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The truth of the matter is the biometric templates for identity enrolment that are stored on a server are not in the real since images rather they are mathematical representations of the data points that the biometric algorithm is able to extract from the scanned fingerprint, finger vein, palm vein or iris. The identifying template is a binary file that has a series of zeros and ones. The algorithm then uses the template in a positive way for the identification of an individual during subsequent fingerprint scans. Therefore it is safe to say that no image is ever stored or even transmitted across any network. Furthermore, the algorithms are usually one way-based meaning that it is impossible for the recreation of the original biometric image when a template has been extracted. It is hence nearly impossible to reverse engineer the data that has been set to positively identify an individual…
Answers Corporation, (2012). IDENT (Automated Biometric Identification System)
Retrieved November 27, 2012 from http://www.answers.com/topic/ident-automated-biometric-identification-system
International Association for Identification. (2012). Biometrics Information Systems. Retrieved November 27, 2012 from http://www.theiai.org/disciplines/biometrics/index.php
International Biometric Group, (2010). BioPrivacy FAQ's and Definitions. Retrieved November
It also helps to reduce the threat of identity theft as this is frequently initiated through the hacking of such highly vulnerable wireless communication devices. According to ThirdFactor, the same BioLock technology is currently being adapted to meet the needs of the Microsoft indows and Mac OS packages on the market's near horizon. This suggests that the pacesetting consumer brands in the technology, software, cell phone and computing industries all view biometric security as one of the paths for innovation. This is underscored by a view both governmentally and commercially that online and cyber-security need to be major concerns for business, agencies and private citizens alike.
That said, many of the cutting edge biometric technologies are still not impervious to the ingenuity of hackers and identity thieves. According to Rick Smith, a private researcher who has worked with the National Security Agency in testing its it vulnerabilities, hackers remain always…
Brandt, a. (2002). Biometric Security Barely Skin-Deep. PC World.
Roberts, M.R. (2010). Ventura County Adopts Biometric-Based PC Security System. Fire Chief.com.
Silverman, M. & Liu, S. (2001). A Practical Guide to Biometric Security Technology. IEEExplore, 3(1), 27-32.
Technovelgy. (2010). Biometric Security Overview. Technovelgy.com.
iometric Safeguards and Risks
Itakura and Tsujii are proposing to allow an external organization, such as PKI, to issue biological certification as a way to ensure the validity of biological information. (Itkura, 2005) It would consist of three cryptographic keys; a public key and two secret keys. The public key would be defined as the representative template for personal biological information registration. The algorithm selects the representative template to be stored in the iometric Specific Memory lock defined by CEFF standards. The two secret keys would be done separate from the public key and each other to ensure the guarantee of the security of the overall personal authentication. They would be defined as a random number generated by conventional mathematical calculation. The public key and the first secret key would work together to guarantee the security of the information. In case that the public key and the first…
Barton, B. e. (2005). The Emerging Cyber Risks of Biometrics. Risk Management, vol 51, issue 10, 26-31.
Itkura, Y. & . (2005). Proposal on a multifactor biometric authentication method based on cryptosystem keys containing biometric signatures. International Journal of Information Security, 288-296.
Zorkadis, V. a. (2004). On biometrics-based authentication and identification from a privacy-protection perspective: Deriving privacy-enhancing requirements. Information Management and Computer Security, 125-137.
iometric Cost Analysis
There are some questions that will help determine the cost benefit analysis of a new biometric system (Cooper). The level of security, the level of reliability, need of backup, the acceptable time for enrollment, level of privacy, and storage needed are things that need to be determined first. Will the system be attended or not? Does the system need to be resistant to spoofing? Will the system operate 24 hours a day? The system will need to be designed based on the individual organization's needs.
Fingerprint devices are low in cost, can be placed on a smartcard, have a low rate of fraudulent users, and are easy to integrate. They operate on the grooves and ridges naturally embedded in the skin to detect the uniqueness of the finger. They also have a higher risk of false rejection and degradation of the fingerprint due to occupation…
Cooper, J.A. (n.d.). Did I Do That? Retrieved from Information Security Writers: http://www.infosecwriters.com/test_resources/pdf/JCooper_Biometrics.pdf
Francese, A. (2008, Oct 23). Tips for Buying a Retinal Biometric Scanner. Retrieved from Yahoo Voices: http://voices.yahoo.com/tips-buying-retinal-biometric-scanner-2081642.html?cat=15
Vandana, R. & . (n.d.). Feature Selection for Hand-Geometry-based Person Authentication. Retrieved from Centre for Visual Information Technology: http://cit.iiit.ac.in/papers/vandana05Feature.pdf
Zorkadis, V. & . (2004). On biometrics-based authentication and identification from a privacy-protection perspective: Deriving Privacy-enhacing requirements. Information Management and Computer Security 12.1, 125-137.
This was done by creating an artificial fingerprint from the little traces that are left on the biometric scanners. This entailed the process of obtaining the relevant biometric data. The second approach involved employment of a technique that is commonly referred to as deploying a replay attack. In this approach is equivalent to the man-in-the-middle attack that is common in various communication data breaches. The process involves the tapping or rather eavesdropping on the biometric data as it is being sent from the scanner to the system in the process of authenticating a genuine system user. The data collected is then sent over the communication link again in order to replay the previous authentication process and viola!, the fake user is granted unauthorized access to the system.
The final approach involved the process of breaching the biometric database itself. In this kind of a breach, the attacker would enroll fake…
Abdullayeva, F Imamverdiyev, F, Musayev, F and Wayman, J (2009).Analysis of Security Vulnerabilities in Biometric Systems. San Jose State University, San Jose, USA,
C'T, (2002) Thalheim Lisa, Krissler Jan, Ziegler Peter-Michael, c't Magazine,
November, 2002, August 21, Koerperkontrolle, Biometrische Zugangssicherungen
auf die Probe gestellt, p. 114. Retrieved November 9,
However, a very determined criminal, as mentioned above, might go as far as cutting off fingers in order to circumvent this problem. Nonetheless, fingerprinting appears to make car theft somewhat more challenging than the ordinary immobilizing device.
Because of its groundbreaking technology and the fact that it makes car theft more difficult than ordinary immobilizing devices, biometric fingerprinting devices for immobilizing and car door locking holds particular advantages over other anti-theft devices. The main advantage is that thieves who steal the car keys cannot either unlock or start vehicles with such devices. This is also useful for other vehicles such as trucks that hold valuable cargo. Of course there is the possibility of cutting off fingers, but the availability of easier targets of car theft can make this fairly unlikely.
Generally, the use of fingerprinting in developing anti-theft devices for cars appears to have a very bright future.…
Australian Academy of Science. (2001). Putting a finger on it - the loops and whorls of biometrics. http://www.science.org.au/nova/064/064print.htm
McBride, Simon. (2007). Biometric Immobiliser: A finger on security. Auto Express News, August 21. http://www.autoexpress.co.uk/news/autoexpressnews/209962/biometric_immobiliser.html
Oxborn, Alice. (2005). Biometrics History. Video Surveillance Guide, August 17. http://www.video-surveillance-guide.com/biometrics-history.htm
Swedberg, Claire. (2005). Triple RFID Protection for Cars. RFID Journal, Jan 3. http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleview/1304/1/1
This research will aim to address this gap.
The primary objective of this research is to develop a SIFT-based algorithm that will improve the efficacy of handwritten signature feature extractions and enable a more powerful and accurate tool for the assessment of signature validity, with lower rates of false rejection of valid signatures and false acceptance of forged (invalid) signatures. To this end, a comparison between measurements of Euclidean distance and Mahalanobis distance in signature features will be conducted, and the most efficacious, efficient, and accurate means of measurement will be identified. From this, it will be possible to construct a more effective and accurate algorithm as the parameters of that algorithm and the data utilized in its functioning will be more accurate and more effectively and comprehensively obtained. These objectives will serve the research community in addition to providing practical benefits in signature verification and validation, reducing…
Mwangi, K. (2008). Offline handwritten signature verification using SIFT features. Makere University [dissertation].
Shkula, N. & Shandilya, M. (2010). Invariant features comparison in hidden markov model and SIFT for offline handwritten signature database. International Journal of Computer Applications 2(7): 31-4.
