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The extent of this collaboration between them was shown to be a powerful predictor of the firm's ultimate success along with products in development, products on the market and the number of people it employed (Hand).
Forecast and Conclusion - iotech promises to feed the world, reduce environmental harm, expand agricultural markets and production possibilities and create products consumers want (Shoemaker et al. 2003). Farmers seemed to trust and accept the promises. Seed development, chemical and pharmaceutical firms did too, as indicated by the consistent rise in their volume. ut American buyers have not expressed their opinion on biotech as they have not been duly aware that they have been consuming products derived from biotechnology. When they become aware of the substantial difference of biotech foods from their non-biotech food products, they would make the decision and determine the future of agricultural biotech in the U.S. As it is, biotech…… [Read More]
PK = Deltagen Inc.
PXL = Parexel International Corp.
Pvt1 = Quintiles Transnational Corp. (privately held)
Industry = Biotechnology
As of 2005
Source: Yahoo! Finance, April 29, 2007.
Figure 1. Financial Performance: Charles iver Laboratories vs. Deltagen Inc. And Parexel International Corp. - January 2002 to date.
Source: Yahoo! Finance, April 29, 2007.
Operating income for 2006 was reported by the company to be $188.2 million compared to $184.7 million for 2005 and its operating margin for 2006 was 17.8% compared to 18.6% for 2005 (Form 10-K, 2007). The company's 2006 operating margin rate was adversely affected by a $11.7 million (1.1%) charge due to the additional costs associated with expensing stock options; however, the negative impact was partially offset by improved margins in the company's PCS business segment (Form 10-K, 2007). Finally, the company's net income from continuing operations in 2006 was $125.2 million compared with $145.8 million in…… [Read More]
The most dangerous of these practices is the use throughout the European Union (EU) to grow crops and raise livestock using Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) (Johnson, 62, 63). To date there is little longitudinal analysis of the long-term effects of these foods on humans. GMO-based crops and livestock are also altering the economic structure of the EU's economies as well. The use of biotechnology to also change the intelligence level of children to close the "Smart-baby gap" as it is called in China is an unethical and unchartered territory (Swedin, et.al). This use of biotechnology to drastically re-order the intelligence levels of Chinese infants and attempt to increase their intelligence through biotechnology while they are still in the womb is one of the most potentially dangerous uses. The attempt to re-order, modify and change the natural order of DNA is extremely dangerous and could lead to deaths and deformities. By…… [Read More]
The Origins of Biotechnology
For centuries, humans have been selectively breeding different plants and animals in an attempt to create a species more useful to human endeavors. This alteration of the fundamental basis of a species, although performed for most of human history, has only recently been understood in a more comprehensive manner. The origin of modern genetics can be traced to a little known European monk named Gregor Mendel, who, in the 1860's, performed the first modern scientific experiments aimed at understanding the true nature of heredity. Although news of his work was not generally widespread during his lifetime, by the 1890's, science technology had evolved enough to begin a comprehensive look at heredity; and Mendel's work became the basis of this exploration. From this beginning, the science of biotechnology has currently evolved into, not only a major source of knowledge, but an ever evolving source of a…… [Read More]
Against a Radiologist Underlines the Need for Fully Informed Consent From Patients
Do you agree with the court's decision? Why or why not?
If the diagnosis had been made, the surgeon that did perform the procedure on Mrs. Paul would have been able to take appropriate precautions or would have decided not to have performed the surgery. Another option may have been to have postponed the surgery until the aneurysm was treated. Regardless, the failure to diagnose a significant medical condition led to material harms.
If Dr. Cooke had properly diagnosed Mrs. Paul's berry aneurysm, what processes?
"There is no question that a ruptured berry aneurysm requires treatment, and the sooner, the better. The risk of rebleeding is highest shortly after the initial subarachnoid hemorrhage" (Pressman 2015). Treatment usually involves removal through surgery. "In this procedure, the skull is opened to allow a neurosurgeon to access the brain and find…… [Read More]
Exploring the Pros and Cons of Biotechnology
In a world of rapidly developing technology, there are growing concerns regarding just how far it will impact out lives. Biotechnology is the newest trend in agriculture and food production. It features genetically modified plants and animal proteins that haven altered to suit some man made need. Many claim this will help sustainability efforts. However, the true nature of GMOs does show danger I regards to unhealthy toxins and hormones. Even worse, in the United States, food products that are modified do not even have to inform the customer, which places more and more people at risk daily.
