate the fight, in every state for the development of quality schools for Native Americans.
If there is to be a solution to the Indian problem in this country, it will only come about when our educational system provides the knowledge... needed to understand and respect the cultural differences between us and the state helps to preserve and protect their cultural integrity. This is a matter of pride. All of us are proud of our heritage... because we know about our history, our culture and our integrity....Are…
Juneau, Denise, and Mandy Smoker Broaddus. "And Still the Waters Flow: The Legacy of Indian Education in Montana it Took 34 Years, Extraordinary Perseverance, and a Series of Legislative and Legal Efforts before the Advocates of Indian Education for All Would Finally See Its Implementation in Montana's Classrooms. Ms. Juneau and Ms. Broaddus Chronicle the Law's Tortuous History." Phi Delta Kappan 88.3 (2006): 193.
Klotz, Irving M. "Multicultural Perspectives in Science Education: One Prescription for Failure." Phi Delta Kappan 75.3 (1993): 266.
Mitchell, Bruce M., and Robert E. Salsbury. Encyclopedia of Multicultural Education. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1999.
Roscoe, Will. The Zuni Man-Woman. 1st ed. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1991.
They also focus more on institutional support, like the need for appropriate funding for such educational programs, rather than psychological issues attacked to assimilation. Changing demographics in recent years in Canada have forced adult education programs to meet the challenge of doing more with fewer resources, as they fight, for more funding for programs designed to orient immigrants in the language and culture of the area. "As new citizens to Canada, they need educational programs to help them navigate the complex paths that citizenship entails and to upgrade their language, knowledge and skills to fully participate in Canadian society."
Unlike Ferrigno's article on education that accepts community criticism and a critique of society as a whole, Guo and Sork's see "adult education as an agency of social progress" in moving students forward into better economic opportunities. Adult education is "an important forum for building inclusive citizenship" more so than changing…
S. educational system. The impact of such law is very noticeable among teachers, students and even to the school administrators. However, there are a number of issues that have been continuously arising as people try to avail of their rights to education.
State legislatures attempting to comply with state Supreme Court mandates to reform their education finance systems should strive to meet the demands of both adequacy and equity. The experiences of some schools and/or states regarding the influx of enrollees suggest that regardless of the catalyst for reform, education reform can and should include elements of both equity and adequacy.
More so, it should be noted that whether a state is in the initial stages of implementing court-mandated reform, like the Equal Education Opportunities Act, or whether it has been in the process for decades, modern reform should incorporate the lessons of the last thirty years of reform efforts…
Buzuvist, Erin E. 2001. "A" for effort: evaluating recent state education reform in response to judicial demands for equity and adequacy. Cornell Law Review. Cornell University
Crofton, Ian. (1992). The Guinness Encyclopedia. Guiness Publication.
Education Quotes. (2006). Retrieved January 17, 2007, at http://www.wisdomquotes.com/cat_education.html
Gylfason, Thorvaldur. (2000) Natural Resources, Education, and Economic Development.
The study found that while the students sought out information from a variety of sources, the sources they found most valuable were parents, friends, teachers, and school counselors. Students in upper grades (11th & 12th) were more likely than students in lower grades to seek out information, and upper level students were more likely to find school counselors, college resource materials, campus visits, and college representatives as most helpful, compared with lower grade students (9th & 10th) who reported that parents, relatives, or siblings were most helpful. There are several implications of this study for colleges and universities. First of all, as school counselors were cited as an important resource for information, colleges need to work with counselors to make sure they have up-to-date information. Griffin et al. (2010) explain that "erroneous information can lead to unrealistic expectations that may cause students to select goals and take actions that can…
Griffin, D., Hutchins, B.C., & Meece, J.L. (2011). Where do rural high school students go to find information about their futures?. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89(2), 172-181. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Hahn, A.,, Coonerty, C. & Peaslee, L. (2003) Colleges and universities as economic anchors: Profiles of promising practices. Retrieved from http://www.compact.org/advancedtoolkit/pdf/HAHN_FINAL_PAPER.pdf
Hardy, D.E., & Katsinas, S.G. (2007). Classifying community colleges: How rural community colleges fit. New Directions for Community Colleges, 2007(137), 5-17. doi:10.1002/cc.265
Ludlow, B.L., & Duff, M.C. (2009). Evolution of distance education at West Virginia university: Past accomplishments, present activities, and future plans. Rural Special Education Quarterly, 28(3), 9-17. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Cultural Case Study: Maria
This cultural case study examines the language competencies, social and human capital assets of a Spanish immigrant to the U.S. named Maria. She is 16 and lives in a community where the Hispanic population is considerable. Her family is supportive and engaged in her life and she receives substantial assistance from them. She is motivated and does well in her studies. She is able to practice her L1 and her L2 all the time thanks to a school that is good at helping ELLs and a community that shares in her ethnic background where her L1 is still commonly used among the inhabitants. This paper also provides some simple suggestions for what the school could do to continue to help Maria to achieve her objectives.