The Homeland Security main division is also located in California. Security, not only in terms of personal banking security but as well home security is an issue in Southern California as evidenced in a February 7, 2007 news report entitled: "Police: illionaire Robbed by Man Posing as Delivery Person." The report relates a Southern California financier whose home was invaded by a deliveryman. The report states the fact that: "...there was no security of any type in place to stop the "phony deliveryman from forcing his way into the house and holding Rad, his wife and housekeeper bound with duct tape for hours before making off with a few hundred dollars in cash..." (KAC.TV Los Angeles News, 2007) the news report additionally states: "Investigators suspect the intruder specifically targeted Rady, a financier who was ranked No. 140 last year on Forbes magazine list of 400 richest Americans." (Ibid)
Biometric Payment: The New Age of Currency (2000) Hospitality Upgrade Magazine. Online available at http://www.hotel-online.com/News/PressReleases2000_1st/Mar00_BiometricCurrency.html#1 .
Digital Payment (2005) Information Age Website. 18 Aug 2005 Online available at http://www.information-age.com/article/2005/august/digital_payment .
Kessler, Michelle (2003) Thumbs Pay at Some Stores. 16 Nov 2003. USA Today. Online available at http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/techinnovations/2003-11-17-biometrics_x.htm .
Measuring Biometrics (2003) CDW-G Solutions 2003 June. Online available at http://www.cdwg.com/webcontent/editorialg/technologies/060903_MeasuringBiometrics.asp .
2) False acceptance which is through confusion of one user and another or the acceptance of an invalid individual as being a user that is legitimate.
Although the rate of failure is easily adjusted through modifying the threshold through decreasing the rate of failure on the end of rejection or acceptance the increase of failure on the other end of the spectrum increases In the act of choosing equipment with biometric functions the considerations are stated to be:
1) Equipment cost and 2) Failure ates.
Drawbacks to consumer embrasure of the retinal scanners are due to the requirement of the eye to be one to two inches away from the scanner while an LED is focused directly into the individual's eye.
IV. Specifics of the Biometric Technology Application
This type of technology is an application that through locating the iris with a monochrome camera approximately three feet from the eye.…
Niles, Suzanne (2004) "Physical Security in Mission Critical Facilities White Paper No. 82 - Revision 1 American Power Conversion APC 2004 ftp://www.apcmedia.com/salestools/SADE-5TNRPL.
Electronic, Acoustic and Optical Surveillance and Monitoring Systems
Market Research Report- Business Communications Co. September 2002 R2-612
Online available at http://www.mindbranch.com/listing/product/R2-612.html .
Unsophisticated biometric systems are already available at relatively affordable prices but they are unsuitable for many sensitive assets and applications. Sufficiently sophisticated biometrics systems to safeguard highly sensitive assets and information systems are comparatively cost prohibitive for small and medium-sized business entities (Mills & Byun, 2006).
For example, fingerprint biometric identification systems are perfectly appropriate for low-level information systems and assets, particularly where those systems are used I conjunction with highly-trafficked areas that preclude extended private access. However, the same biometrics measures are insufficient in conjunction with low-traffic areas that permit potential intruders extended opportunities to work on bypassing the system without their efforts being observed or discovered. That is simply a function of the proven ability of forged fingerprints reproduced onto a synthetic film placed over the infiltrator's finger.
Ultimately, biometrics offers enhanced security, but sensitive national security assets require very careful consideration of the entire risk matrix in…
Bulkeley, W. (2006). How Biometric Security Is Far From Foolproof: Systems' Holes Spur Efforts to Improve Limitations; the Gummy Bear Deception. The Wall Street Journal, December 21, 2006 (p. B 3).
Busch, C. (2006). EMBO Reports: Facing the Future of Biometrics. European Molecular Biology Organization, Vol. 7.
Hamilton, W. (2007). Will Biometric Authentication Solve Corporate Security Challenges? Optimize, Vol. 6, No. 2.
Larsen, R. (2007) Our Own Worst Enemy: Asking the Right Questions About Security to Protect You, Your Family, and America. New York: Grand Central Publishing.
(Kanade; Jain; atha, 4, 12)
etina person can be identified from his retina by evaluating the picture of the blood vessels behind the eyes. These blood vessels are called choroidal vasculature. While taking the picture of the retina using infrared rays, the retina is not clearly seen. But certain equipments catch a glimpse of the visual spectrum that assists the evaluation of the retina. The exclusive model of the blood vessels is the identifying factor in a retina. (Bolle, 53) it is not the same even in the case of twins. (U.S. General Accounting Office (a), 27) EyeDentify equipments used to verify retina can check almost three thousand people. Verification of around 1500 people may be conducted in less than five seconds by this equipment. This equipment however cannot capture the image of individuals who has poor vision or severe astigmation. The person under question should be placed near the…
Bolle, Ruud. Guide to Biometrics.
Jain, L.C. Intelligent Biometric Techniques in Fingerprint and Face Recognition. CRC Press.
Kanade, Takeo; Jain, Anil K; Ratha, Nalini Kanta. Audio- and Video-Based Biometric Person
Even public schools are not immune to the growing biometrics trend, as the scanning of the literal 'student body' is becoming commonplace. Some schools use portable scanners to collect digital images of the students' fingerprints, which need to be updated regularly as the students grow and their fingers change. Biometrics is used for everything from the authentication of new transfer students, to providing the ability to buy lunch in the cafeteria without cash, to checking out books from the library to recording student attendance (Graziano 1).
As this trend continues to grow, there is some concern about privacy issues, which are especially sensitive when minors are involved. For example, Claudia Graziano reports in the article Learning to Live with Biometrics, Chris Hoofnagle, associate director of the Electronic Privacy Information Center in ashington, D.C. believes that fingerprint scanning schools "sets a dark precedent, conditioning students at a young age to embrace…
"Biometric Access Control, A Good Choice for Homeowners?" Homesecurityinformation.com. 2006. Web. 19 April 2010.
Clarke, Nathan, L. And Furnell, Steven. "Authenticating Mobile Phone Users Using Keystroke Analysis." International Journal of Information Security, (2007) 6.1: 1-14. Print.
Graziano, Claudia. "Learning to Live With Biometrics." Wired. (September 2003). Web. 20 April 2010.
Turner, Allan. "Biometrics: Applying an Emerging Technology to Jails," Corrections Today, (2000) 62.6: 26-27.
Some Key applications are:Physical Acces facility and secure-area access, time-and-attendance monitoring. Growth: Flat, starting at 13% of total market revenues and ending at 14%. Logical Access: PC, networks, mobile devices, kiosks, accounts. Growth: From 21% to 31% of total market revenues. Identity Services: Background check enrollment, credentialing, document issuance. Growth: Decline from 65% to 47% of total market revenues. Surveillance and Monitoring: Time and attendance, watchlists. Growth: From less than 1% to nearly 8% of total market revenue.
Virtualisation is the key technology to transform what's happening in the data centre and link it to external service providers using common technology, common formats, common shipping containers. Add information and security to the picture and we have an interesting view of the future of it, where we combine the attributes of what we like about data centres and what we like about clouds for fully virtualised assets in the data centre…
Etzioni, a. "Identification cards in America. " Society 36.5 (1999): 70-76. Social Science Module, ProQuest. Web. 4 Jun. 2010.
Bhargav-Spantsel et al. Privacy preserving multi-factor authentication with biometrics. Journal of Computer Security (15) (2007): 529-560. IOS Press.
Biometrics elates to IT Security
Enterprises are more reliant on their information assets and computer systems than factory machinery or production equipment. Ironically these fixed assets of companies are protected more effectively than the main IT systems of a business. While there are a myriad of security technologies available today, biometrics shows the most potential for creating and sustaining a unified, enterprise wide security for a company's IT and information assets better than any other (Crosbie, 2005). The intent of this research design and methodology is to define the financial and operational benefits of biometrics being used as an integral component of an enterprise IT security strategy.
Biometric Components and their Implications
Implementing an enterprise-wide biometric system requires a model-centric approach over using a process-based approach to securing IT systems, information and the knowledge they deliver. Model-based biometrics are more secure and scale beyond the limits of traditional IT technologies…
Crosbie, M. (2005). Biometrics for enterprise security. Network Security, 2005(11), 4-8.
Matyas, Stephen M, Jr., & Stapleton, J. (2000). A biometric standard for information management and security. Computers & Security, 19(5), 428-441.
Wang, J., Liu, C., & Shyu, J.Z. (2013). Biometrics technology evaluating and selecting model building. Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, 25(9), 1067.