Biotechnology is a new field in agriculture and food production. It is the scientific alteration of plants and animals in order to create the best characteristics for food production. Essentially, "many new plant varieties being developed or grown by farmers have been produced using…… [Read More]
Other avenues include television, newspapers and magazines, radio, web pages, and people to people exchange. Effective communication should be built on an understanding of the nature of consumer concerns. Information on biotechnology modifications should include the reasons for modification, degree of regulatory oversight, methods and extent of safety verification, and impact of modification on consumer safety and the environment." (ruhn, nd) According to a report from the Food Policy Institute entitled: "Consumer Preference Modeling: Willingness to uy Genetically Modified Food" the willingness of the average individual to buy GM food products is influenced by factors including those of: (1) The type of benefit conferred by the genetically modified product (health or environmental benefits, price, better taste or quality, etc.), (2) The recipients of the benefit (consumer or producer); (3) The technology employed (animal, plant or bacterium based), (4) The perceived risks involved, (5) Demographics and socioeconomic characteristics, (6) Knowledge about…… [Read More]
Corn pollen had a high mortality rate (44% in 4 days) compared to those fed on and regular corn pollen showing no mortality. [Frontline/Nova]
The allergenic potential of the transgenes that are used in GM products is a frightening problem. A noticeable case is that of Pioneer Hi-red INC, the international seed company that produced a genetically modified and enriched Soybean using the razilian nut gene. Fortunately, before the product entered the market the allergenic potential of the nut gene was identified and the product stopped from production. However, the process may not be so simple with other transgenes used in other GM products as their allergic potential are yet unknown. [Lucy Sharratt]
Antibiotic Marker Genes (Danger for Children)
Another problem of concern is the use of antibiotic marker genes to trace the transfer of traits in the GM plants. With the known possibility that bacteria in human gut are…… [Read More]
The idea is to examine a variety of sources, to determine the full effects that various dosages will have on a number of individuals. (Campbell, 2007, pp. 2018 -- 2024)
Number of Claims
1. The method of independent claim one wherein is: that dosages between 75 mg and 81 mg, will not have any kind of significant long-term impact on the individual.
2. The method of independent claim two wherein is: that 50% of respondents, who were given low dosages of aspirin, show little to no positive improvements in their condition.
3. The method of independent claim three wherein is: that women were more than likely, to see the positive effects from taking aspirin in comparison with men.
4. The method of the independent claim number four: is that the long-term effects of taking aspirin; will have a greater impact upon reducing the underlying levels of platelet formation…… [Read More]
Reliance on GMOs and Biotechnology and Potential Environmental and Health Consequences
The modern consumer may not be aware of what it is that he or she is actually buying when they go out to the grocery store. hen they pick up an apple or tomato, they might very well be purchasing a myriad of chemicals which the producers of that product have inserted into the food. Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are becoming more and more common. GMOs are defined as "organisms whose genomes have been modified applying recombinant techniques (rDNA) by transferring extra genes or modulating (knockdown or knockout) genes already present in the species, with the aims of acquiring knowledge on gene functions, obtaining genetic improvement, and yielding selected compounds" (Martinelli, Karbarz, & Siipi 91). Consequently people are purchasing them more frequently, ingesting materials that they should not want anywhere them. Consumption of GMOs has many potential dangers to…… [Read More]
Q3: Compare FDA Form 483 to an FDA "warning letter."
The intention of a Form 483 is to teach, not to punish, according to the FDA. After it conducts an inspection, the FDA prepares an internal briefing. However, it also presents a Form 483 in private to the establishment which lists all of the institution's violations of FDA regulations (Gyi et al. 2001). This is to better enable the facility to bring its standards up to code and avoid legal sanctions or receiving a publically posted warning letter on the FDA website.
In contrast, "a warning letter is issued for significant regulatory violations that require prompt and adequate corrective actions" (FDA warning letter, 2007, CICAE). A Form 483 is almost always issued, given that small breaches of the law are inevitable. It is designed to prevent more serious actions being required. A Form 483 elicits voluntary compliance, while if the…… [Read More]
Genzyme is a leader in the biotechnology industry, and established its reputation as early as 1981 by supplying the market with certain chemicals. The company attributes its success to its focus on rather rare or "orphan" diseases and the development of drugs that capture market share for those ailments. However, there are two sides to this issue. The research and development process for these rarer drugs is tremendously expensive, resulting in a price that is well beyond most consumers. Some drugs, for instance, would cost the patient $100-200,000 per year. To bridge this gap, Genzyme has been forced to rely on government subsidies to realize any profit margin, and to continue work on these orphan diseases. Due to its focus, the company has developed rather close relationships with Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and governmental health care organizations. Thus, the company has a niche market, but must continually work to ensure that…… [Read More]
Contemporary Biotechnology has produced considerable contribution to the global farming and health sector. Advancement of several medicines, numerous pharmaceuticals, vaccines making use of recombinant DNA technology has made biotechnology a multibillion dollar global industry. Additionally, PCR centered diagnostics has additionally materialized as a crucial element of the health industry. Because vast majority of the Islamic nations have their economies centered on farming, biotechnology has therefore enormous potential to improve efficiency. The need of meals in Islamic nations over the last 2 decades is predicted to improve by nearly half. That boost is going to have to come via changes in agricultural efficiency in marginal, fertile, salt affected as well as rainfed areas. There will probably be much less workforce, arable land and water offered to the agriculture sector. This particular scenario is actually a consequence of reduced rural populace, poor management of water reserves and supplies, environmental degradation…… [Read More]
http://usbiotecheg.nbii.gov / http://www.libay.ca.gov/cb/96/07/BIOT_CH3.html
http://esciencenews.com/aticles/2009/02/18/extensive.publication.bias.phase.i.dug.tials http://clinicaltials.gov/ct2/info/undestand http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/extact/315/7106/480
http://www.antigenics.com/tials/about/… [Read More]
Censoring Science & Ethics
Here are my answers to the questions on the Values Exchange. I assume censoring is bad. I tried to answer the questions in a way like the others did. Then I changed the essay to make it sound why the issue should be considered in a better way. The questions are provided and then the answers are in RED. I guess, if you have to post them, you can use this as a guide. The essay can then be cut and pasted into another file and used that way. Hope this is what you want.