Maria is an ELL who has a strong personal and cultural identity. She is Hispanic -- an immigrant from Spain…
Anderson, V. & Garrison, J.M. (2014). Language and Culture Vignette, Week 1. EDUC
526 course content materials, Concordia University, Seward, Nebraska. [PDF]
Pettito, L. A., & Kovelman, I. (2003). The Bilingual Paradox: How signing-speaking
bilingual children help us to resolve bilingual issues and teach us about the brain's mechanisms underlying all language acquisition. Learning Languages, 8(3), 5-18. [PDF]
Enlarging the Pool: How Higher Education Partnerships are Recruiting and Supporting Special Educators from Underrepresented Groups" discusses various strategies that educators can adopt to bolster recruitment of minority special educators. This need is even more vital, considering the fact that an estimated 40% of American public school students are not Caucasian. In comparison, only 12% of teachers are from racial and ethnic minorities.
There is thus a strong need to "enlarge the pool" of qualified minority special educators. Numerous strategies have been culled from the multiple strategies adopted in successful school districts. One strategy suggests the development of a "grow-your-own" program, a strategy which works well in rural and sparsely-populated areas. Recruitment begins early, with paraprofessionals and clerical support staff who are already working in minority school districts. By giving people who are already in the school districts the requisite training, the grow-your-own program can take advantage of the diversity…
The Impact of Using Professional Bilingual Interpreters
Elderly Hispanic patients experience numerous challenges when seeking for healthcare services since they are only eloquent in their native language and are classified as Limited English Proficient (LEP) patients. This paper examines patient-provider communication between these patients and healthcare providers. The evaluation is carried out to determine the role and significance of bilingual interpreters in promoting medication adherence among elderly Hispanic patients aged 50-75 years. The project will be implemented in an outpatient clinic and community center that provides care to different kinds of patients including elderly Hispanics. This project demonstrates that bilingual interpreters would help promote medication adherence and compliance with treatment among these patients.
Keywords: elderly Hispanics, patients, medication adherence, bilingual interpreters, treatment, patient-provider communication, healthcare providers.
Statement of the Problem
Hispanic population is one of the fastest growing groups of people in the United States, particularly among America’s elderly…
Journal of Gottleib, Katz & Ernst-Slavit (2009) and Colorin Colorado Blog.
The Colorin Colorado Blog is unique in that it provides a bilingual web resource for teachers of all age groups, and offers basic information about ELLs and ELL teaching strategies, as well as school and family support areas. I especially appreciated the way that the website offers assistance for parents, and I have since been asking colleagues to translate the material into other languages for use in my classrooms because many of the ELLs in my classroom come from families that do not use either English or Spanish at home.
In Chapter 5, Gottleib, Katz & Ernst-Slavit (2009) discuss the ways that standard-based learning strategies and collaborative learning strategies can be especially useful for ELLs. The authors also discuss the ways the TESOL English language proficiency standards can be used to foster collaborations and strategic partnerships.
In Chapter 6,…
YouTube: The Role of ESL Teachers in Collaboration
ColorinColorado, 2013. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nL2SMmhBxlY
YoutTube: ESOL Collaborative Team Teaching
Burell C, 2005. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DOJSD5MGy4I
Theory and practice of multicultural and bilingual education
The demands of the competitive marketplace have caused a fundamental shift in the needs of ESL learners and will change the structure of ESL education. During the 1980s and 19980s, the predominant emphasis in ESL instruction was on social graces and basic fluency "Those objectives are now outdated and inadequate to meet the pressing needs of today's children. Increasingly complex, high-tech demands from industry and commerce mandate that every graduate, including those for whom English is a second language, acquire knowledge and skills to compete for jobs" (Beckett & Haley 2000). The goal is for ESL students to graduate not merely with a grasp of English, but with knowledge of subject areas commensurate with their non-ESL peers. Demands for strong ESL student performance are growing amongst parents as well as school administrators, who wish to give a more equitable education…
Beckett, E.C., & Haley, P.K. (2000). Using standards to integrate academic language into ESL
fluency. The Clearing House, 74(2), 102-104.
