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Importance of locust guts for this Study
Prediction of the increase in the worldwide energy consumption by 54% between 2001 and 2025 has led to the considerable interest in the production of bioenergy to meet the future needs. Energy derived from biofuels is converted from the metabolism of living organisms. Typically, biofuels has been identified by scientist and environmentalist as the most promising alternative to petroleum and fossil fuels. Biofuels are derived from biomass materials, which are already in solid fuel and later converted to liquid or gaseous fuels, which could be later, be stored for use. (Groom, Gray, Townsend, 2008).
Cellulose, Hemicelluloses and Lignin have been known to be abundant on earth and could be converted to biofuels. However, large-scale production of biofuels has not yet being implemented in many countries. One of the challenges facing the commercial production of biofuels is the costs associated in breaking down the…
Amani, E. & Chad.H.(2007). Ethanol Expansion in the Food vs. Fuel Debate: How Will Developing Countries Fare-Full Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization. 5 (2):1-21.
Atlas, R. (2010).Global prospects for the biofuels industry. Microbiology Australia.
Baffes, J & Haniotis, T.(2010). Placing the 2006/08 Commodity Price Boom into Perspective. Policy Research Working Paper 5371. The World Bank
Development Prospects Group.
Biofuel from corn is, at presently, relatively inefficient. Surveys indicate that at best biofuel generates 1.3 times the energy it costs to product (Jaffe, 2007); several studies indicate it generates less than what it costs to produce (ald, 2007).
Moreover, natural gas is the standard fuel required in ethanol production and our production already does not match our consumption (Ibid.). As a result, we do not see biofuel as a long-term solution to our energy problems. However, it can act as a valuable bridge, since biofuel is ready for market today and many of the best substitute options are only in the development stages.
On balance, we believe that biofuels represent an important bridge in our energy strategy. They are not a long-term solution, but they are the best alternative energy choice available today. As Minister of Agriculture, I recognize the benefit they will bring to our farmers in terms…
Hoffman, Linwood; Baker, Allen; Foreman, Linda & Young, C. Edwin (2007) "Feed Grains Backgrounder" USDA Retrieved December 14, 2008 at http://www.ers.usda.gov/Publications/FDS/2007/03Mar/FDS07C01/fds07C01.pdf
Leibtag, Ephraim (2008) "Corn Prices Near Record High, but What About Food Costs?" Amber Waves Retrieved December 14, 2008 at http://www.ers.usda.gov/AmberWaves/February08/Features/CornPrices.htm
Lapidos, Juliet. (2008) "Why are Global Food Prices Soaring?" Slate. Retrieved December 14, 2008 at http://www.slate.com/id/2187882/
Jaffe, Eric. (2007). "The World After Oil" Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved December 14, 2008 at http://www.smithsonianmag.com/specialsections/ecocenter/biofuel.html
Thus, the sole remaining major precursor to success is economic utility, which is a function of the cost of second generation biofuel production compared with the production costs of alternatives.
Gasoline is the main competitor of concern, given the stated objectives of both American and European governments of using second generation biofuels to displace gasoline consumption in the coming years and decades. At current crude oil prices, there is a significant gap in the cost of producing a liter of gas vs. The cost of producing a liter of second generation ethanol. For this gap to close, crude oil prices would need to nearly double from their current rate of $82 per barrel. These prices would eclipse substantially the historic highs set in 2008.
The technological capacity for industrial scale production exists today, but relative to the production of competing products, the costs are high. One of the reasons…
USDA. (2005). Biomass as feedstock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: The technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply. USDA. In possession of the author.
Bloomberg. (2010). Next generation ethanol and biochemicals: What's in it for Europe? Bloomberg New Energy Finance. In possession of the author.
Boin, C. (2010). Biofuels make little environmental sense in U.S., EU. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved October 26, 2010 from http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2010/02/19/biofuels-make-little-environmental-sense-us-eu.html
The technique used in this process is quite simple and reported to be that as follows:
"The fish would gobble up the algae and then be harvested, cooked and pressed to extract fish oil -- a method already used to produce omega-3 fatty acid dietary supplements." (Gold, 2009) p.1
Presently there is a testing on fish mixtures for the best production quality at a testing site owned by LiveFuels in San Carlos California. Controls to eliminate carnivorous species have been put into place in the testing site and in which will involve the release of enough fish to raise 25,000 fish per acres for a total of three thousand acres of algae in the fish mixture testing for biofuel production. It is reported that not everyone is in favor of this form of biofuel development however, it is additionally reported that this form of biofuel production does appear to be…
Gold, Russell (2009) Biofuel Bet Aims to Harvest Fish that Feed on Algae. The Wall Street Journal. 18 August 2009. Online available at: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB125055779852138901.html . Accessed 08-28-2009.
Biofuels Production and Food Production
Biofuels and bio-products have emerged as important and positive elements for the environment with regards to lessening greenhouse gas emissions and decreasing the usage of fossil energy. In the past few years, the modern world has been characterized by increased biofuel development, which is primarily fueled by subsidies, mandates, and policies of exports and imports across various countries. While biofuels have helped in dealing with the emission of greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming, it has also contributed to significant impacts on food production. The effect of biofuel production on food production has been evident in the increase in food prices throughout the globe. This major impact has emerged from the increased use and diversion of food crops to production of biofuels, which in turn significantly increases food prices across the globe.
Despite being produced in other countries, biofuels are mostly produced in Brazil,…
"Agriculture." (n.d.). Chapter 10. Retrieved from Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools
"Effects of Biofuels on the Environment, Crop and Food Prices." (2011, July 1). The Crop Site.
Retrieved April 7, 2015, from
drivers of using biofuel in the airlines industry are closely linked to the evolution of oil prices in the last decade, as well as to the risks associated with the use of petroleum fuel. First of all, the oil prices have continuously increased over the last decades and the evaluations that this would happen date back to after 2003.
As early as 2009, the predictions for the period 2009-2016 reflected oil was expected to increase by 50% (as a trend) from an average at that time of around $50 (Kitov, 2009). This was based on existing statistical facts and evaluations and past data, thus carrying a high level of abstract objectivity. These evaluations were translated in practice, with oil prices currently at $92. All this would translate into an increased cost for the airline carriers.
Even more worrying when it comes to oil is that much of the price is…
1. Prajogo, DI & Ahmed, PK. 2006. Relationships between innovation stimulus, innovation capacity, and innovation performance. R&D Management, vol.36, no.5, pp.499 -- 515
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3. Chemers M. 1997. An integrative theory of leadership. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers
4. Ulrich, Dave (1996). Human Resource Champions. The next agenda for adding value and delivering results. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press
The Advantages of Biodiesel Distillation
The search for non-fossil alternative fuels has been conducted now for more than a decade. The impetus for this search has increased in more recent years mainly due to the talk of supposed global warming; the incidence of which is increased by the release of CO2 into the atmosphere by fossil fuels. Because of the Kyoto protocols, one of the primary processes being perfected is that of making biodiesel. This type of diesel can be made from any type of fat or oil, but there are problems associated with its production and use. To mitigate these issues, firms have begun using a distillation process which, in most ways, fixes the problems that have commonly been associated with biodiesel. The following paper discusses what biodiesel is, how the fuel is made, what the distillation process is, and what advantages distilled biodiesel has over non-distilled…
Lurgi. "Biodiesel," 2010. http://www.lurgi.com/website/fileadmin/user_upload/1_PDF/1_Broshures_Flyer/e nglisch/0301e_Biodiesel.pdf
Matallana, L.G., Gutierrez, L.F., & Cardona, C.A. "Biodiesel Production by Reactive Distillation." Enpromer 64 (2005): D2-0-5. Print.
Singh, Arvindar P., Thompson, Joe C., & He, Brian B. "A Continuous-Flow Reactive Distillation reactor for Biodiesel Preparation from Seed Oils." An ASAE/CSAE Meeting Presentation, 2004. Print.
SRS Engineering. "Biodiesel Distillation," 2010. http://c1- preview.prosites.com/37030/wy/docs/Biodiesel%20Distillation.pdf
S. government to be deeply
committed to an 'alternative' fuel policy that is widely criticized for its
inefficiency. The EPA article shows that the United States government and
its oil, auto and agro industry partners have collectively pushed forward
with an alternative fuel policy dominated by corn-based ethanol and biofuel
strategies. Specifically, according to the Environmental Protection
Agency, "the Renewable Fuel Standard program will increase the volume of
renewable fuel required to be blended into gasoline to 7.5 billion gallons
by 2012. The RFS program was developed in collaboration with refiners,
renewable fuel producers, and many other stakeholders." (EPA 2008, p. 1)
This passage is a revealing one which demonstrates that under the
existing policy and for at least the coming three years, the United States
will balk at making real overtures toward the movement away from fossil
fuels. The goals projected here show that the EPA remains steeped in…
" (NCGA, 2008) The following chart shows the U.S. Corn Supply and Total Use between the years of 1988-1989 and 2008-2009.
