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Fetal tissue research and transplantation in the scientific research community has grown to attract huge debate and controversies since the late 1980s when doctors began to conclude that the bodies of unborn babies could be used in tackling certain diseases. This aspect continued to develop as scientists proposed that fetal tissue can also be used in helping infertile couples to have children. This is largely because these tissues can be used to develop means of contraception and ultimately used for bone marrow transplants. Actually, fetal tissue is currently used for bone marrow transplants for adult transplant donors. However, many medical ethicists and doctors argue that such scientific procedures cannot be effective as stated by its proponents. In the recent years, there have been various calls for the use of the eggs of aborted fetuses to assist infertile couples to have babies.
Use of the Eggs of Aborted Fetuses in…… [Read More]
ioethics: Transplant Case Study thorough examination of any "real life" ethical question involves the examination of all of the issues at hand. It is no different for issues of problematic bioethics. Thus, in consideration of the famous "botched heart transplant story," one must ask the salient questions, "what went wrong," "what should have been done," and "what can one do to insure that this issue will be less likely to occur in the future."
In the unfortunate case of the deceased 16-year-old female, the operating physicians failed to ensure that the patient's blood type matched that of the organ donor. Although it is possible for some organ transplants to utilize non-matching organs as a time-buying device until a match becomes available, this event was neither intentional, nor viable in the case of heart/lung transplant requirements. Although there was clearly an error, as well as a lapse in communication between the…… [Read More]
Stem cell research is a new field, one that was not yet envisioned by the apostles or other authors of the Bible. As a revolutionary form of healing, stem cell research and practice may not be entirely in conflict with scripture. Jesus was the ultimate healer, and therefore stem cell research can be viewed as an extension of this gift from God. Moreover, Luke himself was a physician who would have understood the impetus to heal the sick ("What should a Christian's view be on stem cell research?").
However, not all stem cell research is harmless or righteous in the eyes of God. Just as Jesus would never have killed one man to save the life of another, neither would any Christian physician utilize embryonic stem cells for healing disease. The Bible clearly states that two wrongs do not make a right: "Why not say...'Let us do evil that…… [Read More]
Indeed, by an active participation of the patient, we also tacitly understand that the patient is also fully informed about the course of the medical treatment, about his condition and even about the way scientific research affects his or her illness.
On the other hand, this model has several important setbacks. First of all, it is a matter of time and usually a physician is involved with more than one patient. The deliberative model, because of its customization and patient involvement, would require a physician to be ready to give up as much time as possible for one single patient, in order to best inform him, but also to ensure that all matters of interest to the patient are discussed and referred to. A physician would almost never have this much time for one single patient.
Second, the additional time required with such a model obviously requires additional costs as…… [Read More]
Bioethics -- Assisted Suicide
THEE-STEP MODEL-BASED ETHICAL ANALYSIS OF ASSISTED SUICIDE
Assisted suicide, or euthanasia, is a controversial topic because it contradicts one of the most fundamental values of American and other Judeo-Christian teaching: namely, that human life is sacred. Similarly, in medicine, euthanasia violates the Hippocratic Oath, according to which the first ethical obligation of doctors is to do no harm. However, in modern society, that traditional prohibition against assisting others end their lives has increasingly been challenged, most notably, in connection with the highly-publicized efforts of the late physician Jack Kevorkian who willingly served a prison sentence for violating the criminal statutes prohibiting assisted suicide in Michigan. In addition to legal issue, the concept of euthanasia also raises important issues in relation to balancing various other ethical concerns and it challenges the deeply-held beliefs and personal reactions of many people. The Three-Step Ethical Model provides an analytical…… [Read More]
If the lungs are forced to keep breathing, such people can continue to digest food, excrete waste, and even bear children" (Cline 2013). In the case of total brain death, "the cessation of functioning in those parts of the brain responsible for consciousness and higher reasoning powers is necessary for the death of the 'person' aspect of the brain and body" has occurred (Cline 2013).
Q4. Belmont report principles
The 1979 Belmont report was intended to define "the boundaries between biomedical and behavioral research and the accepted and routine practice of medicine;" risk-benefit criteria in research involving humans and appropriate guidelines for research involving human beings and "the nature and definition of informed consent in various research settings" (Belmont, 1979, HHS).
Q5. Present, explain and evaluate at least one argument in favor of thinking that many abortions are not morally wrong.
No human being should be forced to harbor another…… [Read More]
It is exactly this mitigation for which bio and medical ethics have their prime purpose and directive.
Certainly, the genie is out of the bottle. However, the technology can be tamed if the moral issues can be properly defined, discussed and professional enforcement mechanisms can be instituted, enforced and made to last. hile the pursuit of science and research can be exciting, the professionals can lose their morality in the pursuit and they need to be reminded of right and wrong along the way. Further, they need to know that there will be proper punishment for violating the professional norms. In addition, medicine needs to reclaim some of its patina as a calling or vocation and not just simply a job. In this way, many moral red lines that would otherwise be crossed will be more likely to be respected.
In this short paper, the author dealt with the issues…… [Read More]
It is also possible that Jane could ask for psychological assistance for the Patient in order to ensure greater chance for compliance.
What are Jane Martin's responsibilities with regard to respecting Mr. Tate's autonomy and right to self-determination?