Son, J. (2008). Using web-based language learning activities in the ESL classroom. International Journal of Pedagogies & Learning, 4(4), 34-43.
It also confirms idea that general standardized tests of academic performance are a good means of assessing student's English language ability.
The dependent variable of the study was students' performance on language assessment tests geared towards ELL students, and the independent variable was that of performance on general academic assessment test. However, there was an underlying assumption that the first component of the assessment, namely that of the measured language proficiency was 'correct.' Other forms of proficiency, such as general life skills, classroom performance, and teacher perception of student improvement were not tabulated nor assessed through quantitative or qualitative methodology.
There are other problems with the study. First of all, the definition of poverty by assessing student participation in school lunch programs is problematic, given this assumes such programs measure poverty in absolute terms, while the accuracy of their measurements of student poverty has been called into question in recent…
Mahon, Elizabeth a. (2006, Summer). "High-stakes testing and English Language
Learners: Questions of validity." Bilingual Research Journal. 30.2: 479-496. Retrieved 15 Apr 2008 at http://brj.asu.edu/vol30_no2/art11.pdf
It cannot be denied that NCLB largely tests students on standardized measures that value verbal fluency above all else (interestingly, competency in a foreign language is not required in NCLB) bilingual students are shown in a poor light, and guidance towards specific prescriptive techniques to suit the individual student's cultural needs, level of fluency, and family situation is not provided by NCLB. NCLB encourages teaching students how to pass a test rather than fosters the type of skills they need to truly 'own' their learning at worst, or at best, by excludes students from school performance results, which may result in a lack of funding for ESL programs, as opposed to programs that really 'count' towards the magic numbers required to meet district standards.
The anthology questions the fundamental assumption that cultural assimilation is a necessary marker of progress in the American school system. The one potential advantage, albeit a…
S. Department of Education presented a five-year grant to University esearch Co's - UC Center for Human Services to work in collaboration with McDaniel College. The project is intended to act as a source to McDaniel to expand and execute a high quality bilingual education/ESL teacher-training program. By this project, CHS/McDaniel will offer various professional development openings to public school teachers and administrators, including workshops, graduate courses in bilingual education, field experiences, and a rigorous summer training institute. (Bilingual Education: Training for All Teachers)
The language immersion programs that are now provided in the United States came from Canada. They wanted their English-speaking population to learn French. Canadians realized English-speaking students were not getting adequate French to get minimum grades in school and to get jobs in French speaking areas of Canada. In 1975, Canada's first French immersion program began and by 1980 this program was launched in the United…
Bilingual Education: Training for All Teachers" Retrieved at http://www.urc-chs.com/services/education/bilingualeducation.html . Accessed on 20 March 2005
Canales, JoAnn; Ruiz-Escalante; Jose Agustin. "A Pedagogical Framework for Bilingual Education Teacher Preparation Programs" Proceedings of the Third National Research Symposium on Limited English Proficient Student Issues: Focus on Middle and High School Issues. Retrieved at http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/pubs/symposia/third/canales.htm. Accessed on 20 March 2005
Cargas, Rachel; Ryan, Tricia. (May 7, 2002) "Bilingual Education" Rachel Cargas's Online Research Portfolio. Retrieved at http://tiger.towson.edu/users/rcarga1/researchpaper.htm#BilingualeducationoriginatinginCanadaAccessed on 20 March 2005
Krashen, Stephen. (August 22, 2000) "Bilingual Education Wasn't a Cure" New York Times. Retrieved at http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/klet4.htm. Accessed on 20 March 2005
The components can be ranked by level of importance or relevance to the subject.
Sequential Graphic Organizers: Sequential organizers allow the educator to assess the ability of the student to logically link ideas and concepts together. Cause/effect and problem/solution are common types of sequential organizers.
Cyclical Graphic Organizers: According to Struble, cyclical graphic organizers help educators evaluate the ability of students to comprehend natural cycles.
In reviewing the application of graphic organizers to the science classroom, Struble (2007) further reports that these tools can provide a clear understanding of student learning at any given point in time. In addition, these tools can be used to assess student learning over the course of a lesson or unit. Because graphic organizers allow individual assessment of student learning, Struble also argues that these tools can be effective for "assessing student with limited English skills or with learning disabilities" (p. 71). Because these tools…
Craig, D.V. (2007). Alternative, dynamic assessment for second language learners. ERIC Database, (ED453691), 1-17.
Barlow, L., & Coombe, C. (2000). Alternative assessment Acquisition in the United Arab Emirates. ERIC Database, (ED448599), 1-8.