Emerging Biotechnologies: Censoring Science
I disagree with censoring science.
Why does this matter?
Because the issue is about whether science works the way it should.
IDEAL: What ideal most important?
Giving scientists and the way science is done the chance to work properly.
How confident? Just a little.
Why ideal…… [Read More]
Animal Production: Biotechnology
Biotechnology has achieved some dramatic advances in recent years in both crop and livestock production. Food production results from the interaction of humans, animals, land and water; to help speed up this process, make it safer and more efficient, biotechnology has been involved. These include transferring a specific gene from one species to another to create a transgenic organism; the production of genetically uniform plants and animals (clones); and the fusing of different types of cells to produce beneficial medical products such as monoclonal antibodies. Today, biotechnology has a number of applications in livestock production. It is being used to hasten animal growth, enhance reproductive capacity, improve animal health and develop new animal products. In 1999, FFTC carried out a regional survey to draw up an inventory of technologies and products which have been developed using biotechnology for livestock production. Some of these are now being applied…… [Read More]
Marketing in the biotechnology industry is critically important. The basic path to market involves receiving regulatory approval for products. From there, marketing is conducted to physicians directly, necessitating a relatively large sales force. The presence of competing treatments necessitates significant investment marketing, compounded by the impact of the need to recoup the sunk costs associated with product development. In addition, marketing in the biotechnology industry is strictly regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. The FDA exerts tight control over marketing -- a firm is only allowed to promote products for approved uses. Off-label marketing -- defined as marketing a product for uses not approved by the FDA -- is prohibited and firms found guilty can be subject to significant fines.
An example, of the strong regulatory influence on marketing can be found in the approval that United received in July for Tyvaso. The product, already delayed multiple…… [Read More]
Yahoo has just announced that it will be spending $100 million on a new ad campaign and political candidates spent hundreds of millions on advertising in the recent presidentail election.
So, marketing in the biotechnology is not really different from other industries. The terminology and players may be different, the basic fundamental marketing principles are the same. A company has to have value-based pricing, not pricing based on costs. and, companies must respond to negative statements about their products as well as spend huge amounts of money on advertising to win mind share.
What are the differences between effective marketing strategies in biotechnology and other industries? Is the pricing strategy for biotechnology products different from other products?
It is essential to apply best-practice marketing principles and methods whenever possible to be successful. However, the uniqueness of biotechnology could require modification to this industry's requirements.
How to obtain:…… [Read More]
Farms that contain the r-BST free labeling are typically from single farms that do their own proprietary retail packaging.
The study concluded that there were no differences in antibiotic levels in the milk samples. The purpose of the study stated, "the objective of this study was to compare these endpoints for conventional, rbST-free, and organic milk.," (Vicini, Etherton, & Etherton et al., p. 1199). By the time conclusions were drawn, the topic of rBST and organic milk, as stated in the research objectives, had been completely abandoned and replaced by conclusions regarding antibiotics, which are required to be zero for any milk, regardless of origin, that ends up on retail shelves.
The only studies that are provided to the public, and which are the basis of policy decisions, are highly suspect due to the financial interests between Monsanto and the research laboratory. The sampling techniques used, invalidate the conclusions drawn.…… [Read More]
living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.
iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.
Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.
Atoms are the…… [Read More]
Still, getting the right kind of care, at the right time, is often a struggle for patients. My friend passed away from her illness, but her experience opened my eyes to the need to mesh the personal needs of the patient with more effective diagnostic and treatment solutions. I had always wanted to embark upon a financial career, but now I knew what type of entrepreneurship I wished to devote my life to -- biotechnology.
Early detection must become a vital component of the war on cancer. Improving screening as well as the quality of treatment, pharmaceuticals, and care are critical components of the emerging 21st century heath care paradigm. Finding a way to financially contain costs, dispense care in a comprehensive and ethical fashion, and creating an effective strategy of prevention will all become the focus of the business of medicine. By becoming part of this graduate program, I…… [Read More]
I believe that most successful people in the field of biotechnology are comfortable with the language of science as well as possess an economic understanding of the implications of science. Taking the actively discussion-based class Business 1 gave me my first taste of marketing and the sense of what it like to become part of a working environment and culture. Working with motivated and creative undergrad business students encouraged me to excel, to stretch myself as a learner, and also to bring my own unique experiences from science to the classroom.
My ultimate career goal is to secure a role in a biotechnical company in a managerial or marketing capacity, whereby I hope to deploy my skills managing and communicating with people to clarify complex scientific issues so that laypeople can understand such issues, and appreciate their significance to individuals and to the…… [Read More]
UK student / a suitable candidate Information Personal Information First Name: Rasoul Last Name: Abousaeedi Birth Date: January 28th 1984 Born: Kerman, Iran. Hometown: Kerman, Iran Education B.ID
Why studying in the UK would help me and why I am a suitable candidate
The focus of my education has been on plant protection and plant pathology. I received my B. Sc. In Plant Protection and my M. Sc. In Plant Pathology. Understanding how to grow healthy, disease-resistant plants are a crucial component of creating a better food supply for the world. My thesis was on the "Induction of systemic acquired resistance against Xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens in barley plants by chemicals."