The State of Nevada both acknowledges and supports a sane, adult Patient's right to self-determination as long as that is not harming others. That does not mean, though, that Jane should ignore the symptoms and concerns she has, it only means that the State has no right to force treatment on an individual should they refuse such treatment. If Jane can professionally ascertain, to the best of her abilities and scope of responsibilities, that Patient is a danger to himself because of non-adherence to instructions, she has every right, and indeed responsibility, to move up the appropriate chain of command to allow Patient options for different levels of compliance. Ultimately, in this…… [Read More]
Psychology - Counseling
"the Pastor and Bioethics"
Ethics in health care often presents difficulty for pastors. Common professional struggles are experienced by pastoral and health professionals. There are four specific medical issues that often result in issues for pastors. These include: physician-assisted death or euthanasia, complementary or alternative treatments, the exercise of consent to medical procedures by patients or parishioners and families, and the crucial need for the donation of vital organs to save lives. Entrenched within all four of these issues, there is an important religious concern which necessitates the pastor's capability (Hanford, 2006).
Most transplantable organs come from people who have been killed in accidents that result in brain death but leave vital organs undamaged. Physicians are justifiably hesitant to approach family members at the worst moment of their lives to ask them to donate a loved one's organs. Therefore, many hospitals are turning to ministers, priests, rabbis…… [Read More]
It means that the business elements are not neutral tools that merely enhance efficiency without impinging on medical science itself; rather, the science, the practice, and the business of medicine are intertwined at the most fundamental level. What exactly are these elements, and where did they come from?
Order new kind of enterprise boomed in the American economy in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, creating organizational changes that some would call a second industrial revolution. This new enterprise changed the workplace, the nature of work, and its products. Its productive features included concentration in large plants, labor specialization, process standardization, monopoly of technology, and professional management. Extending the division of labor of Adam Smith's pin factory, Frederick Winslow Taylor further subdivided and managed labor processes, publishing The Principles of Scientific Management in 1911. Incorporating such a labor division, managers designed production processes to achieve the most efficient and…… [Read More]
Ackerman, Terrence. "Why Doctors Should Intervene." Hastings Center Report. August 1982.
Terrence F. Ackerman's article "Why Doctors Should Intervene?" asks the central question not only when doctors should intervene in patient decision making, but also what is the appropriate relationship between a physician and his or her patient? Is the physician simply the provider of medical assistance? Or is there a parental role that the doctor must occasionally take on, when he or she believes the patient's needs are not being met because of a lack of patient information or understanding of the patient's medical condition? When should doctors intervene under such circumstances, Ackerman asks, as well as stating why intervention is occasionally necessary as well as feasible for physicians.
In his article, Ackerman suggests that case of physician potentially having to treat a patient, without the patient fully understanding his or her medical circumstances, can occur under numerous circumstances.…… [Read More]
Bioethics has been dominated by a European model, with European worldviews and philosophies dominating the discourse. This is true in academia as well as in public policy.
The need for global bioethics discourse is pressing, because the life sciences are no longer regional or provincial in scope.
For example, there has been a lot of speculation as to the progress made in East Asian cloning laboratories, particularly in China and South Korea.
Claims that scientists have successfully cloned human beings are unsubstantiated.
However, the speculation does give rise to an important need to discuss bioethics from an East Asian perspective, using East Asian ethical frameworks like Confucianism.
In 2006, the International Association for Bioethics' (IAB) held its world congress in Beijing, a sure sign that the global bioethics community is becoming less Euro-centric in its approach.
Bioethics is starting to integrate non-European ethical and philosophical traditions.
It is…… [Read More]
Contemporary Biotechnology has produced considerable contribution to the global farming and health sector. Advancement of several medicines, numerous pharmaceuticals, vaccines making use of recombinant DNA technology has made biotechnology a multibillion dollar global industry. Additionally, PCR centered diagnostics has additionally materialized as a crucial element of the health industry. Because vast majority of the Islamic nations have their economies centered on farming, biotechnology has therefore enormous potential to improve efficiency. The need of meals in Islamic nations over the last 2 decades is predicted to improve by nearly half. That boost is going to have to come via changes in agricultural efficiency in marginal, fertile, salt affected as well as rainfed areas. There will probably be much less workforce, arable land and water offered to the agriculture sector. This particular scenario is actually a consequence of reduced rural populace, poor management of water reserves and supplies, environmental degradation…… [Read More]
Starring Hugh Grant, Gene Hackman, and Sarah Jessica Parker, the 1996 film Extreme Measures addresses classic bioethics principles. The most significant ethical principle the film presents is related to testing on human subjects. However, this subject is presented in the film as being linked to another significant biomedical ethical issue, and that is patient informed consent. Within these two issues are embedded a series of other issues, such as the social value principle as it applies to the medical research.
Dr. Myrick (Gene Hackman) operates under the social value principle exclusively, to the point where he systematically ignores almost every other bioethical principle. He violates patient rights by not acquiring the informed consent of the individuals by disclosing that they might die from his treatments, and he also treats the homeless people like their lives do not matter, as if they are disposable. Patient autonomy is violated and social justice…… [Read More]
Ethical Evaluation of Dr. Pou
Ethical Evaluation of Mrs. Everett's Claims
Gert's two-step process Evaluation of Dr. Pou
Nursing Ethics in Emergency
Ethical Evaluation of Dr. Pou
From the contents of the article and the actions and the explanations given by Dr. Pou, it is clearly evident that the Kantian theory of ethics was followed by the doctor while she euthanized the seriously ill patients.
