Bioethics Essays (Examples)

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Ethics in an Emergency

Words: 2170 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23457521

Bioethics

Ethical Evaluation of Dr. Pou

Ethical Evaluation of Mrs. Everett's Claims

Gert's two-step process Evaluation of Dr. Pou

Nursing Ethics in Emergency

Ethical Evaluation of Dr. Pou

From the contents of the article and the actions and the explanations given by Dr. Pou, it is clearly evident that the Kantian theory of ethics was followed by the doctor while she euthanized the seriously ill patients.

The Kantian theory of ethics was propounded by German philosopher Immanuel Kant which states that the will or intention behind an action is the sole judge of the morality of the action and morality is not influenced by the outcome or the results. The theory essentially emphasis the principles that are followed behind actions and influence the actions and not the end result of the actions. The universal principles that treat everyone equally is the motivating factor for acting according to this theory. Animal…… [Read More]

References

Bonhoeffer, Dietrich, Clifford J Green, Reinhard Krauss, Charles C West, and Douglas W Stott. Ethics. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2005.

Boylan, Michael. Basic Ethics. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2000.

Everson, Stephen. Ethics. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Hallgarth, Matthew W. Bernard Gert's Theory Of Moral Rules And American Professional Military Ethics, 2003.
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Patients Making Bad Decisions

Words: 1724 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78831626

Medical ethics and rules like the Hippocratic oath are fairly clear-cut when applying them to real-world solutions and situations. However, there are some situations where the "right answer" can be elusive and people will sometimes go against their own self-interest. Such seems to be the case with Mr. Simpson. He has weak lungs and his doctors and family morbidly fear that if/when he gets the flu again, it will literally kill him. However, even with this being the case, Mr. Simpson refuses to get the flu show under the auspices that he could end up getting the flu as a direct result of the shot despite assurances that this will not happen. Of course, this can absolutely happen in real life but that argument is not a factor in this case study as it is assumed he cannot possibly contract the virus. While Mr. Simpson is obviously not making the…… [Read More]

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Final Portfolio Project

Words: 3811 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21112707

Ileana Final Portfolio

Bioethics Final

This portfolio documents performance of key class and personal objectives for HU280-01: Bioethics 1103C, specifically analytical skill building, knowledge acquisition and practical application. The samples demonstrate achievement by presenting excerpts from submitted assignments, Discussion and Seminar interactions, interactions with the instructor and reflections on progress mastering central concepts, ideas and perspectives in bioethics. This work demonstrates a progression from identification, synthesis and recapitulation of selected relevant ethical systems, placing those systems in the contexts through which they arose, and applying those precepts to emerging controversies in modern life. The underlying benchmark this presentation attempts to demonstrate is that if learning is indicated by a change in behavior, then my implementation of new methods considering bioethical dilemmas and also improved critical reasoning and research methods, indicates learning over this process of course inquiry.

This process has provided a structural framework that translates directly to my work…… [Read More]

Klimanskaya, I., Chung, Y., Becker, S., Lu, S., and Lanza, R. (2006). Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from single blastomeres. Nature 444 (7118), 481 -- 485. Retrieved from: doi:10.1038/nature05142

Parks, J.A., and Wike, V.S. (2010). Bioethics in a changing world. Upper Saddle River, NJ:

Prentice Hall.
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Ethical Issues in Nursing Scenario the Scenario

Words: 1254 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81837468

Ethical Issues in Nursing

Scenario

The scenario in this study involves a nurse who has intentionally disregarded the elderly patient's expressed wishes to receive pressure area care. The patient finds the procedure uncomfortable, embarrassing, and painful. The nurse continues to turn the patient in spite of the patient's wishes. This study will answer if the nurse is justified in turning the patient and if so, on what ethical grounds and if not then why not. This case will be discussed in light of the principles of bioethics and at least one ethical issue.

The work of Lakeman (2000) entitled "Nurses as Tools: Instrumentality and Implications for Nursing Ethics" states "Nurses are left in a particularly compromised position when required to administer compulsory treatment. The task of administering the treatment is often left to nurses who are legally required to follow "doctor's orders." There is little room for conscientious objection by…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Browning, J.S. (2007) Ethical Issues in Nursing Practice; Identifications and Comparisons Across Clinical Specialty. Ethical Issues. 12 Jul 2007. Retrieved from:  http://stti.confex.com/stti/congrs07/techprogram/paper_32839.htm 

Johnstone, M.-J. (1999). Bioethics: a nursing perspective. (3rd ed.). Sydney: Harcourt Saunders.

Jonsen, AR, Siegler, M and Winslade, WJ (1998) Clinical Ethics: A Practical Approach to Ethical Decisions in Clinical Medicine, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1998.

Kurtz, R.J., & Wang, J. (1991). The caring ethic: more than kindness, the core of nursing science. Nursing Forum, 26(1), 4-8.
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Ethics Surrounding Human Embryonic Stem

Words: 5907 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 434586

Although these stem cells are only a few years old, they possess unlimited potential in terms of clinical research. Specifically, scientists are focusing their potential uses in transplant medicine in order to significantly reduce the level of both infections and overall organ rejection in organ transplant surgery.

The potential for using stem cells is of vast clinical and medical importance. These cells could potentially allow scientists to learn what occurs at the cellular and molecular levels of human development and use this information to identify certain molecular pathways that contribute to a variety of conditions. Furthermore, using these stem cells could also allow scientists to discover the genes that are triggered in response to certain cellular conditions that cause rapid, unchecked cell growth or irregular cellular patterns. Additionally, using stem cells to discover certain genetic conditions will lend immense amount of information to the scientists and afford researchers the opportunity…… [Read More]

References

Bellomo, M. (2006). The Stem Cell Divide: The Facts, the Fiction, and the Fear Driving the Greatest Scientific, Political, and Religious Debate of Our Time. New York: Amacom.

Bevington, Linda K., Ray G. Bohlin, Gary P. Stewart, John F. Kilner, and C. Christopher Hook. Basic Questions on Genetics, Stem Cell Research and Cloning: Are These Technologies Okay to Use? Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2002.

Carrier, Ewa, and Gracy Ledingham. 100 Questions & Answers about Bone Marrow and Stem Cell Transplantation. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2004.

DeGette, Diana. Sex, Science, and Stem Cells: Inside the Right Wing Assault on Reason. Guilford, CT: Lyons, 2008.
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Foundationally Promising Research Discoveries of

Words: 5874 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95138553



For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."

Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.

Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002068015

Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+. Questia. 17 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000634813

Balestra, Dominic J. "Toward Epistemic Justice." Fordham Urban Law Journal 30.1 (2002): 47+. Questia. 17 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000831235

Bedford-Strohm, Heinrich. "Sacred Body? Stem Cell Research and Human Cloning." The Ecumenical Review 54.3 (2002): 240+. Questia. 17 Jan. 2005 http://www.questia.com/. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000848513
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Justice and Healthcare

Words: 345 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59268308

access to quality healthcare in the contemporary United States is a tremendous social, moral, and ethical problem. Despite being one of the wealthiest and most developed nations in the history of human civilization, the U.S. is currently a country in which basic healthcare is unavailable to almost half of the population (Kennedy, 2006; Parks & Wike, 2010). As many as 40,000 Americans die prematurely every year from diseases and conditions that are readily treatable with access to modern healthcare. Virtually every major ethical perspective supports the proposition that healthcare access should not be determined by the same for-profit marketplace principles as those that govern other industries (Kennedy, 2006; Parks & Wike, 2010; eid, 2009).

In principle, utilitarianism supports this proposition because wide and equal access to healthcare is beneficial to the entire human community. Consequentialism supports this proposition because lack of access to healthcare results in a tremendous amount of…… [Read More]

References

Kennedy, E. (2006). America: Back on Track. Viking: New York.

Parks, J.A. And Wike, V.S. (2010). Bioethics in a Changing World. Upper Saddle River,

NJ: Prentice Hall.

Reid, T. (2009). The Healing of America: A Global Quest for Better, Cheaper, and Fairer Health Care. New York: Penguin Group.
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Skill Building the Course Work Has Immensely

Words: 2752 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30334374

Skill Building

The course work has immensely improved my reading, writing, and thinking skills. Prior to reading the course materials, there were established beliefs on certain issues and interest in me. For example, the issue of racism and health care was a matter that had always caught my attention, because of my Hispanic heritage. acism was a topic of concern and interest, but I was never a victim of any form of racism. Therefore, from the beginning, I was not in a position to fathom the ordeal and experiences minorities go through because of racism. It is through reading, writing and analytical thinking of articles that I appreciated this social dynamic. It has always been difficult for me to explain and imagine that I could be a victim of racism.

After this course, I am able to use my reading skills that have improved and increased my reading speed and…… [Read More]

References

Bond J. & Bond S. (1994). Sociology and Health Care. NY: Churchill Livingstone.

Parks, J.A. & Wike, V.S. (2010). Bioethics in a changing world. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Wilson, W.K. & Kass, L.R. ( 1998).The ethics ofHuman Cloning.New York: AEI Press.
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Epicurus's View on Death Death

Words: 2062 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73751186

It was argued by Epicurus that the souls and body could only interact if the souls are material.

Bibliography

Amicus, C. Ante Oculos - Epicurus and the Evidence-Based Life. Cassius Amicus, 2010.

Amicus, C. Lion of Epicurus - Lucian and His Epicurean Passages. Cassius Amicus, 2010.

Amicus, C. A Life Worthy of the Gods - the Life and Work of Epicurus. Cassius Amicus, 2011.

Amicus, C. The octrines of Epicurus -- Annotated. Cassius Amicus, 2011.

Benatar, . Life, eath, & Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions. 2nd Edition. Rowman & Littlefield, 2009.

Fish, J., and Sanders, K.R. Epicurus and the Epicurean Tradition, Epicurus and the Epicurean Tradition, Epicurus and the Epicurean Tradition. Cambridge University Press, 2011.

Greer, H.T., and Lewis, G. A Brief History of the Western World. 9th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2004.

Hindson, E., and Caner, E. The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics: Surveying the Evidence for the…… [Read More]

David Benatar. Life, Death, & Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions. 2nd Edition. Rowman & Littlefield, 2009, p. 23.

Thomas H. Greer, Gavin Lewis. A Brief History of the Western World. 9th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2004, p. 45.

Ed Hindson, Ergun Caner. The Popular Encyclopedia of Apologetics: Surveying the Evidence for the Truth of Christianity. Harvest House Publishers, 2008, p. 52.
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Neonatal Ethics and Have Presented

Words: 2667 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 566514

As the mentioned societies characterized themselves for athleticism, power and strength so it was not a surprising thing that those people looked down on and hated babies who were weak, dependent and immature. Thus, an individual child was given importance on the basis of his likable future contributions to the society as a mature adult. egrettably, no rules and regulations and laws were there that prohibited people from murdering the helpless and ill babies. Sorry to say, in some cases, even the newborn babies who were in good physical health did not have protection by social custom or lawful decrees. It is a bitter reality that killing of malformed babies was considered important for the maintenance of the quality of the civilians. Similar practices were also common in some parts of the Eastern world (Wyatt 1).

As far as the secular perspective in this regard is concerned, a number of…… [Read More]

References

"Bioethical Issues - Neonatal Ethics."Adelaide Centre for Bioethics and Culture. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 May 2013. .

Brazier, M.. "How to Treat Premature Infants." The Scientist Dec. 2006: 22+.Questia. Web. 7 May 2013. .

Carter, B.S. . "Ethical Issues in Neonatal Care ." MedScape. N.p., 25 Mar. 2011. Web. 6 May 2013. .

Laurance, J.. "Should Doctors Try to Save Extremely Premature Babies? The Big Question." The Independent [London] 16 Nov. 2006: 42. Questia. Web. 6 May 2013. .
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Bioethical Research One of the

Words: 1693 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59899446

Also, there has been pressure in the different professions for every research design to follow these general procedures (Chadwick, Bahr, & Albrecht, 1984, pp. 19-20).

The researcher needs protection as well as the subject does. An important protection of confidentiality is testimonial privilege. This protection is not absolute and must yield to other concerns in some cases such as state's requirement that certain diseases (infectious diseases) or injuries (child abuse or neglect, gun shot wounds) be reported to prevent further injury. Written, informed consent to release information is the best defense against an allegation of a breach of confidentiality (Brent, 1997, p. 258).

Bioethics and informed consent extend beyond the area of research into that of medical practice, calling for medical personnel to inform patients of what treatment are being given and what options the patient may have. Such efforts are seen as both ethical and as empowering for patients,…… [Read More]

References

Bower, R.T. & de Gasparis, P. (1978). Ethics in social research: Protecting the interests of human subjects. New York: Praeger.

Brent, N.J. (1997). The home healthcare nurse and confidentiality and privacy. Home Healthcare Nurse, 15(4), 256-258.

Chadwick, B.A., Bahr, H.M., & Albrecht, S.L. (1984). Social science research methods. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall.

Heinrich, Bernd. "What Is Natural?" Discover (June 1994), 40-42.
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Dealing With Ethical Issues

Words: 661 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48068324

Ethics of Bioethics

To the prudent thinker and scholar, there is little doubt that right or wrong is certainly relative. Categorical imperatives and absolutes help people to understand theories and ideas. However, they have little pragmatic value in life as it exists. Erudition in the areas of moral relativism, moral absolutism, and moral objectivism certainly confirm the preceding thesis. Additionally, there are numerous examples found in different areas of life that confirm the conviction propagated in this paper as well.

The tenet of moral relativism certainly helps to buttress this conviction that right or wrong is simply relative. Some of the best examples of this fact are readily supplied by nature. In fact, basic bioethical thought into the food chain supports this viewpoint as well. The reality of life on this planet and as found within nature is that most organisms need to consume other organisms to survive. This fact…… [Read More]

References

Beauchamp, Tom L., LeRoy Walters, Jeffrey P. Kahn, and Anna C. Mastroianni, eds. (2014). Contemporary Issues in Bioethics. 8th Ed. Boston, MA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning, pp. 1-12.