Source: NCGA (2008)
U.S. corn growers are stated by the NCGA to have responded to the increase in demand by producing "the five largest corn crops in history over the past five years - with the 2007-08 crop setting an all-time record of 14.4 billion bushels." (NCGA, 2008) Annual production is stated to have averaged 11.3 billion bushels from 2003/04 to 2007/08 compared with an average of 9.5 billion bushels in the previous five crop years." (NCGA, 2008) Acres are planted by corn growers in response to the marketplace signals and when corn demand is high and "revenue per-acres is strong relative to other crops, farmers will plant more corn." (NCGA, 2008) This is precisely what occurred in 2007 as farmers planted "92.9 million acres to corn, a 19%…
Pulley, Mary (2008) Pilgrim's Pride Layoffs. WHSV.com 13 Mar 2008. Online available at http://www.whsv.com/news/headlines/16665741.html
Andrejczak, Matt (2008) Chicken Producers Bank on Summer Rally. 16 May 2008. Market Watch. Online available at http://www.marketwatch.com/news/story/chicken-producers-look-summer-rally/story.aspx?guid=%7B9D4F30EE-30A4-4032-9E84-798C830BE3A4%7D
Biofuels: Turning Trash into Treasure (2008) Chevron - Human Energy. Mar 2008. Online available at http://www.chevron.com/deliveringenergy/biofuels/
U.S. Corn Growers: Producing Food & Fuel (2008) National Corn Grower's Association. Online available at http://www.ethanol.org/pdf/contentmgmt/NCGA_Food_and_Fuel_08.pdf
Market of Grain in the United States
In the United States, millions of Americans are confronting the latest trends in the commodities markets where the costs of agricultural products have driven up costs of breakfasts of average Americans. Over the past year, the price of orange juice has increased a quarter, and the price of milk has also risen by 5%, and egg by a fifth. The issues have made General Mills and Kellogg's to increase the prices of their breakfast cereal products. The cause of an increase is due to a recent rise in the price of grains such as wheat and corn. Underpinning the rise in the price of grains is that the demand has outpaced the supply because of the growing demand for cereals for the production of biofuels such as ethanol. Thus, the author is trying to reveal the factors that lead to an increase in…
Forces Affecting Industry Conditions
There are several forces that are affecting the industry conditions. With respect to external forces, technology is the major force. Technology has long been the driver of the alternative fuels business. The objective of the business is to produce fuels that are cheaper, more plentiful and more sustainable than fossil fuels. Without these characteristics, there is no viable business. However, the fuels need to have these traits in relation to each other, because alternative energy, and biofuels in particular, are substitutable. As a consequence, competitive advantage goes to the company with the technological advantage. It appeared for a time that GEVO might be that company, but 2012 sales were far below expectations, indicating that perhaps the company's product is not as compelling as it sounds. Most of GEVO's competitors are large multinationals that can dedicate tens of millions, if not hundreds of millions, to the…
EIA. (2012). Fuel consumption in power generation and elasticities of substitution. U.S. Energy Information Administration. Retrieved March 31, 2014 from http://www.eia.gov /analysis/studies/fuelelasticities/pdf/eia-fuelelasticities.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Alternate Energy in Daily Life
Imagine that you could travel in time, much like Doc Brown and Marty McFly in the movie Back to the Future. uppose you traveled back to 1955 with the Doc and Marty and asked a resident of 1955 what the year 2011 would be like. Would he predict hybrid cars, or flying cars? Would he believe that the United tates has a moon base -- or that is has no moon program at all? Would he believe that kids carry cell phones but that the only commercial viable robot is the Roomba vacuum? omeone living in 1955 would probably predict a future much different from the one we are actually living today. When you consider how life in the future was depicted in movies, TV programs, and books in the middle of the 20th century, it easy to see that our predictions about the future…
Sources." (February 21, 2009.) Retrieved April 27, 2011 from the Alternative Energy website at http://www.alternative-energy-news.info/hydrogen-fuel-from-non-food-sources/
IBM. (2000.) "Flying Cars Commercial." Retrieved April 26, 2011 from YouTube.com at http://www.youtube.com/ watch' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
This characteristic is given by the fact that qualitative research methodologies rely on factual and numerical information, which is not subjected to individual bias. Such a qualitative research process is nevertheless more time consuming and it is also tedious.
The research instrument refers to the means in which the research questions would be approached from a quantitative standpoint. Specifically, the research instrument is constituted by the survey. A survey is understood as a selection of questions which are relevant for the undergoing study. The usage of the survey as a research instrument is characterized by a series of elements, as follows:
Simplicity of usage
Ability to select the relevant sample
Basis on numeric and factual data, leading as such to results which can be generalized.
Two final elements which need to be noted regarding the research instrument refer to the concessions made in order to reduce the work…
Future Energy: Guiding Decisions Evidence in order reduce negative environmental impacts growing human population increasing demands energy technological advances continue, individual countries, states, cities households opportunity shift energy sources renewable
Most consumers are unaware of the extreme negativeness surrounding their consumption of goods and that it inevitably leads to environmental degradation. However, there seems to be a more conscious effort to go around the negative impact of consumption of energy by choosing renewable sources. In this essay, we will assess a particular region in America and that is the state of Florida with specific references to certain areas in order to observe what sources of energy are currently used and what renewable sources may be best suitable and least suitable in the area, considering climate and the environment.
With climate changes accelerating at a fast pace, Miami, which is already subject of the increase of Earth's temperatures and rise of…
Miami -- Dade County. N. y. Energy -- Electricity and Fuel [Data File] Retrieved from http://www.miamidade.gov/greenprint/planning/library/milestone_one/energy.pdf
Natural Resources Defense Council. N. y. State Profiles -- Florida [Data File] Retrieved from http://www.nrdc.org/energy/renewables/florida.asp
This helps to establish the case that a gap exists between that which science accepts about biofuels and that which politicians present on the subject.
This is complimented by Thornton's (2006) concise detraction of ethanol, this article serves as reinforcement for the recurring case that the process of yielding energy from ethanol is too consuming of time and energy, and thus, should be disregarded as a means to developing an alternative fuel source.
The certainty that the world community must attend with urgency to a transition to a clean-burning and effective alternative fuel source dominates discourse today on oil production and energy efficiency. And there is a dominance in this discussion, as well as in current implementation, of the endorsement of biofuels. A clear-burning energy source derived from the fermentation of sugars found in various plant-cellulous, for some time this has been sought as a possible alternative fuel to…
Butler, M. (2008). Lessons from Biofuels. Greentech. Online at http://www.greentechmedia.com/articles/lessons-from-biofuels-10-768.html
Dien, B.; Bothast, R.; Nichols, N. & Cotta, M. (2002). The U.S. Corn Ethanol Industry: An Overview of Current Technology and Future Prospects. Agricultural Research Service, 104, p. 204-211.
Environmental Protection Agency. (2008). Renewable Fuel Standard Program. U.S. Government. Online at http://www.epa.gov/OMS/renewablefuels/ .
Freeman, S. (2008). $1 per gallon biofuel touted. The Republic. Online at http://www.masslive.com/springfield/republican/index.ssf?/base/news-13/1207725605294850.xml&coll=1 .
Historically one retailer in the area has offered 100 gallon drums of 100 to consumers for purchase, but has recently restricted sales to 500 gallons per purchase, no doubt to serve industry. While another retail location has spotty supplies that must be called upon, on a weekly basis to determine if 100 is even available, though conveniently they do sell it by the gallon. (iodiesel in Tampa Website)
One of the most essential aspects of beginning to build a biofuel infrastructure on a local level in a domestic city is to create such an infrastructure that would curtail the dominance of foreign biofuel in the region. As was seen in the first section of the work EarthFirst Technologies serves as a significant local and regional competitor as this company has seen and answered the need to import biodiesel to answer a growing need in the U.S. For such sources.…
Biodiesel in Tampa Website Retrieved May 23, 2008 at http://www.forums.biodieselnow.com/forums/p/9832/63809.aspx
Adams D. Huettel, S.(November 19, 2005) Huge biodiesel shipment arrives: A Tampa company has lofty plans to continue importing the alternative fuel from Ecuador to sell for use in diesel engines. Tampa Bay Partnership Retrieved May 18, 2008 at http://www.tampabay.org/press.asp?rls_id=1089& ;
EarthFirst Technologies Website Retrieved May 18, 2008 at http://www.earthfirsttech.com/CompanyBackGround.asp
Florida Biofuel Coop Website Retrieved May 18, 2008 at http://www.biodiesel.coop/
" The wildlife result of raising the usual row crops such as corn is well-known. The greatest impact of enhanced corn ethanol would be that much more land would be converted to agricultural use as well as the additional erosion and fertilizer application that goes hand-in-hand with agricultural production. Increasing ethanol production through the use of corn may lead to negative effects on wildlife, the degree of which this occurs based on production levels and if the land put aside for this enhanced production had previously been idle, in a natural state, or planted in other row crops.