The Kantian theory of ethics was propounded by German philosopher Immanuel Kant which states that the will or intention behind an action is the sole judge of the morality of the action and morality is not influenced by the outcome or the results. The theory essentially emphasis the principles that are followed behind actions and influence the actions and not the end result of the actions. The universal principles that treat everyone equally is the motivating factor for acting according to this theory. Animal…… [Read More]
Medical ethics and rules like the Hippocratic oath are fairly clear-cut when applying them to real-world solutions and situations. However, there are some situations where the "right answer" can be elusive and people will sometimes go against their own self-interest. Such seems to be the case with Mr. Simpson. He has weak lungs and his doctors and family morbidly fear that if/when he gets the flu again, it will literally kill him. However, even with this being the case, Mr. Simpson refuses to get the flu show under the auspices that he could end up getting the flu as a direct result of the shot despite assurances that this will not happen. Of course, this can absolutely happen in real life but that argument is not a factor in this case study as it is assumed he cannot possibly contract the virus. While Mr. Simpson is obviously not making the…… [Read More]
Ileana Final Portfolio
This portfolio documents performance of key class and personal objectives for HU280-01: Bioethics 1103C, specifically analytical skill building, knowledge acquisition and practical application. The samples demonstrate achievement by presenting excerpts from submitted assignments, Discussion and Seminar interactions, interactions with the instructor and reflections on progress mastering central concepts, ideas and perspectives in bioethics. This work demonstrates a progression from identification, synthesis and recapitulation of selected relevant ethical systems, placing those systems in the contexts through which they arose, and applying those precepts to emerging controversies in modern life. The underlying benchmark this presentation attempts to demonstrate is that if learning is indicated by a change in behavior, then my implementation of new methods considering bioethical dilemmas and also improved critical reasoning and research methods, indicates learning over this process of course inquiry.
This process has provided a structural framework that translates directly to my work…… [Read More]
Ethical Issues in Nursing
The scenario in this study involves a nurse who has intentionally disregarded the elderly patient's expressed wishes to receive pressure area care. The patient finds the procedure uncomfortable, embarrassing, and painful. The nurse continues to turn the patient in spite of the patient's wishes. This study will answer if the nurse is justified in turning the patient and if so, on what ethical grounds and if not then why not. This case will be discussed in light of the principles of bioethics and at least one ethical issue.
The work of Lakeman (2000) entitled "Nurses as Tools: Instrumentality and Implications for Nursing Ethics" states "Nurses are left in a particularly compromised position when required to administer compulsory treatment. The task of administering the treatment is often left to nurses who are legally required to follow "doctor's orders." There is little room for conscientious objection by…… [Read More]
For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."
Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.
Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…… [Read More]
access to quality healthcare in the contemporary United States is a tremendous social, moral, and ethical problem. Despite being one of the wealthiest and most developed nations in the history of human civilization, the U.S. is currently a country in which basic healthcare is unavailable to almost half of the population (Kennedy, 2006; Parks & Wike, 2010). As many as 40,000 Americans die prematurely every year from diseases and conditions that are readily treatable with access to modern healthcare. Virtually every major ethical perspective supports the proposition that healthcare access should not be determined by the same for-profit marketplace principles as those that govern other industries (Kennedy, 2006; Parks & Wike, 2010; eid, 2009).
In principle, utilitarianism supports this proposition because wide and equal access to healthcare is beneficial to the entire human community. Consequentialism supports this proposition because lack of access to healthcare results in a tremendous amount of…… [Read More]
The course work has immensely improved my reading, writing, and thinking skills. Prior to reading the course materials, there were established beliefs on certain issues and interest in me. For example, the issue of racism and health care was a matter that had always caught my attention, because of my Hispanic heritage. acism was a topic of concern and interest, but I was never a victim of any form of racism. Therefore, from the beginning, I was not in a position to fathom the ordeal and experiences minorities go through because of racism. It is through reading, writing and analytical thinking of articles that I appreciated this social dynamic. It has always been difficult for me to explain and imagine that I could be a victim of racism.
After this course, I am able to use my reading skills that have improved and increased my reading speed and…… [Read More]
It was argued by Epicurus that the souls and body could only interact if the souls are material.
Amicus, C. Ante Oculos - Epicurus and the Evidence-Based Life. Cassius Amicus, 2010.
Amicus, C. Lion of Epicurus - Lucian and His Epicurean Passages. Cassius Amicus, 2010.
Amicus, C. A Life Worthy of the Gods - the Life and Work of Epicurus. Cassius Amicus, 2011.
Amicus, C. The octrines of Epicurus -- Annotated. Cassius Amicus, 2011.
Benatar, . Life, eath, & Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions. 2nd Edition. Rowman & Littlefield, 2009.
Fish, J., and Sanders, K.R. Epicurus and the Epicurean Tradition, Epicurus and the Epicurean Tradition, Epicurus and the Epicurean Tradition. Cambridge University Press, 2011.
Greer, H.T., and Lewis, G. A Brief History of the Western World. 9th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2004.
