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Black Power
Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 50402048
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Black Arts

Known as the "artistic sister of the Black Power movement," Black Arts refers to the collective expressions of African-American culture during the 1960s and 1970s. Corresponding with the climax of the Civil Rights movement and the self-empowerment of the African-American community, the Black Arts was a politically charged yet aesthetically ripe collection of visual, performance, music, and literary art forms. Amiri Baraka is credited widely with the genesis of the Black Arts movement. The assassination of Malcolm X is said to have inspired Baraka to move to Harlem and delve into the transformative power of art for emboldening the black community (Salaam). Even when he was still known as LeRoi Jones, Baraka had been involved in the publishing industry, and had worked as a poet, arts critic, and playwright. His founding of the Black Arts Repertory Theatre/School (BARTS) is the "formal beginning" of the movement, which Baraka himself…

Works Cited

"The Black Arts Movement." Retrieved online: 

"A Brief Guide to the Black Arts Movement." Retrieved online: 

Neal, Larry. "The Black Arts Movement." The Making of African-American Identity, Vol. 3, 1917-1968. Retrieved online: 

Salaam, Kaluma Ya. "Historical Overviews of the Black Arts Movement."

Roles That Black Women Played on TV in the Early Era of TV
Words: 2470 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44910901
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lack Women on Early Television

African-American portrayals on television have been based on negative stereotypes that do not objectively or accurately portray reality... These stereotypes include, but are not limited to, the portrayal of African-Americans as inferior, lazy, dumb, dishonest, comical, unethical, and crooked (U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 1977). Dates (1990) was able to add to this list: insolent, bestial, brutish, power-hungry, money hungry and ignorant." (Rada)

The image of lack people on television has changed somewhat since the early era of television. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the roles that black women played in the early era of Television. We will discuss how the roles of lack women were limited to playing the role of mammies during the early era of television. The paper will also discuss roles for lack women that were labeled as being too white. In addition, our research will examine the…


Carroll, Diahann. Diahann! An Autobiography.1986

Ford, T.E. Effects of sexist humor on tolerance of sexist events. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 9, 1094-1107(2000) /PM.qst?a=o&d=29237660

Giovanni, Nikki. Images of Blacks in American Culture: A Reference Guide to Information Sources. Ed. Jessie Carney Smith. New York: Greenwood Press, 1988.

Black Culture and Black Consciousness
Words: 841 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96943533
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Notwithstanding its roots in African dance, in actuality, it was a fighting style designed by African slaves as a means of protecting themselves from government agents searching for them after their escape from enslavement. Likewise, Levine focuses heavily on the connection between the slave culture that was evident in the American South, while much of it may actually have been shaped by the need to conceal it from white society.

The mere fact that Christianity, and more specifically, Southern Baptism, became the predominant religion of the millions of descendants of the Africans enslaved in America would seem to provide the most support for Rock's position. It is difficult to know how many of the slaves who eventually (and ironically) adopted the very religious traditions of those who enslaved them and held them captive for generations. Certainly, there are elements of contemporary black religious culture that can be traced back to…

Black Fiction the African-American Experience
Words: 977 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 40685069
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This story clearly outlines the level of difference and separation that is experienced by many members of the African-American community in a variety of ways, and most clearly deals with the economic impact and institutional nature of the racism this community has experienced.

Another very interesting perspective is provided in McPherson's memoir regarding his own experiences, Crabcakes (1999). Many different episodes reflecting sometimes subtle and sometimes quite obvious differences in perspective appear in this memoir, yet one strain that appears significant several times is the role of religion -- and more specifically, of Church -- in the development of the African-American community and African-American individuals. Again, a clear lack of consensus amongst the community is seen here, as some individuals are very religious while others regard it with outright contempt, yet there is also a cohesion in the Church-centered communities that exist. This makes for an interesting juxtaposition of perspectives…


Flinn, E. (1999). It Happened in Hoboken. BookSurge.

McPherson, J. (1977). Elbow Room. Fawcett.

McPherson, J. (1999). Crabcakes. New York: Touchstone.

Black Films as a Reflection
Words: 4019 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90025348
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The Aftermath

Uncle Tom characters were common in both white and black productions of the time, yet no director before Micheaux had so much as dared to shine a light on the psychology that ravages such characters. By essentially bowing to the two white men, Micheaux implied that Old Ned was less than a man; an individual whittled down to nothing more than yes-man and wholly deprived of self-worth. At this point in the history of black films, with some of the most flagrant sufferings of blacks exposed to the American public, the only logical path forward that African-Americans could take was to begin making cogent demands to improve their collective social situation.

Slowly, black characters in film took on greater and more significant roles in film. Sidney Poitier was one of the most powerful film stars of the mid twentieth century. In roles like the 1950 film by…

Reference List

Finlayson, R. (2003). We Shall Overcome: The History of the American Civil Rights

Movement. Lerner Publications Company, Minneapolis, MN.

King, Jr., M. And Jackson, J. (1963). Why We Can't Wait. Signet Classic, New York,


Black Slaveowners Agriculture and Even
Words: 2773 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97033780
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.. The history of miscegenation in this country...demonstrate[s] how society has used skin color to demarcate lines between racial groups and to determine the relative position and treatment of individuals within racial categories. (Jones, 2000, p. 1487)

Prior to the civil war lighter skinned blacks were more likely to gain their freedom, and own property, through favor or inheritance. This is probably in part to the public, sometimes even official, recognition of their lineage, often they were the product of their white masters and favored slaves.