Bybee, R.W., & Van Scotter, P. (2007). Reinventing the science curriculum. Educational Leadership, 64(4), 43-47.
Fitch, G.K. (2007). A rubric for assessing a student's ability to use the light microscope. American Biology Teacher, 69(4), 211-214.
enlightening the Far West community in terms of the education level having special focus on the students with Limited English Proficiency. The executive summary will highlight the fact that the population in the region is 70% immigrants and what challenges this portends for the education system. Here also the need for the project as an alternative certification, career ladder, special support for teachers, as a means to improving faculty skills and a preparation source for bilingual counselors will be highlighted. This section will also include the expected cash figures that will enable the project to be effectively implemented from the development of the curriculum to the support for tuition fees and buying of books.
Statement of need
This is the second part where the potential sponsors need to see that the project is in real existence, in the hands of capable people and that the funding would lead to benefits…
Foundation Center, (2012). Proposal Writing Short Course. Retrieved October 22, 2012 from http://foundationcenter.org/getstarted/tutorials/shortcourse/methods.html
V. Government System RARPA
The government introduced the RARPA Program which is abbreviated for the:: "Recording and Recognition of Progress and Achievement Summary of the Evaluation Report" in relation to the Pilot Projects April 2003 to March 2004 Learning and Skills Development Agency National Institute of Adult Continuing Education 2004 August. Since 2002 the Learning and Skills Council (LSC) has focused its efforts on establishing an appropriate method of recognizing and recording the progress and achievement of learners that is non-accredited in nature. Development of a model called the 'Staged Process." The RARPA consists of the application "of an explicit and common staged process to the recognition and recording of progress and achievement, together with the validation of this process through a range of judgments about its consistent and effective application." The background of the project is stated to be that LSDA and NIACE were involved in preparation of work…
McCallum, Myra K. (1999) "Strategies and Activities to Stimulate Adequate ESOL Instruction in Content Area Courses and Increase Honest Effort and Motivation Among ESOL Students Dekalb County School System, Decatur, GA 1999 November U.S. Department of Education: #FL026093.
Your Guide 2 Skills For Life Policy and Strategy (2005) Skills and Education Network March Online available at: http://senet.lsc.gov.uk/guide2/skill sforlife/G2skillsforlifeG028.pdf
English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) Case Studies of Provision, Learner's Needs and Resources, National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy Online at www.nrcd.org.uk ISBN 0 95456492 Kings College London, University of Leeds, Institute of Education, University of London and Lancaster University.
Fogel, H. & Ehri, L.C. (2000). Teaching elementary students who speak Black English Vernacular to write in Standard English: effects of dialect transformation practice. Contemporary Educational Psychology, vol. 25.
Amato & Baca (1989) note that throughout history bilingual education has shifted multiple times, from "nonbiased native-language assessments" to specific services directly related to a student's special needs and bilingual ability (168). Many consider the field of bilingual special education one that is emerging and growing. Baca & Cervantes (1989) note a need for a bilingual special education "interface" exists that incorporates training for special education students and teachers (168). Amato & Baca (1989) observe that certain teacher competencies are clearly necessary for bilingual special education teachers, competencies that must be more clearly defined. Neuman & oskos (1997) and other researchers including Gonzalez-Bueno (2003) suggest promoting literacy among bilingual special education students should be a primary concern for educators. They suggest use of a bilingual alphabet will help facilitate this process.
Jackson-Maldonado (1999) suggests that multiple factors may impact bilingual special education student's ability to excel including student's socio-economic status…
Amato, C. & Baca, L. 1989. Bilingual Special Education: Training Issues. Exceptional Children, 56.2, 168.
Correa, V.I., Figueroa, R.A. & Fradd, S.H. 1989. Bilingual special education and this special issue. Exceptional Children, 56.2, 174+
Gonzalez-Bueno. 2003. Literacy activities for Spanish-English bilingual children. The Reading Teacher, 57(2); 180
Jackson-Maldonado. 1999. Early language assessment for Spanish-speaking children.