(2003) According to Gray, the current direction of surveillance in society is "toward omnipresence; more spaces are watched in more ways, capturing information about those within." (2003)
IV. IOMETRICS in SOCIETY ECOMING PERVASIVE
The work of Karsten Weber entitled: "The Next Step: Privacy Invasions by iometrics and ICT Implants" relates that there are various forms of biometric recognition technology which are based on both physiological and behavioral characteristics which include those as follows: (1) Facial thermogram; (2) Hand geometry; (3) Iris scanning; (4) Retinal scanning; (6) Vein checking; (7) Gait recognition; (8) keystroke analysis; (9) mouse dynamics; (10) signature analysis; and (11) Voice verification. (2006) Weber states that furnishing real life space with "the advantages of ICT" is likely to result in life be "overridden by the disadvantages of infringements into our privacy..." (2006) Weber relates that while biometrics for protection of the elderly individual who is in bad health…
Weber, Karsten (2006) the Next Step: Privacy Invasions by Biometrics and ICT Implants Ubiquity -- Volume 7, Issue 45 (November 21, 2006 November 27, 2006)
Gray, Mitchell (2003) Urban Surveillance and Panopticism: Will We Recognize the Facial Recognition Society?" Surveillance and Society 1(3): 314-330.
Foucault, Michel Discipline & Punish: The Birth of the Prison (NY: Vintage Books 1995) pp. 195-228 translated from the French by Alan Sheridan (translation 1977). Online available at http://www.trust-us.ch/cryptome/03-Cartome-061213/foucault.htm
Power and Panopticism Biometrics
On one hand, this may alter the consumers' trust in the company's products which are perceived as intangible compared with those goods that can be purchased from the shelves of specialized stores. On the other hand, resorting to intermediaries implies paying a certain commission which results in higher prices for the respective products. Moreover, the success of selling through indirect channels depends, to a great extent, on the distributors' efforts and knowledge. Although they receive tuition from the producer's technical staff, there may be several interests leading to a prominent discordance between the distributors' behavior and the company's expectations towards it.
Threats primary problem that ADEL could encounter is the Australians' lack of information on biometrics secondly, Australians have a favorable attitude towards traditional security methods based on patrolmen or alarm systems the Australians' misconception about prices (most of them think that the price of an effective security system exceeds…
Brown, C., 2000. Australians' attitude to security, [Online], Available:
http://www.infolink.com.au/articles/A4/0C0026A4.aspx [2007, January 24].
Brabender, T., 2004. I Can't Afford a Publicity/Public Relations Campaign - Can I? [Online], Available:
http://www.mplans.com/dpm/article.cfm/135 [2007, January 24].
Sareen (2014) describes biometrics as the technology or the science that determines and assesses biological data. Biometrics is measurable behavioral and physiological characteristics applicable in the verification process of people’s identity (Sareen, 2014). In layman terms biometrics may be understood as a science that involves measuring behavioral and physical characteristics unique to an individual (Xiao, 2007). Biometrics verifies that any person is who they claim to be. The term biometrics refers to life measurements although the terms have been associated with the unique physiological qualities used in identifying a person. Biometric applications are often associated with security. However, the identification of the unique human characteristics scientifically has broader meaning and relevance bearing in mind that computer interface has become increasingly natural (Sareen, 2014).
Jaiswal (2011) describes biometric as any robust, measurable, physical, and distinctive personal traits or characteristic of individuals usable in their identification or verification of their claimed…
Physical Security Controls
Using attached Annotated outline provide a 5-page paper Physical Security Controls. I attached Annotated Outline Physical Security Controls. You references I Annotated Outline.
The advancement in technology has given rise to numerous computer security threats. It has become quite difficult to identify people online because many people use the internet with fake identities. This has made it easy for people to conduct criminal activities online. Online security of computer systems should be combined with physical security to ensure that no unauthorized person gain access to the systems. A physical security control can be termed as any obstacle used to delay serious attackers, and frustrate trivial attackers. This way a company or organization can be assured of the security if its information and computer systems. Majority of organizations use computer systems to store sensitive company information and employee data. This data needs to be properly secured to ensure…
Backhouse, J., Hsu, C., & McDonnell, A. (2003). Toward public-key infrastructure interoperability. Communications of the ACM, 46(6), 98-100.
Boatwright, M., & Luo, X. (2007). What do we know about biometrics authentication? Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 4th annual conference on Information security curriculum development, Kennesaw, Georgia.
Shelfer, K.M., & Procaccino, J.D. (2002). Smart card evolution. Communications of the ACM, 45(7), 83-88.
When the Employer Sanctions provision of the Immigration Reform and Control ct of 1985 was passed by Congress, there followed widespread discrimination against foreign-looking merican workers, especially sians and Hispanics. Failure to carry a national I.D. card would likely come to be viewed as cause for search, detention or arrest of minorities. The stigma and humiliation of constantly having to prove that they are mericans or legal immigrants would weigh heavily on such groups.
On the other hand Bolton (2010) reports Senate Democratic Whip Dick Durbin (Ill.), calculates mericans have become more comfortable with the idea of a national identification card. "The biometric identification card is a critical element here," Durbin said. "For a long time it was resisted by many groups, but now we live in a world where we take off our shoes at the airport and pull out our identification. People understand that in this vulnerable world,…
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU). 2003. 5 problems with national id cards. ACLU, 8, September, http://www.aclu.org/technology-and-liberty-/5-problems-national-id-cards (accessed August 4, 2010)
Alexander Bolton. 2010. Dems spark alarm with call for national ID card. The Hill, 30, April, http://thehill.com/homenews/senate/95235-democrats-spark-alarm-with-call-for-national-id-card (accessed August 4, 2010)
Alexander Bolton. 2010. Dems spark alarm with call for national ID card. The Hill, 30, April,
Criminal Identification Procedures
The dawn of the twenty-first century has become the era of George Orwell's "1984." Technology that was found only in science fiction a few decades ago, is part of today's standards and procedures.
The world today is filled with cameras that can film an individual wherever he goes, his cell phone signal can pinpoint his location, and even one glance can reveal his true identity (Shenk 2003). Iris-recognition technology, soon to be common in places such as airports, offices, and banks, will simply scan an individual's eyes to reveal his idenity (Shenk 2003). Many feel that in this post-9/11 landscape, there is a serious need for these high-tech tools to help detect money laundering, encrypted e-mails, bio-weapons, and suitcase nukes (Shenk 2003).
Poseidon, a new electronic surveillance system, is a network of cameras that feeds a computer programmed to use a set of complex mathematical algorithms to…
Shenk, David. "Watching you the world of high-tech surveillance."
National Geographic. 11/1/2003.
Udall, Morris K. "Criminal Justice New Technologies and the Constitution:
Chapter 2 Investigation, Identification, Apprehension." U.S. History. 9/1/1990.
intruder has gained access to a secure place despite the said place having in place several security precautions such as code entry and CCTV. It is important to note that an intruder who succeeds in gaining access to a secure place can do just about anything he or she wants, from alteration to information theft to destruction.
Analysis of the Situation
While some organizational security precautions like code entry may make it difficult for outsiders to gain access to secure areas and/or equipment, such security measures can in some circumstances be circumvented by unscrupulous insiders. In our case, a number of factors could have eased or facilitated the intruder's access to the secure place.
The security cameras could have been unplugged or compromised.
The intruder could have used stolen code access data to gain access.
From the above, it seems highly likely that the intruder could have colluded with insiders…
Garcia, M.L., 2007. The Design and Evaluation of Physical Protection Systems. 2nd ed. Burlington, MA: Butterwort-Heinemann.
Newton, M., 2008. The Encyclopedia of Crime Scene Investigation. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing, Inc.
According to the same source, the Australian market proves to be very fertile for the U.S. companies which already account for the greatest import share (over 50% in 2004). Such data are outlined by the following table:
Total market (million of dollars)
Total imports (million of dollars)
Imports from U.S. (million of dollars)
2002 2004%Change 2002-2004%Change 2002-2004%Change Australia 950-1400 47% 380-560 47% 185-285 54% 51% Source: http://www.buyusainfo.net/docs/x_4239321.pdf.
The U.S. home security market is another outlet offering promising perspectives. According to Frost & Sullivan's report (http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reportinfo.asp?report_id=365296),one of the levers responsible for increased demand is the emergence of new homes as a result of the low interest rate. The U.S. Census ureau studies showed that, in 2002, 1.7 million new houses were built in comparison with 2001 when 1.6 million new constructions were made. Moreover, the number was expected to grow in the near future.
Other reasons for a…
Brown, C., (2000). Australians' attitude to security. On the Internet at: www.infolink.com.au/articles/A4/0C0026A4.aspx.Retrieved February 20.
Best Export Markets for U.S. Security and Safety Equipment (2005). On the Internet at: www.buyusainfo.net/docs/x_4239321.pdf.Retrieved February 20
Environmental Scan of the Security Industry (2006). On the Internet at
wireless Web is truly' the next major wave of Internet computing
A its potential for bringing people together and expanding commerce is even greater than that of the wired Internet."
