Biotechnology Essays (Examples)

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Emerging Biotechnologies Censoring Science

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26452729

Censoring Science & Ethics

Here are my answers to the questions on the Values Exchange. I assume censoring is bad. I tried to answer the questions in a way like the others did. Then I changed the essay to make it sound why the issue should be considered in a better way. The questions are provided and then the answers are in RED. I guess, if you have to post them, you can use this as a guide. The essay can then be cut and pasted into another file and used that way. Hope this is what you want.

Emerging Biotechnologies: Censoring Science

I disagree with censoring science.

REACTIONS:

Why does this matter?

Because the issue is about whether science works the way it should.

IDEAL: What ideal most important?

Giving scientists and the way science is done the chance to work properly.

How confident? Just a little.

Why ideal…… [Read More]

My belief is that censoring science is never a good thing. In using the Values Exchange, people have the chance to offer their opinions and suggestions. However, in most instances the amount of information that is offered is limited and seems very similar to others. It appears that it would be better if people were free to look more deeply into the topic. I looked through a number of articles and found a lot of additional information that leads me to believe that it is important for science and scientists to be ethical and open about what they are doing.

THE ISSUES ARE BROADER: Some of the issues that I noticed that are not well reflected in the Values Exchange have to do with how broad this topic can be. The ethical issues in the biological and health sciences of the past are not the same as those we face now. The issue of whether there should be a release of detailed technical information in adapting the H5N1 virus into a mutant strain seems troubling but somewhat distant from most people's real-life concerns (Conner, 2012; Walsh, 2011). Only a few hundred people have been hurt (or killed) from the transmission of the H5N1 virus, and most of those have been in rather isolated locations.

But how about how science is being used for other reasons? It might seem extreme but synthetic biology is a realistic consideration of how the fields of engineering, medicine and even computer technology can be brought together to literally create new kinds and types of life (Guttmann,
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Animal Production

Words: 1756 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44705114

Animal Production: Biotechnology

Biotechnology has achieved some dramatic advances in recent years in both crop and livestock production. Food production results from the interaction of humans, animals, land and water; to help speed up this process, make it safer and more efficient, biotechnology has been involved. These include transferring a specific gene from one species to another to create a transgenic organism; the production of genetically uniform plants and animals (clones); and the fusing of different types of cells to produce beneficial medical products such as monoclonal antibodies. Today, biotechnology has a number of applications in livestock production. It is being used to hasten animal growth, enhance reproductive capacity, improve animal health and develop new animal products. In 1999, FFTC carried out a regional survey to draw up an inventory of technologies and products which have been developed using biotechnology for livestock production. Some of these are now being applied…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boyd, Emily. "Societal Choice for Climate Change Futures: Trees, Biotechnology, and Clean Development." Bioscience 60.9 (2010): 742-750. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.

Devendra, Canagasby. "Sustainable Animal Production from Small Farm Systems in South East Asia." (London: Daya Publishing House, 1998).

Devendra, C., Thomas, M.A., and Zerbini, E. "Improvement of livestock production in crop- animal systems in rain-fed agro-ecological Zones of South Asia." (Kenya: International Livestock Research Institutie, 2000)

Kingiri, Ann. "Experts to the rescue? An analysis of the role of experts in biotechnology regulation in Kenya." Journal of International Development 22.3 (2010): 325-340. Environment Complete. EBSCO. Web. 30 Jan. 2011.
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United Therapeutics Is an American

Words: 5394 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74203267



Marketing Considerations

Marketing in the biotechnology industry is critically important. The basic path to market involves receiving regulatory approval for products. From there, marketing is conducted to physicians directly, necessitating a relatively large sales force. The presence of competing treatments necessitates significant investment marketing, compounded by the impact of the need to recoup the sunk costs associated with product development. In addition, marketing in the biotechnology industry is strictly regulated by the Food and Drug Administration. The FDA exerts tight control over marketing -- a firm is only allowed to promote products for approved uses. Off-label marketing -- defined as marketing a product for uses not approved by the FDA -- is prohibited and firms found guilty can be subject to significant fines.

An example, of the strong regulatory influence on marketing can be found in the approval that United received in July for Tyvaso. The product, already delayed multiple…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

MSN Moneycentral: UTHR. (2009). Retrieved October 29, 2009 from http://moneycentral.msn.com/companyreport?Symbol=U.S.%3aUTHR

2008 United Therapeutics Annual Report (includes Form 10-K).

United Therapeutics website, various pages. (2009). Retrieved October 29, 2009 from  http://www.unither.com/ 

Press Release: United Therapeutics. (2009). FDA approves Tyvaso (treprostinil) inhalation solution for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Retrieved October 29, 2009 from http://ir.unither.com/releasedetail.cfm?ReleaseID=400062
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Amgen's Bone-Loss Drug Faces Marketing

Words: 492 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91481828

Yahoo has just announced that it will be spending $100 million on a new ad campaign and political candidates spent hundreds of millions on advertising in the recent presidentail election.

So, marketing in the biotechnology is not really different from other industries. The terminology and players may be different, the basic fundamental marketing principles are the same. A company has to have value-based pricing, not pricing based on costs. and, companies must respond to negative statements about their products as well as spend huge amounts of money on advertising to win mind share.

Questions:

What are the differences between effective marketing strategies in biotechnology and other industries? Is the pricing strategy for biotechnology products different from other products?

Why Important:

It is essential to apply best-practice marketing principles and methods whenever possible to be successful. However, the uniqueness of biotechnology could require modification to this industry's requirements.

How to obtain:…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Robinson, J.C. (2006, October 23). Biotech: Value-based pricing in biotechnology. Health Affairs.  http://healthaffairs.org/blog/2006/10/23/biotech-value-based-pricing-in-biotechnology/ 

Weintraud, a. (2009, Auust 13, 2009). Amgen's bone-loss drug faces marketing hurdles. BusinessWeek. http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/09_34/b4144034804527.htm
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Rbst in the Milk Supply

Words: 1347 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79198666

Farms that contain the r-BST free labeling are typically from single farms that do their own proprietary retail packaging.

The study concluded that there were no differences in antibiotic levels in the milk samples. The purpose of the study stated, "the objective of this study was to compare these endpoints for conventional, rbST-free, and organic milk.," (Vicini, Etherton, & Etherton et al., p. 1199). By the time conclusions were drawn, the topic of rBST and organic milk, as stated in the research objectives, had been completely abandoned and replaced by conclusions regarding antibiotics, which are required to be zero for any milk, regardless of origin, that ends up on retail shelves.

The only studies that are provided to the public, and which are the basis of policy decisions, are highly suspect due to the financial interests between Monsanto and the research laboratory. The sampling techniques used, invalidate the conclusions drawn.…… [Read More]

References

Kroger. (2008). "Kroger to Complete Transition to Certified Rbst-Free Milk by Early 2008." Retrieved December 19, 2008 at  http://www.thekrogerco.com/corpnews/corpnewsinfo_pressreleases_08012007.htm 

FDA (n.d.)"Report on the Food and Drug Administration's Review of the Safety of Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin." Retrieved December 19, 2008 at  http://www.fda.gov /cvm/RBRPTFNL.htm

RBST-Facts.com (n.d.). The facts about rBST. Retrieved December 20, 2008 at  http://www.rbstfacts.org/ .