Biotechnology can provide ample opportunities to ensure that healthy, nutritious vegetables, fruits, and grains are more available and are more resistant to pests, diseases, and the elements. My most recent publication delivered to the 7th National Biotechnology Congress of…… [Read More]
Glyphosate tolerant weeds started to grow uncontrollably requiring the use of greater quantities of pesticides than was necessary conventionally. [ranford, Sue]
Another problem is the increasing possibility of gene pollution on traditional crops by GM crops. In a brief article, which discusses the health dangers of genetically modified foods, the author cites a recent study by the UCS (Union of Concerned Scientists). In the study, which analyzed samples of conventionally grown crops such as maize, soybeans and canola, it was found that more than half of the seeds were contaminated to some level. As the report indicated the samples under study were, "pervasively contaminated with low levels of DNA sequences from GM varieties." [: Pearce, Fred] a clear example of this type of contamination is the shocking finding that traditional Mexican maize had genetically engineered genes. This problem will be more dangerous if pharming crops contaminate conventional crops.…… [Read More]
According to these authors, the fatal tragedy could easily have been avoided by taking more time for more focused and carefully planned clinical trials. According to this view, it was unethical to test Tysabri in the way it has been done, and furthermore irresponsible to enter it into the market before all side-effects were ascertained.
3. Interested parties: The interested parties in this case include Walter Smith, Anita's widower, as well as Cambridge biotechnology and Elan Corp. From Smith's point-of-view, the companies are at fault for causing harm to his wife, and potential harm to many others using the drug. His current assertions regarding the reentry of the drug into the market appear to be well thought out and mature, focusing on the future benefit of patients rather than on his own need for revenge.
From the point-of-view of the companies, the drug is developed to help those suffering from…… [Read More]
Laws elating to Different Businesses
Laws elated to Different Businesses
Entrepreneurship is the hallmark of the U.S. economy and more people are starting their own ventures today than ever before. While starting a business, one of the most overlooked aspect is the laws and legal requirements. A good amount of time and effort should be spent on understanding and implementing these related laws because they will make the operations and expansion easy in the future.
Federal, State and Local Agencies
The exact agencies and laws that govern your business depend upon its nature. Starting a pizza business comes with permits and licenses from different health agencies. The local health department of your city or county is responsible for issuing a permit, requesting an inspection or filing a complaint. Your business also needs a business license or tax permit from the city or county revenue department (SBA, 2011). For a web…… [Read More]
isk Management Consultant Proposal
Event: The Global Event for Biotechnology in Chicago, Illinois
In brief, this event will bring together professionals from not only the academia but also from government and the industry. The convention will in this case provide participants with a unique opportunity to explore, describe, and probe the various global challenges we are faced with today, and the most appropriate measures that can be adopted to rein in the said challenges.
isk assessment in the words of Dampsey (2007) "is the process of identifying potential areas of security and loss, and the development and implementation of effective measures or countermeasures to deal with these problems." This particular risk assessment for the aforementioned event will take into consideration not only the hazards but also the nature of risks, and the measures that should be taken to control them. In this particular case, a hazard…… [Read More]
Moreover, the arena for that very transformation could, because of the inherent nature of technological advancement, achieve something that is beyond the sum of its parts. Cyberspace in Neuromancer becomes more than an expression of human consciousness, it eventually becomes consciousness.
Adams, Paul C. "Cyberspace and Virtual Places." Geographical Review, 87 (1997): 155-171.
ell, David, an Introduction to Cybercultures, NY; Routledge, 2001.
ell, David and arbara M. Kennedy, the Cybercultures Reader, NY: Routledge, 2000.
enedikt, Michael, "Cyberspace, First Steps," the Cybercultures Reader. Eds. David ell, arbara M. Kennedy. NY: Routledge, 2000.
Punday, Daniel. "The narrative construction of cyberspace: Reading Neuromancer, reading cyberspace debates." College English 63 (2000): 194-213.
Lemley Mark a. "Place and Cyberspace." California Law Review, 91 (2003): 521-542.
Marshall, David P, New Media Cultures, Oxford University Press, NY, 2004.
Niu, G.. "Techno-Orientalism, Nanotechnology, Posthumans, and Post-Posthumans in Neal Stephenson's and Linda Nagata's Science Fiction." MELUS 33 (2008):…… [Read More]
S. Food and Drug Administration, because they were in wide use before the 1938 Act (grandfathered in, as it were). (Dunn 1938)
The problem was that Act contained a definition for a "new drug" (one in need of prior approval to market), as any drug "the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling." FDCA § 201(p) (1). The manufacturers set out to establish then, that anything GRAS/GRAE therefore was not a new drug, and needed no FDA blessing.
Many medicines are ancient, and the active ingredients of many drugs on were first introduced before 1938. To make matters worse, between 1938 and 1962, the FDA considered drugs that were identical, related, or similar…… [Read More]
The second step is the measurement process. e must define the defect we are measuring. This will involve analyzing why some our of submissions to the FDA are rejected -- we are making errors at some point in the process. e must then collect data on our current practices. This will give us an indication not just with regard to the type of errors but how often they occur.