Edward Kozel, board member and former CTO of Cisco systems (AlterEgo, 2000, p. 12)
The integration of the Internet into our modern culture as a driving force behind business, convenience, services and merchandise acquisition has created a new set of desires for modern consumers. The trend started with the ease and availability of services and products being offer4ed through radio and television advertising, and then infomercials and shopping channels. The internet brought the availability to purchase products, goods, and information from our desks and kitchens. Now trough wireless hotspots and wireless devices, society is following their desires toward a marketing distribution channel which motivates them to pay for internet access, and mobile commerce (m-commerce) anytime, anywhere, and instantly. These sets…
AlterEgo (2000). Building the intelligent internet: Making the case for adaptive network services. [www.alterego.com].
Albright, B. (2000). Mobilize this!. Frontline Solutions, May, 28-32.
Bansal, P. (1.1.2001) Smart cards come of age. The Banker.
Barnett, N., Hodges, S. & Wilshire, M. (2000). M-commerce: An operator's manual. McKinsey Quarterly, 3,162-171.
The scanner's ability to translate typewriter characters into bit-mapped image into ASCII text depends on a number of factors, including the sensitivity of the device itself and the legibility and method of preparation of the original document; however, improvements are being made all of the time and even formerly graphic-based scanning systems such as Adobe's notoriously slow PDF applications have incorporated character recognition systems that allow for textual scanning. Some of these character recognition systems incorporate features that provide output options to convert the text into a format used by common word-processing programs such as TF, Word and so forth. According to Dry and Lawler, the term "scanning" is frequently used today to describe the process of creating digitized images; in this approach, a graphic picture of the page, rather than an actual transcription of the text itself, is stored in the computer. "While this provides an effective means of…
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Bildirici, I.O. (2004). Building and Road Generalization with the CHANGE Generalization Software Using Turkish Topographic Base Map Data. Cartography and Geographic Information Science, 31(1), 43.
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They also found that there has been no adequate study on the effects of ageing and facial recognition. Despite these concerns, the report did acknowledge that biometric facial scanning was suitable for use when verifying photo documents, given that the preconditions, such as controlled ambient lighting, are met (cf. An investigation into the performance of facial recognition systems relative to their planned use in photo identification documents - BioP I, 2004).
III. Viability for Use in Large-Scale Venues
The success of facial recognition technology for wide-scale security augmentation is hindered by the inherent limitations of current technology, as well as environmental and physiological factors. Given that venues for major sporting events traditionally have security measures already in place, such as video surveillance and gated access, facial recognition technology might be useful in augmenting other, more traditional forms of security. For facial recognition to be successfully implemented, it is necessary to…
An investigation into the performance of facial recognition systems relative to their planned use in photo identification documents - BioP I. (2004). Retrieved April 9, 2007. from www.bsi.de/english/publications/studies/BioPfinalreport.pdf.
John D. Woodward, J., Horn, C., Gatune, J., & Thomas, a. (2003). Biometrics: A Look at Facial Recognition. Arlington, VA: RAND.
Summary of NIST Standards for Biometric Accuracy, Tamper Resistance, and Interoperability. (2002). Retrieved April 9, 2007. from www.itl.nist.gov/iad/894.03/NISTAPP_Nov02.pdf.
Physical Security Controls
To document the importance of physical security controls as it relates to the massive pervasiveness of online theft and cyber crime
Background information on the identification and authentication of people.
With the advent of the internet it is often very difficult to properly identify the individual in which business is conducted with. With the extreme ease of the internet comes the secrecy of potential criminal lurking through the shadows. Identification and authentication therefore have profound impacts on how to better protect assets from criminals.
The importance of information systems security and how it relates to globalization
Information systems, particularly those that store personal information, often are very senstivie to criminal activity. Therefore physical store techniques mandate that sensitivity information be locked away and under intense surveillance. Aspects such as disposable drives, printers and workstations should also be considered.
C. Brief overview of the paper.
i. The remainder…
1. Backhouse, J., Hsu, C., & McDonnell, A. (2003). Toward public-key infrastructure interoperability. Communications of the ACM, 46(6), 98-100. Retrieved April 25, 2009, from ACM.
2. Bala, D. (2008). Biometrics and information security. Proceedings of the 5th annual conference on Information security curriculum development, 64-66. Retrieved March 31, 2009, from ACM.
3. Boatwright, M. & Lou, X. (2007). What do we know about biometrics authentication? Proceedings of the 4th annual conference on Information security curriculum development, 31, Retrieved March 31, 2009, from ACM.
4. Chan, A.T. (2003). Integrating smart card access to web-based medical information systems. Proceedings of the 2003 ACM symposium on Applied computing, 246-250.Retrieved February 13, 2009, from ACM.
In a physical security system, there are a number of different ways to identify employees for the purpose of granting them different levels of access to parts of a facility. In many instances, a combination of methods will be used for maximum effectiveness. Passcards are usually one of the lowest levels of identification. They are easy to create and implement, but they have a key weakness in that they are transferrable. As such, a passcard offers only the lowest level of security.
Because of this, security professionals look at things that are unique to an individual, but are not transferable. This typically involves some form of biometrics -- retina scans, iris texture scans, fingerprints, facial recognition, voice recognition or even the shape of your ear (Moren, 2014). Things like body shape and gait recognition have also been explored, as a means of identifying a person based on what…
Boulgouris, N., Hatzinakos, D. & Plataniotis, K. (2005). Gait recognition: A challening signal processing technology for biometric identification. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine. Retrieved April 12, 2016 from http://www.comm.toronto.edu/~kostas/Publications2008/pub/60.pdf
DeChant, T. (2013). The boring and exciting world of biometrics. Nova Next. Retrieved April 12, 2016 from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/next/tech/biometrics-and-the-future-of-identification/
Moren, D. (2014). 7 surprising biometric identification methods. Popular Science. Retrieved April 12, 2016 from http://www.popsci.com/seven-surprising-biometric-identification-methods
Zhu, Y., Tan, T. & Wang, Y. (2000). Biometric personal identification based on handwriting. National Laboratory of Pattern Recognition. Retrieved April 12, 2016 from http://www.cbsr.ia.ac.cn/publications/yzhu/Biometric%20Personal%20Identification%20Based%20on%20Handwriting.pdf
Security Technology in Next Five Years
Globally security concerns have placed great pressure on the survival of human life and had threatened the daily life, confidence and dignity of societies at large. To resolve the security concerns and overcome with this disastrous obstacles, security technological advancements have been made in many facets. Human life is playing its vital role in moving the world to a secure place where families, businesses, trade, educational system, media, governance, art and science thus all fields of life is affected by the security concerns (Sen, 2002). Now the big question here is how technological development can contribute towards the security concerns especially in the areas of biometrics, forensics and physical security.
Although, there has been intensive increase in human security as the consequences of technological development, the historical background of technology has not rooted much confidence in the societies that further technological development will reduce…
Magarinos, C. (2001) Human Security and Science and Technology. Inauguration Statement of the UNIDO Director-General, 10 October, 2001. United Nations Industrial Development Organization.
McGinn, R (1991) Science, Technology and Society. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Paris, R. (2001). Human security: paradigm shift or hot air?,International Security, retrieved July 21, 2011 from http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1162/016228801753191141
Sen, K. (2002). Basic Education and Human Security. Report of the Kolkata Meeting in Commission on Human Security Bangkok, Thailand. Compiled by Center for Social Development Studies, Faculty of Political Science, Chulalongkorn University. Retreived on July 21, 2011 from http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/human_secu/sympo0007_s.html
Technology changed Security and Terrorism?
Terrorists have evolved in their warfare and now they exploit modern technologies to facilitate every stage of their operation such as recruitment, training, planning and attack. Counter terrorism efforts therefore require more effort, continued research and high tech solutions to prevent, protect and to safeguard innocent citizens. The key to victory is not just the volume of information at our disposal but more importantly how effectively the information is analyzed and disseminated among anti-terror vigilance networks in different nations. Only a coordinated approach to counter terrorism would yield fruit, and for this, standardization of security measures across the international checkpoints is indispensible. There is no one solution to solve the problem of terrorism but with the development of newer technological solutions such as iometric identification, iosensors and terahertz imaging systems and other software solutions we can look forward to achieving the objective of a safer…
1) Bruce W. Don, David R. Frelinger & Scott Gerwehr et.al, 'Network technologies for Networked Terrorists: Assessing the Value of Information and Communication technologies to Modern Terrorists Organizations', Dept of Homeland Security, 2007, Accessed Mar 14th 2011, available online at, http://www.rand.org/pubs/technical_reports/2007/RAND_TR454.pdf
2) Paul Cornish, 'Technology, Strategy and Counter Terrorism', International Affairs, Vol 86, Issue 4, Accessed March 14th 2011, available at, http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1468-2346.2010.00917.x/pdf
3) Emily Turrettini, 'Handsets' Deadly Use: Detonators', (Aug 27, 2005), accessed Mar 14th 2011, available online at, http://www.textually.org/textually/archives/cat_cell_phones_used_by_terrorists.htm?p=2
4) Emily Wax, 'Gunmen Used Technology as a Tactical Tool', The Washington Post, Dec 3, 2008, Accessed Mar 15th 2011, Available at, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/12/02/AR2008120203519.html
Today, even the local gas station and supermarket use computer technology and applications that are much more advanced in their capability than the computer systems used to launch and recover the first generation of spacecraft (Evans, 2004; Kaku, 1997).