Hindson, E., and Caner, E. The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics: Surveying the Evidence for the…… [Read More]
As the mentioned societies characterized themselves for athleticism, power and strength so it was not a surprising thing that those people looked down on and hated babies who were weak, dependent and immature. Thus, an individual child was given importance on the basis of his likable future contributions to the society as a mature adult. egrettably, no rules and regulations and laws were there that prohibited people from murdering the helpless and ill babies. Sorry to say, in some cases, even the newborn babies who were in good physical health did not have protection by social custom or lawful decrees. It is a bitter reality that killing of malformed babies was considered important for the maintenance of the quality of the civilians. Similar practices were also common in some parts of the Eastern world (Wyatt 1).
As far as the secular perspective in this regard is concerned, a number of…… [Read More]
Also, there has been pressure in the different professions for every research design to follow these general procedures (Chadwick, Bahr, & Albrecht, 1984, pp. 19-20).
The researcher needs protection as well as the subject does. An important protection of confidentiality is testimonial privilege. This protection is not absolute and must yield to other concerns in some cases such as state's requirement that certain diseases (infectious diseases) or injuries (child abuse or neglect, gun shot wounds) be reported to prevent further injury. Written, informed consent to release information is the best defense against an allegation of a breach of confidentiality (Brent, 1997, p. 258).
Bioethics and informed consent extend beyond the area of research into that of medical practice, calling for medical personnel to inform patients of what treatment are being given and what options the patient may have. Such efforts are seen as both ethical and as empowering for patients,…… [Read More]
Ethics of Bioethics
To the prudent thinker and scholar, there is little doubt that right or wrong is certainly relative. Categorical imperatives and absolutes help people to understand theories and ideas. However, they have little pragmatic value in life as it exists. Erudition in the areas of moral relativism, moral absolutism, and moral objectivism certainly confirm the preceding thesis. Additionally, there are numerous examples found in different areas of life that confirm the conviction propagated in this paper as well.
The tenet of moral relativism certainly helps to buttress this conviction that right or wrong is simply relative. Some of the best examples of this fact are readily supplied by nature. In fact, basic bioethical thought into the food chain supports this viewpoint as well. The reality of life on this planet and as found within nature is that most organisms need to consume other organisms to survive. This fact…… [Read More]
The hospital should always defer to the patient and family that has an advanced directive in place, and if the patient cannot speak for themselves but has an advanced directive, then a proxy must make the decision. The only case where the hospital should be allowed to make the decision on futile care is in the absence of a proxy, in the absence of an advanced directive, and only if it is in the best interest of the patient.
In this psychological-based model, the healthcare professional and hospital is put in the position of negotiating with the family and/or patient. Burns and Truog (2007) state that in these situations the healthcare professional should always follow the wishes of the patient's family in futile care efforts (Burns & Truog, 2007). However, that view places a burden on the healthcare professional to compromise medical principles when that professional deems the care to…… [Read More]
This is a theoretical approach which assumes that the nurse will base all treatment decisions on an interest in achieving the patient's best overall health outcome. In light of this, there may be great value in approaching treatment with a cultural sensitivity to the diversity of needs which accompany the inherent diversity of individuals to be treated. Here, the healthcare practitioner must be particular immune to prejudices of an ethnic, racial, sexual or personal nature, with equal treatment quality and personal attention expected for all patrons of the medical system. This is why it is important for members of the healthcare community to be acquainted not just with the idea of a multitude of groups in its public, but with some level of understanding as to how different ethnic groups endure different health scenarios. The way that the nursing professional approaches healing -- with respect to the balance of personal…… [Read More]
Abortion: Two Opposing Sides
Abortion is one of the most difficult and controversial bioethical issues of modern times. This is perhaps because there are equally compelling arguments on both sides -- in favor of and against. hen debating abortion we are dealing with the question of when human life begins in a meaningful fashion, which is, to some extent, unanswerable.
Four principles of bioethics
Autonomy: The idea that human beings are autonomous, and possess the right to govern their own fate can be used to support a women's right to choice. However, from the point-of-view of an opponent of abortion, if the fetus is a person, it possesses a right to autonomy and to choose to live. But from the mother's perspective, because it is her body at stake, her right to autonomous choice trumps the right even of the father's to decide whether she does or does not have…… [Read More]
Heal Sometimes: My Nursing Ethic
The job of a nurse is to help their patients (Board of Registered Nurses 2013). This is more than just helping to heal their physical or mental illnesses or injuries. It is also about being compassionate and understanding, to make the patient feel safe and to try to help them deal with the anxiety and fear of being in a hospital setting. As a nurse, I believe in doing everything that is possible to help my patients while maintaining ethical standards as well. In the chapter entitled "To Heal Sometimes, to Comfort Always," the author explains that there is far more to nursing than simply evaluating illness or injury and helping to provide treatment for the condition. Above all else, a nurse should be the person who treats the mental state of the patient and tries to make them feel better about being in a…… [Read More]
Realist Moral Theories Unit IV: Bioethics
The moral of the film "ottaca" is quite obvious and the development of events also quite predictable. The film starts from the idea that parents want their children to have the best start in life. The majority of parents would agree with it. This idea is put into the context of genetic engineering, a palpable reality today. The moral is that letting doctors apply genetics to do every magic possible in order to get the "best version of you" by eliminating all the "less perfect possibilities" is wrong.