Bies (1205) sees the strengths of the ethanol use. However, the use of the product and how it is produced are two different things. President Bush signed the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 that included a provision concerning the Volumetric Ethanol Excise Tax Credit (VEETC), in addition to other biofuels provisions.…
Bies, Laura. The Biofuels Explosion. Wildlife Society Bulletin. (2006) 34.4 1203-1206
Dinneen, Bob. Vital Speeches of the Day. New York.(2007) 73.4, 167-171.
Cothran, Helen. Energy Alternatives. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002
Ethanol Across America. 18 July, 2007 http://www.ethanolacrossamerica.net/
In developing countries, consumers are more affected for two reasons. One is that consumers are more likely to buy raw ingredients. ithout manufacturing entities to absorb some of the commodity price increases, consumers are left to absorb almost all of the increase (Ibid.). As a result, food prices have increased more in the developing world than in the developed world. Additionally, consumers in these countries already expend a significantly higher percentage of their income on food than do consumers in estern nations. Thus, demand for food in the developing world is price elastic and consumers suffer because they are unable to meet their food needs.
In the developed world, increased food prices suppress demand in other sectors of the economy, which can cause minor shocks in employment and investment in some businesses and industries. In the developing world, food price shocks can result in starvation and civil unrest. The recent…
Lapidos, Juliet. (2008) "Why are Global Food Prices Soaring?" Slate. Retrieved December 4, 2008 at http://www.slate.com/id/2187882/
Wiewel, Wim & Persky, Joseph. (2002) Suburban Sprawl M.E. Sharpe, Armonk NY, 2002.
Barnier, Michael. (2008) "Europe is Key to Solving Food Crisis" Tehran Times. Retrieved December 4, 2008 at http://www.tehrantimes.com/index_View.asp?code=184060
Clayton, Mark. (2008) "As Global Food Costs Rise, are Biofuels to Blame?" Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved December 4, 2008 at http://www.csmonitor.com/2008/0128/p03s03-usec.html
As all these studies show, ethanol is not exactly the environmental darling that many seem to think it is. It is actually helping to raise food prices, it is adding to world hunger, and producing it may be actually adding to global pollution rather than easing it. Much more study needs to be done on all the aspects of biofuels, including ethanol, and Congress needs to take action and stop subsidizing ethanol and other biofuels until they have been much more heavily studied. Biofuels could be the answer to our transportation problems in the future, but for now, they have far too many problems associated with them to be so heavily subsidized and promoted in America.
Brown, L.. (2008, January 24). Why ethanol production will drive world food prices even higher in 2008. etrieved December 1, 2010, from Earth Policy Institute: http://www.earth-policy.org/index.php?/plan_b_updates/2008/update69.
Decesaro, J. (2006, June). Farming bio…
Brown, L.R. (2008, January 24). Why ethanol production will drive world food prices even higher in 2008. Retrieved December 1, 2010, from Earth Policy Institute: http://www.earth-policy.org/index.php?/plan_b_updates/2008/update69 .
Decesaro, J. (2006, June). Farming bio fuels: Growing crops that can be converted into liquid fuels has come a new focus of America's farmers. State Legislatures, 32, 14+.
Gasoline and corn prices are linked. (2008, August). USA Today (Society for the Advancement of Education), 137, 14.
Goodell, J. (2007, August 9). The ethanol scam. Retrieved December 1, 2010, from One of America's biggest political boondoggles: http://www.rollingstone.com .
Even though prices of fuel are going down, the problem of world hunger still remains. Also, the question of how to solve the world's energy crisis raises troubling questions about biofuels, which may benefit U.S. farmers but may hurt some of the poorest individuals living around the world. The United Nation's food price index rose 40% in 2007 compared with 9% in 2006 and the United Nations released a report saying that forty nations, including Indonesia "face critical food shortages, for reasons including climate change, higher meat consumption in developing countries, crop failure, war, and diversion of food crops for biofuels" (Lane 2008). The food policies of one nation such as the United States, does not occur in isolation, and when the U.S. makes a policy decision about something like biofuels, the political aftershocks are felt around the world.
Lane, Jim. "Indonesian food riots spread, force government to…
Lane, Jim. "Indonesian food riots spread, force government to declare emergency." Biofuels
Digest. 16 Jan 2008. 13 Nov 2008. http://www.biofuelsdigest.com/blog2/2008/01/16/indonesian-food-riots-spread-force-government-to-declare-emergency-as-rising-soybean-prices-fuel-unrest
food production and distribution in the world today?
Despite Malthusian predictions to the contrary, there is generally enough food currently available to adequately feed the world's six billion people. In fact, Searchinger (2011) recently observed that, "Economists have made such a fuss about how complicated the food crisis is that they have created the impression that it has no ready solution. . . . This view is wrong" (p. 14). Indeed, agricultural crop production has continued to keep pace with population growth, with record-setting grain production being achieved in 2010 (Searchinger, 2011). The real problems with food production and distribution in the world today relate to rising demand during a period when an increasing amount of food crops are being diverted for the production of biofuels. In this regard, Searchinger emphasizes that, "Since 2004, biofuels from crops have almost doubled the rate of growth in global demand for grain and…
Kaufman, C. & Heri, S. (2007). Liberalizing trade in agriculture and food security - Mission impossible? Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law, 40(4), 1039-1041.
Miller, C. (2003). In the sweat of our brow: Citizenship in American domestic practice during
WW II-victory gardens. The Journal of American Culture, 26(3), 395-397.
Searchinger, T. (2011, July). A quick fix to the food crisis. Scientific American, 305(1), 14.
Global Problems equire Solutions by Global Agencies? If So, Which?
Today, the world is rife with problems, but the historical record suggests that it always has been. In sharp contrast to the past, though, modern global problems are truly enormous in terms of their diversity and scope. While emerging economic powerhouses such as China, India, Brazil, Indonesia and Malaysia are reaping the benefits of an increasingly globalized marketplace, the demand for food and fuel has skyrocketed along with their prices. Competition over scarce resources has always been a source of conflict, but current signs indicate that the competition for resources in the future will become truly fierce because current supplies of fossil fuels are being depleted at an increasingly faster rate. In this environment, regional conflicts and even global war are potential outcomes that will require global solutions. To determine which global agencies will play a role in implementing and…
Ki-Moon, B. (2011, March 11). Remarks to the UN General Assembly. United Nations.
Retrieved from http://www.un.org/apps/news/infocusRel.asp?infocusID=137& ;
Searchinger, T. (2011, July). A quick fix to the food crisis. Scientific American, 305(1), 14.
Wind energy itself is a completely renewable source. In fact, it actually relies on solar power as its own source; "The sun's energy in interaction with the Earth's surfaces creates the winds and as long as the sun is up there, wind is a renewable energy source," (Sustainable Table 2010). Modern implication and practice have proven that generating power through wind energy can be a reliable and clean source of providing practical uses of power. esidential and commercials cities have been provided with much power coming from the windy plains of America's greatest desserts. It is a growing strategy for alternative energy solutions, and "Today, wind energy is captured by wind turbines and used to generate electricity," (West 2010). More and more facilities of seemingly endless white wind turbines are being built across the country. Such facilities will provide great sources for energy within the future development of the nation.…
Alternate Energy Sources. (2010). Alternate Energy Sources for a Flourishing Future. Retrieved March 11, 2010 from http://www.alternate-energy-sources.com/index.html .
Organizing America. (2010). New energy for America. Issues. Retrieved March 11, 2010 from http://www.barackobama.com/issues/newenergy/index.php
Sustainable Table. (2010). Fossil fuel and energy use. The Issues. Retrieved March 11, 2010 from http://www.sustainabletable.org/issues/energy/
West, Larry. (2010). Top 7 renewable energy sources. Environmental Issues. Retrieved March 11, 2010 from http://environment.about.com/od/renewableenergy/tp/renew_energy.htm
Global warming, or more accurately, climate change, is the phenomenon that has been scientifically observed over repeated studies that the planet is experiencing warming and changing climates at a pace much more rapid that has been observed in any prior era. The increase in the pace of the climate change has been correlated with the coming of the industrial age, and in particular with the mass adoption of fossil fuels. The burning of hydrocarbons to create energy unleashes a chemical reaction that ends with carbon entering the atmosphere, where it then traps solar radiation in the atmosphere, leading to the warming process. This paper will outline this process and the evidence supporting the fact of anthropogenic global warming.
Observations of Climate Change
The first step in understanding climate change is understanding how it is determined to be occurring. Weather is an observable phenomenon, and over a long period of time…
Antonio, R. & Brulle, A. (2011). The unbearable lightness of politics: climate change denial and political polarization. The Sociological Quarterly. Vol. 52 (2011) 195-202.
