74+ documents containing “biofuels”.
Importance of locust guts for this Study
Prediction of the increase in the worldwide energy consumption by 54% between 2001 and 2025 has led to the considerable interest in the production of bioenergy to meet the future needs. Energy derived from biofuels is converted from the metabolism of living organisms. Typically, biofuels has been identified by scientist and environmentalist as the most promising alternative to petroleum and fossil fuels. Biofuels are derived from biomass materials, which are already in solid fuel and later converted to liquid or gaseous fuels, which could be later, be stored for use. (Groom, Gray, Townsend, 2008).
Cellulose, Hemicelluloses and Lignin have been known to be abundant on earth and could be converted to biofuels. However, large-scale production of biofuels has not yet being implemented in many countries. One of the challenges facing the commercial production of biofuels is the costs associated in breaking down the fibrous plant….
Amani, E. & Chad.H.(2007). Ethanol Expansion in the Food vs. Fuel Debate: How Will Developing Countries Fare-Full Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization. 5 (2):1-21.
Atlas, R. (2010).Global prospects for the biofuels industry. Microbiology Australia.
Baffes, J & Haniotis, T.(2010). Placing the 2006/08 Commodity Price Boom into Perspective. Policy Research Working Paper 5371. The World Bank
Development Prospects Group.
Biofuel from corn is, at presently, relatively inefficient. Surveys indicate that at best biofuel generates 1.3 times the energy it costs to product (Jaffe, 2007); several studies indicate it generates less than what it costs to produce (ald, 2007).
Moreover, natural gas is the standard fuel required in ethanol production and our production already does not match our consumption (Ibid.). As a result, we do not see biofuel as a long-term solution to our energy problems. However, it can act as a valuable bridge, since biofuel is ready for market today and many of the best substitute options are only in the development stages.
On balance, we believe that biofuels represent an important bridge in our energy strategy. They are not a long-term solution, but they are the best alternative energy choice available today. As Minister of Agriculture, I recognize the benefit they will bring to our farmers in terms of….
Hoffman, Linwood; Baker, Allen; Foreman, Linda & Young, C. Edwin (2007) "Feed Grains Backgrounder" USDA Retrieved December 14, 2008 at http://www.ers.usda.gov/Publications/FDS/2007/03Mar/FDS07C01/fds07C01.pdf
Leibtag, Ephraim (2008) "Corn Prices Near Record High, but What About Food Costs?" Amber Waves Retrieved December 14, 2008 at http://www.ers.usda.gov/AmberWaves/February08/Features/CornPrices.htm
Lapidos, Juliet. (2008) "Why are Global Food Prices Soaring?" Slate. Retrieved December 14, 2008 at http://www.slate.com/id/2187882/
Jaffe, Eric. (2007). "The World After Oil" Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved December 14, 2008 at http://www.smithsonianmag.com/specialsections/ecocenter/biofuel.html
Thus, the sole remaining major precursor to success is economic utility, which is a function of the cost of second generation biofuel production compared with the production costs of alternatives.
Gasoline is the main competitor of concern, given the stated objectives of both American and European governments of using second generation biofuels to displace gasoline consumption in the coming years and decades. At current crude oil prices, there is a significant gap in the cost of producing a liter of gas vs. The cost of producing a liter of second generation ethanol. For this gap to close, crude oil prices would need to nearly double from their current rate of $82 per barrel. These prices would eclipse substantially the historic highs set in 2008.
The technological capacity for industrial scale production exists today, but relative to the production of competing products, the costs are high. One of the reasons for the….
USDA. (2005). Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: The technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply. USDA. In possession of the author.
Bloomberg. (2010). Next generation ethanol and biochemicals: What's in it for Europe? Bloomberg New Energy Finance. In possession of the author.