The Kennedy Institute of Ethics. (2014). Introduction to bioethics: bioethics at the bedside. www.youtube.com Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c3I0SxI2grM
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Futile Care Policy for Hospitals

Words: 1108 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36347983

The hospital should always defer to the patient and family that has an advanced directive in place, and if the patient cannot speak for themselves but has an advanced directive, then a proxy must make the decision. The only case where the hospital should be allowed to make the decision on futile care is in the absence of a proxy, in the absence of an advanced directive, and only if it is in the best interest of the patient.

In this psychological-based model, the healthcare professional and hospital is put in the position of negotiating with the family and/or patient. Burns and Truog (2007) state that in these situations the healthcare professional should always follow the wishes of the patient's family in futile care efforts (Burns & Truog, 2007). However, that view places a burden on the healthcare professional to compromise medical principles when that professional deems the care to…… [Read More]

References

Burns, J., & Truog, R. (2007). Futility: A Concept in Evolution. Chest, 1987-1993.

Forde, R. (1998). Who is to define the futility of treatment -- the patient or the physician? Tidsskr nor Laegeforen (Norwegian), 2652-2654.

Jonson, a., Seigler, M., & Winslade, W. (2002). Clinical Ethics 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Lachman, V. (2009). Ethical Challenges in Health Care: Developing Your Moral Compass. New York, NY: Springer Publishing.
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Nurse Ethics the Personal Cultural

Words: 976 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33862229



This is a theoretical approach which assumes that the nurse will base all treatment decisions on an interest in achieving the patient's best overall health outcome. In light of this, there may be great value in approaching treatment with a cultural sensitivity to the diversity of needs which accompany the inherent diversity of individuals to be treated. Here, the healthcare practitioner must be particular immune to prejudices of an ethnic, racial, sexual or personal nature, with equal treatment quality and personal attention expected for all patrons of the medical system. This is why it is important for members of the healthcare community to be acquainted not just with the idea of a multitude of groups in its public, but with some level of understanding as to how different ethnic groups endure different health scenarios. The way that the nursing professional approaches healing -- with respect to the balance of personal…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

ANA. (2004). The Nurses Code of Ethics. The Center for Ethics and Human Rights.

President's Council on Bioethics (PCB). (2010). Being Human: Readings from the President's Council on Bioethics-Chapter 3: To Heal Sometimes, To Comfort Always. Georgetown University.
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Abortion Two Opposing Sides Abortion Is One

Words: 546 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54519093

Abortion: Two Opposing Sides

Abortion is one of the most difficult and controversial bioethical issues of modern times. This is perhaps because there are equally compelling arguments on both sides -- in favor of and against. hen debating abortion we are dealing with the question of when human life begins in a meaningful fashion, which is, to some extent, unanswerable.

Four principles of bioethics

Autonomy: The idea that human beings are autonomous, and possess the right to govern their own fate can be used to support a women's right to choice. However, from the point-of-view of an opponent of abortion, if the fetus is a person, it possesses a right to autonomy and to choose to live. But from the mother's perspective, because it is her body at stake, her right to autonomous choice trumps the right even of the father's to decide whether she does or does not have…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Bioethical principles." The Nathaniel Center. [June 14, 2011]

 http://www.nathaniel.org.nz/?sid=27
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Heal Sometimes

Words: 1002 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97829499

Heal Sometimes: My Nursing Ethic

The job of a nurse is to help their patients (Board of Registered Nurses 2013). This is more than just helping to heal their physical or mental illnesses or injuries. It is also about being compassionate and understanding, to make the patient feel safe and to try to help them deal with the anxiety and fear of being in a hospital setting. As a nurse, I believe in doing everything that is possible to help my patients while maintaining ethical standards as well. In the chapter entitled "To Heal Sometimes, to Comfort Always," the author explains that there is far more to nursing than simply evaluating illness or injury and helping to provide treatment for the condition. Above all else, a nurse should be the person who treats the mental state of the patient and tries to make them feel better about being in a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Nurses Association (2014). American Nurses Association Inc.: Silver Springs, MD. Retrieved from  http://www.nursingworld.org/nursingstandards 

Board of Registered Nursing (2013). Department of Consumer Affairs. State of California.

Retrieved from http://www.rn.ca.gov/about_us/whatisbrn.shtml

Kass, L.R. (n.d.). The Hippocratic oath.
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Will Ethics Survive

Words: 966 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57834904

Realist Moral Theories Unit IV: Bioethics

The moral of the film "ottaca" is quite obvious and the development of events also quite predictable. The film starts from the idea that parents want their children to have the best start in life. The majority of parents would agree with it. This idea is put into the context of genetic engineering, a palpable reality today. The moral is that letting doctors apply genetics to do every magic possible in order to get the "best version of you" by eliminating all the "less perfect possibilities" is wrong.

Most religions teach one to mind the body as well as the soul in order to be in harmony with od and the rest of the universe. They also teach about free will. Causal determinism, on the other side, superposes the end over the beginning and leaves no chance for the "chance." According to this philosophical…… [Read More]

Gottaca's predictable end warns us of the danger of deifying science and placing all our hopes into it.

"Gottaca," 1997.Directed by Andrew Niccol, produced by Columbia Pictures Corporation, Jersey Films, United States

Shapshay, Sandra.2009. Bioethics and the Movies. JHU Press
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Active Euthanasia With Parental Consent

Words: 1184 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13795643

e. The exceptions made for impairment and age would open a Pandora's Box of legal precedence. The Death with Dignity Act and any other forthcoming active euthanasia laws will likely continue to follow the same line of reasoning, i.e. that it is the unimpaired individual who must shoulder the full responsibility of the decisions he or she is making regarding the end of his or her life. That is in fact the point of the law, that a physician's responsibility as well as the responsibility of anyone who is active in the act of euthanasia is relinquished entirely to the will of the dying individual. In the case of a child this decision cannot be made by a proxy, nor can this decision be made for an individual who is mentally impaired, by his or her guardians or care takers. Though the parents in this case have fundamentally compelling arguments…… [Read More]

References

Gilmore, J. (2005, April 4). Court-Ordered Euthanasia: Euthanasia Advocates Claim It Is Not a Crime to Kill as Long as the Victims Cannot Speak for Themselves. The New American, 21, 27.

Kamisar, Y. (1998). Physician-Assisted Suicide: The Problems Presented by the Compelling, Heartwrenching Case. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 88(3), 1121-1146.
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Museums Bid for Bodies

Words: 1758 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49642417

Speech: Museum's Bid For Bodies

Good evening ladies -- and yes, good evening gentleman as well.

Well, where should we begin? Ahhhh yes -- Are any of you aware of what a cadaver parade is? Have any of you ever actually heard of a cadaver parade?