Cox, P., Betts, R., Jones, C., Spall, S. & Totterdell, I. (2000). Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate change model. Nature. Vol. 408 (9 November 2000) 184-187.
Crowley, T. (2000). Causes of climate change over the past 1000 years. Science. Vol. 289 (14 July 2000), 270-277.
Dansgaard, W., Johnsen, S., Clausen, H. Jensen, D., Gundestrup, N., Hammer, C., & Oeschger, H. (1984). North Atlantic climate oscillations revealed by deep Greenland ice cores. Climate Processes and Climate Sensitivity.
The political implications of this article are enormous, including international relations to come up with worldwide emissions agreements, economic reform in regards to the businesses that continue to use carbon-emitting practices, and legislation that will limit the abilities of businesses. This article is written from the point-of-view, therefore, of someone who has been monitoring this situation for quite some time, and who is concerned about global warming's impact on earth. In addition, this person writes from the political point-of-view, having a great deal of knowledge about how the problem can be solved politically. The scientific conclusion that global warming is a time-sensitive problem is unique, but not valid, while the idea of 350 is based on a new study, so its accurateness cannot be confirmed. McKibben, however, does not suggest this. Instead, he relies on the number, 350, as solid fact, without admitting that it may not be correct. Thus,…
Allen, Laura. (2008, December 19). The Other Big Meltdown. Retrieved December 20, 2008 at http://www.popsci.com/environment/article/2008-12/other-big-meltdown
Cyr, Christine. (2008, December 11). Flying High on Biofuels. Retrieved December, 20
2008, at http://www.popsci.com/military-aviation-amp-space/article/2008-12/flying-high-biofuels
McKIbben, Bill. (2008, November/December). The Most Important Number on Earth.
Insofar as many
of the nations now impacted so drastically by the food scarcity crisis are
also those developing theatres in which globalizing companies have sought
to operate, it is becoming more difficult all the time to find an
appropriate context for operation. Thus, organizations pursuing offshore
production interests, outsourced service laborers and overseas contract
management must immerse themselves in many settings where poverty,
instability and widespread suffering are all increasingly characteristic.
Forecasting organizational performance and opportunity under these terms is
marked by challenge.
So too is this case in navigating the uncertainties of legal policy
concerning environmental conditions. Under the Bush Administration, we
have experienced a significant decline in standard protections for both
dumping and emissions, due to the president's composition of ironically
entitled bills such as the Clean Air Act and the Clean ater Act. Both of
these, in spite of their titles, were marked for their historical…
Butler, M. (2008). Lessons from Biofuels. Greentech. Online at
Reuters. (2008). States sue EPA over ozone pollution standards. Thomson
Reuters. Online at
company British Petroleum, its products and services, the critical success factors for its operations and its salient stakeholders. It also discusses ways in which the primary stakeholders affect an organisation's financial performance. Then it evaluates the controversial corporate social responsibility issue of Deepwater Horizon Accident of 2010 and the formation of a stakeholder coalition to address this issue, including plans to address the challenges in persuading the affected stakeholders in forming the coalition.
British petroleum is a company with worldwide operations. It provides energy products and services to customers around the world to meet their modern energy demands. Its upstream segment is responsible for discovering oil and gas products around the world. The downstream segment is associated with energy products and services such as fuels, petrochemicals and lubricants (BP, 2014). BP has a range of products and services to cater energy demands of customers.
Air BP: This is the aviation…
BP (2014). Gulf of Mexico restoration. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/gulf-of-mexico-restoration.html . [Last accessed 14 January 2014].
BP (2014). Press. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/press.html . [Last Accessed 14 January 2014].
BP (2014). Products and Services. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/products-and-services.html . [Last Accessed 13 January 2014].
Larson et al., (2000). Stakeholder Collaboration. Washington, DC: WWF-U.S..
Ethical Practices ithin Business
BP Struggles to Resolve Sustainability Disaster
Over the past 20th century and in the 21st century, ethics has neither been an option nor a luxury. It has not only become a moral or legal responsibility, but has also been an organizational priority within all sets of work groups, including both public and private institutions, organizations and companies. Ethical practices have also become the only strategy to combat the growing impatience within the society, as well as their responsible competitions and/or actions. These ill and unethical acts may in the long run impoverish a section of the regional economy through various organizations while enriching the crafty economies. Organizational leaders must thereby keep abreast of the rapidly changing technological advancements together with their possible effects on globalization, competitor products and services, opportunities, and threats that their organizations may face. Over a century, BP, the formerly Anglo-Persian Oil Company…
Carl, Safina. BP Struggles to Resolve Sustainability Disaster. Annual Report and Form- Case
4, 32:2, (2012),342-352.
Upstream Division: ExxonMobil
Although ExxonMobil remains a successful company, like all oil and gas organizations, it remains highly dependent upon market conditions, including shifts in the price of crude oil and natural gas. "A decline in oil or gas prices lowers ExxonMobil Upstream business profit margins, whereas an increase in oil and natural gas prices lowers ExxonMobil Downstream and Chemical business profit margins" (Miglani, 2016, par.14). While the size and diversification of the Exxon Corporation has permitted it to mitigate the severity and degree to which such conditions impact its profits on one hand, on the other hand, it still must review its operations and total quality management (TQM) policies to ensure that it is maximizing its opportunities as an organization.
Inputs and Outputs
ExxonMobil is one of the largest and most famous oil and gas companies in the world. Its upstream segment engages in the exploration of and…
Driving innovation. (2017). Exxon. Retrieved from:
Global product quality management system. (2017). Exxon Mobile. Retrieved from:
98 million farmers. It is reported that in a review of sustainable agriculture projects findings show that "average food production per household increased by 1.71 tons per year (up 73%) for 4.42 million farmers on 3.58 million hectares, bringing food security and health benefits to local communities. Increasing agricultural productivity has been shown to also increase food supplies and raise incomes, thereby reducing poverty, increasing access to food, reducing malnutrition and improving health and livelihoods." (Independent Science Panel, 2003) Sustainable agriculture results in low-cost and readily available food resources being gained by consumers since organic food is safer. Specifically it is reported that: "Sustainable agricultural approaches draw extensively on traditional and indigenous knowledge, and place emphasis on the farmers' experience and innovation. This thereby utilizes appropriate, low-cost and readily available local resources as well as improves farmers' status and autonomy, enhancing social and cultural relations within local communities." (Independent Science…
What Are Transgenic Plants? (2010) Transgenic Crops: An Introduction and Resource Guide.
Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University 1999-2004. Online available at' http://www.cls.casa.colostate.edu/TransgenicCrops/what.html
Melton, Margaret and Rissler, Jane (2009) Environmental Effects of Genetically Modified Food Crops -- Recent Experiences. Union of Concerned Scientists: Food and Agriculture. Online available at: http://www.ucsusa.org/food_and_agriculture/science_and_impacts/impacts_genetic_engineering/environmental-effects-of.html
Raney, Terri ( 2006) Economic Impact of Transgenic Crops in Developing Countries. Opinion in Biotechnology 2006, 17:1-5. Online available at: http://www.agbioworld.org/pdf/raney.pdf
I do that every day. ut I've never done that with a car. I buy what I need to look successful. esides, how would I ever calculate a payback when I have no idea what gasoline will cost in the future?" A few said with apparent certainty, "one year" or "two years." However, when we inquired where the number came from, they simply asserted that they spent lots of money on gasoline and would quickly earn their money back through savings. A smaller group proposed longer terms -- eight to ten years -- noting that they keep their cars for a long time. Several households explained that their lack of attention to gas costs was due to the fact that they felt they couldn't do anything about it; they had to drive as much as they did to lead the lives they had constructed for themselves." (Kurani, Turrentine, and Heffner,…
Turrentine, Tom; Kurani, Kenneth; and Heffner, Rusty (2007) Fuel Economy: What Drives Consumer Choice? Access. No. 31, Fall 2007. Online available at: http://pubs.its.ucdavis.edu/publication_detail.php?id=1159
E85 Everywhere: Minnesota Consumer Perception Survey for E85 & Flex-Fuel Vehicles (Phase 2: Post-Advertising Campaign) (2007) Phoenix Marketing International Report of Findings. Online available at: http://www.cleanairchoice.org/news/E85FinalReport-PhaseIITRG.pdf
Connelly, Mary (2007) Study: Car Ads Aren't Green Enough. Automotive News. 13 Aug 2007. Online available at: http://www.mindclickgroup.com/mgwmonitor/press/automotivenews.pdf
Struben, Jeroen and Sterman, John D. (2007) Transition Challenges for Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Transportation Systems. MIT Sloan School of Management, Cambridge, MA. Online available at: http://web.mit.edu/~jsterman/www/StrubenSterman%20EPB%2007.pdf
Such biodegradable batteries have the ability to last 3 to 4 times longer than the lithium ion batteries in use today. It is not just the average consumer who is interested in these products but the military is also extremely interested in using such sugar-powered batteries. The portability of such devices would be appropriate for the extreme mobility required in the battlefield. It would also be suitable in emergency situations when access to electricity and other vital gasoline supply lines are cut off. Using any kind of sugar source available in the vicinity would be enough to charge up the batteries. (Fuel cell batteries that run on sugar) The energy needs of the U.S. Armed Forces are extremely high and the Department of Defense requires a constant supply of fuel for its military jets. Therefore, as per the instructions of the U.S. Congress, DOD and DAPA have also evinced interest…
Centi, Gabriele; Santen, Rutger A. van. Catalysis for renewables.