Boin, C. (2010). Biofuels make little environmental sense in U.S., EU. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved October 26, 2010 from http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2010/02/19/biofuels-make-little-environmental-sense-us-eu.html
The technique used in this process is quite simple and reported to be that as follows:
"The fish would gobble up the algae and then be harvested, cooked and pressed to extract fish oil -- a method already used to produce omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements." (Gold, 2009) p.1
Presently there is a testing on fish mixtures for the best production quality at a testing site owned by LiveFuels in San Carlos California. Controls to eliminate carnivorous species have been put into place in the testing site and in which will involve the release of enough fish to raise 25,000 fish per acres for a total of three thousand acres of algae in the fish mixture testing for biofuel production. It is reported that not everyone is in favor of this form of biofuel development however, it is additionally reported that this form of biofuel production does appear to be a….
drivers of using biofuel in the airlines industry are closely linked to the evolution of oil prices in the last decade, as well as to the risks associated with the use of petroleum fuel. First of all, the oil prices have continuously increased over the last decades and the evaluations that this would happen date back to after 2003.
As early as 2009, the predictions for the period 2009-2016 reflected oil was expected to increase by 50% (as a trend) from an average at that time of around $50 (Kitov, 2009). This was based on existing statistical facts and evaluations and past data, thus carrying a high level of abstract objectivity. These evaluations were translated in practice, with oil prices currently at $92. All this would translate into an increased cost for the airline carriers.
Even more worrying when it comes to oil is that much of the price is politically….
1. Prajogo, DI & Ahmed, PK. 2006. Relationships between innovation stimulus, innovation capacity, and innovation performance. R&D Management, vol.36, no.5, pp.499 -- 515
2. Smith, Andy. 2011. Management practices and innovation capacity in enterprises. On the Internet at http://avetra.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/20.00.pdf. Last retrieved on August 6, 2012
3. Chemers M. 1997. An integrative theory of leadership. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers
4. Ulrich, Dave (1996). Human Resource Champions. The next agenda for adding value and delivering results. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press
The Advantages of Biodiesel Distillation
The search for non-fossil alternative fuels has been conducted now for more than a decade. The impetus for this search has increased in more recent years mainly due to the talk of supposed global warming; the incidence of which is increased by the release of CO2 into the atmosphere by fossil fuels. Because of the Kyoto protocols, one of the primary processes being perfected is that of making biodiesel. This type of diesel can be made from any type of fat or oil, but there are problems associated with its production and use. To mitigate these issues, firms have begun using a distillation process which, in most ways, fixes the problems that have commonly been associated with biodiesel. The following paper discusses what biodiesel is, how the fuel is made, what the distillation process is, and what advantages distilled biodiesel has over non-distilled biodiesel.
Lurgi. "Biodiesel," 2010. http://www.lurgi.com/website/fileadmin/user_upload/1_PDF/1_Broshures_Flyer/e nglisch/0301e_Biodiesel.pdf
Matallana, L.G., Gutierrez, L.F., & Cardona, C.A. "Biodiesel Production by Reactive Distillation." Enpromer 64 (2005): D2-0-5. Print.
Singh, Arvindar P., Thompson, Joe C., & He, Brian B. "A Continuous-Flow Reactive Distillation reactor for Biodiesel Preparation from Seed Oils." An ASAE/CSAE Meeting Presentation, 2004. Print.
SRS Engineering. "Biodiesel Distillation," 2010. http://c1- preview.prosites.com/37030/wy/docs/Biodiesel%20Distillation.pdf
S. government to be deeply
committed to an 'alternative' fuel policy that is widely criticized for its
inefficiency. The EPA article shows that the United States government and
its oil, auto and agro industry partners have collectively pushed forward
with an alternative fuel policy dominated by corn-based ethanol and biofuel
strategies. Specifically, according to the Environmental Protection
Agency, "the Renewable Fuel Standard program will increase the volume of
renewable fuel required to be blended into gasoline to 7.5 billion gallons
by 2012. The RFS program was developed in collaboration with refiners,
renewable fuel producers, and many other stakeholders." (EPA 2008, p. 1)
This passage is a revealing one which demonstrates that under the
existing policy and for at least the coming three years, the United States
will balk at making real overtures toward the movement away from fossil
fuels. The goals projected here show that the EPA remains steeped in
perceptions of an energy policy fundamentally based on petroleum. And even
with a policy favoring….