Monsanto. (2007). www.monsantodairy.comMonsanto. Retrieved December 20, 2008 at http://www.monsantodairy.com/about/general_info/index.html.
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Living Things Are Characterized by the Following

Words: 4492 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61564004

living things are characterized by the following seven characteristics namely mobility, respiration, excretion, sensitivity or response to external stimulus, growth, feeding, and reproduction. Though there may be variations between animal and plant kingdom (ex, plants take in carbon dioxide and prepare their own food), these characteristics are commonly observed among all living things.

iology is a very broad field that encompasses the study of characteristics of living things. It includes botany, zoology and all other sub-disciplines that range from microbiology to evolution and ecology.

Evolution is the branch of biology that deals with the study of natural development of living organisms and the changes in them over time. Evolution refers to the heritable changes that occur in a population over a period of time. All the diversity that is observed currently in plant and animal kingdom can be ascribed to evolution over a long period of time.

Atoms are the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) Mark Rothery, "Cells," Accessed on Sep 20th 2005, Available from  http://www.mrothery.co.uk/cells/cellnotes.htm
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Life Changing Event That Shaped

Words: 582 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62758042

Still, getting the right kind of care, at the right time, is often a struggle for patients. My friend passed away from her illness, but her experience opened my eyes to the need to mesh the personal needs of the patient with more effective diagnostic and treatment solutions. I had always wanted to embark upon a financial career, but now I knew what type of entrepreneurship I wished to devote my life to -- biotechnology.

Early detection must become a vital component of the war on cancer. Improving screening as well as the quality of treatment, pharmaceuticals, and care are critical components of the emerging 21st century heath care paradigm. Finding a way to financially contain costs, dispense care in a comprehensive and ethical fashion, and creating an effective strategy of prevention will all become the focus of the business of medicine. By becoming part of this graduate program, I…… [Read More]

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Business School Undergraduate Business --

Words: 334 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45252836



I believe that most successful people in the field of biotechnology are comfortable with the language of science as well as possess an economic understanding of the implications of science. Taking the actively discussion-based class Business 1 gave me my first taste of marketing and the sense of what it like to become part of a working environment and culture. Working with motivated and creative undergrad business students encouraged me to excel, to stretch myself as a learner, and also to bring my own unique experiences from science to the classroom.

My ultimate career goal is to secure a role in a biotechnical company in a managerial or marketing capacity, whereby I hope to deploy my skills managing and communicating with people to clarify complex scientific issues so that laypeople can understand such issues, and appreciate their significance to individuals and to the…… [Read More]

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UK Student A Suitable Candidate Information

Words: 543 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55795111

UK student / a suitable candidate Information Personal Information First Name: Rasoul Last Name: Abousaeedi Birth Date: January 28th 1984 Born: Kerman, Iran. Hometown: Kerman, Iran Education B.ID

Why studying in the UK would help me and why I am a suitable candidate

The focus of my education has been on plant protection and plant pathology. I received my B. Sc. In Plant Protection and my M. Sc. In Plant Pathology. Understanding how to grow healthy, disease-resistant plants are a crucial component of creating a better food supply for the world. My thesis was on the "Induction of systemic acquired resistance against Xanthomonas translucens pv. translucens in barley plants by chemicals."

Biotechnology can provide ample opportunities to ensure that healthy, nutritious vegetables, fruits, and grains are more available and are more resistant to pests, diseases, and the elements. My most recent publication delivered to the 7th National Biotechnology Congress of…… [Read More]

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Engineered Crops the Rapid Advancements

Words: 1088 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80687274

Glyphosate tolerant weeds started to grow uncontrollably requiring the use of greater quantities of pesticides than was necessary conventionally. [ranford, Sue]

Gene Contamination

Another problem is the increasing possibility of gene pollution on traditional crops by GM crops. In a brief article, which discusses the health dangers of genetically modified foods, the author cites a recent study by the UCS (Union of Concerned Scientists). In the study, which analyzed samples of conventionally grown crops such as maize, soybeans and canola, it was found that more than half of the seeds were contaminated to some level. As the report indicated the samples under study were, "pervasively contaminated with low levels of DNA sequences from GM varieties." [: Pearce, Fred] a clear example of this type of contamination is the shocking finding that traditional Mexican maize had genetically engineered genes. This problem will be more dangerous if pharming crops contaminate conventional crops.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1) John Pickrell, "GM Organisms," New Scientist, Special Report, 13/12/2004

2) Branford, Sue, "Argentina's Bitter Harvest," New Scientist, 4/17/2004,

Vol 182 Issue

3) Pierce, Fred, "Gene Pollution is Pervasive," New Scientist, 2/28/2004,
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Drug Tysabri That Was Tested

Words: 649 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97795125

According to these authors, the fatal tragedy could easily have been avoided by taking more time for more focused and carefully planned clinical trials. According to this view, it was unethical to test Tysabri in the way it has been done, and furthermore irresponsible to enter it into the market before all side-effects were ascertained.

3. Interested parties: The interested parties in this case include Walter Smith, Anita's widower, as well as Cambridge biotechnology and Elan Corp. From Smith's point-of-view, the companies are at fault for causing harm to his wife, and potential harm to many others using the drug. His current assertions regarding the reentry of the drug into the market appear to be well thought out and mature, focusing on the future benefit of patients rather than on his own need for revenge.

From the point-of-view of the companies, the drug is developed to help those suffering from…… [Read More]

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Laws Relating to Different Businesses Laws Related

Words: 733 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 719988

Laws elating to Different Businesses

Laws elated to Different Businesses

Entrepreneurship is the hallmark of the U.S. economy and more people are starting their own ventures today than ever before. While starting a business, one of the most overlooked aspect is the laws and legal requirements. A good amount of time and effort should be spent on understanding and implementing these related laws because they will make the operations and expansion easy in the future.

Federal, State and Local Agencies

The exact agencies and laws that govern your business depend upon its nature. Starting a pizza business comes with permits and licenses from different health agencies. The local health department of your city or county is responsible for issuing a permit, requesting an inspection or filing a complaint. Your business also needs a business license or tax permit from the city or county revenue department (SBA, 2011). For a web…… [Read More]

References

Frank, George. (2002, April 22-23). Key Licensing Issues and Trends for the Pharmaceutical and Biotech Industries. Conference on Biotechnology and Pharmaceuticals. Retrieved from: http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:XRVTXoabka8J:www.drinkerbiddle.com/files/Publication/4f485da1-8d61-4255-b8bf-66ed67ed1455/Presentation/PublicationAttachment/1d83db93-089b-42de-89c4-9a0d71e0b809/Frank_Biotech.pdf+biotech+companies+permits&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEEShzymQTXBq9DrOHEgDrxdEllLh1EuRTGyMuuoaJ2MY88w-MS2Hfp1ptzO7d1Zdq0g_IORTkr61rg2Ys4n3dJwlAKN72a4ENcofXITT53ZwX-LxWjwspDD2BysdX5mYOpZSLJrTi&sig=AHIEtbQmggcJf3q55hJM95Tr8nV_P3tsAA

SBA. (2011). Small Business Administration. Retrieved from: www.sba.gov

Roth, Mollie. (2007). Personalized Medicine: Using effective partnering for managing the risk of legal liability. Personalized Medicine. Vol 4(3). pp 329-339.
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Risk Management Consultant Proposal Event The Global

Words: 756 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62476002

isk Management Consultant Proposal

Event: The Global Event for Biotechnology in Chicago, Illinois

Event Description

In brief, this event will bring together professionals from not only the academia but also from government and the industry. The convention will in this case provide participants with a unique opportunity to explore, describe, and probe the various global challenges we are faced with today, and the most appropriate measures that can be adopted to rein in the said challenges.

isk Assessment

isk assessment in the words of Dampsey (2007) "is the process of identifying potential areas of security and loss, and the development and implementation of effective measures or countermeasures to deal with these problems." This particular risk assessment for the aforementioned event will take into consideration not only the hazards but also the nature of risks, and the measures that should be taken to control them. In this particular case, a hazard…… [Read More]

References

Dampsey, J.S. (2007). Introduction to Private Security. Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education.