Modern computer applications perform calculations and allow analyses of very high volumes of information that far exceed the capacity of direct monitoring by human operators (Larsen, 2007; Nocera, 2009). That is not necessarily inherently problematic; in fact, it is incredibly beneficial in too many ways to count. Today, international manufacturers and shippers can pinpoint the location of goods thousands of miles away in real time; supply chain managers in one office can monitor stock throughout hundreds of retail and wholesale outlets electronically and automatically adjust output and shipping schedules to match their rates of sale at the local level (Evans, 2004; Larsen, 2007). However, the interdependence of modern life in general…
Baker, W., Hylender, C., Valentine, J. (2008). Verizon Business Data Breach
Investigation Report. Retrieved October 22, 2008, from:
Ballezza, RA. "The Social Security Card Application Process: Identity and Credit Card Fraud Issues." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin; Vol. 76, No.5.
" (2008) Williams finally state that dynamic computing can enable innovation through enabling it departments to shift "from a 'light on' operation to a proactive, forward-looking approach." (2008)
The work of Edward M. Rizzo and Leslie a. Worsley entitled; "Emerging Technologies and the Internet Enable Today's E-Workforce" states that with the changes occurring in today's workforce "management requires a new way of thinking. The tools driving organizational effectiveness shave changed drastically in recent years in order to meet the needs of an ever-evolving workforce." (2001) a larger percent of the workforce is comprised of professional employees whom are "more mobile, and there is a growing dependence on temporary or contract employees to ensure adequate staffing levels." (Rizzo and Worsley, 2001) Rizzo and Worsley state that to this end more and more employers are depending on emergent technologies in facing staffing challenges including the Internet. While "traditional businesses have…
Alter, Allan E. (2005) Innovation Makes Emerging Technologies Pay Off. CIO Insight. 5 June 2005. Online available at http://www.cioinsight.com/article2/0,1397,1826516,00.asp
Alter, Allan E. (2005) Innovation Makes Emerging Technologies Pay Off. 5 June 2005. CIO Insight. Research online available at
An Eigenface representation (Carts-Power, pg. 127, 2005) created using primary "components" (Carts-Power, pg. 127, 2005) of the covariance matrix of a training set of facial images (Carts-Power, pg. 127, 2005). his method converts the facial data into eigenvectors projected into Eigenspace (a subspace), (Carts-Power, pg. 127, 2005) allowing copious "data compression because surprisingly few Eigenvector terms are needed to give a fair likeness of most faces. he method of catches the imagination because the vectors form images that look like strange, bland human faces. he projections into Eigenspace are compared and the nearest neighbors are assumed to be matches." (Carts-Power, pg. 127, 2005)
he differences in the algorithms are reflective in the output of the resulting match or non-match of real facial features against the biometric database or artificial intelligence generated via algorithm. he variances generated by either the Eigenspace or the PCA will vary according to the…
Thus, finding a principal subspace where the data exist reduces the noise. Besides, when the number of parameters is larger, as compared to the number of data pints, the estimation of those parameters becomes very difficult and often leads to over-learning. Over learning ICA typically produces estimates of the independent components that have a single spike or bump and are practically zero everywhere else
. This is because in the space of source signals of unit variance, nongaussianity is more or less maximized by such spike/bump signals." (Acharya, Panda, 2008)
The use of differing algorithms can provide
The self-encrypting hard drives technology enables the automatic encryption of every data written to the disk while restricting access to people without the correct password immediately the computer starts up. Furthermore, since the encryption is built in to the hard drive, it automatically encrypts and decrypts with no performance delay.
Pros and Cons of Using Security Technologies:
The use of these emerging technologies in protecting information and sensitive data within an organization has both advantages and disadvantages. One of the major advantages of these technologies they help in protecting an organization in addition to being an important element of the general security puzzle. Secondly, along with others, the three emerging technologies make the jobs of employees and administrators easier since they don't have to spend a lot of time trying to figure how to protect information and sensitive data.
The major disadvantages of using these technologies is that they don't…
Greengard, S. (n.d.). 5 Emerging Security Technologies to Watch. Retrieved May 16, 2011, from http://www.microsoft.com/midsizebusiness/security/technologies.mspx
"Protect Sensitive Computer Files With New Security Technology." (2009, May 25). Jakarta
Globe: Great Stories, Global News. Retrieved May 16, 2011, from http://www.thejakartaglobe.com/lifeandtimes/protect-sensitive-computer-files-with-new-security-technology/277082
Homeland Security and Information Technology
Security and Technology
Geospatial Information System
The 9/11 bombing of the World Trade Center raised the awareness of the American public relative to the need for increased national security. The agency that is in the forefront of providing this security is the Department of Homeland Security. This agency is responsible for a broad range of security issues and, as a result, is confronted with a wide range of technological needs. The agency is forced to confront individuals and organizations who have availability to the latest technological innovations available on the market and the Department of Homeland Security must not only be prepared to confront the latest technology it must also anticipate future innovations.
Security and Technology
In today's world dominated by technology possessing information is even more important than it once was. The old adage is that information is power and the adage…
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (n.d.). Cybercrime. Retrieved March 3, 2011, from The FBI: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/cyber/cyber
Goodchild, M.F. (2010). Twenty years of progress: GI Science in 2010. Journal of Spatial Information Science, 3-20.
John D. Woodward, N.M. (2002). Biometrics: Identity Assurance in the Information Age. Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill Osborne Media.
Jussi, P. (2007). Digital Contagions: A Media Archaeology of Computer Viruses. New York: Peter Lang.
law comm. tech
Innovations in Database Communication Technologies for Law Enforcement
The proliferation of computer, digital and web technology have all had a significant impact on how civil and public administration functions are performed. The ability to engage in real-time communication through an array of media, the opportunity to access enormous databases of information from the field and the capacity to capture sound, video, photo and other data all have enhanced productivity, efficiency and sophistication in many fields of great sociological importance. Certainly, few functions of public administration are more important than law enforcement and the administration of justice. Here, we consider some of the technological innovations in computer databasing that have had a direct impact on the way that police officers perform their job responsibilities with a specific focus on the enhanced communication opportunities emerging in the field.
Mobile Data Terminals and Facial Recognition:
Both Mobile Data Terminals and…
Cedres, D. (1997). Mobile data terminals and random license plate checks: the need for uniform guidelines and a reasonable suspicion requirement. All Business.
Hess, E. (2010). Facial Recognition: A Valuable Tool for Law Enforcement. Forensic Magazine.
Monopoli, D.M. (1996). Mobile Data Terminals: Past, Present and Future. National Criminal Justice Reference System.
Wallace, H., & Roberson, C. (2009). Written and interpersonal communication: Methods for law enforcement (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
These certificates are issued by the certification authorities (CAs) and they contain the name, expiration dates as well as serial numbers of the certificates.
Operating system hardening is the process of addressing the various security issues and vulnerabilities in a given operating system via the implementation of the latest Operating system patches, updates, hotfixes as well procedures and policies that are necessary for reducing the number of attacks as well as system downtime.
Application hardening is the process of addressing the various security issues and vulnerabilities in a given operating system via the implementation of the latest application patches, updates, hotfixes as well procedures and policies that are necessary for reducing the number of attacks as well as system downtime.
Transmission / emote access protection protocols
The transmission protocols that are necessary for the information assurance include the used of https as well as FTP. Https…
# 16 The Department of Homeland Security, properly supported by the Congress, should complete, as quickly as possible, a biometric entry-exit screening system, including a single system for speeding qualified travelers. It should be integrated with the system that provides benefits to foreigners seeking to stay in the United States.
This particular recommendation has failed miserably since the time of its suggestion by the 9/11 commission. Immigration into the United States goes largely unchecked, much less checked by any type of biometric screening system. Although this appears to be a failure of massive proportion, it does not seem to be too impactful as history has proven us.