" (NCGA, 2008) The following chart shows the U.S. Corn Supply and Total Use between the years of 1988-1989 and 2008-2009.
Source: NCGA (2008)
U.S. corn growers are stated by the NCGA to have responded to the increase in demand by producing "the five largest corn crops in history over the past five years - with the 2007-08 crop setting an all-time record of 14.4 billion bushels." (NCGA, 2008) Annual production is stated to have averaged 11.3 billion bushels from 2003/04 to 2007/08 compared with an average of 9.5 billion bushels in the previous five crop years." (NCGA, 2008) Acres are planted by corn growers in response to the marketplace signals and when corn demand is high and "revenue per-acres is strong relative to other crops, farmers will plant more corn." (NCGA, 2008) This is precisely what occurred in 2007 as farmers planted "92.9 million acres to corn, a 19% increase over….
Pulley, Mary (2008) Pilgrim's Pride Layoffs. WHSV.com 13 Mar 2008. Online available at http://www.whsv.com/news/headlines/16665741.html
Andrejczak, Matt (2008) Chicken Producers Bank on Summer Rally. 16 May 2008. Market Watch. Online available at http://www.marketwatch.com/news/story/chicken-producers-look-summer-rally/story.aspx?guid=%7B9D4F30EE-30A4-4032-9E84-798C830BE3A4%7D
Biofuels: Turning Trash into Treasure (2008) Chevron - Human Energy. Mar 2008. Online available at http://www.chevron.com/deliveringenergy/biofuels/
U.S. Corn Growers: Producing Food & Fuel (2008) National Corn Grower's Association. Online available at http://www.ethanol.org/pdf/contentmgmt/NCGA_Food_and_Fuel_08.pdf
Market of Grain in the United States
In the United States, millions of Americans are confronting the latest trends in the commodities markets where the costs of agricultural products have driven up costs of breakfasts of average Americans. Over the past year, the price of orange juice has increased a quarter, and the price of milk has also risen by 5%, and egg by a fifth. The issues have made General Mills and Kellogg's to increase the prices of their breakfast cereal products. The cause of an increase is due to a recent rise in the price of grains such as wheat and corn. Underpinning the rise in the price of grains is that the demand has outpaced the supply because of the growing demand for cereals for the production of biofuels such as ethanol. Thus, the author is trying to reveal the factors that lead to an increase in the….
Forces Affecting Industry Conditions
There are several forces that are affecting the industry conditions. With respect to external forces, technology is the major force. Technology has long been the driver of the alternative fuels business. The objective of the business is to produce fuels that are cheaper, more plentiful and more sustainable than fossil fuels. Without these characteristics, there is no viable business. However, the fuels need to have these traits in relation to each other, because alternative energy, and biofuels in particular, are substitutable. As a consequence, competitive advantage goes to the company with the technological advantage. It appeared for a time that GEVO might be that company, but 2012 sales were far below expectations, indicating that perhaps the company's product is not as compelling as it sounds. Most of GEVO's competitors are large multinationals that can dedicate tens of millions, if not hundreds of millions, to the development of….
EIA. (2012). Fuel consumption in power generation and elasticities of substitution. U.S. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved March 31, 2014 from http://www.eia.gov/analysis/studies/fuelelasticities/pdf/eia-fuelelasticities.pdf
Heinberg, R. (2011). Rising hydrocarbon costs: A quick summary for policy makers. Resilience. Retrieved March 31, 2014 from http://www.resilience.org/stories/2011-07-06/rising-hydrocarbon-costs-quick-summary-policy-makers
MSN Moneycentral. (2014). Various pages. Retrieved March 31, 2014 from http://investing.money.msn.com
Pinto, M. (2011). Global biofuels outlook 2010-2020. World Biofuels Markets. Retrieved March 31, 2014 from http://www.unece.lsu.edu/biofuels/documents/2013Mar/bf13_04.pdf
This characteristic is given by the fact that qualitative research methodologies rely on factual and numerical information, which is not subjected to individual bias. Such a qualitative research process is nevertheless more time consuming and it is also tedious.