Wells, G. (1996). Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment. Rugby, Warwickshire: Institute of Chemical Engineers.
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Metaphors or Concepts of Cyberculture

Words: 1506 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6659416

Moreover, the arena for that very transformation could, because of the inherent nature of technological advancement, achieve something that is beyond the sum of its parts. Cyberspace in Neuromancer becomes more than an expression of human consciousness, it eventually becomes consciousness.

ibliography

Adams, Paul C. "Cyberspace and Virtual Places." Geographical Review, 87 (1997): 155-171.

ell, David, an Introduction to Cybercultures, NY; Routledge, 2001.

ell, David and arbara M. Kennedy, the Cybercultures Reader, NY: Routledge, 2000.

enedikt, Michael, "Cyberspace, First Steps," the Cybercultures Reader. Eds. David ell, arbara M. Kennedy. NY: Routledge, 2000.

Punday, Daniel. "The narrative construction of cyberspace: Reading Neuromancer, reading cyberspace debates." College English 63 (2000): 194-213.

Lemley Mark a. "Place and Cyberspace." California Law Review, 91 (2003): 521-542.

Marshall, David P, New Media Cultures, Oxford University Press, NY, 2004.

Niu, G.. "Techno-Orientalism, Nanotechnology, Posthumans, and Post-Posthumans in Neal Stephenson's and Linda Nagata's Science Fiction." MELUS 33 (2008):…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Adams, Paul C. "Cyberspace and Virtual Places." Geographical Review, 87 (1997): 155-171.

Bell, David, an Introduction to Cybercultures, NY; Routledge, 2001.

Bell, David and Barbara M. Kennedy, the Cybercultures Reader, NY: Routledge, 2000.

Benedikt, Michael, "Cyberspace, First Steps," the Cybercultures Reader. Eds. David Bell, Barbara M. Kennedy. NY: Routledge, 2000.
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Food and Drug Law in

Words: 1160 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77408681

S. Food and Drug Administration, because they were in wide use before the 1938 Act (grandfathered in, as it were). (Dunn 1938)

The problem was that Act contained a definition for a "new drug" (one in need of prior approval to market), as any drug "the composition of which is such that such drug is not generally recognized, among experts qualified by scientific training and experience to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs, as safe and effective for use under the conditions prescribed, recommended, or suggested in the labeling." FDCA § 201(p) (1). The manufacturers set out to establish then, that anything GRAS/GRAE therefore was not a new drug, and needed no FDA blessing.

Many medicines are ancient, and the active ingredients of many drugs on were first introduced before 1938. To make matters worse, between 1938 and 1962, the FDA considered drugs that were identical, related, or similar…… [Read More]

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Dmaic Method From Six Sigma

Words: 640 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34019875



The second step is the measurement process. e must define the defect we are measuring. This will involve analyzing why some our of submissions to the FDA are rejected -- we are making errors at some point in the process. e must then collect data on our current practices. This will give us an indication not just with regard to the type of errors but how often they occur.

Now that we have a data collection in place for the past, we must use that in the future to track our progress. As we implement changes to address the defects in our approval process, we must track how those changes impact the outputs, for example in terms of rejections and in terms of time elapsed before regulatory approval is granted.

Lastly, the measurement process demands that we set a baseline. For example, we understand that there will always be some…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Chieh, C. (2009). Six sigma basics: DMAIC like normal problem solving. iSixSigma.com. Retrieved October 25, 2009 from http://europe.isixsigma.com/library/content/c070321b.asp iSixSigma.com. (2009). Six sigma DMAIC roadmap. iSixSigma.com. Retrieved October 25, 2009 from http://www.isixsigma.com/library/content/c020617a.asp
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Pharma Technologies Case Analysis Pharma Technologies A

Words: 1460 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28653189

Pharma Technologies

Case analysis Pharma Technologies: A biotechnology firm, Pharma Technologies, developed a competing method treatment erectile dysfunction

Pharma Technologies Inc. based in Canada at a major medical research University in February 1999, wanted to develop a product to compete with Viagra which is developed by Pfizer. PTI obtained a patent for developing a revolutionary sexual dysfunctional treatment drug. The company is faced with financial problems to assist it in developing the new drug. Before a drug can receive full approval by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), it needs to undergo several testing phases. These testing phases consume a lot of time money. The case study indicates that it can cost over $500 million and take 10 years before the drug is approved for manufacturing and marketing Herbert, 2004.

The patent the company obtained has a life span of 20 years. The patent is obtained when the development process…… [Read More]

References

http://www.uk.sagepub.com/upm-data/12289_Chapter_1.pdfHerbert, J. (2004). Pharma Technologies Inc., Pg 72-79, from Taylor, R.S., Drummond, M.F., Salkeld, G., & Sullivan, S.D. (2004). Inclusion Of Cost Effectiveness In Licensing Requirements Of New Drugs: The Fourth Hurdle. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 329(7472), 972-975.
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CAD Mex Case Study Globalism Has Resulted

Words: 1231 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65820516

CAD Mex Case Study

Globalism has resulted in a number of changes for the economic viability of the modern corporation. As both the developed world evolves in their new market structure, the developing world adds to the pressures and changes necessary to do business in the contemporary environment. Doing business is not the same worldwide, and the citizens of the global village realize that there are different cultural norms, behaviors, and expectations that stakeholders of all types have when thinking about the modern corporation. Business ethics sets up standards for organizations to act in a way that may be considered right or wrong, or at the very least acceptable or unacceptable. As trade barriers are falling around the globe, differences in morality are gaining more interest regarding such issues as human rights, political behavior or even environmental conservation. The core purpose of a multinational business is to continue to grow…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

CISG Law. (2011). Pace University. Retrieved from:  http://www.cisg.law.pace.edu/cisg/text/e-text-01.html .

Uncertainties bedevil plans to keep world trade flowing. (2008, November 28). The

Canberra Times. Retrieved from: http://www.canberratimes.com.au/news / opinion/editorial/general/uncertainties-bedevil-plans-to-keep-world-trade-flowing/1372766.aspx.

Mayfield, M. (2003, April 1). Doing Business Across Borders. Retrieved from SVC.com: http://svconline.com/mag/avinstall_doing_business_across/
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Positive and Negative Impacts of DNA Microarrays

Words: 2243 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88372260

positive and negative impacts of DNA microarrays, Genetic engineering and cloning on the society, environment and the living beings.