While the borders of the United States are too wide and expansive too have any real deterrent to keep people out, a biometric entry system would not have much good if these entry points were monitored. The development of big data,…
M6A1 Group Project Form.
The National Counterterrorism Center (nd). Viewed 6 April 2014. Retrieved from http://www.nctc.gov/whatwedo.html
Mobile surveillance is when officials are monitoring the cell phone communication of a suspect. A good example of this; is when federal agents are listening in on the cell phone conversations of suspected terrorist leaders. (rookes, 2001)
Camera surveillance is when video cameras are used to monitor what is occurring at a particular location. A good example would be when; surveillance cameras are used to monitor public infrastructure such as: the subway system for suspicious activity. (rookes, 2001)
Social networking analysis is when you are monitoring the overall activities of someone on the different social networking sites. During the course of a terrorist operation, this would be used to establish the overall personality of the suspect; and determine how they are connecting with the rest of the organization. (rookes, 2001)
iometric analysis is when you are using biological features to identify suspects, such as: finger prints or facial…
Multijurisdictional Drug Law Enforcement Strategies. (1993). Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing.
Brookes, P. (2001). Electronic Surveillance Devices. Woodburn, MA: Reid Educational and Publishing.
Dempsey, J. (2009). An Introduction to Policing. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar.
Schmid, a. (2006). Political Terrorism. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
This source is relevant to the project because of the implications of IT development and civil rights, most notably, the Fourth Amendment protections against unwarranted search and seizure.
Burnett, E. "Crime Analysis Reporting and Mapping for Small Agencies: A
Low-Cost and Simplified Approach." FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin
Vol. 76, No.
This source is highly credible because it is a professional law enforcement journal published by the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI). This article details the manner in which evolving IT technology and IT systems have generated new crime-mapping systems such as the first such system pioneered in New York City by Howard Safir in 2000 during his tenure as New York City Police (NYP) Commissioner. Since the introduction of this method of tracking crime statistics by neighborhood and police precinct or service area, other police agencies have implemented similar systems with equally promising results. The article explains how…
Dornan, A. "Biometrics Becomes a Commodity." IT Architect Vol. 21, No. 2.
This source is highly credible because it is a professional IT technology journal. The article outlines the growing use of biometric technology and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) systems in business applications. Specifically, it details the extent to which large wholesale organizations such as Walmart and Target have already incorporated biometric systems into their supply chain management functions. Small computer chips attached
A Comparison of Methods for Toxin Exposure Measurement: Personal Exposure v Colorimetric Tubes
Several incidents in the past decade have created an increased attention to the issue of toxin exposure level measurements in both the public sphere and amongst security and emergency response agencies. The need to accurately measure the presence of a variety of air-borne and other toxic substances in specific environments in an incredibly rapid manner can be an issue of truly vital importance in emergency situations, and the measuring of exposure levels for certain individuals -- especially first responders and other emergency response personnel -- is also key to an effective yet careful management of events involving the release of toxic substances. This has led to increasing research in the area of toxicity measurements, and an investigation of the best practices for rapidly and accurately measuring exposure.
This paper will present a brief overview of…
Dodson, R., Perovich, L., Nishioka, M., Spengler, J., Vallarino, J. & Rudel, R. (2011). Long-term Integrated Sampling of Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Indoor Air: Measurement of Emerging Compounds Using Novel Active and Passive Sampling Methods. Epidemiology 22(1): 160-78.
Feng, L., Musto, C., Kemling, J. Lim, S. & Suslick, K. (2010). A colorimetric sensor array for identification of toxic gases below permissible exposure limits. Chemical Communication 46: 2037-9.
Hewitt, D. & Gandy, J. (2009). Characterization of a fatal methyl bromide exposure by analysis of the water cooler. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 52(7): 579-86.
Hughes, S., Blake, B., Woods, S. & Lehmann, C. (2007). False-positive results on colorimetric carbon dioxide analysis in neonatal resuscitation: potential for serious patient harm: False-positive results on colorimetric carbon dioxide analysis. Journal of Perinatology 27: 800-1.
intelligence unit that is secure and maintained at all times is an absolute necessity for operational reasons. Explain in detail why this is so important.
Security is probably the single most important factor that prevents the intelligence unit from applying information technology more effectively. Security is essential for intelligence unit. When it comes to IT, approach is not "risk management," but "risk exclusion."
There are some very specialized electronic security threats that could apply, so it may be that a secure PDA needs to be developed and provided. In intelligence unit the presence of sensitive but unclassified information could cause serious concern over information bypassing safeguards on tiny solid state disk equivalents, which can fit into pens. This problem can be addressed by requiring the devices to store information in encrypted form, and using biometric identification.
An intelligence unit can be secured, but the security both has to be built-in,…
Heye, Steve, and Lancman, Steve n.d. Vendors As Allies: How to Evaluate Viability, Service, and Commitment. Retrieved Oct 9, 2011 from http://www.idealware.org/articles/vendors-allies-how-evaluate-viability-service-and-commitment .
Kendall, Kenneth, and Julia Kendall (2005). Systems Analysis and Design. 6th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
McLeod, Raymond, Jr., and George Schell Sumner (2004). Management Information Systems. 9th ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Valacich, Joseph, Joey George, and Jeffrey Hoffer (2004). Essentials of Systems Analysis and Design. 2nd ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Secured real time protocol (STP) is also being identified to enhance the security parameter of WAN and LAN network elements. "STP provides protection with encryption keys for wired and wireless networks including bandwidth limited channels." (Guillen and Chacon 2009 P. 690). There is also a growing use of IP secure to protect organization from the interception of data over the LAN and WAN environment.
To enhance network security, Chen, Horng, & Yang (2008) postulate the use of public key cryptography. While there is a growing use of public key cryptography, there is still a shortcoming identified with the use of public key cryptography in the LAN and WAN environment. Since the public key is being kept in a public file, it is possible for an active intruder to forge the contents of the public key and use it to get access onto the data kept within the network system. To…
Chen, T. Horng, G. & Yang, C. (2008).Public Key Authentication Schemes for Local Area. Informaticia.19 (1):3-16.
Fetterolf, P.C. & Anandalinga, G. (1992). Optimal design of LAN-WAN internetworks:
an approach using simulated annealing. Annals of Operations Research. 36: 275-298.
Guillen, P.E. & Chacon, D. A (2009). VoIP Networks Performance Analysis with Encryption Systems. World Academy of Science, Engineering & Technology. 58: 688-695.
(Grossman, 2003, Academic Search Elite)
It is hoped that a greater understanding of the human brain's ability to recognize faces in a specific sequence, group of patterns, density and also in whole or part will further assist the purveyors of new technology to train machines to do the same. "The most serious threats to our freedom often advance in small steps. Face recognition systems may one day provide significant benefits in military applications...." (Taslitz, 2002)
Though the different systems still have problems and kinks, specific to each type the promises of face recognition technology being used in this manner is a highly developing theory with a great deal of research to back it. "...the Pentagon is funding a fifty-million dollar initiative to use face-recognition technology a s a means for combating terrorism." (Taslitz, 2002)
The collective information available to the researcher is substantial with regard to the issue of…
Bower, B (7/6/2002) "The Eyes Have it," Science News, 162(1) Database: Academic
Ferber, D. (2/14/2004) "Autism Impairs Face Recognition," Science Now, Database:
Academic Search Elite Psychinfo at EbscoHost.com.
This marketing plan details Itcorp's business model. It addresses the company's mission, policies, strategies and objectives to achieve profitability. Itcorp's integrated software and hardware solutions for healthcare providers are described at length, as well as objectives for the long-term.
Itcorp plans to begin operations starting in January 2006. One thing that is unique about Itcorp is how it got its start. In 1988, two partners, Max Renfield and C.L. Rotwang, decided to start Jetson's, a business offering IT solutions to companies in the small to medium size range; in those days, the market was segmented mainly according to size. In the early 1990s, many of the companies Jetson's had been serving had grown to the point that the company's IT solutions were no longer adequate and so the company had to expand its product line to continue to serve these customers (and prevent them from switching…
Infoplease (2005). United States - Largest Cities. Retrieved April 24, 2005 from the Infoplease Website: http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0108121.html .
HM-340-Human esource Info System Subject CASE SENAIO: Castle's Family estaurant restaurants northern California area approximately 300-340 employees.
Human resource information systems
The Castle Family estaurant is formed from a chain of eight facilities, employing an estimated 340 staff members, most of whom work as part time employees. The human resource responsibilities have been assigned to Jay Morgan, the operations manager, who is challenged by both the responsibilities, as well as the volume of work. Furthermore, Jay Morgan has to travel each week in each of the locations to implement the human resource measures which are necessary and the effort is becoming too costly for the overall firm.