Most religions teach one to mind the body as well as the soul in order to be in harmony with od and the rest of the universe. They also teach about free will. Causal determinism, on the other side, superposes the end over the beginning and leaves no chance for the "chance." According to this philosophical…… [Read More]
e. The exceptions made for impairment and age would open a Pandora's Box of legal precedence. The Death with Dignity Act and any other forthcoming active euthanasia laws will likely continue to follow the same line of reasoning, i.e. that it is the unimpaired individual who must shoulder the full responsibility of the decisions he or she is making regarding the end of his or her life. That is in fact the point of the law, that a physician's responsibility as well as the responsibility of anyone who is active in the act of euthanasia is relinquished entirely to the will of the dying individual. In the case of a child this decision cannot be made by a proxy, nor can this decision be made for an individual who is mentally impaired, by his or her guardians or care takers. Though the parents in this case have fundamentally compelling arguments…… [Read More]
Speech: Museum's Bid For Bodies
Good evening ladies -- and yes, good evening gentleman as well.
Well, where should we begin? Ahhhh yes -- Are any of you aware of what a cadaver parade is? Have any of you ever actually heard of a cadaver parade?
Let me read to you a recent headline that I discovered: "Anatomy of competition: 2 museums bid for bodies -- what is a bid -- it is an offer or a proposal of a price."
What do you think about that? (Pause) My initial thoughts after reading those words were: "This is unbelievable, no, it is downright shocking, shameful, and certainly very offensive.
When was the last time a price was hung on us human beings? You probably already know, that's right -- During the days of Slavery. (Pause) Am I right?
I believe that the practice attaching a price to the human body…… [Read More]
advertisements and emerging technology studies are focusing on increasing attention on advertising to children, this has been an issue of concern for decades now (Nurses Association, 2001). One of the main issues of contention is whether to researchers should direct their communication towards children or whether they should communicate with their parents directly. In this regard, the study has focused on utilitarian and deontology theories in putting this issue into perspective.
Concerning young kids, it is reasonable to direct research efforts of snack foods, toys and games to their parents because parents are the main buyers of such products. Nevertheless, researchers are aware that better results can be achieved through directing research messages to children, partly because children do not have the capability to analyze research findings and the underlying messages critically. Similarly, children would want the products regardless of the research findings. While pressuring parents, kids substantially force their…… [Read More]
Abortion ranks amongst the most widely questionable subjects examined and discussed all through the world today. Is it accurate to say that it is legitimate? Is it precise to say that it is not an ethical decision? These are simply a couple of the inquiries that arise thereto. One thought is that fetus removal is thought to be reasonable when viewed through the utilitarian viewpoint. The discussion that follows will contemplate on that.
Abortion (Debate Basics):
The premature birth deliberation questions if it can be ethically right to bring an end to pregnancy unnaturally (BBC Ethics). Thinker Ted Lockhart offers a practical answer for taking care of moral issues that can help decide whether to go in for abortion (BBC Ethics). Lockhart proposes that we ought to "exercise discretion based on ethically acceptable values" (BBC Ethics). Interpreted in a simplified manner this means that where we need to settle…… [Read More]
On the whole, the Academy calls for the abolition of exemption laws and endorses initiatives to educate the public about the medical needs of children (Committee on ioethics)..
While AAP recognizes the importance of religion to people's lives, it also warns physicians and other health care professionals should put the health and welfare of children over religious considerations (Committee on ioethics 1997). It encourages pediatricians to respect parents' decision but not when their religious convictions interfere with medical care necessary to prevent harm, suffering or death. When this happens, pediatricians should seek the authorization of the court to override parental authority. If the threat to a child's life is imminent, the health care practitioner should intervene over parental objections. Securing court authorization should, however, be the last course of action. The health care practitioner should cooperate with the family in applying appropriate palliative care. Even when the securing of court…… [Read More]
Ethical Theory & Moral Practice
Debates about theory and practice are ancient. Each generation considers the dynamics that surround issues about the interdependency of theory and praxis to be uniquely challenging. Complexity is a variable closely linked with knowledge. As science has added layer upon layer of knowledge, decision-making dilemmas have been confounded by new and staggering concomitant factors. In concert, theoretical frameworks for social science disciplines have been adapted to accept newly identified moral imperatives and ethical considerations.
This paper offers a discussion about the nexus of epistemology, ethics / morality, and praxis. An examination of the historical development of the paradigm and the assumptions of post-positivism is presented as an introductory foundation for the discussion. Next, is a discussion about ethical theory, followed by an exploration of the increasing division between philosophical frameworks and evolving modern science. Particular note is made of the theory-practice gap in healthcare, which…… [Read More]
With regard to the medication administration itself, in a life saving circumstance, which this clearly is not the weight of the potential for depression of respiration and cardiac status is clearly indicated, yet it would seem unethical under these circumstances, if the review of the documentation proves its validity and clearly indicates the patients wishes, to deny at least the smallest dosage (2mg) of ordered Morphine to reduce the pain and potentially allow the patient to regain calm, which will clearly improve his status with regard to short-term treatment.
If the fear of doing harm, drives every medical decision, based on the extreme notion that all patients can be saved under all circumstances then bioethical decisions are futile. The observations and communications of others in the immediate vicinity to care, including the family, other nurses, support staff and most importantly the orders of the doctor to administer palliative care for…… [Read More]
All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i.e. natural rights and negative i.e. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and how no institution or research domains have the right or power to violate them (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).