In the past years, people have heard much about the biological revolution and they have seen it coming too. Biology, with its modern discoveries, has not only influenced agriculture, medicine and economy but it has affected the nature of man as well. In today's era, where both, biology and technology are developing at a fast pace it is impossible for anyone to survive without having sufficient knowledge about science. The information related to scientific issues will enable the people to make good choices about their health, environment, surroundings and the society in which they reside. This information also enables the people to logically analyze different inventions and advancements in biology so that they can decide that whether the projected discovery is good for them or not. (Silva, 2008)

In the past…… [Read More]

References

Agarwal, N. The California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS), (2010).The pros and cons of cloning. Retrieved from The California State Summer School for Mathematics and Science (COSMOS) website:  http://cosmos.ucdavis.edu/archives/2010/cluster7/Agarwal_Nisha_Cloning.pdf 

Asbury, L. The European Arabidopsis Stock Centre, (2005). DNA microarrays. Retrieved from The European Arabidopsis Stock Centre website: http://arabidopsis.info/students/microarrays.pps

Brock, D. Brown University, (2009). Cloning human beings. Retrieved from Brown University website: http://bioethics.georgetown.edu/nbac/pubs/cloning2/cc5.pdf

Silva, K. Flinders University, School of Biological Sciences. (2008). Biology and society: A new way to teach tertiary science to non-science students. Retrieved from Flinders University website:  http://dspace.flinders.edu.au/xmlui/bitstream/handle/2328/12252/2006009592.pdf;jsessionid=507BB9A61E39EF7034A7C025D0896D59 ?
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Gene Technology

Words: 1232 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32580332

Gene Technology

Genetically Modified Crop Plants

The term genetically modified organisms, popularly referred to as GMOs, constitute crops, animals and even microorganisms that have undergone development my man and technology. Through the great leaps man has developed in technology, it is now possible to 'create' organisms and plants through the combination of genes considered superior, resistant and quick-maturing. Farming and animal rearing land brings a challenge in the current world, due to population explosions. This trend has been brought about by the necessity to feed the ever-increasing food demand by world populations.

The world today carries over six billion people, a number that increases every day. The natural means of plant reproduction cannot support to feed this population due to the long time taken to grow to maturity, poor yields and the limited space for planting. Therefore, genetic modification has gained an edge in the development of such crops as…… [Read More]

References

Conway, G. 2000. Genetically modified crops: risks and promise. Conservation Ecology 4(1): 2. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss1/art2

McMichael, D. Costanza, R., H. Daly, C. Folke, P. Hawken, C.S. Holling, A.J. Pimentel, and D. Rapport. (2000). Managing our environmental portfolio. Bioscience 50: 149-155.

Deborah B. Whitman (2000) Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful? (Released April 2000) http://www.csa.com/discoveryguides/gmfood/overview.php

Ellstrand, N. 2000. The elephant that is biotechnology: Comments on "Genetically modified crops: risks and promise" by Gordon Conway. Conservation Ecology 4(1):8. [online] URL: http://www.consecol.org/vol4/iss1/art8
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Meghani Z And Kuzma J Re-Conceptualizing Objectivity

Words: 953 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20772122

Meghani, Z. And Kuzma, J. Re-Conceptualizing Objectivity to Address the Regulatory Agency-Industry "Revolving Door" Problem. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics.

Assessment of Model Article

What about this article do you wish to emulate?

In evaluating Mghani and Kuzma (2010), I wish to emulate their clear straightforward style and objective methodology. he article lays out an evidence base of how: a) the presence of former key industry personnel on review boards could adversely impact the public's confidence in regulatory decisions about new technology products, including agrifood biotechnologies; b) the "revolving door" may result in policy decisions about technologies that are biased in favor of industry interests; and c) the "revolving door" virtually guarantees industry a voice in the policy-making process, even though other stakeholders have no assurance that their concerns will be addressed by regulatory agencies. Furthermore the paper presents a plan of action based on regulatory entities rejecting the…… [Read More]

The methodology of this paper allowed for an analysis of some of the background assumptions that mediate the relationship between hypotheses and evidence in light of normative commitments. Given that the relationship between hypotheses and data is mediated by background assumptions that might be normatively loaded, it should not be assumed that the theories of risk assessment that the FDA uses to make its policies. This methodology however allowed them to have more confidence in their policy suggestions.

Finally, briefly explain how you think this article and your article will be different.

My own article will differ from Mghani and Kuzma (2010) in that a qualitative examination of primary documents will be conducted in the form of archival reports from various government agencies and secondary documents in the form of published reports from the media and watchdog organizations. The Revolving Door phenomenon has not only been a persistent issue in politics in recent decades, but has also been one that has causes Administrations problems with credibility in making decisions. Therefore, in order to collect the data for this investigation, publicly available documents from the Federal government, as well as other organizations that collect information about potential conflicts of interest among Federal employees. The plan is to compile a sample of information about individual employees of the Executive Branch with regards to whether they are working for organizations that are responsible for overseeing the companies for which they worked immediately before taking their political positions. It is recognized that the amount of time and other resources for this investigation are limited, so it is expected that the sample that is obtained will be quite small. However, the goal is to obtain information from across several agencies so that a determination can be made as to whether the revolving phenomenon is widespread.
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Market Driven Management

Words: 25695 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32150042

Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.

It is the intention of this…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.

Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Tamino.com. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.tamimi.com/lawupdate/2001-01/intprop.htm

Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.
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Risk and Hazard Factors of

Words: 3788 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60811016

Even though users of light therapy are often advised not to look directly at the light source, the mechanisms of the eye focus incoming light onto the macula, the small region of the retina where vision takes place, and where age-related macular degeneration occurs. Since blue light wavelength make up only a small percentage of the light in white light, any form of light therapy using a high proportion of blue light therefore risks subverting a variety of defensive mechanisms that protect the retina against blue light hazard. These defensive mechanisms include the anatomical positioning and structure of eye and its surrounding features, as well as human posture, which makes it awkward for humans to gaze upwards for long periods of time. Sunnex iotechnologies, 2008)

The work of David H. Sliney entitled: "Ocular Hazards of Light" presented at the International Lighting in Controlled Environments Workshop states the following risks and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Figueiro, M.G., J.D. Bullough, R.H. Parsons, and M.S. Rea. Preliminary Evidence for Spectral Opponency in the Suppression of Melatonin by Light in Humans. Neuroreport, Vol. 15, 2004, pp. 313-316 in: Figueiro, Mariana, Bullough, John D. And Rea, Mark S. (2007) Light isn't just for vision anymore: implications for transportation safety. United States Department of Transportation Lighting Research Center Region 2 University Transportation Research Center Polytechnic Institute 31 Dec 2 -- "7

Figueiro, M., et al. Demonstration of additivity failure in human circadian phototransduction. Neuro Endocrinology Letters, Vol. 26, 2005, pp. 493-498.

Ingling, C.R., E. Martinez, and a.L. Lewis. Tonic-Phasic-Channel Dichotomy and Crozier's Law. Journal of the Optical Society of America, Vol. 73, 1983, pp. 183-189 in Figueiro, Mariana, Bullough, John D. And Rea, Mark S. (2007) Light isn't just for vision anymore: implications for transportation safety. United States Department of Transportation Lighting Research Center Region 2 University Transportation Research Center Polytechnic Institute 31 Dec 2 -- "7 Report

Lack, Leon, Bramwell, Toby, Wright, Helen, and Kemp, Krystyn (2007) Morning blue light can advance the melatonin rhythm in mild delayed sleep phase syndrome
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Attitudes Towards the Environment in

Words: 2861 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54269390

The Partido Revoluationario Institucional Party was an "enormous social network that reached the most remote parts of the country..." (Aerni, 2001) the PRI Party is accredited with having created "the largest public interest groups such as Unions, Farmer Organizations and Consumer Organizations and it somehow managed to keep the political influence of the powerful Catholic Church under tight control." (Aerni, 2001) in order to assess agricultural biotechnology and the environment from the view of developing countries it would also be necessary to asses the traditional crops grown in developing countries. For instance, Mexico begin modernizing its agriculture following World War II and established a research center CIMMYT which was an international research center for the improvement of corn and wheat and later added was high-yielding corn varieties. The agricultural revolution in the Philippines began when the International Rice Research Institute was established in the 1960s.