Let me read to you a recent headline that I discovered: "Anatomy of competition: 2 museums bid for bodies -- what is a bid -- it is an offer or a proposal of a price."

What do you think about that? (Pause) My initial thoughts after reading those words were: "This is unbelievable, no, it is downright shocking, shameful, and certainly very offensive.

When was the last time a price was hung on us human beings? You probably already know, that's right -- During the days of Slavery. (Pause) Am I right?

I believe that the practice attaching a price to the human body…… [Read More]

References

I need you to organize this speech - grammar and sentence structure my speech is about provocative questions - please correct the question (grammar)but don't omit them and make some order, that it flows the topic is about body world (and exhibition of cadavers in California-- the web site is www.bodyworlds.com) it's gruesome -- the article is from plain dealer-- the headline is anatomy of competition 2 museums bid for bodies and if you can elaborate little be more by asking questions about the morals of the people who are behind this morbid business, you don't have to add a lot just elaborate on what I have written and organize it more -- note: I need this essay by 3pm today 12/14/04 I want you to use words like
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Advertisements and Emerging Technology Studies Are Focusing

Words: 1526 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16339370

advertisements and emerging technology studies are focusing on increasing attention on advertising to children, this has been an issue of concern for decades now (Nurses Association, 2001). One of the main issues of contention is whether to researchers should direct their communication towards children or whether they should communicate with their parents directly. In this regard, the study has focused on utilitarian and deontology theories in putting this issue into perspective.

Concerning young kids, it is reasonable to direct research efforts of snack foods, toys and games to their parents because parents are the main buyers of such products. Nevertheless, researchers are aware that better results can be achieved through directing research messages to children, partly because children do not have the capability to analyze research findings and the underlying messages critically. Similarly, children would want the products regardless of the research findings. While pressuring parents, kids substantially force their…… [Read More]

References

Hill, T.E. (2009). Contemporary ethical theories. New York: Macmillan.

Vaughn, L. (2010). Bioethics: Principles, issues, and cases. New York: Oxford University Press

Cournoyer, B. (2011). The social work skills workbook. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage

Learning.
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Physician Assisted Death

Words: 533 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44936731

Alternative to Physician-Assisted Suicide" by Bernard Gert et. al.

In Part III of the book, Contemporary Issues in Bioethics (6th ed.), Bernard Gert, Charles Culver, and K. Clouser provided an analysis of how voluntary passive euthanasia (VPE) can serve as an effective form of an alternative to physician-assisted death in the article, "An Alternative to Physician-Assisted Suicide."

The authors also discussed in the article the process of VAE (voluntary active euthanasia) as a form of PAS, particularly focusing on the morality of the said method as compared to VPE. Gert et. al. posits that VPE as a form of PAS is another method that can be subsisted, especially is VAE is unacceptable according to the moral standards of the patients. Through VPE, patients will not be fed with water and any kinds of food. The authors also state how VPE is not a form of killing (as compared to VAE),…… [Read More]

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Is Abortion Justifiable According to Utilitarianism

Words: 2678 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33838520

Bioethics

Abortion ranks amongst the most widely questionable subjects examined and discussed all through the world today. Is it accurate to say that it is legitimate? Is it precise to say that it is not an ethical decision? These are simply a couple of the inquiries that arise thereto. One thought is that fetus removal is thought to be reasonable when viewed through the utilitarian viewpoint. The discussion that follows will contemplate on that.

Abortion (Debate Basics):

The premature birth deliberation questions if it can be ethically right to bring an end to pregnancy unnaturally (BBC Ethics). Thinker Ted Lockhart offers a practical answer for taking care of moral issues that can help decide whether to go in for abortion (BBC Ethics). Lockhart proposes that we ought to "exercise discretion based on ethically acceptable values" (BBC Ethics). Interpreted in a simplified manner this means that where we need to settle…… [Read More]

References:

1)

"Introduction to the Abortion Debate." BBC. Web. 19 Dec. 2014. .

2)

Singer, Peter. Rethinking Life and Death: The Collapse of Our Traditional Ethics. 1st ed. St. Martins, 1996. Print.
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Intervention Minors or Children Under

Words: 2896 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47675269

On the whole, the Academy calls for the abolition of exemption laws and endorses initiatives to educate the public about the medical needs of children (Committee on ioethics)..

While AAP recognizes the importance of religion to people's lives, it also warns physicians and other health care professionals should put the health and welfare of children over religious considerations (Committee on ioethics 1997). It encourages pediatricians to respect parents' decision but not when their religious convictions interfere with medical care necessary to prevent harm, suffering or death. When this happens, pediatricians should seek the authorization of the court to override parental authority. If the threat to a child's life is imminent, the health care practitioner should intervene over parental objections. Securing court authorization should, however, be the last course of action. The health care practitioner should cooperate with the family in applying appropriate palliative care. Even when the securing of court…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bender, Denise G. Do Fourteenth Amendment Considerations Outweigh a Potential State

Interest in Mandating Cochlear Implantation for Deaf Children. Journal of Deaf

Studies and Deaf Education: University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, 2004

Committee on Bioethics. Religious Objections to Medical Care. Volume 9 number 2
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Ethical Theory and Moral Practice

Words: 4260 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80307899

Ethical Theory & Moral Practice

Debates about theory and practice are ancient. Each generation considers the dynamics that surround issues about the interdependency of theory and praxis to be uniquely challenging. Complexity is a variable closely linked with knowledge. As science has added layer upon layer of knowledge, decision-making dilemmas have been confounded by new and staggering concomitant factors. In concert, theoretical frameworks for social science disciplines have been adapted to accept newly identified moral imperatives and ethical considerations.

This paper offers a discussion about the nexus of epistemology, ethics / morality, and praxis. An examination of the historical development of the paradigm and the assumptions of post-positivism is presented as an introductory foundation for the discussion. Next, is a discussion about ethical theory, followed by an exploration of the increasing division between philosophical frameworks and evolving modern science. Particular note is made of the theory-practice gap in healthcare, which…… [Read More]

References

Beauchamp, T.L. (2007). Does Ethical Theory Have a Future in Bioethics? The Journal of Law, Medicine, and Ethics. 32(2): 209-217.

"Ethical Theory and Moral Practice: How do they relate?" (2008). Conference 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.bezinningscentrum.nl/links / special_links5/special_links5_conference.shtml

Fieser, J. (2009). Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved online:  http://www.iep.utm.edu/ethics/ #H3

Gastmans, C. (1998). Nursing Considered as Moral Practice: A Philosophical-Ethical Interpretation of Nursing. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 8(1): 43-69.
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Difficulty With Do Not Resuscitate

Words: 1967 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47609840

With regard to the medication administration itself, in a life saving circumstance, which this clearly is not the weight of the potential for depression of respiration and cardiac status is clearly indicated, yet it would seem unethical under these circumstances, if the review of the documentation proves its validity and clearly indicates the patients wishes, to deny at least the smallest dosage (2mg) of ordered Morphine to reduce the pain and potentially allow the patient to regain calm, which will clearly improve his status with regard to short-term treatment.