Based on the above fact, we have to consider all the concerns related towards security of an individual as well as his rights, societal principles and considerations, national strategies, the financial system and market of the country as well as the social-educational-traditional structure that might be put in jeopardy due to a scientific research of nanomedicine. Hence we have to carefully consider that the researchers who are investing their time and effort in to the nano-medical research are treated with value while still securing the human rights of the society i.e. awareness of and protection against the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on…… [Read More]
Routine Infant Male Circumcision
While female genital mutilation has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years, male genital mutilation or circumcision has been for the most part overlooked in research reports. (Redactive Publishing, 2010, paraphrased) The objective of this study is to conduct an examination of routine infant male circumcision. This will involve a summarization and critical analysis of the current literature and reliable published evidence in this area of inquiry. The work of ocquet et al. (2009) examines the issue of bleeding complications following ritualistic circumcision and reports on six children who are stated to have no family history of hemorrhagic disease and no personal problems of thrombopenia or hemostatis, who were admitted within 1 year at the emergency department for hemorrhagic complications of nonmedical circumcisions, of which one had glans amputation." ( Five of the children were newborns. All of the newborns had compensated shock with…… [Read More]
Nursing Ethical Theories
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Significance of Moral in Nursing
Deontology vs. Utilitarianism
Justice Ethics vs. Care Ethics
Conflict of ights
Ethical Theories in Nursing
Moral philosophy has moved from addressing Plato's question of what makes the good person, to Kant's query as to the right thing to do, to Buber's concern with relationship. Whether referring to business ethics' interest in relationships between corporations and consumers; legal ethics' focus on relationships among the legal system, clients, and society; or nursing ethics' consideration of the relationship between patient and nurse; ethics and morality are conceptualized and actualized on the playing field of relationship.
The nature of nursing as a moral endeavor is an assumption embedded in any philosophical or theoretical consideration of the discipline and practice of nursing. An the goal of nursing is a moral one, namely, the good of…… [Read More]
Technology esponsibility: eflections on the New Task of Ethics
Ethics have been a science, understood and studied, for thousands of years, but as times change so do aspects of this important part of who people are. In the twentieth century it many changes occurred. Women received the right to vote, world wars crossed the globe, and technological advances spurred a golden age in human development. The changes to the technology people use have had positive consequences in that they have made living easier and better in many ways. However, an argument exists that ethics was also changed by the advent of this great technological change. Hans Jonas, the modern father of Gnosticism (Schonborn, 2007), wrote a well regarded essay that discussed the contribution technological advances have made to ethics (Jonas, 1974). His nine points of argument have become the philosophy which many live by. This essay will summarize the nine…… [Read More]
For example, the 1984 British government committee report suggested that "it is inconsistent with human dignity that a woman should use her uterus for financial profit and treat it as an incubator for someone else's child," in part because this threatens to undermine the traditional belief in an inviolable mother-child bond.
Opponents who criticize commercial surrogacy from this perspective frequently attempt to differentiate between commercial surrogacy and "altruistic" surrogacy, in which a surrogate carries a child without a fee, but this distinction is merely nominal, because the lack of an explicit payment structure does not make the decision to become a surrogate any less transactional, and furthermore, the potential for exploitation exists in either case.
Before considering how the law actually treats surrogacy, then, it is becoming clear that a general prohibition on commercial surrogacy represents a kind of undue restriction on the personal and financial autonomy of women, because…… [Read More]
bioethical concerns regarding the use of human stem cells involve their source and their research implications. Ethical issues surrounding the source of human embryonic stem cells used in research has historically evoked the most intense debates and other ethical issues have surfaced concerning the origin of other human embryonic stem cell -- like cells that have the capability to differentiate into all different types of human tissue.
From the time human embryonic stem cells were first isolated and cultured in 1998 human embryonic stem cell research has been generated vast controversy (Cohen, 2007). Much of the controversy is related to the historical public suspicion concerning the potential negative impact of scientific progress and research centered around genetic cloning. Human embryonic stem cell research has become equated with fears about human cloning, the modification of human biological material, and myths of regenerative immortality in wealthy people. All of these vague fears…… [Read More]
isolate one issue that could be called the most controversial issue of the last decade, then it would have to be stem cell research. Federal funding for stem cell research has come under serious criticism on ethical grounds. Stem cell research has been the most explosive genetic research subject in recent years. It has occupied political, legal, ethical and social debates without any specific resolution to the question if stem cell research is ethical and if yes how and if no, why. The debate is grounded in the source of cells required for the research. Stem cells are obtained from two or three different sources like the umbilical cord and the very early stage embryo but the main contentious source is the early embryo which is rich in stem cells but has not yet turned into a person because at this stage it is simply a cyst called blastocyst. We…… [Read More]
controversy and disagreement have plagued the world of medical ethics, especially in terms of "dying with dignity." However, as physicians, we need to recognize that a patient needs dignity not only at the end of his or her life, but also during life, when being examined by a physician for particular complaints (Dresser, 2008). So, in the case of Mr. Hodor, I will have to take into account several aspects of his experience of dignity. First, he is very concerned about his health risks as a result of his family history. According to Dresser (2008), this fear needs to be addressed with as much understanding as possible. I will therefore begin the session by communicating with him about his fears and his reasons for these, as well as his concerns about his symptoms.