Stakeholder Perception of Domestic Problems…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dunlap, Riley E. (1994) International Attitudes Towards Environment and Development. In Helge Ole Bergesen and Georg Parmann (eds) Green Globe Yearbook of International Cooperation on Environment and Development 1994. Oxford University Press. 115-126. Online available at  http://www.fni.no/YBICED/94_09_dunlap.pdf 

Holl, Karen D. et al. (1999) Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Population Growth and the Environment: University Students in Costa Rica and the United States. Environmental Conservation Journal 1999. Cambridge University Press 10 May, 2002.

Aerni, Phillip (2001) Public Attitudes Toward Agricultural Biotechnology in Developing Countries: A Comparison Between Mexico and the Philippines. STI Research Report. 2001 July. Harvard University. Online available at http://www.botanischergarten.ch/debate/AerniHarvard20010710.pdf

30-Country Poll Finds Worldwide Consensus that Climate Change is a Serious Problem (2006) Concern Growing Sharply 25 Apr 2007. World Public Opinion Organization. Online available at http://www.worldpublicopinion.org/pipa/articles/btenvironmentra/187.php?lb=bte&pnt=187&nid=&id=
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Failure of Today's Generation in

Words: 2981 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14701194

Japan, Russia, South Korea and countries that are members of the European Union require that genetically modified food products be labeled accordingly. (Li, Curtis, McCluskey, and Wahl, 2002, paraphrased) in fact, it is reported that China along with 160 other countries have signed the 2000 Cartegena Protocol on iosafety, stated to include a requirement for labeling of GM products.

VI. Effects of Culture on Perception of Consumers Relating to Genetically Modified Foods

The work of Finucane (2002) entitled: 'Mad Cows, Mad Corn and Mad Communities: The Role of Socio-Cultural Factors in the Perceived Risk of Genetically Modified Food" published in the Journal of the Proceedings of the Nutrition Society" states that the "rapid globalization of the world economy has increased the need for a knowledge base of relatable socio-cultural differences in perceptions, values and ways of thinking about new food technologies." (Finucane, 2002) Finucane (2002) states additionally that the awareness…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Finucane, Melissa L. (2002) Mad Cows, Mad Corn and Mad Communities: The Role of Socio-Cultural Factors in the Perceived Risk of Genetically Modified Food. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 2002, 61.

Genetically modified Organisms: Consumers, Food Safety and the Environment. Vol 2 of the FAO ethics services. Organization of the United Nations. Food & Agriculture Organization 2001.

Hossain, Ferdaus, and Onyango, Benjamin (2004) Products Attributes and Consumer Acceptance of Nutritionally Enhanced Genetically Modified Foods. International Journal of Consumer Studies, Vol. 28, No.2. June 2004.

Li, Quan; Curtis, Kynda R.; McCluskey, Jill J.; and Wahl, Thomas I. (2002) Consumer Attitudes Toward Genetically Modified Foods in Beijing, China. Journal of Agrobiotechnology Management and Economics. Vol. 5. No.4, Article 3.
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Compulsory Licensing of Patents

Words: 4596 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41113305

Compulsory Licensing of Patents

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the causes and affects of the compulsory licensing of pharmaceutical products. Initially, the paper highlights the fundamental positions, attitude, inclination and concerns of the developed world and the under developed world with regard to the intellectual property rights of the pharmaceutical products. The paper also concentrates on the subject of the intellectual property rights of the biotechnology products (plants); this is because plants are the major source of almost all pharmaceutical products being used today. Furthermore, it is a matter of fact that the patentability of plants has been given a lot of attention by the developed world, in particular United States of America, as well as, the developing World. The paper also exposes the priorities of both the developed world and the under developed world, priorities that have been a major hurdle in all previous negotiations on…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bernard Pecoul et al., Access to Essential Drugs in Poor Countries: A Lost Battle? 281 JAMA 361, 365 (1999).

David P. Fidler, International Law and Global Public Health, 48 KAN. L. REV. 1, 29 (1999).

David Benjamin Snyder, Comment, South Africa's Medicines and Related Substances Control Amendment Act: A Spoonful of Sugar or a Bitter Pill to Swallow?, 18 DICK. J. INT'L L. 175, 190 (1999).

David P. Fidler, Symposium on Globalization at the Margins: Perspectives on Globalization from Developing States: Neither Science Nor Shamans: Globalization of Markets and Health in the Developing World, 7 IND. J. GLOBAL LEG. STUD. 191, 212-213 (1999).
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Occupational Health and Safety With

Words: 2184 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41360285

(Litebook, 2008)

Used in combating these symptoms is a product referred to a "Litebook." Litebook is a lighting product designed to combat shift work challenges. The report states that bright light, specifically in certain wavelengths has demonstrated in clinical research to assist the body's internal clock in the regulation of sleep patterns through the small use of 30 to 40 minutes immediately after waking in the morning. This product is stated to be used situated between 12 and 24 inches, or 30 to 60 centimeters from the face of the individual who performs shift work or those who are workers of irregular hours in order to enable the individual to "...feel more alert, energetic, and, in turn, notice an improvement in on-the-job performance." (Litebook, 2008) Also offered are Litebook glasses that block light by shielding the eyes facilitating the individual's body receipt of a signal that tells them this: "...is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bjorvatn, Bjoern; Kecklund, Goeran; and Aekerstedt, Torbjoern (2001) Bright Light Facilitates Circad. Adapt. Among Night Workers at an Oil Platform. Litebook. Online available at http://www.litebook.com/research/displayresearch.asp?id=67&type=t

Czeisler, Charles a. (1990) Exposure to Bright Light and Dark to Treat Physio Maladaptation to Night Work. The New England Journal of Medicine. 1 Jan 1990. LITEBOOK Online available at http://www.litebook.com/research/displayresearch.asp?id=35&type=t

Harder, Ben (2006) Bright Lights, Big Cancer: Melatonin-Depleted Blood Spurs Tumor Growth. Science Daily Vol. 168, No. 1. 7 Jan 2006 online available at http://www.sciencenews.org/articles/20060107/bob9.asp

Light Management for Night Shift Adaptation (2008) the GreenLIGHT System is the Optimal Tool to Enhance Nightwork Performance. Sunnex Biotechnologies. Online available at  http://www.sunnexbiotech.com/shiftwork/shift%20work.html
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IR Econ Todaro Notes That

Words: 3235 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26144276

165) and he argued for a change in consciousness to go along with the economic globalization. Arias argued that the current climate is not interdependent, but actually fiercely independent and insular and moreover dedicated to self-aggrandizement, not cooperation to spread economic justice around the globe. Other voices are also arguing this, again presupposing that globalization is no longer an issue, but a fact, but that the globalization that exists is one of independence, not interdependence. Two of those voices specifically argue the twin issues of social justice in global interdependence, and ethics.

Social justice as a measure of global interdependence

Polack proposes that currently, "social work is confronted with a global system in which the world's people are bound together in a complex web of economic relationships. People's lives are now linked to lives of distant others through the clothes that they wear, the energy that warms them, and even…… [Read More]

References

Bartholomew, S. (1997). National systems of biotechnology innovation: Complex interdependence in the global system. Journal of International Business Studies, 28(2), 241+. Retrieved March 14, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Breitenfellner, a. (1997). Global unionism: A potential player. International Labour Review, 136(4), 531+. Retrieved March 14, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Ohmae, Kenichi. 1990. The borderless world. New York: Harper Business.