If the fear of doing harm, drives every medical decision, based on the extreme notion that all patients can be saved under all circumstances then bioethical decisions are futile. The observations and communications of others in the immediate vicinity to care, including the family, other nurses, support staff and most importantly the orders of the doctor to administer palliative care for…… [Read More]

References

Andre, J. (2002). Bioethics as Practice. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.

Forsythe, C.D. (2005). Protecting Unconscious, Medically-Dependent Persons after Wendland & Schiavo. Constitutional Commentary, 22(3), 475.

Mantz, a. (2002). Do Not Resuscitate Decision-Making: Ohio's Do Not Resuscitate Law Should Be Amended to Include a Mature Minor's Right to Initiate a DNR Order. Journal of Law and Health, 17(2), 359.

Saunders, D.E. (2003). Removing the Mask. The Hastings Center Report, 33(2), 12.
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Ethics in Nanomedicine the Term

Words: 10726 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76858278

All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i.e. natural rights and negative i.e. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and how no institution or research domains have the right or power to violate them (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).

Based on the above fact, we have to consider all the concerns related towards security of an individual as well as his rights, societal principles and considerations, national strategies, the financial system and market of the country as well as the social-educational-traditional structure that might be put in jeopardy due to a scientific research of nanomedicine. Hence we have to carefully consider that the researchers who are investing their time and effort in to the nano-medical research are treated with value while still securing the human rights of the society i.e. awareness of and protection against the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on…… [Read More]

References

Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.

Brennan, M. et al. (2002). Communication, Cultural and Media Studies. Routledge. London.

Chambers, T. (1996). From the ethicist's point-of-view: The literary nature of ethical inquiry. Hastings Center Report 26(1): 25-32.

Chang K. (2005). Tiny is beautiful: translating 'nano' into practical. New York Times; p. A1.
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Routine Infant Male Circumcision

Words: 1659 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45783774

Routine Infant Male Circumcision

While female genital mutilation has garnered a great deal of attention in recent years, male genital mutilation or circumcision has been for the most part overlooked in research reports. (Redactive Publishing, 2010, paraphrased) The objective of this study is to conduct an examination of routine infant male circumcision. This will involve a summarization and critical analysis of the current literature and reliable published evidence in this area of inquiry. The work of ocquet et al. (2009) examines the issue of bleeding complications following ritualistic circumcision and reports on six children who are stated to have no family history of hemorrhagic disease and no personal problems of thrombopenia or hemostatis, who were admitted within 1 year at the emergency department for hemorrhagic complications of nonmedical circumcisions, of which one had glans amputation." ( Five of the children were newborns. All of the newborns had compensated shock with…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Benatar, M & Benatar, D 2003, 'Between prophylaxis and child abuse: the ethics of neonatal male circumcision', American Journal Of Bioethics, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 35-48, CINAHL with Full Text, EBSCOhost.

Bhattacharjee, P 2008, 'Male circumcision: an overview', African Journal Of Paediatric Surgery, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 32-36, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.

Bo, X & Goldman, H 2008, 'Newborn circumcision in Victoria, Australia: reasons and parental attitudes', ANZ Journal Of surgery, vol. 78, no. 11, pp. 1019-1022, Academic Search complete, EBSCOhost.

Bocquet, N, Lortat-Jacob, S, Cheron, G & Chappuy, H 2010, 'Bleeding complications after ritual circumcision: about six children', European Journal Of Pediatrics, vol. 169, no. 3, pp. 359-362, Academic Search Complete, EBSCOhost.
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Ethical Theories in Nursing

Words: 4777 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74406948

Nursing Ethical Theories

Ethical Theories in Nursing

Significance of Moral in Nursing

Deontology vs. Utilitarianism

Deontology

Utilitarianism

Justice Ethics vs. Care Ethics

Justice Ethics

Care Ethics

ights Ethics

Conflict of ights

Ethical Theories in Nursing

Moral philosophy has moved from addressing Plato's question of what makes the good person, to Kant's query as to the right thing to do, to Buber's concern with relationship. Whether referring to business ethics' interest in relationships between corporations and consumers; legal ethics' focus on relationships among the legal system, clients, and society; or nursing ethics' consideration of the relationship between patient and nurse; ethics and morality are conceptualized and actualized on the playing field of relationship.

The nature of nursing as a moral endeavor is an assumption embedded in any philosophical or theoretical consideration of the discipline and practice of nursing. An the goal of nursing is a moral one, namely, the good of…… [Read More]

References

Bandman, E.L., & Bandman, B.(1995). Nursing ethics through the lifespan (3rd ed.). Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange

Buber, M.(1965). Between man and man (R.G. Smith & M.Friedman, Trans). New York: Macmillan. (Original work published 1947).

Carper, B. (1979). The ethics of caring. Advances in Nursing Science, 1(3), 11-19

Cooper, M.C. (1991). Principle-oriented ethics and the ethic of care: A creative tension. Advances in Nursing Science, 14(2), 22-31.
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Technological Changes & Advancements Affect

Words: 5785 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5194837

In a descriptive syllabus for a graduate seminar in AI professor Donald gives insight into the form that AI research is taking and the bottom line is that internal brain functioning, switching, neurotransmissions, and patterns are being dissected to give the student a greater sense of the workings of the human mind so these same students may go forwards and attempt to recreate, decidedly small scale (likely single or minimally multiple) functions of human thought to create action. It is therefore not difficult to imagine that these same students will be a part of the future with regard to the development of life-like interactive toys or tools. (Donald NP) the point being made is that research developed to recreate a person in an artificial form is being done on real human science and characteristics. Science is attempting to map and dissect the whole of human physical and mental potential to…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cohen, Eric. "Conservative Bioethics & the Search for Wisdom." The Hastings Center Report 36.1 (2006): 44.

Cranford, Ronald E. "The Persistent Vegetative State: The Medical Reality." The Hastings Center Report 18.1 (1988): 27.

Donald, Bruce R. "Graduate Seminar in Artificial Intelligence: Fall 2005." April 16, 2008 from: http://www.cs.dartmouth.edu/~donaldclass/GradAI/noteasy1.gif

Edsinger, Aaron, O'Reilly, Una-May, Scassellati, Brian, Scarpino, Chris and Breazeal, Cynthia "Current Research:the Lazlo Face Project" ND, April, 18, 2008 from:  http://www.ai.mit.edu/projects/humanoid-robotics-group/cog/current-projects.html#lazlo
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Technology Responsibility Reflections on the New Task

Words: 1665 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33154592

Technology esponsibility: eflections on the New Task of Ethics

Ethics have been a science, understood and studied, for thousands of years, but as times change so do aspects of this important part of who people are. In the twentieth century it many changes occurred. Women received the right to vote, world wars crossed the globe, and technological advances spurred a golden age in human development. The changes to the technology people use have had positive consequences in that they have made living easier and better in many ways. However, an argument exists that ethics was also changed by the advent of this great technological change. Hans Jonas, the modern father of Gnosticism (Schonborn, 2007), wrote a well regarded essay that discussed the contribution technological advances have made to ethics (Jonas, 1974). His nine points of argument have become the philosophy which many live by. This essay will summarize the nine…… [Read More]

Reference

Casada da Rocha, A., & Rodriguez-Arias, D. (2008). Hans Jonas' contributions to bioethics: 40 years after his "Philosophical Reflections on Experimenting with Human Subjects." Appraisal. Retrieved November 13, 2010 from, http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Hans+Jonas'+contribution+to+bioethics%3a+40+y ears+after+his...-a0201086896

Jonas, H. (1974). Technology and responsibility: Reflections on the new task of ethics. Philosophical Essays. New York: Prentice Hall.