Patient privacy is part and parcel of ensuring dignity for the patient. Again, by communicating with Mr.…… [Read More]
Proclaimed by scientists, the thriving cloning of an adult sheep and the prospect to clone a human being is one of the most striking and latest instances of a scientific innovation turning out to be a major argumentative issue. A variety of critics, physicians and legal specialists, scientists and theologians, talk-radio hosts, as well as editorial column writers, for the period of the preceding few months, have been effectively reacting to the news, a number of them bringing up fears and apprehensions on the ethical and moral side of the subject, of the viewpoint of cloning a human being.
The National ioethics Advisory Commission (NAC), at the appeal of the President, held inquiries, as well as organized a report on the ethical, religious, as well as lawful subjects contiguous to human cloning. The Commission suggested a suspension on attempts to clone human beings, at the same time as…… [Read More]
Ethics of Human Cloning
In 1971, Nobel Prize winning-scientist James atson wrote an article warning about the growing possibility of a "clonal man." Because of both the moral and social dangers cloning posed to humankind, atson called for a worldwide ban on any research leading to cloning technology (atson 8).
Until then, cloning had been largely relegated to the realm of science fiction. Scientific research concerning cloning and in vitro fertilization was obtuse and technical, and hardly written about in the news. atson, however, was a highly-respected scientist, a Harvard professor famous for his discovery of the double helix structure of the DNA. The article he wrote sparked an intense debate over cloning, a debate that was renewed with the 1996 birth of Dolly the lamb, the first cloned mammal.
The argument no longer centers on whether cloning is possible, but on whether cloning is ethical. This paper examines the…… [Read More]
morality is a concept involving humanity having a shared set of laws that makes people feel that certain activities should be condemned. This concept promotes the idea that normal humans have the tendency to agree on these respective laws and that they are able to identify conditions in which someone acts in disagreement to them. Individuals promoting this theory consider that there is a universal chain of insights making it possible for people to get actively involved in developing ethical legislations enabling everyone to acknowledge the fact that they can harm society and particular persons through performing immoral actions.
When discussing with regard to common morality in the context of ethical relativism, is would be safe to say that the two are opposing. Ethical relativism promotes the idea that morality is often the result of nurture rather than it being the result of nature. The two concepts are thus very…… [Read More]
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis: State of the Art
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is used to analyze embryos genetically before their transfer into the uterus and offers couples at risk the chance to have an unaffected child, without facing termination of pregnancy. Embryos are obtained by in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and are biopsied mostly on day 3; blastocyst biopsy is mentioned as a possible alternative; the genetic analysis is performed on one or two blastomeres, by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for cytogenetic diagnosis, or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for moleculardiagnosis (Basille, et al., 2009). PGD requires a close collaboration between obstetricians, fertility specialists, IVF laboratory and human geneticists. It needs intensive effort, expensive techniques and is demanding for the patients, but it offers tremendous opportunity for couples whose previous child has exhibited genetic abnormalities.
Children as Hematopoietic Stem Cell Donors
This article isn't directly related to PGD…… [Read More]
ith the emergence of new technologies and procedures
has occurred the emergence of new experts. According to Rose, "around these
experts of the soma cluster a whole variety of new pastoral experts-genetic
counselors are perhaps the best exemplars-whose role is to advise and guide
to care and support, individuals and families as they negotiate their way
through the personal, medical and ethical dilemmas that they face. And,
perhaps, most remarkable has been the rise of a novel expertise of
'bioethics.'" (Rose, 6)
This is the subject which commands perhaps the greatest importance in
Rose's text, striking relevance into every other aspect of the debate by
suggesting that this essentially subjective lens has come to dominate a
field traditionally ruled by empiricism. To this point, optimization has
been distinctly impacted by this false or self-proclaimed sense of somatic
Indeed, in his dealing throughout the text with this issue of
optimization,…… [Read More]
This surgical intervention has proven controversial in modern times as many physicians and surgeons have begun to stress that gender assignment by surgical means is not warranted as an emergent condition and should therefore be delayed until such time that the individual involved can participate in the decision, or until such time as gender assignment takes place naturally, i.e. By individual socialization, and self-determination of gender assignment. In other words there are simply to many variations of the condition to warrant permanent decision making based on outward appearance, regardless of parental or medical opinions and emotions on the subject.
More frequently found in the many variations of hermaphrodites there is a condition known as pseudohermaphrodite, where the individual may present as one or the other gender/sex but have an enlarged or true to size version of the other gender's gonads. Yet, as clear cut as this might seem…… [Read More]
According to this second view, contemporaneous autonomy trumps precedent autonomy because honoring precedent autonomy imposes preferences and values of a different person, the formerly competent self (Buccafumi, p. 14).
The role that patient's families, doctors, health aides, pastors, chaplains and administrators, health educators and others play is crucial. Few people have executed an advanced directive, much less appointed a healthcare power of attorney by the time they enter a hospital with a debilitating condition. An informed consent form only marks the fact that a conversation has taken place in a health facility. The process that needs to or ought to take place concerning a patient's wishes and ensure one's wishes are empowered are part of the process involved as one fills out the advanced directive for themselves. In California the state has consolidated statutes for advanced directives and added some rights and included the best features of past laws. A…… [Read More]
They should be informed in advance and as thoroughly as possible what the study would be about and how their participation would be used. That consent must be constant from the start to finish of the experiment, study or survey. These studies have their worth to society. They are intended to save lives and promote optimum health. There are risks taken in exchange for the ideal, but the involved parties should be fully aware of them and willing to take the said risks. At any stage of the experiment, the participants should be free to back out if they wanted.