Now that we have a data collection in place for the past, we must use that in the future to track our progress. As we implement changes to address the defects in our approval process, we must track how those changes impact the outputs, for example in terms of rejections and in terms of time elapsed before regulatory approval is granted.
Lastly, the measurement process demands that we set a baseline. For example, we understand that there will always be some…… [Read More]
Case analysis Pharma Technologies: A biotechnology firm, Pharma Technologies, developed a competing method treatment erectile dysfunction
Pharma Technologies Inc. based in Canada at a major medical research University in February 1999, wanted to develop a product to compete with Viagra which is developed by Pfizer. PTI obtained a patent for developing a revolutionary sexual dysfunctional treatment drug. The company is faced with financial problems to assist it in developing the new drug. Before a drug can receive full approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), it needs to undergo several testing phases. These testing phases consume a lot of time money. The case study indicates that it can cost over $500 million and take 10 years before the drug is approved for manufacturing and marketing Herbert, 2004.
The patent the company obtained has a life span of 20 years. The patent is obtained when the development process…… [Read More]
CAD Mex Case Study
Globalism has resulted in a number of changes for the economic viability of the modern corporation. As both the developed world evolves in their new market structure, the developing world adds to the pressures and changes necessary to do business in the contemporary environment. Doing business is not the same worldwide, and the citizens of the global village realize that there are different cultural norms, behaviors, and expectations that stakeholders of all types have when thinking about the modern corporation. Business ethics sets up standards for organizations to act in a way that may be considered right or wrong, or at the very least acceptable or unacceptable. As trade barriers are falling around the globe, differences in morality are gaining more interest regarding such issues as human rights, political behavior or even environmental conservation. The core purpose of a multinational business is to continue to grow…… [Read More]
Genetically Modified Crop Plants
The term genetically modified organisms, popularly referred to as GMOs, constitute crops, animals and even microorganisms that have undergone development my man and technology. Through the great leaps man has developed in technology, it is now possible to 'create' organisms and plants through the combination of genes considered superior, resistant and quick-maturing. Farming and animal rearing land brings a challenge in the current world, due to population explosions. This trend has been brought about by the necessity to feed the ever-increasing food demand by world populations.
The world today carries over six billion people, a number that increases every day. The natural means of plant reproduction cannot support to feed this population due to the long time taken to grow to maturity, poor yields and the limited space for planting. Therefore, genetic modification has gained an edge in the development of such crops as…… [Read More]
Meghani, Z. And Kuzma, J. Re-Conceptualizing Objectivity to Address the Regulatory Agency-Industry "Revolving Door" Problem. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics.
Assessment of Model Article
What about this article do you wish to emulate?
In evaluating Mghani and Kuzma (2010), I wish to emulate their clear straightforward style and objective methodology. he article lays out an evidence base of how: a) the presence of former key industry personnel on review boards could adversely impact the public's confidence in regulatory decisions about new technology products, including agrifood biotechnologies; b) the "revolving door" may result in policy decisions about technologies that are biased in favor of industry interests; and c) the "revolving door" virtually guarantees industry a voice in the policy-making process, even though other stakeholders have no assurance that their concerns will be addressed by regulatory agencies. Furthermore the paper presents a plan of action based on regulatory entities rejecting the…… [Read More]
Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.
It is the intention of this…… [Read More]
Even though users of light therapy are often advised not to look directly at the light source, the mechanisms of the eye focus incoming light onto the macula, the small region of the retina where vision takes place, and where age-related macular degeneration occurs. Since blue light wavelength make up only a small percentage of the light in white light, any form of light therapy using a high proportion of blue light therefore risks subverting a variety of defensive mechanisms that protect the retina against blue light hazard. These defensive mechanisms include the anatomical positioning and structure of eye and its surrounding features, as well as human posture, which makes it awkward for humans to gaze upwards for long periods of time. Sunnex iotechnologies, 2008)
The work of David H. Sliney entitled: "Ocular Hazards of Light" presented at the International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop states the following risks and…… [Read More]
The Partido Revoluationario Institucional Party was an "enormous social network that reached the most remote parts of the country..." (Aerni, 2001) the PRI Party is accredited with having created "the largest public interest groups such as Unions, Farmer Organizations and Consumer Organizations and it somehow managed to keep the political influence of the powerful Catholic Church under tight control." (Aerni, 2001) in order to assess agricultural biotechnology and the environment from the view of developing countries it would also be necessary to asses the traditional crops grown in developing countries. For instance, Mexico begin modernizing its agriculture following World War II and established a research center CIMMYT which was an international research center for the improvement of corn and wheat and later added was high-yielding corn varieties. The agricultural revolution in the Philippines began when the International Rice Research Institute was established in the 1960s.
Stakeholder Perception of Domestic Problems…… [Read More]
Japan, Russia, South Korea and countries that are members of the European Union require that genetically modified food products be labeled accordingly. (Li, Curtis, McCluskey, and Wahl, 2002, paraphrased) in fact, it is reported that China along with 160 other countries have signed the 2000 Cartegena Protocol on iosafety, stated to include a requirement for labeling of GM products.