Jonas, H. (1985). The imperative of responsibility: In search of an ethics for the technological age. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Schonborn, C.C. (2007). Reasonable science, reasonable faith. First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life, 17(4). 17-26.
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Commercial Surrogacy the Issue of

Words: 5044 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1967115



For example, the 1984 British government committee report suggested that "it is inconsistent with human dignity that a woman should use her uterus for financial profit and treat it as an incubator for someone else's child," in part because this threatens to undermine the traditional belief in an inviolable mother-child bond.

Opponents who criticize commercial surrogacy from this perspective frequently attempt to differentiate between commercial surrogacy and "altruistic" surrogacy, in which a surrogate carries a child without a fee, but this distinction is merely nominal, because the lack of an explicit payment structure does not make the decision to become a surrogate any less transactional, and furthermore, the potential for exploitation exists in either case.

Before considering how the law actually treats surrogacy, then, it is becoming clear that a general prohibition on commercial surrogacy represents a kind of undue restriction on the personal and financial autonomy of women, because…… [Read More]

References

BERKHOUT, S.G., 2008. Buns in the Oven: Objectification, Surrogacy, and Women's

Autonomy. Social Theory and Practice,34(1), pp. 95-117.

BRINSDEN, P.R., APPLETON, T.C., MURRAY, E., HUSSEIN, M. And AL, E., 2000.

Treatment by in vitro fertilisation with surrogacy: Experience of one British centre.
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Bioethical Concerns Regarding the Use of Human

Words: 1707 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88538511

bioethical concerns regarding the use of human stem cells involve their source and their research implications. Ethical issues surrounding the source of human embryonic stem cells used in research has historically evoked the most intense debates and other ethical issues have surfaced concerning the origin of other human embryonic stem cell -- like cells that have the capability to differentiate into all different types of human tissue.

From the time human embryonic stem cells were first isolated and cultured in 1998 human embryonic stem cell research has been generated vast controversy (Cohen, 2007). Much of the controversy is related to the historical public suspicion concerning the potential negative impact of scientific progress and research centered around genetic cloning. Human embryonic stem cell research has become equated with fears about human cloning, the modification of human biological material, and myths of regenerative immortality in wealthy people. All of these vague fears…… [Read More]

References

Byrne J.A., Pedersen, D., Clepper, D., Nelson, M.., Sanger, W., Gokhale, S., Wolf, D. & Mitalipov, S. (2007). Producing primate embryonic stem cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Nature, 450 (7169), 497 -- 502.

Chung, L., Klimanskaya, I., Becker, S., Marh, J. et al. (2006). Embryonic and extraembryonic stem cell lines derived from single mouse blastomeres. Nature, 439(7073), 216 -- 219.

Cohen, C.B. (2007). Renewing the stuff of life: Stem cells, ethics, and public policy. New York: Oxford University Press.

Hyun, I. & Jung, K.W. (2006). Human research cloning, embryos, and embryo-like artifacts. Hastings Center Report, 36(5), 34 -- 41.
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Isolate One Issue That Could Be Called

Words: 1970 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 318768

isolate one issue that could be called the most controversial issue of the last decade, then it would have to be stem cell research. Federal funding for stem cell research has come under serious criticism on ethical grounds. Stem cell research has been the most explosive genetic research subject in recent years. It has occupied political, legal, ethical and social debates without any specific resolution to the question if stem cell research is ethical and if yes how and if no, why. The debate is grounded in the source of cells required for the research. Stem cells are obtained from two or three different sources like the umbilical cord and the very early stage embryo but the main contentious source is the early embryo which is rich in stem cells but has not yet turned into a person because at this stage it is simply a cyst called blastocyst. We…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

[1]The President's Council on Bioethics, White Paper: Alternative Sources of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells, May 2005, at [http://www.bioethics.gov/reports/white_paper/index.html].

[2] ibid, Personal Statement of Michael S. Gazzaniga, p. 76 and Personal Statement of Dr.

Janet D. Rowley, p. 90.

[3] Pittenger, M.F., Mackay, A.M., Beck, S.C., Jaiswal, R.K., Douglas, R., Mosca, J., Moorman, M.,
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Controversy and Disagreement Have Plagued the World

Words: 752 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21787242

controversy and disagreement have plagued the world of medical ethics, especially in terms of "dying with dignity." However, as physicians, we need to recognize that a patient needs dignity not only at the end of his or her life, but also during life, when being examined by a physician for particular complaints (Dresser, 2008). So, in the case of Mr. Hodor, I will have to take into account several aspects of his experience of dignity. First, he is very concerned about his health risks as a result of his family history. According to Dresser (2008), this fear needs to be addressed with as much understanding as possible. I will therefore begin the session by communicating with him about his fears and his reasons for these, as well as his concerns about his symptoms.

Patient privacy is part and parcel of ensuring dignity for the patient. Again, by communicating with Mr.…… [Read More]

References

AMA. (2013). Code of Medical Ethics. Retrieved from:  http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/ 

Baba, R., Koketsu, M., Nagashima, M., Inasaka, H., Yoshinaga, M., and Yokota, M. (2007, May). Adolescent obesity adversely affects blood pressure and resting heart rate. Circulation Journal, 71(5). Retrieved from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17456998 

Dresser, R. (2008, March). Human Dignity and the Practice of Medicine. From: Human Dignity and Bioethics: Essays Commissioned by the President's Council on Bioethics. Retrieved from: http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/pcbe/reports/human_dignity/chapter19.html

Thompson, E.G., and Kloner, R.A. (2011, Apr. 5). Physical exam for High Blood Pressure. Web MD. Retrieved from:  http://www.webmd.com/hypertension-high-blood-pressure/physical-exam-for-high-blood-pressure
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Ethical Argument

Words: 3188 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36427916

Ethical Argument

Proclaimed by scientists, the thriving cloning of an adult sheep and the prospect to clone a human being is one of the most striking and latest instances of a scientific innovation turning out to be a major argumentative issue. A variety of critics, physicians and legal specialists, scientists and theologians, talk-radio hosts, as well as editorial column writers, for the period of the preceding few months, have been effectively reacting to the news, a number of them bringing up fears and apprehensions on the ethical and moral side of the subject, of the viewpoint of cloning a human being.