Institutions and committees sponsoring or evaluating medical studies using live human subjects should clearly make a choice between the fundamental rights of these subjects to information and the future benefits to be derived by society from the researches. They should refrain from using live human subjects unless absolutely willing to…… [Read More]
Sister Marie Simone oach
A number of prominent nursing theorists have been an influential force in improving nursing practice over the years, with Sister Marie Simone oach being among them. Sister oach is best known for her so-called "six C's" of nursing care: Compassion, Competence, Confidence, Conscience, Commitment, and Comportment. Her work has been absorbed into the mainstream of nursing theory over the years and her contributions to nursing practice have been significant. This paper examines the contributions made by Sister oach to the body of nursing scholarship for the improvement of nursing practice, her contributions to the body of nursing scholarship for the improvement of healthcare and how this nurse ethicists can inform nursing research for the nurse practitioner.
eview and Discussion
Biography of Sister Marie Simone oach
According to her official biography, Sister Marie Simone oach was raised in a oman Catholic family with a number of siblings…… [Read More]
Ethical Issues Surrounding Abortion
Notwithstanding the laws being passed in various states against a woman's right to chose to terminate her pregnancy, the position of this paper is that Roe v. ade is the law of the land and a woman has the ethical and moral right to decide to have an abortion. There are many positions for and against Roe v. ade, and there are many ethical issues that may be (and in many cases are) embraced on both sides of the issue. But the law of the land vis-a-vis a woman's right to the privacy -- regarding her own values -- when it comes to terminating a pregnancy has been determined by the High Court. As a nurse committed to fairness and ethics in healthcare issues, while I respect the rights of others to practice their own values in opposition to Roe v. ade, I am in support…… [Read More]
Stem cells are a hot topic for the media today because our understanding of them has potential for incredible scientific advances in the field of biotechnology, yet we struggle because there are questions of morality raised by the methods by which they might be used. While in centuries past, it was commonly accepted within the scientific community to vivisect the mentally insane or criminally convicted for the purpose of scientific knowledge, today religious groups are concerned about the fate of single stem cells being used in experiments. Stem cells have paved the way to cloning and bioengineering of humans, allowing scientists to "bring... A sperm and ovum together to create an embryo, harvesting the cells, and then discarding the embryo." (Celia) The concern for many people is that working with embryonic stem cells especially may somehow he breaching the rights of people and taking science to a point where it…… [Read More]
As palliative care specialist Dr. Gilbert puts it, "Despite this close involvement with the very patients for whom euthanasia is advocated we do not encounter any persistent rational demand" [Southern Cross ioethics Institute]. The very point of 'Advanced Directives' is in itself confounding issue as frequently it is the patient's imaginary fears about loss of body functions and pain that drives them to such conclusions.
So it is cleanly obvious that in palliative care settings it is not uncommon for patients to succumb to momentary pain and wish for euthanasia but very rarely such requests are persistent. Instead of legalizing euthanasia, efforts must therefore be concentrated on improving the palliative care. This could take the form of improving pain control measures and providing loving and caring service to patients.
Legalizing Euthanasia (Implications)
Very few nations in the world have legalized euthanasia. Holland was the first country to do so and…… [Read More]
As such, every human being has 70,000 pairs of these genes or instructions that tell the body what to be and how to behave. They have garnered the name "designer" not so much as to pre-selection but more toward blueprint. Although biotechnological development might well be able to "design" a fetus to have all the characteristics that parents want in a child, the more scientific approach is one of natural development in the genes patterning. Not with standing naturalism there are efforts underway to alter some of the 70,000 pairs of genes to cure diseases and prevent defective inherited characteristics. Wherein the debate turns philosophical, ethical, and righteous is on an entire different level however. When reality is present that babies can be genetically engineered to be smarter, better looking, more athletic, and happier the face of human evolution will have changed forever. The lingering question facing citizenry is how…… [Read More]
There are approximately 60 million Americans of Irish descent, and most of their ancestors arrived in America as refugees from an Ireland colonized and exploited in the harshest ways by the then-contemporary government of Britain. Should Americans of Irish descent (or Irish people still living in Ireland for that matter) demand reparations for the hardships suffered by their ancestors at the hands of colonial British "masters?"
Irish immigrants to the United States during the 1800s faced apartheid-like discrimination by the majority groups at the time - mostly people of English and German descent. An oft-observed sign at factories and construction sites was "Help Wanted - Irish Need Not Apply." Should modern Irish-Americans demand reparations for the discrimination suffered by their immigrant ancestors upon arrival here?
Should Armenians demand reparations for the suffering of their ancestors at the hands of the Ottoman Turks prior to the First World War? Should the…… [Read More]
Defend or reject: Buchanan and Brock would rightly defend the decision of the court to remove Lia Lee from the custody of her parents and place her in a foster home
Deciding for others: competency
This essay involves defending or rejecting the statement that Buchanan and Brock (2008) would rightly defend the decision of the court to remove Lia Lee from the custody of her parents and place her in a foster home. Although the statement might seem clear, the term "rightly" introduces an ethical twist to the whole discussion and the need to have an ethical theory to qualify right and wrong within the decision.
Plan for the Essay
The essay first defines the incidents surrounding the circumstances of Lia Lee and the verdict of the court. The dispute of competency follows next and the essay analyzes the issues at hand incorporating the views of Buchanan and Brock (2008).…… [Read More]