Dinham, Barbara; Hines, Colin. Agribusiness in Africa.
Africa World Press. 1984.
In addition, large quantities of natural gas are required to produce fertilizers which are needed for growing corn. It is estimated that an average of 135 pounds of nitrogen (a potent-greenhouse-gas) per acre is used in growing corn in most U.S. farms. Besides, research by the U.S. Department for Agriculture (USDA) shows that tilled soil releases carbon dioxide gas into the atmosphere in proportion to the volume of soil loosened (Kenny).
Most of all, it is erroneous to assume that ethanol is likely to reduce America's dependence on foreign oil. It has been estimated that the current ethanol production in the United States that has triggered such massive increase in grain and food prices around the world barely satisfies less than 3% of U.S. gasoline needs; and if the entire U.S. grain harvest were converted into ethanol, it would satisfy scarcely 18% of the country's automotive fuel need (Brown.). Furthermore,…
Brown, Lester R. "Why Ethanol Production Will Drive World Food Prices Even Higher in 2008." Earth Policy Institute. January 24, 2008. May 30, 2008. http://www.earth-policy.org/Updates/2008/Update69.htm
Carter, Colin a. And Henry I. Miller. "Hidden Costs of Corn-Based Ethanol." Christian Science Monitor. May 21, 2007. May 30, 2008. http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0521/p09s02-coop.html
Corn...Fuel...Fire!" Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. December 17, 2007. May 30, 2008. http://www.stri.org/english/about_stri/headline_news/news/article.php?id=736
Flavin, Christopher. "Biofuels 2.0: It's Time for Congress to Act." World Watch.
2007 Economic Crisis on American Car market
Effect of the 2008 global economic crisis on automotive industries
Crisis in the United States
Crisis in Canada
Crisis in ussia
Crisis in European markets
Crisis in Asian markets
Effects by other related crisis events
In this paper, we will review the effects of 2008 global automotive crisis. Our main focus will be on the American car manufacturers and the negative impact they suffered due to the crisis. We will also have a look at how this crisis had affected car manufacturers in other major markets around the world notably Europe, Canada and the prominent Asian markets such as China and India. Finally, we will look at some of the other factors which were important to this event namely the energy crisis since the cost of fuel is directly related to the car industry.
The automobile industry is a very important part…
Lee, C. (2003). Financial Liberalization and Economic Crisis in Asia. New York: Routledge.
Pempel, T.J. (1999). The Politics of Asian Economic Crisis. New York: Cornell University Press.
Arestis, P. (2001). What Global Economic Crisis? New York: Palgrave.
Liou, K.T. (2002). Managing Economic Development in Asia. Westport, CT: Praeger.
company with a fairly strong sustainability policy is Wal-Mart. The company publishes a fairly extensive report about its sustainability practices. One of the interesting things about Wal-Mart's sustainability practices is that they seem very focused on efficiency, with efforts dedicated to waste reduction. This is important to the company in that by reducing waste they are lowering their costs.
The concept of sustainability, however, is the measure here. Wal-Mart's stakeholders with respect to sustainability are mostly internal, with external stakeholders being suppliers and then the world in general. The suppliers are active partners in Wal-Mart's sustainability efforts, as they must work closely with the company to ensure that sustainability initiatives are met.
Other stakeholders are more generic in nature, and do not appear to have been consulted. Environmental advocacy groups do not appear to have contributed to this effort. In general, Wal-Mart's overall business practices are not especially sustainable, given…
Delshad, A.B. (2012). Revisiting "Who influences whom?" agenda setting on biofuels. Congress & the Presidency, 39(2), 177 -- 198.
Huston, A., Zillmann, D. & Bryant, J. (1994). Media, children and the family: Scientific, psychodynamic and clinical perspectives. Lawrence Erlbaum: Mahwah, NJ.
Levy, G. & Razin, R. (2012). Dynamic legislative decision making when interest groups control the agenda. London School of Economics. Retrieved July 15, 2014 from http://personal.lse.ac.uk/levyg1/jet1.pdf
Steel, B., List, P. Lach, D., & Shindler, B. (2004) The role of scientists in the environmental policy process: A case study from the American West. Environmental Science & Policy, 7, 1 -- 13.
Analysis and Recommendation
As CO2 emissions may be reduced by 80% through the conversion process of conventional jet fuel to sustainable biofuels, it is important that airlines begin to implement this conversion process with all appropriate models. The commercialization of these fuels will begin once the demand is in place, and the demand must come from the consumers. For the airlines interested in reducing their environmental footprint, a policy of corporate social responsibility (CSR) will help to support this conversion process and show stakeholders that the companies are interested in reducing the amount of toxic emissions that are distributed by carriers.
Another option is for carriers to be more logistical in terms of how they perform their routes. By implementing more intelligent ATM (Air Traffic Management) systems alongside better airport infrastructure, congestion in the skies and airports can be prevented, which would substantially reduce the amount of fuel burn that…
Nuclear energy possesses perhaps the largest potential for growth over the next few decades. The reason for this is the simple fact that it creates a relatively small amount of environmental pollution and can be adapted for use in nearly any part of the world. It certainly poses some security risks if it this technology is misused or mishandled, but the benefits certainly outweigh the costs. This type of energy production does not create smog, or direct environmental wastes, and many scientists, entrepreneurs, and engineers are looking at low cost, micro-nuclear solutions for small cities and towns (Kruger, 2006). Instead of building huge, multi-billion dollar power plants, the focus has shifted to creating small, sustainable, community nuclear power plants. The sustainability level of nuclear power is quite high given that a very small amount of nuclear waste is created for a huge amount of power output, unlike coal-fired power plants…
Hekkert, Marko P.; Hendriks, Franka H.J.F.; Faaij Andre P.C. And Maarten L. Neelis.. (2005).
"Natural Gas as an Alternative to Crude Oil in Automotive Fuel Chains Well-to-Wheel Analysis and Transition Strategy Development," Energy Policy: Vol. 33: Iss. 5, pp. 579-594.
Hoffmann, Peter. (2002). Tomorrow's Energy: Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and the Prospects for a Cleaner Planet. MIT Press: Cambridge.
Kruger, Paul. (2006). Alternative Energy Resources: The Quest for Sustainable Energy.
The energy it stores (?180 Wh kg?1) at an average voltage of 3.8 V is only a factor of 5 higher than that stored by the much older lead -- acid batteries. This may seem poor in the light of Moore's law in electronics (according to which memory capacity doubles every 18 months), but it still took a revolution in materials science to achieve it. Billions of lithium-ion cells are produced for portable electronics, but this is not sustainable as cobalt must be obtained from natural resources (it makes up 20 parts per million of Earth's crust). (Armand & Tarascon, 2008, p. 653).
Fu investigated the lithium-ion conductivities of glasses and glass-ceramics in the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 system. Fu's samples revealed high conductivity, albeit when Abrahams and Hadzifejzovic similarly investigated the LI2O-AlO3-TiO2P2O5 glass and glass-ceramic systems, their findings revealed "a maximum room temperature conductivity of 3.98 x 10-6 S/cm in their crystallized…
Armand, M & Tarascon, J.M. (2008). Building better batteries. Nature. Volume 451. Retrieved
April 17, 2010 from http://www.uio.no/studier/emner/matnat/kjemi/MENA5020/h08/undervisningsmaterial
Battery power. (2010). Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC). Retrieved April 17. 2010 from http://www.rsc.org/Education/EiC/issues/2008Mar/BatteryPower.asp
The significance of exact transport actions and infrastructure can therefore be assessed for each division of the economy (odrigue, 2011).
Transportation connects together the aspects of production in a multifaceted web of associations between producers and consumers. The result is usually a more competent division of production by a utilization of geographical relative advantages, as well as the means to develop financial systems of degree and range. The output of space, capital and labor is consequently improved with the competence of distribution and personal mobility. It is accepted that economic growth is more and more connected with transport expansions, namely infrastructures but in addition managerial knowledge is crucial for logistics (odrigue, 2011).