In order to address these issues at Castle's Family estaurant, recommendations have been forwarded towards the development and implementation of a more comprehensive plan for human resource management. This plan would include the hiring of a specialized human resource manager, the delegation of…
Holbeche, L. (2012). HR Leadership. Routledge Types of human resource information systems. MBA Knowledge Base. http://www.mbaknol.com/management-information-systems/types-of-human-resource-information-systems-hris / accessed on September 27, 2012
(2010). Website of Apex Business Software. http://www.ihrsoftware.com / accessed on September 27, 2012
(2003). HRIS vendors / consultants. HR Guide. http://www.hr-guide.com/HRIS/HRIS_Vendors_Consultants.htmaccessed on September 27, 2012
(2006). Website of People Trak. http://www.people-trak.com accessed on September 27, 2012
E-commerce revolution has immensely affected all the industries, including the real estate industry. By using websites the real estate agents can transmit the information about the properties to a wide range of people. In addition to that, it can also enable the real estate agents to set up information communication channels directly between the real estate agencies, investors and developers. By mass media advertisements, the retailers can target a huge audience, including a number of potential buyers. In this technique the agencies usually use a simplex, one way communication channel, to communicate with the audience. A single advertisement is generated for the entire market, therefore, it is cost efficient. (Jianliang et al., 2013)
E-commerce enables the real estate agents to have personal contact with their clients. By having an interaction with the clients, the agents can better understand their requirements and can provide them…
Basu, A. And Muylle, S. (2007). How to Plan E-Business Initiatives in Established Companies. MIT Sloan Management Review.49 pp.27-36 Retrieved from: http://www.business.ulst.ac.uk/intlbusiness/courses/bmg814m1/BasuEBusiness.pdf [Accessed: 7 Jun 2013].
Beal, V. (2010). 4 E-commerce Regulations Need to Know. E-Commerce Guide. Retrieved from http://www.e-commerce-guide.com/solutions/building/article.php/3910211/4-E-commerce-Regulations-to-Need-to-Know.htm [Accessed: 7 Jun 2013].
Coburn, R. (2012). The Essential Elements of Computer Network Security. Retrieved from: http://ezinearticles.com/?The-Essential-Elements-of-Computer-Network-Security&id=7039466 [Accessed: 7 Jun 2013].
FBI (2011). Internet Social Networking Risks. Retrieved from: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/counterintelligence/internet-social-networking-risks [Accessed: 5 Jun 2013].
ethical issues, challenges, and dilemmas that have arisen due to technological advances of law enforcement on personal privacy. Addressed are the major pro and con viewpoints of economically, politically, individually, and socially.
Eight sources. APA.
Privacy and Technology
Big Brother is definitely here. Just the other day the news reported that the average American is photographed nine to twelve times per day. Cameras are everywhere. People are photographed while they are driving to and from work, while they are parking their cars, entering their place of employment, and if the company is any size other than a mom and pop shop, they are watched at work. hether one is making a deposit at the bank, buying groceries at the local grocery chain, gas at the 7-11 store, or browsing books at the library, they are being not only watched, but photographed. From the smallest market to the largest mall, every…
Branom, Mike. "Orlando Gets New Air Security Devices." AP Online. March 5, 2002.
Digital Big Brother." St. Louis Post-Dispatch. February 05, 2001.
EU/U.S.: EURO-MPS 'CONFIRM' ECHELON SPY NETWORK." European Report.
Hamilton, Tyler. "Surveillance technologies nibble at offline privacy." The Toronto Star.
Technology and Criminal Justice System
The American prisons are known to be hosting some of the highest number of prisoners in relation to the entire population. The criminal justice system has over the years proven to be punitive and offenders have often found themselves incarcerated upon presentation of evidence. With the improvement of technology, there have been even more people getting convictions, increasing the number of people behind the prison walls. The overcrowding at the prisons has severally prompted the use of alternative means of correction rather than sending people to the prisons. This has seen increased paroles and offenders being put under probations as a means to decrease the congestion in the prisons.
The challenges that the criminal justice system has faced over the years have prompted the initiative towards inculcating the culture of more technology use within the criminal justice system. The use of technology in the criminal…
FBI, (2015). Next Generation Identification (NGI). Retrieved April 20, 2015 from http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/cjis/fingerprints_biometrics/ngi
Lazer D., (2015). DNA and the Criminal Justice System. Retrieved April 20, 2015 from http://www.davidlazer.com/sites/default/files/29%20DNA%20and%20the%20CJS%20chapt%201.pdf
Maureen Brown, (2000). Criminal Justice Discovers Information Technology. Retrieved April 20, 2015 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/criminal_justice2000/vol_1/02e.pdf
National Institute of Technology, (2012). Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System Selection and Application Guide. Retrieved April 20, 2015 from https://www.justnet.org/pdf/IRRS-SAG-January-2013.pdf
In order to maintain information secrecy one would use cryptography. This is intentionally making information unintelligible. This method is mainly employed during the transmission of information. Cryptography ensures that only the intended person would be able to decipher the information (Whitman & Mattord, 2011, p. 339). The process of deciphering encrypted text is referred to as cryptanalysis. Cryptology is the mathematics branch covering cryptography and cryptanalysis. Cryptology has been in use since 1900 B.C. In Egyptian hieroglyphs. A Mesopotamian cryptography was discovered in 1500 B.C. that surpassed that of the Egyptians. The book of Jeremiah was written using alphabet substitution called ATBASH. Cryptography was employed during the First World War to decipher radio communication. Prisoners have also used cryptography to decipher their messages in order to protect their privacy. A key in cryptography is a parameter or piece of information that would determine the functional output for a…
Whitman, M., & Mattord, H. (2011). Principles of Information Security (4th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
Improving the United States Custom and Border Protection Agency
Alden, E. W. (2012). Immigration and Border Control. Cato Journal, 32(1), 37-46
Like Polner, in Coordinated Border Management: From Theory to Practice, the author of this particular article identifies the need to ensure that border security benefits the economy of the country. In so doing, he seeks ways of making "border security compatible with a sensible immigration system that strengthens the U.S. economy rather than weakens it." Unlike the other authors listed in tis text, Winter also gives a brief history of U.S. border patrol. This article will come in handy as I seek to highlight the consequences of the border security enforcement approaches in place currently. The article also outlines the various strategies that could be utilized in seeking to further enhance the flexibility as well as effectiveness of border security in the future. Its relevance cannot, therefore, be overstated.…
The author of this report has been presented with a hypothetical situation as ZXY Corporation where a new building has been procured. This building will be the site of the new information technology (IT) and other infrastructures. However, the current setup is very raw and unfinished and this obviously needs to change. The facets of the information technology setup that will be addressed in this report will include a plan to provide secure access for all users, a viable password policy in terms of complexity and other important factors, a cryptography method to ensure that vital data is encrypted, a remote access plan to ensure that remote access to the network is done in a viable, functional and secure way and a thorough plan to protect the network from malware and various other types of malicious attacks such as phishing, social engineering and so forth. While the overall facets…
Harrison, K. (2016). 5 steps to a (nearly) paperless office. Forbes.com. Retrieved 24 June 2016, from http://www.forbes.com/sites/kateharrison/2013/04/19/5-steps-to-a-nearly-paperless-office/#7e1a915b1cda
Nolo. (2016). Vicarious Liability -- Nolo's Free Dictionary of Law Terms and Legal Definitions. Nolo.com. Retrieved 24 June 2016, from https://www.nolo.com/dictionary/vicarious-liability-term.html
Ou, G. (2007). TJX's failure to secure Wi-Fi could cost $1B -- ZDNet. ZDNet. Retrieved 24 June 2016, from http://www.zdnet.com/article/tjxs-failure-to-secure-wi-fi-could-cost-1b/
Rosoff, M. (2016). Netflix and YouTube are America's biggest bandwidth hogs. Business Insider. Retrieved 24 June 2016, from http://www.businessinsider.com/which-services-use-the-most-bandwidth-2015-12
Technical Security Recommendations for ABC Healthcare IT Infrastructures
ABC Healthcare has been facing a multitude of challenges ranging from the security of the IT infrastructures to the compliance of regulatory policies. In the United States, the lawmakers are increasing putting more restrictive in the regulatory environment because there have been more attacks in the healthcare environment, damaging the organizational information systems and using worms and virus to gain access to non-authorized sensitive data. The issues are making the stakeholders of ABC Healthcare demand for more flexible access to their information systems. Moreover, increasing regulatory pressures within the healthcare environment with regards to the management of the information systems has made ABC Healthcare to decide to implement more prudent information systems security. The goal of ABC Healthcare is to implement good information systems to abide by regulatory policies of HIPPA and SOX (Sarbanes-Oxley). Typically, both SOX and HIPAA mandate healthcare organizations…
Kizza, J.M. (2015). Guide to Computer Network Security. Springer.