The research instrument refers to the means in which the research questions would be approached from a quantitative standpoint. Specifically, the research instrument is constituted by the survey. A survey is understood as a selection of questions which are relevant for the undergoing study. The usage of the survey as a research instrument is characterized by a series of elements, as follows:
Simplicity of usage
Ability to select the relevant sample
Basis on numeric and factual data, leading as such to results which can be generalized.
Two final elements which need to be noted regarding the research instrument refer to the concessions made in order to reduce the work complexities of a quantitative research….
Future Energy: Guiding Decisions Evidence in order reduce negative environmental impacts growing human population increasing demands energy technological advances continue, individual countries, states, cities households opportunity shift energy sources renewable
Most consumers are unaware of the extreme negativeness surrounding their consumption of goods and that it inevitably leads to environmental degradation. However, there seems to be a more conscious effort to go around the negative impact of consumption of energy by choosing renewable sources. In this essay, we will assess a particular region in America and that is the state of Florida with specific references to certain areas in order to observe what sources of energy are currently used and what renewable sources may be best suitable and least suitable in the area, considering climate and the environment.
With climate changes accelerating at a fast pace, Miami, which is already subject of the increase of Earth's temperatures and rise of sea levels,….
Miami -- Dade County. N. y. Energy -- Electricity and Fuel [Data File] Retrieved from http://www.miamidade.gov/greenprint/planning/library/milestone_one/energy.pdf
Natural Resources Defense Council. N. y. State Profiles -- Florida [Data File] Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/energy/renewables/florida.asp
This helps to establish the case that a gap exists between that which science accepts about biofuels and that which politicians present on the subject.
This is complimented by Thornton's (2006) concise detraction of ethanol, this article serves as reinforcement for the recurring case that the process of yielding energy from ethanol is too consuming of time and energy, and thus, should be disregarded as a means to developing an alternative fuel source.
The certainty that the world community must attend with urgency to a transition to a clean-burning and effective alternative fuel source dominates discourse today on oil production and energy efficiency. And there is a dominance in this discussion, as well as in current implementation, of the endorsement of biofuels. A clear-burning energy source derived from the fermentation of sugars found in various plant-cellulous, for some time this has been sought as a possible alternative fuel to help aid….
Butler, M. (2008). Lessons from Biofuels. Greentech. Online at http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/lessons-from-biofuels-10-768.html
Dien, B.; Bothast, R.; Nichols, N. & Cotta, M. (2002). The U.S. Corn Ethanol Industry: An Overview of Current Technology and Future Prospects. Agricultural Research Service, 104, p. 204-211.
Environmental Protection Agency. (2008). Renewable Fuel Standard Program. U.S. Government. Online at http://www.epa.gov/OMS/renewablefuels/ .
Freeman, S. (2008). $1 per gallon biofuel touted. The Republic. Online at http://www.masslive.com/springfield/republican/index.ssf?/base/news-13/1207725605294850.xml&coll=1 .
Historically one retailer in the area has offered 100 gallon drums of 100 to consumers for purchase, but has recently restricted sales to 500 gallons per purchase, no doubt to serve industry. While another retail location has spotty supplies that must be called upon, on a weekly basis to determine if 100 is even available, though conveniently they do sell it by the gallon. (iodiesel in Tampa Website)
One of the most essential aspects of beginning to build a biofuel infrastructure on a local level in a domestic city is to create such an infrastructure that would curtail the dominance of foreign biofuel in the region. As was seen in the first section of the work EarthFirst Technologies serves as a significant local and regional competitor as this company has seen and answered the need to import biodiesel to answer a growing need in the U.S. For such sources. Currently….