The National ioethics Advisory Commission (NAC), at the appeal of the President, held inquiries, as well as organized a report on the ethical, religious, as well as lawful subjects contiguous to human cloning. The Commission suggested a suspension on attempts to clone human beings, at the same time as…… [Read More]

Bibliography

National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Cloning Human Beings. Report and Recommendations. June 9, 2001.

James Q. Wilson. The Paradox of Cloning. Weekly Standard. May 26, 2001.

Jean Bethke Elshtain. Ewegenics. New Republic. March 31, 2001.

R.C. Lewontin. The Confusion over Cloning. New York Review of Books. October 23, 2001.
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Ethics of Human Cloning in 1971 Nobel

Words: 3026 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65746623

Ethics of Human Cloning

In 1971, Nobel Prize winning-scientist James atson wrote an article warning about the growing possibility of a "clonal man." Because of both the moral and social dangers cloning posed to humankind, atson called for a worldwide ban on any research leading to cloning technology (atson 8).

Until then, cloning had been largely relegated to the realm of science fiction. Scientific research concerning cloning and in vitro fertilization was obtuse and technical, and hardly written about in the news. atson, however, was a highly-respected scientist, a Harvard professor famous for his discovery of the double helix structure of the DNA. The article he wrote sparked an intense debate over cloning, a debate that was renewed with the 1996 birth of Dolly the lamb, the first cloned mammal.

The argument no longer centers on whether cloning is possible, but on whether cloning is ethical. This paper examines the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Annas, George. "Scientific Discoveries and Cloning: Challenges for Public Policy." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.

Bailey, Ronald. "Cloning is Ethical." Ethics. Brenda Stalcup, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000.

Garcia, Jorge L.A. "Cloning Humans is Not Ethical." The Ethics of Genetic Engineering. Lisa Yount, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002.

Kass, Leon. "The Wisdom of Repugnance." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
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Ethics in the Context of Humanity

Words: 400 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40564856

morality is a concept involving humanity having a shared set of laws that makes people feel that certain activities should be condemned. This concept promotes the idea that normal humans have the tendency to agree on these respective laws and that they are able to identify conditions in which someone acts in disagreement to them. Individuals promoting this theory consider that there is a universal chain of insights making it possible for people to get actively involved in developing ethical legislations enabling everyone to acknowledge the fact that they can harm society and particular persons through performing immoral actions.

When discussing with regard to common morality in the context of ethical relativism, is would be safe to say that the two are opposing. Ethical relativism promotes the idea that morality is often the result of nurture rather than it being the result of nature. The two concepts are thus very…… [Read More]

Bibliography:

"What Is Bioethics?," Retrieved January 29, 2016, from https://www.practicalbioethics.org/what-is-bioethics

Stone, B. G. "Bioethics: A Systematic Approach: A Systematic Approach," (Oxford University Press, USA, 3 Feb 2006)
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Savior Baby Lit Review

Words: 731 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14212092

Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis: State of the Art

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) is used to analyze embryos genetically before their transfer into the uterus and offers couples at risk the chance to have an unaffected child, without facing termination of pregnancy. Embryos are obtained by in vitro fertilization with intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and are biopsied mostly on day 3; blastocyst biopsy is mentioned as a possible alternative; the genetic analysis is performed on one or two blastomeres, by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for cytogenetic diagnosis, or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for moleculardiagnosis (Basille, et al., 2009). PGD requires a close collaboration between obstetricians, fertility specialists, IVF laboratory and human geneticists. It needs intensive effort, expensive techniques and is demanding for the patients, but it offers tremendous opportunity for couples whose previous child has exhibited genetic abnormalities.

Children as Hematopoietic Stem Cell Donors

This article isn't directly related to PGD…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Basille, C., Frydman, R., Abdelwahab, E., Laetitia, H., Renato, F., Gerard, T., . . . Achour, N. (2009). Preimplantation genetic diagnosis: State of the art. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 9-13.

Committee on Bioethics. (2010). Children as Hematopoietic Stem Cell Donors. Pediatrics, VOLUME 125 / ISSUE 2.

Johnson, J. (2010). Preimplantation genetic diagnosis at 20 years. Prenatal Diagnosis, 682-695.

Renwick, P., & Ogilvie, C. (2007). Preimplantation genetic diagnosis for monogenic diseases: overview and emerging issues. Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn., 33-44.
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Religious Beliefs vs Doctor Opinion

Words: 929 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40666829

Medical Dilemma

The author of this report has been asked to review and react to a medical dilemma as presented via a case study. The situation is a divorced couple that has a mutual child. The child goes into a rage of vomiting and convulsions and is eventually diagnosed with meningitis. Of course, there is a request to initiate treatment by the physicians. The mother in the situation, who is not the biological parent of the child, insists that no medical treatment take place. This is keeping with personal religious status as a Christian Scientist believer and she is of the mind that modern medical treatment is against her religious beliefs. The biological father, who is living in another state, asserts that treatment be given and that an alternative physician consult with the existing physicians on the matter so as to verify the diagnosis and otherwise assist in the treatment…… [Read More]

References

AJOB. (2013). When Parents Disagree with the Doctor -- Bioethics.net. Bioethics.net. Retrieved 26 February 2016, from http://www.bioethics.net/2013/12/when-parents-disagree-with-the-doctor/

CHOP. (2016). Pediatric Cancer Second Opinions -- The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Chop.edu. Retrieved 26 February 2016, from http://www.chop.edu/centers-programs/cancer-center/second-opinions#.VtDkfpwrKUk

Hall, H. (2016). Faith Healing: Religious Freedom vs. Child Protection - CSI. Csicop.org. Retrieved 26 February 2016, from http://www.csicop.org/si/show/faith_healing_religious_freedom_vs._child_protection
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The Biomedical Debate According to

Words: 1445 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51543077

ith the emergence of new technologies and procedures
has occurred the emergence of new experts. According to Rose, "around these
experts of the soma cluster a whole variety of new pastoral experts-genetic
counselors are perhaps the best exemplars-whose role is to advise and guide
to care and support, individuals and families as they negotiate their way
through the personal, medical and ethical dilemmas that they face. And,
perhaps, most remarkable has been the rise of a novel expertise of
'bioethics.'" (Rose, 6)
This is the subject which commands perhaps the greatest importance in
Rose's text, striking relevance into every other aspect of the debate by
suggesting that this essentially subjective lens has come to dominate a
field traditionally ruled by empiricism. To this point, optimization has
been distinctly impacted by this false or self-proclaimed sense of somatic
expertise.
Indeed, in his dealing throughout the text with this issue of
optimization,…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Rose, N.S. (2006). The Politics of Life Itself. Princeton University
Press.
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Hermaphrodite-Humans Human Hermaphrodite Is a

Words: 931 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79019852

(Gilbert 2006)

This surgical intervention has proven controversial in modern times as many physicians and surgeons have begun to stress that gender assignment by surgical means is not warranted as an emergent condition and should therefore be delayed until such time that the individual involved can participate in the decision, or until such time as gender assignment takes place naturally, i.e. By individual socialization, and self-determination of gender assignment. In other words there are simply to many variations of the condition to warrant permanent decision making based on outward appearance, regardless of parental or medical opinions and emotions on the subject.