Polack, R.J. (2004). Social justice and the global economy: New Challenges for Social Work in the 21st Century. Social Work, 49(2), 281+. Retrieved March 14, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
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People Fear DNA Because Criminals

Words: 2851 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35999004

This can contribute directly to human health and development (Agio). orlaug (1999), who won the Nobel Prize in 1970 for his work in developing high-yield wheat and other grains in third-world countries, stresses that genetic engineering is essential due to the worldwide population growth. Other organizations supporting genetically modified foods are the American Medical Association, the International Association of African Scientists, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations.

Of course, there are always two sides to every coin, and individuals such as Ronnie Cummins, national director of the ioDemocracy Campaign, a grassroots organization that promotes organic food and opposes genetic engineering in agriculture, states that genetically modified foods can result in production of items that are toxic, carcinogenic, and allergenic. She warns that widespread planting of GM crops could cause unexpected harm to the environment; as crops are engineered to…… [Read More]

Bibliography

AgBio World, Scientists in support of agricultural biotechnology. February 27, 2008  http://www.agbioworld.org/declaration/index.html 

BioDemocracy. Hazards of genetically engineered food and crops. Ronnie Cummins. http://www.organicconsumers.org/ge-free.cfm

N. Borlaug, (1999) Biotech can feed eight billion in the next century. New perspectives quarterly 25(1): 129-132

D.A. Christopher. (2000). The Gene genie's progeny. In the World & I. Washington, DC: Washington Times Corporation.
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Trends in the Provision of Health Sciences Information Resources

Words: 1450 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52990908

Health Sciences Information esources

Ernst & Young (2001) describe the global health sciences marketplace as "a web created by pharmaceutical companies, biotech firms, eHealth companies, hospitals, physicians and other practitioners and medical device manufacturers" to name a few (p.1). This web or library of information is the wave of the future. Health sciences information libraries of the future will not just serve as global resources of health care information, but will rather serve as collaborative and interactive repositories where patients will be able to discover individualized treatment options and health care providers can collaborate on new biotechnological advances and discoveries.

The global health sciences marketplace and libraries are inexorably changing as technology is better enabling corporations, individuals and providers to provide services in new and faster ways. Trends developing within the industry that will affect health sciences libraries include providing health products and services that are delivered "Through integrated alliances"…… [Read More]

References:

Aday, L.A., Begley, C.E., Lairson, D.R. & Slater, C.H. (1993). Evaluating the medical care system: Effectiveness, efficiency, and equity. Ann Arbor: Health Administration Press.

Anton, P.S., Schneider, J. & Silberglitt, R. (2001). The global technology revolution:

Bio/Nano/Materials trends and their synergies with information technology. Santa Monica: Rand.

Brook, R.H., Damber, C. & Ker, E.A. (1998). Health information systems: Design issues and analytic applications. Santa Monica: Rand.
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International Relations and Biology

Words: 7088 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58334919

Scientific and Political Aspects

of Genetically Modified Foods

While there is little controversy over many aspects of biotechnology and its application, genetically modified (GM) foods have become the target of intense controversy. This controversy in the marketplace has resulted in a firestorm of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage. The countries most affected by this debate are Middle Eastern and third world countries, who stand to reap the benefits of solving widespread starvation, and countries such as the United States, as strong suppliers of genetically modified foods. The world's population is predicted to double in the next 50 years and ensuring an adequate food supply for this booming population is already a challenge. Scientists hope to meet that challenge through the production of genetically modified food plants that can help in warding off starvation as the world's population grows.

Although "biotechnology" and "genetic modification" commonly are used interchangeably, GM…… [Read More]

Bibliography

"A Rice Dilemma." Social Issues Research Center. 2002. Social Issues Research. 13 Dec. 2004



Bredahl, Lone. "Attitudes and Decision Making With Regard to Genetically Engineered Food

Products -- A Review of Literature and a Prescription of Models for Future Research." Journal
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Transgenic Foods Genetically Modified Crop

Words: 2537 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34104641

98 million farmers. It is reported that in a review of sustainable agriculture projects findings show that "average food production per household increased by 1.71 tons per year (up 73%) for 4.42 million farmers on 3.58 million hectares, bringing food security and health benefits to local communities. Increasing agricultural productivity has been shown to also increase food supplies and raise incomes, thereby reducing poverty, increasing access to food, reducing malnutrition and improving health and livelihoods." (Independent Science Panel, 2003) Sustainable agriculture results in low-cost and readily available food resources being gained by consumers since organic food is safer. Specifically it is reported that: "Sustainable agricultural approaches draw extensively on traditional and indigenous knowledge, and place emphasis on the farmers' experience and innovation. This thereby utilizes appropriate, low-cost and readily available local resources as well as improves farmers' status and autonomy, enhancing social and cultural relations within local communities." (Independent Science…… [Read More]

Bibliography

What Are Transgenic Plants? (2010) Transgenic Crops: An Introduction and Resource Guide.

Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University 1999-2004. Online available at'  http://www.cls.casa.colostate.edu/TransgenicCrops/what.html 

Melton, Margaret and Rissler, Jane (2009) Environmental Effects of Genetically Modified Food Crops -- Recent Experiences. Union of Concerned Scientists: Food and Agriculture. Online available at: http://www.ucsusa.org/food_and_agriculture/science_and_impacts/impacts_genetic_engineering/environmental-effects-of.html

Raney, Terri ( 2006) Economic Impact of Transgenic Crops in Developing Countries. Opinion in Biotechnology 2006, 17:1-5. Online available at:  http://www.agbioworld.org/pdf/raney.pdf
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In Favor of Genetically Modified Crops

Words: 1822 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73074903

Genetically Modified Crops

Genetically modified (GM) food has generated considerable interest and controversy in the United States and around the world (University of Richmond, 2004). Proponents applaud the vast benefits of technology while opponents argue that environmental and food safety issues outweigh the benefits. This paper provides background information regarding the genetically modified crops in an attempt to show that they are a benefit to society.

The appearance of GM food products in the marketplace has resulted in a great deal of public debate, scientific discussion, and media coverage (SCOPE, 2004). A variety of concerns go hand in hand with the new advances enabled by genetic modification. However, the possibilities presented by GM crops cannot be overshadowed by these concerns.

Crop varieties developed by genetic engineering were first introduced for commercial use in 1996 (University of Richmond, 2004). Today, these crops are grown on more than 167 million acres worldwide.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dibb, Susan. Mayer, Sue. (April, 2000). Biotech - The next generation: Good for whose health? The Food Commission (UK) Ltd. And GeneWatch UK. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.foodcomm.org.uk/biotech_summary.htm.

Reuters News Service. (July 6, 2000). GM Crops Safe, Offer Consumer Benefits. Retrieved from the Internet at: http://www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/7361/newsDate/06-Jul-2000/story.htm.

Sakko, Kerryn. (May, 2002). The Debate Over Genetically Modified Foods. American Institute of Biological Sciences.