Transportation growths that have taken place since the beginning of the industrial revolution have been associated with mounting economic opportunities. At each phase of human societal development, a meticulous transport mode has been developed or modified. On the…
Aboard Transportation. (2006).Retrieved February 28, 2011, from Web site:
Chavis, Jason. (2011). Different Types of Air Transportation. Retrieved February 28, 2011, from Web site: http://www.ehow.com/about_4813389_different-types-air-transportation.html
Importance of Transportation to Society. (2009). Retrieved February 28, 2011, from Web site:
The development of a bio-economy capable of supplying the world's energy demand is where the synthetic biologists wish to take this the next step. Additionally, biologists are able to develop a sort of biological acolyte from the principles of synthetic biology, involving synthesizing DNA in combination with the raw building blocks of genetics. A new platform for different biological life form is essentially, what these biologists have discovered.
According to commission chairwoman, and the president of the University of Pennsylvania, Amy Gutmann, "Here's something significant in science, but there's no cause for fear and dread about what is going to happen immediately next." The commission report recommended greater ethical constraint and greater collaboration. Amy Gutmann, further states that ethics training be mandatory for all researchers in the field.
Opponents of the report include Brent Erickson, an executive in the biotech industry. According to the New York Times, Mr. Erickson called…
Indeed, a handful of companies have brought to market new drugs to treat specific diseases including osteoporosis. However, some say this "genome bubble" (Pollack, 2010) has burst and that a lack of pharmaceuticals targeted toward genome modification have not turned out at a high rate. Increases in spending on the genome project exceeded 40 billion in 2009 with no major uptick in the number of available drugs to the population. Additionally, the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) has increased the testing requirements on the drugs in the pipeline development phase.
Industry executives note that although there is considerable risk and high costs, the project will pay of as a function of time. Assuming they are not out to just keep their job, the idea is as the development stage in its entirety, from drug discovery to marketing to consumers, can approach two decades. Executives at a number of top biotech firms have praised the genome project and its power as an enabler of drug research and drug development.
The article is accurate as it is inclusive of key executives holding top positions within the top biopharmaceutical companies in the world. Additionally, input from regulators is also provided. The human genome project and this subsequent research will undoubtedly affect our lives. Disease and ailments will be understood at the genetic level where new medication can address genetic deficiencies that enable these conditions. The relevance of this article to biology is as essential as Gregor Mendel's work on plant genetics.
Between 1950 and 1984, the Green evolution began to influence farming. This saw world grain production improve by 250%, even though much of this gain was non-sustainable. These agricultural technologies temporarily increased crop yields, but there are signs as early as 1995 that not only are these technologies reaching their peak of assistance, but they may now be contributing to the decline of arable land e.g. persistence of pesticides leading to soil contamination and decline of area available for farming. Developed nations have been willing to share these technologies with developing nations that have famine crisis, but there are ethical restrictions in regards to thrusting such technologies on lesser developed countries. This is often accredited to an association of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides with a lack of longevity. It is thought that these technological advances might not be as great in those famines which are the result of war. Increased…
Chossudovsky, Michel. 2008, Global Famine, viewed 11 August 2010,
Harsch, Ernest. 2003, Famine spreads across Africa, viewed 11 August 2010,
People seeking to make a fundamental change in the way they transport themselves will likely need a great deal of information, some of which may provide greater clarity while others may provide confusion and resort in them seeking out another alternative product. The consumer may then look for information that will support their inquiry into a commitment to a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle as opposed to one of many alternatives.
a. Choosing a lower cost option, or in this case an option that best fits into their personal budget;
b. Choosing an alternative with greater support and/or greater available review data, i.e. something that has already been tried and embraced by consumers;
c. Choosing a product that offers the least resistance in the way of lifestyle change, where to fuel, how to fuel, easier to drive, and/or service.
2. Consulting an expert, such as the lease agent, dealer manufacturer or…
Al-Muslim, a. (2011, March 29). Hempstead adds three hydrogen-powered cars. Newsday, (Melville, NY). Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Katzanek, J. (2005). Hybrid car buyers willing to wait in line -- and pay more. Press-Enterprise, the (Riverside, CA), Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Lenderman, a. (2007). Hybrids, concept cars generate buzz. Santa Fe New Mexican, the (NM), Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Strahan, D. (Nov 29-Dec 5, 2008) Hydrogen's long road to nowhere. New Scientist (200) 2684, 40-44.
If we use Canadian olar as our supplier, the product range will include: standard modules, BIPV modules, e-modules, inverters and the basic wires and metal framing that are required in order to house the solar panels. Within each type of module, there are different sizes and strengths available. All of these will be offered to consumers. We will also offer Canadian olar's range of car battery charger, GP, lights and other small solar systems for consumers.
The company is not expected to house significant inventory in-house. There will be some materials for framing and wiring in inventory, but the solar panels themselves will be ordered using a just-in-time ordering system. The reason for this is because the clients are going have custom-designed systems. The process of meeting with the client, doing a home visit and designing the systems takes days at best and usually weeks, providing ample time from purchase…
OPA. (2011). MicroFit program. Ontario Power Authority. Retrieved April 7, 2011 from http://microfit.powerauthority.on.ca/Renewable-Energy-Projects/Solar-photovoltaic/index.php
Sweet, C. (2009). Let the sun shine. Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 7, 2011 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204313604574330572870415610.html
These technologies are can be separated into three main categories (Alternative Energy):
Wave Energy Converters: These systems extract the power of ocean waves and convert it into electricity. Typically, these systems use either a water column or some type of surface or just-below-surface buoy to capture the wave power. In addition to oceans, some lakes may offer sufficient wave activity to support wave energy converter technology. (Alternative Energy).
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC): OTEC generates electricity through the temperature differential in warmer surface water and colder deep water. Of ocean technologies, OTEC has the most limited applicability in the United States because it requires a 40-degree temperature differential that is typically available in locations like Hawaii and other more tropical climates (Alternative Energy).
Offshore Wind: Offshore wind projects take advantage of the vast wind resources available across oceans and large water bodies. Out at sea, winds blow freely, unobstructed by…
Alternative Energy. "Renewable ocean energy: Tides, currents, waves." 23 October 2006. alternative-energy-news.info. 18 November 2009 .
AWEA. "Wind Energy Basics." 2005. American Wind Energy Association (AWEA). 18 November 2009 .
Burgermeister, J. "Germany: The World's first major renewable energy economy." 3 April 2009. Renewableenergyworld.com. 18 November 2009 .
CIA. "World Factbook: Germany." 11 November 2009. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). 18 November 2009 .
"Our growth strategy is to increase the number of customers benefiting from repeatable supply chain solutions, particularly in the healthcare, high tech and retail sectors, and to increase the amount of small package transportation from these customers. We intend to leverage our small package and freight customers through cross-selling the full complement of UPS services" (UPS 2008 Annual eport).
Focus on environmentally friendly operations -- UPS has already declared a supporter of environmentally friendly operations and in order to prove this standpoint they have already purchased 200 hybrid electric and 300 compressed natural gas vehicles. The move not only increased their fleet to the largest private fleet in the industry, but also made a strong statement. UPS has also invested in the purchase of hydraulic hybrid automobiles, a new technology that promises to reduce emissions and fuel consumption (UPS 2008 Annual eport).
3.2. Available Strategic Courses of Action
Dickerson, B., Massott, FedEx and UPS in China -- Competing with Contrasting Strategies, Drexel University, http://www.pages.drexel.edu/~mcm38/FedEx%20and%20UPS%201.ppt last accessed on June 3, 2009
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2009, United Parcel Service Inc.,, Hoovers, http://hoovers.com/ups/--ID__40483 -- /free-co-factsheet.xhtml last accessed on June 2, 2009
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Additionally, aside financial resources, they also used their assets. The most relevant example in this sense is the selling of part of its interests in Mazda. It as such transformed its assets into liquidities -- the 20% shares in Mazda were converted into $540 million (Murphy) -- that better allowed them to pursue their innovation objectives.