VI. Effects of Culture on Perception of Consumers Relating to Genetically Modified Foods
The work of Finucane (2002) entitled: 'Mad Cows, Mad Corn and Mad Communities: The Role of Socio-Cultural Factors in the Perceived Risk of Genetically Modified Food" published in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Nutrition Society" states that the "rapid globalization of the world economy has increased the need for a knowledge base of relatable socio-cultural differences in perceptions, values and ways of thinking about new food technologies." (Finucane, 2002) Finucane (2002) states additionally that the awareness…… [Read More]
Compulsory Licensing of Patents
The purpose of this paper is to highlight the causes and affects of the compulsory licensing of pharmaceutical products. Initially, the paper highlights the fundamental positions, attitude, inclination and concerns of the developed world and the under developed world with regard to the intellectual property rights of the pharmaceutical products. The paper also concentrates on the subject of the intellectual property rights of the biotechnology products (plants); this is because plants are the major source of almost all pharmaceutical products being used today. Furthermore, it is a matter of fact that the patentability of plants has been given a lot of attention by the developed world, in particular United States of America, as well as, the developing World. The paper also exposes the priorities of both the developed world and the under developed world, priorities that have been a major hurdle in all previous negotiations on…… [Read More]
165) and he argued for a change in consciousness to go along with the economic globalization. Arias argued that the current climate is not interdependent, but actually fiercely independent and insular and moreover dedicated to self-aggrandizement, not cooperation to spread economic justice around the globe. Other voices are also arguing this, again presupposing that globalization is no longer an issue, but a fact, but that the globalization that exists is one of independence, not interdependence. Two of those voices specifically argue the twin issues of social justice in global interdependence, and ethics.
Social justice as a measure of global interdependence
Polack proposes that currently, "social work is confronted with a global system in which the world's people are bound together in a complex web of economic relationships. People's lives are now linked to lives of distant others through the clothes that they wear, the energy that warms them, and even…… [Read More]
This can contribute directly to human health and development (Agio). orlaug (1999), who won the Nobel Prize in 1970 for his work in developing high-yield wheat and other grains in third-world countries, stresses that genetic engineering is essential due to the worldwide population growth. Other organizations supporting genetically modified foods are the American Medical Association, the International Association of African Scientists, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.
Of course, there are always two sides to every coin, and individuals such as Ronnie Cummins, national director of the ioDemocracy Campaign, a grassroots organization that promotes organic food and opposes genetic engineering in agriculture, states that genetically modified foods can result in production of items that are toxic, carcinogenic, and allergenic. She warns that widespread planting of GM crops could cause unexpected harm to the environment; as crops are engineered to…… [Read More]
Scientific and Political Aspects
of Genetically Modified Foods
While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.
Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM…… [Read More]
98 million farmers. It is reported that in a review of sustainable agriculture projects findings show that "average food production per household increased by 1.71 tons per year (up 73%) for 4.42 million farmers on 3.58 million hectares, bringing food security and health benefits to local communities. Increasing agricultural productivity has been shown to also increase food supplies and raise incomes, thereby reducing poverty, increasing access to food, reducing malnutrition and improving health and livelihoods." (Independent Science Panel, 2003) Sustainable agriculture results in low-cost and readily available food resources being gained by consumers since organic food is safer. Specifically it is reported that: "Sustainable agricultural approaches draw extensively on traditional and indigenous knowledge, and place emphasis on the farmers' experience and innovation. This thereby utilizes appropriate, low-cost and readily available local resources as well as improves farmers' status and autonomy, enhancing social and cultural relations within local communities." (Independent Science…… [Read More]
Genetically Modified Crops
Genetically modified (GM) food has generated considerable interest and controversy in the United States and around the world (University of Richmond, 2004). Proponents applaud the vast benefits of technology while opponents argue that environmental and food safety issues outweigh the benefits. This paper provides background information regarding the genetically modified crops in an attempt to show that they are a benefit to society.
The appearance of GM food products in the marketplace has resulted in a great deal of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage (SCOPE, 2004). A variety of concerns go hand in hand with the new advances enabled by genetic modification. However, the possibilities presented by GM crops cannot be overshadowed by these concerns.
Crop varieties developed by genetic engineering were first introduced for commercial use in 1996 (University of Richmond, 2004). Today, these crops are grown on more than 167 million acres worldwide.…… [Read More]
Researchers at Cornell University discovered that Monarch butterfly caterpillars died when they ate plants dusted with the pollen of Bt corn that was growing in nearby fields, and many scientists worry that with so much insecticide in the corn plants, insects might develop a resistance to it (Dyer 2002). These fears and concerns are echoed by Francis Fukuyama who believes that genetic enhancement will undermine the system of human rights by disrupting the boundary that encloses all humans in a single group, thus believes society should limit genetic science to allow therapy but prohibit enhancement, such as genetically altered food crops, and non-therapeutic procedures (Tobey 2003). In other words, enhancement will allow society to increase genotypic and phenotypic diversity, yet such diversity will press society to the point of losing its shared humanity (Tobey 2003).
Adams, endy a. (2002, January 01). Reconciling private benefit and public risk in…… [Read More]
In Genentech, Hughes examines the remarkable rise of the Genentech company, which was an industry pioneer in the field of genetic engineering. The basic premise of Hughes’s book is that Genentech radically transformed biotechnology and even made a broader impact beyond the medical technology and science sectors. Themes Hughes addresses in Genentech include the business practices and processes needed to start a radical, innovative firm, particularly one with a business model based on science. Another major theme covered in Genentech is intellectual property, which is a major concern for the pharmaceutical industry, which eventually became heavily and inextricably entrenched in genetic science. Hughes also covers the theme of ethics: especially the conflicts of interest that can arise between the altruistic aims of academia and applied science and the commercial goals of a profit-driven enterprise.