Sample, Ian. (June 3, 2003). GM crops. The Guardian.
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Dangers Outweigh Benefits of Genetic

Words: 1111 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95587717

Researchers at Cornell University discovered that Monarch butterfly caterpillars died when they ate plants dusted with the pollen of Bt corn that was growing in nearby fields, and many scientists worry that with so much insecticide in the corn plants, insects might develop a resistance to it (Dyer 2002). These fears and concerns are echoed by Francis Fukuyama who believes that genetic enhancement will undermine the system of human rights by disrupting the boundary that encloses all humans in a single group, thus believes society should limit genetic science to allow therapy but prohibit enhancement, such as genetically altered food crops, and non-therapeutic procedures (Tobey 2003). In other words, enhancement will allow society to increase genotypic and phenotypic diversity, yet such diversity will press society to the point of losing its shared humanity (Tobey 2003).

orks Cited

Adams, endy a. (2002, January 01). Reconciling private benefit and public risk in…… [Read More]

Welsh, Whitney. (2005, March 01). Brave new worlds: philosophy, politics, and science in human biotechnology. Population and Development Review. Retrieved July 09, 2005 from HighBeam Research Library Web site: http://www.highbeam.com/library/doc3.asp?DOCID=1G1:132710930&num

9&ctrlInfo=Round14%3AProd%3ASR%3AResult&ao=&FreePremium=BOTH

This article discusses the ethics and political landscape concerning genetic engineering, particularly the current White House administration. It includes some twenty references.
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genentech book analysis business'science

Words: 1970 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27185356

In Genentech, Hughes examines the remarkable rise of the Genentech company, which was an industry pioneer in the field of genetic engineering. The basic premise of Hughes’s book is that Genentech radically transformed biotechnology and even made a broader impact beyond the medical technology and science sectors. Themes Hughes addresses in Genentech include the business practices and processes needed to start a radical, innovative firm, particularly one with a business model based on science. Another major theme covered in Genentech is intellectual property, which is a major concern for the pharmaceutical industry, which eventually became heavily and inextricably entrenched in genetic science. Hughes also covers the theme of ethics: especially the conflicts of interest that can arise between the altruistic aims of academia and applied science and the commercial goals of a profit-driven enterprise.

Hughes offers an overview and history of the firm, which was created in 1976 by Herbert…… [Read More]

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Besagi Case Study List and

Words: 3070 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45887933

Indeed, harvest time should not come as a surprise to these professionals, and it is reasonable to assert that given adequate notice and preparation, a sufficient number of casual laborers could be employed for the time period required to complete the harvest in a timely fashion. The company's strategy to close down cultivation had a concomitant impact of further eroding labor-management relations and cost the company around a half a million dollars to boot.

3. Need to identify additional sources to satisfy demands of canned pet food manufacturers. The company would be well advised to look to the burgeoning economic powerhouse of China and its neighbors as potential markets for its pet food seed products. Although not on the same level as many Western countries, pet ownership in China is on the rise and is expected to continue to increase in the future. According to Zhuang (2005), "Pet ownership in…… [Read More]

References

Australia. (2008). U.S. government: CIA world factbook. [Online]. Available:  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/as.html .

Besagi case study. (n.d.).

Blay-Palmer, a. (2007). Who is minding the store? Innovation strategy and agro-biotechnology research in Canada. Canadian Journal of Regional Science, 30(1), 39-40.

Halweil, B. (2000, September). Where have all the farmers gone? World Watch, 13(5), 12.
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Ethics in Nanomedicine the Term

Words: 10726 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76858278

All these charters that have clearly defined the boundaries of what both the positive i.e. natural rights and negative i.e. The unjust exploitative rights of the people are and how no institution or research domains have the right or power to violate them (Dierkes, Hoffmann and Marz, 1996).

Based on the above fact, we have to consider all the concerns related towards security of an individual as well as his rights, societal principles and considerations, national strategies, the financial system and market of the country as well as the social-educational-traditional structure that might be put in jeopardy due to a scientific research of nanomedicine. Hence we have to carefully consider that the researchers who are investing their time and effort in to the nano-medical research are treated with value while still securing the human rights of the society i.e. awareness of and protection against the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on…… [Read More]

References

Beauchamp TL, Childress JF. (2001). Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press.

Brennan, M. et al. (2002). Communication, Cultural and Media Studies. Routledge. London.

Chambers, T. (1996). From the ethicist's point-of-view: The literary nature of ethical inquiry. Hastings Center Report 26(1): 25-32.

Chang K. (2005). Tiny is beautiful: translating 'nano' into practical. New York Times; p. A1.
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Unethical Experimentation Issues and Concerns

Words: 4124 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77212600

(Freyhofer 104)

Globalizing clinical research has reportedly proven to be one solution for America's pharmaceutical paradox. Doctors prescribe more than 10 prescriptions for the average American each year. Only one person in 350, however, will submit themselves to be a participant in experimental drug testing. On the other side of the globe, however a profusion of under-treated, poor, physician-trusting patients who live in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia provide the rapid, positive results needed for new drugs to receive quick approval. One review noted that 99% of controlled trials published in China netted positive results upon the drug/treatment being investigated. (Shah 23) In Nigeria during 2002, thirty Nigerian families filed a class-action suit against Pfizer, who allegedly violated the Nuremberg Code in 1996 as they presided over an experiment on Nigerian children suffering with meningitis. esearchers reportedly forced a risky, unapproved, experiment on unsuspecting subjects who, as a…… [Read More]

References www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002068015

Bagley, Margo A. "Patent First, Ask Questions Later: Morality and Biotechnology in Patent Law." William and Mary Law Review 45.2 (2003): 469+.

Chapter 14: The Federal Policy for Human Subject Protections (The Common Rule)." Retrieved 28 November 2006 at http://www. the.doe.gov/ohre/roadmap/achre/chap14_2.html.

Embryonic stem cell research fails in many ways to reader," The Times Leader, October 27, 2006.

Fence Post." Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL) 27 Aug. 2005: 16.
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Cogito Ergo Sum as Stated

Words: 1796 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51847710

As such, every human being has 70,000 pairs of these genes or instructions that tell the body what to be and how to behave. They have garnered the name "designer" not so much as to pre-selection but more toward blueprint. Although biotechnological development might well be able to "design" a fetus to have all the characteristics that parents want in a child, the more scientific approach is one of natural development in the genes patterning. Not with standing naturalism there are efforts underway to alter some of the 70,000 pairs of genes to cure diseases and prevent defective inherited characteristics. Wherein the debate turns philosophical, ethical, and righteous is on an entire different level however. When reality is present that babies can be genetically engineered to be smarter, better looking, more athletic, and happier the face of human evolution will have changed forever. The lingering question facing citizenry is how…… [Read More]

References

Andrews, Lori B (1999). The Clone Age: Adventures in the New

World of Reproductive Technology. New York, Henry Holt and Company.

Descartes, Rene. Discourse on the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason, and Seeking Truth in the Sciences. 2 June. 2004 Retrieved Dec. 22, 2004 at http://www.literature.org/authors/descartes-rene/reason-discourse/

Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, (2000). 29th Edition, W.B. Saunders Company,
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Southeast Asia SARS Outbreak of

Words: 3971 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26991402

Several international conferences planned for China were postponed or changed venues

Yu p. 91)

SARS also had some positive effects in terms of media coverage. Studies claim that the outbreak in 2003 not only emphasized the importance of good media coverage in alerting the international community to epidemics but also "... raised standards of government preparedness and border control." (ibid) The importance of rapid communication and the role of the media became evident during the epidemic. This was also to show up the lack of media awareness in China. In this regard the epidemic highlighted the importance and value of the independent media in China, which was able to act in a way that alerted the international community to the epidemic.