Mathematics Instruction in English on ELL Second Grade Students
J. Elizabeth Estevez
Educ2205I-Content Research Seminar
Mathematics is a powerful tool for interpreting the world. Research has shown that for children to learn how to use mathematics to organize, understand, compare, and interpret their experiences, mathematics must be connected to their lives. Such connections help students to make sense of mathematics and view it as relevant. There has, however, been controversy with regard to children from non-English backgrounds and the best ways to get them to make those connections. Questions are raised regarding how to instruct these children who are referred to as English language learners (ELL's). Should they initially be taught in their native language with gradual exposure to English in language classes, or should they be immersed in English as early as possible. Based upon ideas presented in research studies and my own ideas as a former bilingual teacher,…
Teaching ESL Students
At least 3.5 million children every year are identified as possessing limited English proficiency and require additional support before they are mainstreamed into the regular classroom environment (Miller & Endo 2004: 786). Approaches to ESL instruction run the gamut from total immersion to fostering a largely bilingual approach to education for this group of students. The two typical program approaches are that of a transitional bilingual education (TBE) versus a structured (sheltered) English immersion (SEI) program. In TBE, students are instructed in their native language and slowly transitioned to English, and are mainstreamed within 2-3 years to an English-only environment. In the SEI model, all instruction is provided in English immediately, with no accommodations (Tong 2009). A "major challenge that schools face under the pressure of the landmark No Child Left Behind Act of 2002 is to prepare ELLs with native-like English proficiency through various instructional models…
Miller, P. & Endo, H. (2004). Understanding and meeting the needs of ESL learners. Phi Delta
Owens, A. (2010). In the Aftermath of question 2: Students with Limited English Proficiency in Massachusetts. Massachusetts Office for Refugees and Immigrants: Special report.
Why do Most ESL students struggle with reading and literacy and what can be done to improve this? Strategies teachers can use?
It is indeed the case that many ESL students have difficulty with reading and literacy but there are things that can be done to deal with this issue. According to an article found in the Journal of College eading and Learning, it common knowledge that the second language reading process, like the first language process, must be recognized as a "top-down/bottom-up" relationship amid the graphic display located with in the text, several echelons of linguistic knowledge and processes, and several cognitive activities (Weber; Upton). In addition
-up processing -- the recognition of letters and words, the accurate representation of temporal and order information, and the efficient coding of verbal information in short-term memory -- ensures that readers will be sensitive to information that is novel or that does…
Aebersold, J.A. & Field, M.L. (1997). From reader to reading teacher: Issues and strategies for second language classrooms. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Criteria for Evaluating Cultural Content of Reading Material"
Cummins. The acquisition of English as a Second Language.
Curriculum Repository Glossary. http://www.msdnaacr.net/curriculum/glossary.aspx
The Vietnam War was a turning point in the Army's growing realization that senior military leaders, and not just political leaders, had a responsibility to be able to speak to soldiers, to the American people, and to the press about ethical issues.
The Professionalism Study of 1970, examined institutional systems and requirements for success in the Army, attitudes and values of senior officers, and tasks for the 1970s. One of the striking conclusions of the first study was that the Army contained "untoward and unhealthy pressures to strive for success" on the part of officers. Systems that regulated the selection, education, promotion, and reward of Army officers were in need of major correction.
It was clear that the Army needed to evaluate its concepts of values and ethics.
During the decades of the 1970s and 1980s senior commanders in all the services began to exert their influence on the direction…
Angelo, T.A., & Cross, K.P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd edition). San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Carter, D. & Wilson, R. (1995). Thirteenth annual status report on minorities in higher education. Washington, DC: American Council on Education.
Farris, P. (1996). Teaching, Bearing the Torch. Madison, WI: Brown and Benchmark
Changing ocial and Political Education ystem
The social and political context of diversity as it applies to education seems to be in a point of confusion. The conservative movement in favor of the English only classroom in publicly funded schools has been fueled by the terrorist events that occurred in eptember of 2001. Those same events also fuel the cause of diversity in education in both a social and a historical sense. Though these two issues are not by any means the same they do reflect attention in very separate areas of educational trend setting. Even before the eptember 11th events occurred the backlash toward multicultural education had taken a strong hold on the political perspective.
Ron Unz, the ilicon Valley entrepreneur who in 1998 helped push forward California Proposition 227 mandating English-only instruction, for example, has broadened his horizon. Unz's new target: the broader "multicultural agenda." He is quoted,…
Crawford, James, "Obituary: The Bilingual Ed Act, 1968-2002," Rethinking Schools online, Vol. 16 No. 4 Summer 2002. http://www.rethinkingschools.org/Archives/16_04/Bill64.shtml
English for the Children http://www.onenation.org/index.cfm
Language Policy Web Site & Emporium, http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/
Pardini, Priscilla, "Down But Not Out," Rethinking Schools online, Vol. 15 No 1. Fall 2000. http://www.rethinkingschools.org.Archives/15_01/Namu151.shtml