The matter of technological innovation is not only a core focus of Ford's, but of all players within the American automobile industry. The reasons for the rivalry in terms of &D are numerous, the most outstanding however being constituted by the desire to attract and satisfy as many customers as possible, managing as such to increase organizational revenues. "&D efforts in the U.S. Auto industry are channeled into a variety of processes such as stamping, casting, machining, and assembling. Within the time-frame of our investigation, &D efforts had to embrace sudden changes in taste…
Brighton, G., July 17, 2006, Ford to Drive Revolution with £1bn R&D Project, PSFK, http://www.psfk.com/2006/07/ford_to_drive_g.html last accessed on May 6, 2009
Murphy, J., November 18, 2008, Ford Cuts Mazda Stake, The Wall Street Journal
Ramrattan, L.B., 1998, R&D Rivalry in the U.S. Automobile Industry: A Simultaneous Equation Model Approach to Bain's Hypothesis, American Economist, Vol. 42
Ramsey, J., October 7, 2007, Ford is Biggest Spender on R&D, AutoBlog, http://www.autoblog.com/2007/10/07/ford-is-biggest-spender-on-randd / last accessed on May 6, 2009
A. (RECOPE, S.A), based on Costa Rica. There is also the Columbian nationalized oil conglomerate operating under the name Empresa Colombiana de Petroleos (ECOPETROL). oth of Chevron's largest global competitors are nationalized by the nations they operate in, which make pricing and market execution strategies in these specific countries difficult. In addition, there are significant cultural differences between the U.S. And these countries as well. As a result, there continues to be a strong push towards creating more co-ownership of oil refineries, production centers and operations between U.S..-based companies working in the area and national governments. In the case of the razilian government, who approached Chevron about such an arrangement in 2008 specifically for partnership with Petroleo rasileiro S.A., Chevron declined to enter into a nationalized-based alliance with the company and nation and instead sold the assets of their refineries to rasileiro S.A. instead (Wall Street Journal, 2008). In Mexico,…
Arun Agrawal, Maria Carmen Lemos. (2007). A Greener Revolution in the Making? Environmental Governance in the 21st Century. Environment, 49(5), 36,38-45. Retrieved January 10, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1286913401).
Chevron, (2008). SEC Filings by Chevron. Retrieved January 10, 2009, from Chevron Investor Relations Web site: http://investor.chevron.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=130102&p=irol-sec&secCat01.1_rs=11&secCat01.1_rc=10
Amber Corrin (2008, November). Chevron Sells Marketing Interests in Kenya, Uganda. Global Refining & Fuels Report, 12(22), Retrieved January 10, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry database. (Document ID: 1593172881).
Joanna Franco (2008, March). Chevron Sanctions Four Refinery Upgrade Projects. Octane Week, XXIII (11), Retrieved January 10, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry database. (Document ID: 1455081191).
Instead, loss of the fuel results in entropy, a concern of the second law of thermodynamics and this helps prove the impracticality of this fuel. Combine this with the size of the fuel tank necessary to power a car for many hundreds of miles, and hydrogen begins to look far worse as a real alternative to fuel conservation and replacing fossil fuels.
Hydrogen seems like a good idea, and there are hydrogen vehicles in production and on the road. However, delivering hydrogen from the production plants to facilities also proves to be expensive, and it is expensive to build new hydrogen fuel centers, as well. Hydrogen can be dangerous, too. Liquid hydrogen can freeze air, and hydrogen can cause explosions, just like gasoline. If enough hydrogen leaks from a faulty valve or tank in a confined space, like a garage, it can explode, as well (McCarthy). That means that hydrogen…
McCarthy, John. "Hydrogen." Stanford University. 2008. 4 Dec. 2008. http://www-formal.stanford.edu/jmc/progress/hydrogen.html
Rocheleau, Richard E. "Hydrogen." Hawaii Natural Energy Institute. 2008. 4 Dec. 2008. http://www.hnei.hawaii.edu/hydrogen.asp
The price charged for the company's biodiesel product lines will be tied to the prevailing prices charged for feed stock and production costs, but any costs in excess of traditional diesel fuel alternatives will be offset by marketing initiatives designed to promote the environmentally responsible aspects of the products' use, as well as the patriotic aspects of reducing America's reliance on foreign oil.
Distribution (Place). Transportation for the company's product line will be outsourced.
Promotion. As noted above, biodiesel products possess a number of characteristics that can be promoted to different industries and organizations depending on their specific needs. Larger enterprises such as Universal Studios Theme Park could be encouraged to use biodiesel alternatives based on the tax advantages and public relations opportunities such use affords; likewise, governmental agencies could reap economies of scale by converting large vehicle fleets to biodiesel applications and also enjoy the P benefits that accrue…
Cravens, D.W. (2000). Strategic marketing (6th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Edinger, R. & Kaul, S. (2003). Sustainable mobility: Renewable energies for powering fuel cell vehicles. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Kram, J.W. (2008, April). Biodiesel blossoms in the Sunshine State. Biodiesel Magazine. [Online]. Available: http://www.biodieselmagazine.com/article.jsp?article_id=2209&q=&page=3 .
Schmidt, C.W. (2007). Biodiesel: Cultivating alternative fuels. Environmental Health Perspectives, 115(2), 86-87.
The political situation in the Middle East is extremely volatile. The political situation in the Middle East can have a dramatic impact on oil supplies. However, threats to the oil supply are beginning to emerge outside of the region as well. For instance, there are political situation beginning to arise in Russia, Venezuela, and Nigeria (Federal Reserve, 2004). Political instability can disrupt the supply of oil from a particular region.
eather can also take a toll on the production and distribution of oil and oil products. For instance, hurricane Katrina disrupted oil production in the Gulf of Mexico. This caused a temporary shortage until the services could be restored. There are other external factors that can effect oil prices that are beyond the control of the companies.
Oil futures represent clamed to oil to be delivered at a specified price and at a specified date and location. If the price…
Federal Reserve. (2004). Oil and the Economy. Remarks by Governor Ben S. Bernanke at the Distinguished Lecture Series, Darton College, Albany, Georgia. October 21, 2004. Retrieved July 26, 2007 at http://www.federalreserve.gov/boardDocs/speeches/2004/20041021/default.htm
Harrison, M. (2006). BP pins oil price rise on speculators. April 26, 2006. The London
Independent. Retrieved July 27, 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4158/is_20060426/ai_n16230189 .
Kaufman, R., Dees, S., Karadeloglou, P., and Sanches, M. (2007).
VI. Ethanol: Ethanol may be made from straw, agricultural waste, corn or
sugar by using enzymes (Ljunggren, 2005).
"Free energy" fuels have many benefits, one of them being that they do not
deplete the earth's fossil fuel, another is that they are inexpensive and
easy to make. But the most important is that most of them do not pollute
the earth's atmosphere.
ESTATEMENT OF THESIS
These fuels already are available and free to use, but the user needs to
know how to make, store and use them.
Eco fuels are the fuels of the future. Fossil fuels will have been depleted
within the next 25 years and those using them should prepare for the future
as well as protect the earth's atmosphere by finding out how to produce and
"Advancing Transportation Fuel Technology." (2006). Eco Fuel Systems. Inc.
etrieved November 28, 2006 from http://www.ecofuel.com/…
"Advancing Transportation Fuel Technology." (2006). Eco Fuel Systems. Inc.
Retrieved November 28, 2006 from http://www.ecofuel.com/
"BioFuel." Associated Press. 01 Sep 1003.
"Energy Solutions since 1984." (2006) Eagle Research. Retrieved November
28, 2006 from http://www.eagle-research.com/fenergy/ecof.html .
Kay, Tonya. "Making Biodiesel." Hawaii Indymedia. Retrieved November 28,
2006 from http://hawaii.indymedia.org/news/2006/06/5943.php.
Ljunggren, David. "G8 Leaders' Cars to Use Eco-Fuel made from Straw."
However, they are worth considering on the long haul. Since the oil and gas reserves are suffering from a chronic shortage, a major company such as Exxon should think strategically and expand into this area. The discussion is more complex, in the sense that intensive research and development efforts are needed to both improve the above mentioned alternatives and to discover new sources of energy.
Exxon Financial esults
Due to the high crude-oil and natural gas prices, in the context of a busy hurricane seasons in the Gulf of Mexico, Exxon has reported record figures for 2005, mounting up to $36 billion in net income and 31% return on average capital.
Source: Exxon Mobil 2005 Company eport
The results Exxon reported for the 2005 fiscal year are impressive:
record earnings of $36 billion, up 46%;
net income per common share of $5.76;
net income to average shareholder's equity of 339%…
Armstrong, M. 2003, Human resource management practice, (9th ed.), Kogan Page Limited, London
Litle, J. 2005, Get Rich - While Exxon Goes Broke, Retrieved Online from URL: http://news.goldseek.com/DailyReckoning/1162413657.php
Logan, A. And Grossman D. 2006, ExxonMobil's Corporate Governance on Climate Change, Ceres & the Investor Network on Climate Risk
Maxwell C. And Feshbach B., Energetic Discussion, Retrieved Online from URL: http://www.weedenco.com/welling/archive/li/v06i04lilogo.asp
Hence, these are "invisible" to the end user, but no less vital to the success of the company for it. Components of this type of competition include production lead time, development speed in research and development, production quality, and the capacity of group companies and parts suppliers (The Manufacturer, 2010). Production quality is one of Toyota's great success benchmarks, as the company's inherent philosophy is that quality is a built-in component of all its products.