More frequently found in the many variations of hermaphrodites there is a condition known as pseudohermaphrodite, where the individual may present as one or the other gender/sex but have an enlarged or true to size version of the other gender's gonads. Yet, as clear cut as this might seem…… [Read More]

References

Dreger, A.D. (1998). Hermaphrodites and the Medical Invention of Sex. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Retrieved June 4, 2009.

Gilbert, S.F. (2006) Developmental Biology Eighth Edition: Online Companion Chapter 17 Hermaphrodites article: Human Hermaphrodite Retrieved June 4, 2009 http://8e.devbio.com/article.php?id=266&search=hermaphrodite

Johnstone, M. (Ed.). (1999). Bioethics: A Nursing Perspective. Sydney, N.S.W.: Harcourt Saunders.
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Ethics and Advance Directives Ethics

Words: 3485 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4217204

According to this second view, contemporaneous autonomy trumps precedent autonomy because honoring precedent autonomy imposes preferences and values of a different person, the formerly competent self (Buccafumi, p. 14).

The role that patient's families, doctors, health aides, pastors, chaplains and administrators, health educators and others play is crucial. Few people have executed an advanced directive, much less appointed a healthcare power of attorney by the time they enter a hospital with a debilitating condition. An informed consent form only marks the fact that a conversation has taken place in a health facility. The process that needs to or ought to take place concerning a patient's wishes and ensure one's wishes are empowered are part of the process involved as one fills out the advanced directive for themselves. In California the state has consolidated statutes for advanced directives and added some rights and included the best features of past laws. A…… [Read More]

REFERENCES WHICH I DID NOT USE (JUST for YOUR INFO, NOT to BE INCLUDED in THIS PAPER)

American Nurses Association. (1985). American Nurses

Association Code for Nurses with Interpretive Statements, Section 1.1. Washington, DC:ANA.

Docker, C. (1995). Deciding How We Die. The use Limits of Advance Directives. [Online]. Available: http://www.finalexit.org/wfn27.3.html.

Fishback, R. (1996). Harvard Medical School Division of Medical Ethics. Care Near the End of Life. [Online]. Available: www.logicnet.com/archives/file2001.php.
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Tuskegee Syphilis Study Genocide in

Words: 1608 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43865958

They should be informed in advance and as thoroughly as possible what the study would be about and how their participation would be used. That consent must be constant from the start to finish of the experiment, study or survey. These studies have their worth to society. They are intended to save lives and promote optimum health. There are risks taken in exchange for the ideal, but the involved parties should be fully aware of them and willing to take the said risks. At any stage of the experiment, the participants should be free to back out if they wanted.

Institutions and committees sponsoring or evaluating medical studies using live human subjects should clearly make a choice between the fundamental rights of these subjects to information and the future benefits to be derived by society from the researches. They should refrain from using live human subjects unless absolutely willing to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Christian Century. AIDS Crisis Among Blacks Tire to Mistrust of Doctors. 2 pages. Christian Century Foundation: Gale Group, 2000

Claudio, Luz. The Turkegee Legacy Project. 2 pages. Environmental Health Perspectives: National Institute of Environmental Health Services, March 2007

Hammer, Ben. Federal Government Awards $14 Million to Turkegee Bioethics Center. 2 pages. Black Issues on Higher Education: Cox, Matthews & Associates, November 20, 2003

Washington, Mary Dejevsky. Clinton Meets Tuskegee Victims. 2 pages. The (London) Independence: Newspaper Publishing PLC, May 17, 1997
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Sister Marie Simone Roach a Number of

Words: 2383 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40014704

Sister Marie Simone oach

A number of prominent nursing theorists have been an influential force in improving nursing practice over the years, with Sister Marie Simone oach being among them. Sister oach is best known for her so-called "six C's" of nursing care: Compassion, Competence, Confidence, Conscience, Commitment, and Comportment. Her work has been absorbed into the mainstream of nursing theory over the years and her contributions to nursing practice have been significant. This paper examines the contributions made by Sister oach to the body of nursing scholarship for the improvement of nursing practice, her contributions to the body of nursing scholarship for the improvement of healthcare and how this nurse ethicists can inform nursing research for the nurse practitioner.

eview and Discussion

Biography of Sister Marie Simone oach

According to her official biography, Sister Marie Simone oach was raised in a oman Catholic family with a number of siblings…… [Read More]

References

Concepts and definitions. (2011). San Antonio College: Nursing Education Department.

Retrieved from http://www.alamo.edu/sac/nursing/CurDef.htm.

Johnstone, M-J. (1999). Bioethics: A nursing perspective. Sydney, NSW: Harcourt Saunders.

McKenna, H. (1997). Nursing theories and models. London: Routledge.
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Ethical Issue on Abortion

Words: 3142 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89322346

Ethical Issues Surrounding Abortion

Notwithstanding the laws being passed in various states against a woman's right to chose to terminate her pregnancy, the position of this paper is that Roe v. ade is the law of the land and a woman has the ethical and moral right to decide to have an abortion. There are many positions for and against Roe v. ade, and there are many ethical issues that may be (and in many cases are) embraced on both sides of the issue. But the law of the land vis-a-vis a woman's right to the privacy -- regarding her own values -- when it comes to terminating a pregnancy has been determined by the High Court. As a nurse committed to fairness and ethics in healthcare issues, while I respect the rights of others to practice their own values in opposition to Roe v. ade, I am in support…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abort73. (2010). U.S. Abortion Statistics. Retrieved April 16, 2012, from  http://www.abort73.com .

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Stem Cells Are a Hot Topic for

Words: 1341 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76797705

Stem cells are a hot topic for the media today because our understanding of them has potential for incredible scientific advances in the field of biotechnology, yet we struggle because there are questions of morality raised by the methods by which they might be used. While in centuries past, it was commonly accepted within the scientific community to vivisect the mentally insane or criminally convicted for the purpose of scientific knowledge, today religious groups are concerned about the fate of single stem cells being used in experiments. Stem cells have paved the way to cloning and bioengineering of humans, allowing scientists to "bring... A sperm and ovum together to create an embryo, harvesting the cells, and then discarding the embryo." (Celia) The concern for many people is that working with embryonic stem cells especially may somehow he breaching the rights of people and taking science to a point where it…… [Read More]

Bibliography

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Calafut, T. (2000) "Emerging Applications in Human Stem Cell Therapy." Chemical Market Reporter, March 20.
Celia, F. (2001) "Stem Cell Controversy Heats Up Amid Advances in the Field." Medical Laboratory Observer, April. http://www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/m3230/4_33/74268498/p1/article.jhtml

Fraser, R. (2003) "AMA says use of stem cells for biomedical research is consistent with medical ethics" AMA Media Relations.