Hughes offers an overview and history of the firm, which was created in 1976 by Herbert…… [Read More]
Indeed, harvest time should not come as a surprise to these professionals, and it is reasonable to assert that given adequate notice and preparation, a sufficient number of casual laborers could be employed for the time period required to complete the harvest in a timely fashion. The company's strategy to close down cultivation had a concomitant impact of further eroding labor-management relations and cost the company around a half a million dollars to boot.
3. Need to identify additional sources to satisfy demands of canned pet food manufacturers. The company would be well advised to look to the burgeoning economic powerhouse of China and its neighbors as potential markets for its pet food seed products. Although not on the same level as many Western countries, pet ownership in China is on the rise and is expected to continue to increase in the future. According to Zhuang (2005), "Pet ownership in…… [Read More]
All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i.e. natural rights and negative i.e. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and how no institution or research domains have the right or power to violate them (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).
Based on the above fact, we have to consider all the concerns related towards security of an individual as well as his rights, societal principles and considerations, national strategies, the financial system and market of the country as well as the social-educational-traditional structure that might be put in jeopardy due to a scientific research of nanomedicine. Hence we have to carefully consider that the researchers who are investing their time and effort in to the nano-medical research are treated with value while still securing the human rights of the society i.e. awareness of and protection against the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on…… [Read More]
Globalizing clinical research has reportedly proven to be one solution for America's pharmaceutical paradox. Doctors prescribe more than 10 prescriptions for the average American each year. Only one person in 350, however, will submit themselves to be a participant in experimental drug testing. On the other side of the globe, however a profusion of under-treated, poor, physician-trusting patients who live in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia provide the rapid, positive results needed for new drugs to receive quick approval. One review noted that 99% of controlled trials published in China netted positive results upon the drug/treatment being investigated. (Shah 23) In Nigeria during 2002, thirty Nigerian families filed a class-action suit against Pfizer, who allegedly violated the Nuremberg Code in 1996 as they presided over an experiment on Nigerian children suffering with meningitis. esearchers reportedly forced a risky, unapproved, experiment on unsuspecting subjects who, as a…… [Read More]
As such, every human being has 70,000 pairs of these genes or instructions that tell the body what to be and how to behave. They have garnered the name "designer" not so much as to pre-selection but more toward blueprint. Although biotechnological development might well be able to "design" a fetus to have all the characteristics that parents want in a child, the more scientific approach is one of natural development in the genes patterning. Not with standing naturalism there are efforts underway to alter some of the 70,000 pairs of genes to cure diseases and prevent defective inherited characteristics. Wherein the debate turns philosophical, ethical, and righteous is on an entire different level however. When reality is present that babies can be genetically engineered to be smarter, better looking, more athletic, and happier the face of human evolution will have changed forever. The lingering question facing citizenry is how…… [Read More]
These lessons would suggest the need to change or veer away from the "me first" mentality of the U.S. agriculture and its representatives. What would serve agriculture and society best would be by working to identify how broad society and its farmers desired the future agricultural sector should be structured. Corollary to this would be to use its comparative advantage in designing policy interventions, which would realistically, efficiently and effectively achieve this goal. Only through this process could the legitimate wants of farmers be balanced against their responsibilities to their broader society. Only then could agriculture have a true and successful societal basis for its farm program interventions (Poe).
1. Choices. Converting to Organic. American Agricultural Economics Association, 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/nu_n0HIC/is_2_16/ai_77612359
2. Conlon, Michael. London Conference Discusses the Future of iotechnology in Agriculture. AgExporter, 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3723/is_11_13/ai_81766576
3. Ecologist, the. Last Ditch for ritain's Small Farms. MIT Press Journals, 2000. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2465/is_2_30/ai_62053043…… [Read More]
This when the Army must spread out its resources to engage threat WMDs and WMD networks. The concept applies to counterforce operations, sensors, protection, and training.
Leveraging new technologies. Many of the required capabilities presented in the strategy will be possible only through applications of new technology. The Army must leverage these new technologies.
Enhance training. Unit training is currently more flexible and quickly adaptive in comparison with institutional training. but, it often lacks valuable consistency and standardization.
Institutional training content updates, approval, and resourcing it is tied to processes too slow to remain current. Future training will prepare soldiers and leaders to exercise sound judgment in the analysis of data / information, understanding cultural impacts on operations and to act in periods of uncertainty.
These ideas are providing a background for implementing new technology and key strategies for improving the countermeasures and neutralization of WMDs. However, this research is…… [Read More]
Amidation of Peptides in Humans
Modern biotechnology has experienced dramatic leaps in the body of knowledge concerning molecular processes in peptides and how they work. Many of these processes rely on amidation of peptides to achieve increasingly important medical and commercial applications. Peptides are created when two or more amino acids are covalently joined by peptide bonds, a process termed post-translational modification. One increasingly valuable application of post-translational modification is amidation. This paper provides an overview of peptides and their role in biological processes, how amidation of peptides works and its importance, and a description of the two functional domains of the PAM enzyme (PHM and PAL) and the roles they play in amidation. An assessment of whether amidation prevents C-terminal degradation is followed by a discussion of which peptides/proteins are susceptible to C-terminal degredation by carboxypeptidase. An analysis of whether E. coli can be modified to perform amidation will…… [Read More]
Te need for so many new workers will tend to elp women enter fields were tey ave been istorically under-represented since tere is suc a need for so many new workers.