Biodiesel in Tampa Website Retrieved May 23, 2008 at http://www.forums.biodieselnow.com/forums/p/9832/63809.aspx
Adams D. Huettel, S.(November 19, 2005) Huge biodiesel shipment arrives: A Tampa company has lofty plans to continue importing the alternative fuel from Ecuador to sell for use in diesel engines. Tampa Bay Partnership Retrieved May 18, 2008 at http://www.tampabay.org/press.asp?rls_id=1089& ;
EarthFirst Technologies Website Retrieved May 18, 2008 at http://www.earthfirsttech.com/CompanyBackGround.asp
Florida Biofuel Coop Website Retrieved May 18, 2008 at http://www.biodiesel.coop/
" The wildlife result of raising the usual row crops such as corn is well-known. The greatest impact of enhanced corn ethanol would be that much more land would be converted to agricultural use as well as the additional erosion and fertilizer application that goes hand-in-hand with agricultural production. Increasing ethanol production through the use of corn may lead to negative effects on wildlife, the degree of which this occurs based on production levels and if the land put aside for this enhanced production had previously been idle, in a natural state, or planted in other row crops.
Bies (1205) sees the strengths of the ethanol use. However, the use of the product and how it is produced are two different things. President Bush signed the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 that included a provision concerning the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit (VEETC), in addition to other biofuels provisions. The….
Bies, Laura. The Biofuels Explosion. Wildlife Society Bulletin. (2006) 34.4 1203-1206
Dinneen, Bob. Vital Speeches of the Day. New York.(2007) 73.4, 167-171.
Cothran, Helen. Energy Alternatives. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002
Ethanol Across America. 18 July, 2007 http://www.ethanolacrossamerica.net/
Importance of locust guts for this Study Prediction of the increase in the worldwide energy consumption by 54% between 2001 and 2025 has led to the considerable interest in the…Read Full Paper ❯
Biofuel from corn is, at presently, relatively inefficient. Surveys indicate that at best biofuel generates 1.3 times the energy it costs to product (Jaffe, 2007); several studies indicate…Read Full Paper ❯
Thus, the sole remaining major precursor to success is economic utility, which is a function of the cost of second generation biofuel production compared with the production costs…Read Full Paper ❯
The technique used in this process is quite simple and reported to be that as follows: "The fish would gobble up the algae and then be harvested, cooked and…Read Full Paper ❯
Business - Management
drivers of using biofuel in the airlines industry are closely linked to the evolution of oil prices in the last decade, as well as to the risks associated…Read Full Paper ❯
Biodiesel Distillation The Advantages of Biodiesel Distillation The search for non-fossil alternative fuels has been conducted now for more than a decade. The impetus for this search has increased in more…Read Full Paper ❯
S. government to be deeply committed to an 'alternative' fuel policy that is widely criticized for its inefficiency. The EPA article shows that the United States government and its oil, auto and…Read Full Paper ❯
" (NCGA, 2008) The following chart shows the U.S. Corn Supply and Total Use between the years of 1988-1989 and 2008-2009. Source: NCGA (2008) U.S. corn growers are stated by the…Read Full Paper ❯
Economics - Inflation
Market of Grain in the United States In the United States, millions of Americans are confronting the latest trends in the commodities markets where the costs of agricultural products have…Read Full Paper ❯
Gevo Forces Affecting Industry Conditions There are several forces that are affecting the industry conditions. With respect to external forces, technology is the major force. Technology has long been the driver…Read Full Paper ❯
Transportation - Environmental Issues
This characteristic is given by the fact that qualitative research methodologies rely on factual and numerical information, which is not subjected to individual bias. Such a qualitative research…Read Full Paper ❯
Future Energy: Guiding Decisions Evidence in order reduce negative environmental impacts growing human population increasing demands energy technological advances continue, individual countries, states, cities households opportunity shift energy sources…Read Full Paper ❯
This helps to establish the case that a gap exists between that which science accepts about biofuels and that which politicians present on the subject. This is complimented by…Read Full Paper ❯
Historically one retailer in the area has offered 100 gallon drums of 100 to consumers for purchase, but has recently restricted sales to 500 gallons per purchase, no…Read Full Paper ❯
" The wildlife result of raising the usual row crops such as corn is well-known. The greatest impact of enhanced corn ethanol would be that much more land would…Read Full Paper ❯