A further benchmark is the Toyota Global Vision 2010. Created in 2002, the Vision identified four areas of innovations. The first of these is the drive towards greener practices, known as "true to the earth" (The Manufacturer, 2010). The drive is to develop the most advanced environmental technologies, as seen above. The second component is "Comfort of life." This means that Toyota would create products that provide ease, safety and comfort for users. "Excitement for…
Lean Directions (2001). Toyota Site Visits Reveal Best Practices. Retrieved from: http://www.sme.org/cgi-bin/get-newsletter.pl-LEAN&20010209&5&
The Manufacturer. (2010). The Toyota Vision. Retrieved from: http://www.themanufacturer.com/us/detail.html?contents_id=4010
One World Trust. (2006). Toyota Motor Corporation. Retrieved from: http://oneworldtrust.org/publications/doc_view/101-2006-gar-accountability-profile-toyota?tmpl=component&format=raw
Spear, S.J. (2002, Sep. 5). Just-in-Time in practice at Toyota: Rules in Use for building self-diagnostic, adaptive work-systems. Retrieved from: www.hbs.edu/research/facpubs/workingpapers/papers2/0102/02-043.doc
New Vocabulary Terms to review: ethanol, corn stover, hydrolysis, cellulose, hemicellulose, carbohydrates, polysaccharide, starch, saccharide, glucose, enzyme, salivary amylase, cellulose, colorimeter, cuvette, concentration, absorbance, wavelength, nanometer, fermentation, renewable resource, non-renewable resource
National Standards Met:
Science Content Standards: 8-12
CONTENT STANAR A: Science as Inquiry As a result of activities in grades 8-12, all students should develop: 1) Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry, 2) Understandings about scientific inquiry
CONTENT STANAR B: Physical Science As a result of their activities in grades 8-12, all students should develop an understanding of: 1) Structure of atoms, 2) Structures and of properties in matter, 3) Chemical reactions
CONTENT STANAR C: Life Science- 1) understanding of the cell
CONTENT STANAR E: Science and Technology -As a result of their activities in grades 8-12, all students should develop: 1) Abilities of technological design, 2) Understandings about science and technology
CONTENT STANAR F: Science in Personal and…
Design for Degradation - Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they break down into innocuous degradation products and do not persist in the environment.
Real-time analysis for Pollution Prevention - Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, in-process monitoring and control prior to the formation of hazardous substances (The Twelve Principles of Green Chemistry, 2010).
Teacher Prep: This module focuses on the production of sugar (glucose and maltose) from cornstarch. The lesson is inquiry based, and is well set for inclusion into the curriculum for chemistry, biology (ecology), or basic physical science. The first lesson from this module relates glucose production from cornstarch to ethanol fuel production from corn stover. Another lesson uses a calculator-based colorimeter interface from the Vernier Company to quantify the hydrolysis of starch to sugar by salivary amylase. In this lesson saliva is added to a starch solution containing a couple of drops of iodine. Light initially doesn't pass through this solution. If the absorption decreases after the addition of the saliva, this means more light is passing through and the starch is being hydrolyzed (broken down into maltose and glucose). The third lesson again uses colorimetry but
BP and how it can impact on the performanve of the firm
In the recent times, a number of people have opposed the strategies that have been developed by BP. The major strategies that have been opposed by individuals is that of stoping the case regarding oil spill in the gulf of mexico.Operational strategy and effectiveness are vital for superior performance which is usually the main aim of all enterprises and organizations. A firm may perform better than its rivals only if the organization is capable of establishing a difference it is capable of preserving. The firms have to deliver higher values to its customers. Besides, the organizations should be capable of creating comparable values at very low costs. Delivering higher values enables companies to charge higher unit prices. Similarly, very great efficiency and effectiveness will result into very low unit costs. Operational effectiveness (OE) implies performing same activities more…
Austin, E.W., & Pinkleton, B.E. 2006. Strategic public relations management:
Planning and managing effective communication programs (2nd ed). Mahwah,
Axson, A.J. 2003. Best practices in planning and management reporting. New York:
It is yet to be seen whether alternative energy will eventually replace petroleum products or whether they will simply enhance the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and availability of energy in the future. BP's move into alternative energy will help it to position itself as a leader regardless of which direction the market decides to go. BP's move makes sense from many perspectives. It makes sense for a marketing perspective because it will help to improve BP's image to one that is more environmentally friendly and in line with current public consciousness. It will help it to make better use of natural resources from production to end use of all of its product lines.
One advantage that BP has over many of the other companies entering into the alternative energy field is that it has experience in providing the needs of mass consumers. It understands the technical difficulties of supplying energy to…
BP Solar International Inc. BP Solar has over 30 years experience in the solar industry: a legacy of quality, service, performance and innovation all around the world. 2006. http://www.bp.com/genericarticle.do?categoryId=3050457&contentId=3050613 .
Accessed October 29, 2006.
BP. http://www.bp.com/extendedgenericarticle.do?categoryId=3&contentId=7005342 BP' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Qantas Carbon Footprint
Qantas corporate governance statement mentions that Qantas has an appropriate corporate governance structure to ensure the creation, protection, and enhancement of shareholder value (Qantas, 2012). Based on this statement alone it seems as if Qantas does not promote a triple bottom line or any other measure of sustainability in the summary of their corporate governance strategy. Other firms in the airline industry make a stronger dedication to social and environmental issues in their corporate governance. Continental for example has significantly more mentions of such causes as well as a plethora of various projects to address these causes (Continental Airlines, 2012). Although Qantas does address such business functions later in their document, their corporate governance strategy seems to be more focused on shareholder value than a more balanced scorecard.
In response to pressures to mounting pressures to address ecological concerns about issues…
Airline Tickets, 2011. How Airlines Cut Costs. [Online]
Available at: http://www.airlinetickets.org/blog/how-airlines-cut-costs / [Accessed 5 February 2012].
Continental Airlines, 2012. Ethics and Compliance. [Online]
Available at: http://www.continental.com/web/en-U.S./content/company/investor/docs/continental_ethicsandcompliance_2007_02_12_01.pdf
Uniform & Linen
Before implementing anything with respect to environmental protections and regulations, Uniform & Linen needs to have a coherent, company-wide policy on the matter. Such a policy will help guide not only the decision at hand in Alabama, but any future such decisions as well. As eaver, Trevino and Cochran (1999) note, corporate-wide ethics programs can allow the organization to define how it wants to approach ethics, and can allow for the organization to structure its response to ethical challenges any way it sees fit.
Thus, the first step is the creation of a company-wide ethics program or policy. It first needs to be understood that the issue is never black-and-white, specifically there is no choice between being ethical and being unethical. The company is guided by laws, and these are usually much closer to being black and white than any ethical dilemma. It is recommended that for…
Goodman, B. (2008). Pollution is called a byproduct of a clean fuel. New York Times. Retrieved July 28, 2012 from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/11/us/11biofuel.html?pagewanted=all
Weaver, G., Trevino, L. & Cochran, P. (1999). Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 42 (5) 539-552.
Solar is the Solution, author Steve Heckeroth argues that solar energy is the key to alleviating climate change. Heckeroth builds his argument on the statement that "Solar is a promising source of future energy supplies because not only is it clean, it's remarkably abundant." Another one of Heckeroth's claims is that "relying on coal, oil and natural gas threatens our future with toxic pollution, global climate change and social unrest caused by diminishing fuel supplies." These statements are internally valid; although Heckeroth does not provide quantitative data to back up these statements, they are easy to reference. Moreover, Heckeroth establishes his own credibility as an author qualified to write about environmental science by stating "I have been studying our energy options for more than 30 years." Of course, "studying" something for thirty years does not automatically make a person an expert. Heckeroth is admitting that he is a layperson who…
Heckeroth, Steve. "Solar is the Solution." Dec-Jan 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.motherearthnews.com/Renewable-Energy/2007-12-01/Solar-is-the-Solution.aspx?page=6
Regulating Oil and Gas Drilling and Transport
The American economy runs on energy produced from oil, coal, natural gas, hydroelectric power, nuclear power and renewable sources like solar and wind energies. In fact according to a report in the Congressional Research Service, oil provides the United States with 40% of its total energy needs. It is used in myriad ways, providing "…fuel for the transportation, industrial, and residential sectors" (Ramseur, 2012). Because of the great need for energy to fuel the American economy, oil in "vast quantities" enters the country and moves through the country by ships and by pipelines, Ramseur explains in the Congressional Research Service. Hence, it is inevitable that some spills will occur, and they certainly do occur, notwithstanding the attempts by the industry to conduct its business safely.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports that the U.S. consumed 6.87 billion barrels (about 18.83 million barrels…
American Petroleum Institute. (2012). Energy Security. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://www.api.org.
Barkham, Patrick. (2010).Oil spills: Legacy of the Torrey Canyon. The Guardian. Retrieved February 14, 2013, from http://www.guardian.co.uk .
Griffin, Catherine. (2013). European Satellite Confirms Arctic Ocean is on Thin Ice, Global
Warming Strikes Again. Science World Report. Retrieved February 15, 2013, from http://www.scienceworldreport.com .