Krogh, P. (2009). The DAM Book: Digital Asset Management for Photographers, 2nd Edition, p. 207. O'Reilly Media.
Mell, P. & Grance, T. (2011). The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing (NIST SP 800-145). National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
Marketing Plan Knuedge/Knuverse
The mission of Knuedge is to lead vital and necessary changes, and deliver next-generation technologies that will transform the manner in which humans interact with machines, varying from strong voice recognition and substantiation to machine learning (Knuege Website, 2016).
KnuEdge has created an endearing range of cutting-edge businesses that, it designed, to bring neural technologies to enterprise products for the enterprise and consumer market. One of these businesses is Knuverse. In particular, Knuverse has resolved and unraveled two significant issues that are in existence in voice-interface technologies up until the present, these being noise and security. This will transform the interaction between technology and humans. In turn, different industries such as tech, banking, hospitality and entertainment industries, amidst others, have the capacity to innovate new products and services at an incredible rate (Knuedge, 2016).
The product/service offerings of Knuverse include Background, DNA, Active and Audiopin.…
BioID Website. (2016). About. Retrieved from: https://www.bioid.com/
KnuEdge Website. (2016). About Us. Retrieved 13 August 2016 from: https://www.knuedge.com/about-us/
KnuEdge. (2016). Companies. Retrieved 13 August 2016 from: https://www.knuedge.com/companies/
KnuVerse. (2016). Products. Retrieved 13 August 2016 from: https://www.knuverse.com/products/Kotler , P., Keller, K. L., Brandy, M., Goodman, M. & Hansen, T. (2009). Marketing Management, 1st edition, New York: Pearson Education.
Assessment of security at city hall New York, 15 Center Street
The New York City hall is the seat of the New York City government. The building is located at the center of the city hall park, civic center, lower Manhattan. The New York City hall is the oldest city hall in the United States of America and it houses the mayor’s office, the staff of some of the municipal agencies (White & Willensky, 2000). Despite its age, the building has been installed with various traditional and new security systems. This essay is an analysis of the various, but not conclusive, security measures that have been installed in the city hall building.
Exterior and access
The building is protected from random access by having an external stone wall and the front face on the entrance side has a medium height metal fence installed to prevent intrusion from the street.…
The Distinction Between ISR and IAA
The intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance have capabilities that are aimed at improving the informational and situation awareness to the department of homeland security. The capabilities of ISR have increased in demand since the incident of Hurricane Katrina. The same capabilities of ISR are the ones that are termed Incident Awareness and Assessment (IAA). The Incident Awareness and Assessment (IAA) capabilities have been leveraged to respond to various kinds of threats such as hurricanes, wildfires or even ocean oil spill.
The ISR has the capability to provide invaluable situational awareness from various intelligence disciplines. The intelligence can be in the form of signals or imagery to the military commanders. Improved ISR provides the military commanders with the big picture, enables them to have a clear understanding of the issues as well as allow them to apply the available resources in an efficient manner.
Tracking normal activity patterns of users is essential to enable abnormal activity to be flagged. Also, unintentional user errors such as logging onto unsecure websites and opening up potentially infected documents must be flagged. Sending an email from an odd-looking address and seeing if employees open the email is one way to gage the relative wariness of employees. If employees open up the email, it staff can include a message warning them that this is just the kind of message employees should delete.
Creating 'backdoor' threats and viruses to attack a system, and see if it is vulnerable is one potential 'fire drill' that can be used by the organization to assess potential areas that can be compromised. General assessments of the knowledge of non-it and it staff of proper security procedures and the areas which can pose new threats are also essential.
Simple systematic procedures, such as requiring employees…
Spatial tracking systems that make banks' floor plans and product positioning more effective;
5. Intelligent interactive displays that reflect the interests of the watcher;
6. Use of wireless tablet personal computers (PCs) for client interviewing; and,
7. Videoconference virtual experts for collaborative selling (56).
The same features that characterize high performance banks in their brick-and-mortar operations appear to relate to the use of technology as well, with the best performing banks having identified the optimum mix of services for the markets they serve. For instance, Grasing reports that, "Banks are taking a variety of approaches in implementing technology to make improvements in retail delivery. The methods differ, depending on the bank management's mindset toward the purpose of the software and its valued place in the new business or service delivery processes" (3). The main point in this area is that high performance banks apply technology in ways that help minimize…
Bielski, Lauren. (2007). "Today's Elements Tomorrow's Branch: The Branch Was Supposed to Phase out. It Hasn't and May Never. What Will the Branch of the Future Feature? Self
Service and Collaboration." ABA Banking Journal 99(6): 55-57.
DePrince, Albert E., William F. Ford and Thomas H. Strickland. (1999). "The New High
Performers Stretch Their Lead." ABA Banking Journal 91(11): 36.
Collecting fingerprints of every foreign visitor is time consuming and difficult, and it cannot keep every terrorist or criminal out of America, they will simply enter through another location. It is creating a loss of tourism and tourism revenue at a time when the dollar is low and more foreign visitors should be enjoying the U.S.
Checking the fingerprints of every foreign visitor who arrives at a U.S. port of entry is time consuming, it can be very embarrassing for foreign visitors, and it casts America in a bad light. It targets foreign visitors, but does not target American citizens, who can also be criminals or terrorists. It violates human rights, as well, because everyone has a right to privacy and to maintaining their dignity.
Many tourists say they will no longer visit the United States as a result of this practice, and it makes Americans seem paranoid and over-protective.…
Press Secretary. (2007). DHS begins collecting 10 fingerprints from international visitors at Washington Dulles International Airport. Retrieved 10 Dec. 2007 from the Department of Homeland Security Web site: http://www.dhs.gov/xnews/releases/pr_1197300742984.shtm
Yee, a. (2005). U.S. tourism 'Losing billions because of image.' Retrieved 10 Dec. 2007 from the Common Dreams.org Web site: http://www.commondreams.org/headlines05/0509-06.htm
Parents who are predisposed to limit children's exposure to violence will do so as a matter of course. Parents who don't feel that way, will not. Therefore, if parents can't be relied upon to police their children, then society must- because what social order wants to have violence-overloaded children heaving their criminal behavior upon it?
In the mid-1950's a Senate sub-committee began to investigate the "sources of the moral rot at the core of an otherwise flourishing postwar America," (Knox, 4). This committee looked at the comic book industry, movies, and particularly at television. While these efforts did little to nothing to curb interest in subjects considered to be anti-American, or "immoral," it does show the depth of time and effort that has been spent on this issue - at every level. However, over the course of time, television has become more liberal rather than less. So, in response, the…
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2007). Children and TV Violence. Online. Internet. Avail:
http://www.aacap.org/cs/root/facts_for_families/children_and_tv_violence.Acc : 12 Oct, 2007.
Duncan, P. (2006). Attractions to Violence and the Limits of Education. The Journal of Aesthetic Education. 40:4; 21-38.
Hornaday, a. (Aug 6, 2006) Parents Fret About Children's Entertainment. The Washington Post. Sunday Arts, N01.
In addition electronic purses can be reloaded using ATM machines or traditional tellers (if the card is connected to a banking account).
Additionally, electronic purses are usually based on smart card technology and necessitate a card reader to fulfill a transaction. Equipment including point of sale (POS) terminals, ATMs, and smart card kiosks can be outfitted with card readers (Misra et al., 2004). Every time the user utilizes the card reader to complete a transaction; the card reader will debit or credit the transaction value from or to the card.
The author further asserts that Smart cards can be utilized for various purposes.
In most cases they are used as stored value cards (Misra et al., 2004). Stored value cards can be utilized at the time of purchase and are preloaded with a certain amount of money. These cards can be discarded after they have been used; however, most stored…
AL-KAYALI a. (2004) Elliptic Curve Cryptography and Smart Cards GIAC Security Essentials Certification (GSEC). Retrieved October 8 at http://www.sans.org/reading_room/whitepapers/vpns/1378.php
ECC. Retrieved October 8 at http://planetmath.org/encyclopedia/EllipticCurveCryptography.html
Frauenfelder M. (2005) Make: Technology on Your Time. Oreily Misra, S.K., Javalgi, R. (., & Scherer, R.F. (2004). Global Electronic Money and Related Issues. Review of Business, 25(2), 15+.
Mitrou N. (2004) Networking 2004: Networking Technologies, Services, and Protocols. Springer Murphy S., Piper F. (2002) Cryptography: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press: Oxford, England.