Wile tis synergy of so many different factors is useful for workers at all stages of teir careers, it may be tat it is especially elpful to new graduates. Higly skilled and qualified senior workers are likely to ave more opportunities open to tem tan are younger workers and so are likely to suffer less during economic downturns. Younger workers, especially tose just finising teir undergraduate work, will fare better in an environment tat as a range of opportunities and an overall good business climate. In fact, tis may be te only kind of business environment in wic new graduates will reliably be able to find jobs tat matc teir training and ambitions. Tis may be especially true for…… [Read More]
(iii) in the United States, Brazil, Germany and France, humans have been receiving their own stem cells to re-grow heart muscle in the unforeseen incident of heart attack or injury. This was found to be successful in majority of the cases. (iv) in one more incident, the vision of 23 patients was restored after limbal adult stem cell transplants. This line of therapeutic care has assisted a lot of people who have been suffering from blindness for years together that includes the sufferers of mustard gas attacks in Iraqi. (Life Issues Institute, 2006) v) Crohn's disease patients have in fact been treated with stem cells evolved from their own blood. (vi) Among the 90% of the 19 patients having several autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus has been on the path to recovery following treatment with their own blood stem cells. (vii) a research of Parkinson's disease displayed an average improvement…… [Read More]
The next three categories deal with the lack of information: 4) lack of information about the career decision-making process, itself; 5) lack of information about one's own capabilities, personal traits or interests; 6) lack of information about occupations and what work is involved and the type of work available; and 7) lack of information about ways of obtaining career information. The final three categories deal with the inconsistent information that students receive that make decision-making difficult: 8) inconsistent information due to unreliable sources;
9) inconsistent information due to internal conflicts, such personal identity and 10) insistent information due to external conflicts with significant others.
Once students have had a an opportunity to learn more about their personal traits in relationship to careers and the type of positions available, they want to actually have an opportunity to learn more right from the source. However, even at community schools, only two percent…… [Read More]
The response by the United States to biorisk management at the national level provides a useful example of what can be accomplished with the right resources and vision. For instance, in December 2009, the U.S. government published its "National Strategy for Countering Biological Threats," representing the basic framework for the U.S. response to emerging bioterrorism threats. In the State of the Union address in 2010, President Barack Obama mentioned the National Strategy as an approach that "will give us the capacity to respond faster and more effectively to bioterrorism or an infectious disease." The implementation and oversight of this initiative is the responsibility of the U.S. Department of State's Biosecurity Engagement Program (BEP). This agency is tasked with promoting the National Strategy through efforts targeted at improving biorisk management and infectious disease surveillance practices around the world. To this end, the BEP has strengthened its commitment to the African continent,…… [Read More]
Ganga Pharmaceuticals is a multinational Indian corporation that competes in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and related research and development with annual revenues of about $285 million. The company features one of the largest biotechnology parks in India and currently employs around 7,000 employees globally. In recent years, Ganga has acquired a number of companies in Europe and the United States, including C-Pharma, which was acquired in 2003 for approximately $17.2 million. As part of this acquisition, the human resources division at Ganga sought to align the newly acquired C-Pharma with the parent company, but met with mixed success due to some missteps in its administration of the transition. To determine where the company went wrong and what steps could have been taken to avoid these adverse outcomes, this study provides a review of the relevant literature in two parts. The first part provides an overview of Ganga, its operations strategy,…… [Read More]
Continued use of some anti-migraine drugs has been found to lead to what is known as "rebound headache," a condition marked by frequent and chronic headaches, especially in the early morning hours. The condition can be prevented if the patient takes the drugs only on a doctor's supervision and when taken only in minimal doses. Those suffering from frequent attacks may need preventive therapy (Robinson 1999).
There are alternative treatment modes aimed at preventing migraine (Robinson 1999). ecause it is often linked with food allergies and intolerances, the identification and elimination of the offending foods can contain or decrease the frequency of the attacks. Herbal therapy with the use of feverfew or chrysanthemum parthenium can work this way. iofeedback training may also help prevent some vascular changes when an attack begins by increasing the flow of blood to the extremities. The patient must put the lights down low, put his…… [Read More]
As a person who is concerned with the environment and has a background in information technology, applying for admission to a Masters of Science program at XXX University is one in a series of logical steps and choices in my personal and professional lives. As a student in MSEM program, I will utilize my professional knowledge and skills acquired from both my experience as a biomedical engineering student and my family business to contribute to this community. My interests and skills coincide, expand, and deepen at the prospect of entrance to a Masters of Science program in the area of Biomedical Engineering.
My parents both own companies in China that focus on international trading business. I grew up in an environment full of business people and I enjoy it. I found doing business is compelling and thrilling. As the companies grow, they opened their companies divisions in XXXX…… [Read More]