In recent years, so-called "fringe media" publications have emerged in China. These fringe media are less controlled by government; these independent publications enjoy more autonomy than mainstream media and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Altman L.K. Chinese bat identified as home of SARS virus

The New York Times, 2005. Accessed October 7, 2005. http://www.iht.com/articles/2005/09/30/news/sars.php

Basic Information About SARS, CDC, 2005. Accessed October 5, 2005. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/sars/factsheet.htm http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002020361

Bi, Jianhai. "China's SARS Crisis: Jianhai Bi Discusses China's Efforts to Containthe SARS Virus' Spread and the Consequences for Chinese Politics." New Zealand International Review 28.5 (2003): 16+.
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Economic Growth in the United

Words: 1580 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89797726

These lessons would suggest the need to change or veer away from the "me first" mentality of the U.S. agriculture and its representatives. What would serve agriculture and society best would be by working to identify how broad society and its farmers desired the future agricultural sector should be structured. Corollary to this would be to use its comparative advantage in designing policy interventions, which would realistically, efficiently and effectively achieve this goal. Only through this process could the legitimate wants of farmers be balanced against their responsibilities to their broader society. Only then could agriculture have a true and successful societal basis for its farm program interventions (Poe).

ibliography

1. Choices. Converting to Organic. American Agricultural Economics Association, 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/nu_n0HIC/is_2_16/ai_77612359

2. Conlon, Michael. London Conference Discusses the Future of iotechnology in Agriculture. AgExporter, 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3723/is_11_13/ai_81766576

3. Ecologist, the. Last Ditch for ritain's Small Farms. MIT Press Journals, 2000. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2465/is_2_30/ai_62053043…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Choices. Converting to Organic. American Agricultural Economics Association, 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/nu_n0HIC/is_2_16/ai_77612359

2. Conlon, Michael. London Conference Discusses the Future of Biotechnology in Agriculture. AgExporter, 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3723/is_11_13/ai_81766576

3. Ecologist, the. Last Ditch for Britain's Small Farms. MIT Press Journals, 2000. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2465/is_2_30/ai_62053043

4. -. Organic Targets One Last Push. MIT Press Journals, 2001. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2465/is_5_31/ai_76285449
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Countermeasures and Neutralization of Weapons

Words: 4042 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88212223

This when the Army must spread out its resources to engage threat WMDs and WMD networks. The concept applies to counterforce operations, sensors, protection, and training.

Leveraging new technologies. Many of the required capabilities presented in the strategy will be possible only through applications of new technology. The Army must leverage these new technologies.

Enhance training. Unit training is currently more flexible and quickly adaptive in comparison with institutional training. but, it often lacks valuable consistency and standardization.

Institutional training content updates, approval, and resourcing it is tied to processes too slow to remain current. Future training will prepare soldiers and leaders to exercise sound judgment in the analysis of data / information, understanding cultural impacts on operations and to act in periods of uncertainty.

These ideas are providing a background for implementing new technology and key strategies for improving the countermeasures and neutralization of WMDs. However, this research is…… [Read More]

References

"Disarmament." UN. http://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/briefing/disarmament/disarmament.pdf (accessed January 30, 2013)

Michael, Vane, " Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction," U.S. Army, http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA496736 (accessed January 20, 2013).

Barry, Ezill. "Identifying Factors that Influence Terrorist Decisions." Journal of Homeland Security 1, no. 1, (2012): 1- 15.

Brookes, Peter. A Devil's Triangle. Lantham: Rowman, 2005.
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Amidation of Peptides

Words: 6068 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94362858

Amidation of Peptides in Humans

Modern biotechnology has experienced dramatic leaps in the body of knowledge concerning molecular processes in peptides and how they work. Many of these processes rely on amidation of peptides to achieve increasingly important medical and commercial applications. Peptides are created when two or more amino acids are covalently joined by peptide bonds, a process termed post-translational modification. One increasingly valuable application of post-translational modification is amidation. This paper provides an overview of peptides and their role in biological processes, how amidation of peptides works and its importance, and a description of the two functional domains of the PAM enzyme (PHM and PAL) and the roles they play in amidation. An assessment of whether amidation prevents C-terminal degradation is followed by a discussion of which peptides/proteins are susceptible to C-terminal degredation by carboxypeptidase. An analysis of whether E. coli can be modified to perform amidation will…… [Read More]

References

Allen, J.M. (1963). The nature of biological diversity. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Audesirk, T. & Audesirk, G. (1993). Biology: Life on Earth, 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Bradbury, A.F. & Smyth, D.G. (1988). Biosynthesis of peptide neurotransmitters: studies on the formation of peptide amides. Physiol Bohemoslov, 37(3), 267-74.

Brighton, P.J., Szekeres, P.G. & Willars, G.B. (2004). Neuromedin U. And Its Receptors: Structure, Function, and Physiological Roles. Pharmacological Review, 56, 231-248.
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Country Given the State of

Words: 5066 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10320809

Te need for so many new workers will tend to elp women enter fields were tey ave been istorically under-represented since tere is suc a need for so many new workers.

Wile tis synergy of so many different factors is useful for workers at all stages of teir careers, it may be tat it is especially elpful to new graduates. Higly skilled and qualified senior workers are likely to ave more opportunities open to tem tan are younger workers and so are likely to suffer less during economic downturns. Younger workers, especially tose just finising teir undergraduate work, will fare better in an environment tat as a range of opportunities and an overall good business climate. In fact, tis may be te only kind of business environment in wic new graduates will reliably be able to find jobs tat matc teir training and ambitions. Tis may be especially true for…… [Read More]

http://www.dews.com/index .php?option=com_content&task=view&id=98&Itemid=208

http://www.extremetag.com /  http://www.mimotec.ch/Francais/Produits/produits.html 

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Genome Human Cloning Human Cloning

Words: 3339 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19327581

(iii) in the United States, Brazil, Germany and France, humans have been receiving their own stem cells to re-grow heart muscle in the unforeseen incident of heart attack or injury. This was found to be successful in majority of the cases. (iv) in one more incident, the vision of 23 patients was restored after limbal adult stem cell transplants. This line of therapeutic care has assisted a lot of people who have been suffering from blindness for years together that includes the sufferers of mustard gas attacks in Iraqi. (Life Issues Institute, 2006) v) Crohn's disease patients have in fact been treated with stem cells evolved from their own blood. (vi) Among the 90% of the 19 patients having several autoimmune disorders like systemic lupus has been on the path to recovery following treatment with their own blood stem cells. (vii) a research of Parkinson's disease displayed an average improvement…… [Read More]

References

AAAS Center for Science, Technology and Congress. (2007) "AAAS Policy Brief: Human

Cloning" Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/briefs/cloning/

Barnes, Deborah. (n. d.) "Research in the News: Creating a cloned sheep named Dolly"

Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://science-education.nih.gov/home2.nsf/Educational+ResourcesTopicsGenetics/BC5086E34E4DBA0085256CCD006F01CB
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Student Retention Has Long Been

Words: 5392 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13282475

The next three categories deal with the lack of information: 4) lack of information about the career decision-making process, itself; 5) lack of information about one's own capabilities, personal traits or interests; 6) lack of information about occupations and what work is involved and the type of work available; and 7) lack of information about ways of obtaining career information. The final three categories deal with the inconsistent information that students receive that make decision-making difficult: 8) inconsistent information due to unreliable sources;

9) inconsistent information due to internal conflicts, such personal identity and 10) insistent information due to external conflicts with significant others.

Once students have had a an opportunity to learn more about their personal traits in relationship to careers and the type of positions available, they want to actually have an opportunity to learn more right from the source. However, even at community schools, only two percent…… [Read More]