The large number of mulattoes among the slaves freed in Missouri suggests the master's benevolence was a genuinely warm feeling he had for persons he knew to be his blood relations. By 1860, the presence of 1,662 mulattoes in the total free Negro group of 3,572 in Missouri, indicates considerable race-mixing. (Official Manual State of Missouri, 1973-1974 "The ole of the Negro in Missouri…



Black Culture Films Black Culture Documentaries Quite
Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77888875
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Black Culture Films

Black Culture Documentaries

Quite often and particularly in the United States, it is commonplace to understand the black cultural experience largely through the lenses of slavery and the Civil Rights movement. And to be certain, these are aspects of the experience that have left indelible imprints on black identity. However, as the collection of documentaries assessed here denotes, the black cultural experience is diverse and nuanced in a way that often goes unnoted in the discourse over struggle and oppression. This is particularly on display in the pair of documentary installments by Basil Davidson, which are concerned with the cultural conditions both historical and present in different parts of Africa.

Indeed, what is so compelling about works such as Caravans of Gold is that such films alter the discussion on the black cultural experience by reflecting on the variant of positive contributions made to the evolution of…

Black Slaves in North America
Words: 538 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19255918
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Once they arrived, they were brought to a slave market and usually auctioned off to the highest bidder just as cattle and horses were auctioned off. he slaves then spent their lives of servitude helping white farm and plantation owners in their agricultural operations. he slaves weren't typically compensated and lived in deplorable conditions. Slavery helped many white land owners become rich, and the southern colonies, which turned into the southern states, remained slave states, while those in the north became know as free states, where slavery was not legal. his dichotomy of cultures, between the northern and southern states, eventually led to further economic and cultural rifts leading up to the Civil War in 1860.

During the Civil War, the northern states allowed blacks to serve in the Union Army. Southern states, eager to fight for their way of life and economic interests, were against the abolition of slavery.…

The English Colonies were set up as resource providers for the English Monarchy and economy in Europe. Products like cotton, tobacco, and other crops were planted and harvested in the rich soils of the colonies. The land and plantation owners were eager to cut costs, and with the African slave trade to places like the Caribbean and southern Spanish colonies booming, black slaves were an abundant and relatively cheap labor resource, especially for the farms and plantations in the southern colonies. Unlike the southern colonies, the northern colonies' economies began to differentiate themselves as producers of manufactured goods as well as services. In this way, even though slavery was legal in all of the English Colonies, the northern colonies had less of a demand for black slaves than the southern ones.

Operationally, slaves were brought in primarily from West African locales to work in agriculture-related servitude. Many of the slaves were separated from their families and many died during the long voyage via slave ship to the English Colonies. Once they arrived, they were brought to a slave market and usually auctioned off to the highest bidder just as cattle and horses were auctioned off. The slaves then spent their lives of servitude helping white farm and plantation owners in their agricultural operations. The slaves weren't typically compensated and lived in deplorable conditions. Slavery helped many white land owners become rich, and the southern colonies, which turned into the southern states, remained slave states, while those in the north became know as free states, where slavery was not legal. This dichotomy of cultures, between the northern and southern states, eventually led to further economic and cultural rifts leading up to the Civil War in 1860.

During the Civil War, the northern states allowed blacks to serve in the Union Army. Southern states, eager to fight for their way of life and economic interests, were against the abolition of slavery. This is not to say that the Civil War was fought on the question of whether black slavery should be legitimized, but slavery, as an economic mechanism, had much to do with the build up to war that had been occurring for nearly a century previous. After the Civil War, slavery was abolished. But though the institution of slavery was outlawed, the cultural and social norms were still left intact. Across the country, Jim Crow laws were left on the books that held blacks as second-class citizens with fewer rights than whites. Even after the reconstruction period, blacks had a hard time assimilating into mainstream American culture, and were economically and socially disadvantaged because of their history.

Blacks in Florida
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61645206
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Blacks in Florida

The history of slavery that has haunted the African-Americans for centuries has allowed the society to forget the heritage of their culture. The shame and considerable violence that surrounds their slave pasts overwhelms people so that they are apt to forget that these peoples had a history before they came or were brought to the 'western' world. Most historians and academics follow the impact of the African-American culture on the U.S. lands and people, much like the influence of the African-Americans on Spanish Colonial Florida as presented by Jane Landers in her article, "Traditions of African-American Freedom and Community in Spanish Colonial Florida" and Hall's "African eligious etentions in Florida" through the basis of slaves being seen as mere 'animals' that had to be civilized. What influence they are seen to have then is seen to emerge from their repressive slave pasts rather than from the time…

Robert Hall and Jane Landers are academics who have studied the influence of African-Americans of the Spanish Colonial region of Florida. Yet, they have narrowed down their study by viewing the heritage of the Africans Americans through the lenses of slavery. Most academics are unable to study the African-American past without bias not because they view the African-Americans as second class citizens but because they associate African-Americans with 'slavery' and cannot see beyond that label. While they realize that the African-Americans immigrated, or were forcefully brought from the regions of Africa to the Americas they are unable to separate the 'slaves' from the 'free' people.

Hall [1990] presents the influence of the African-Americans on Florida by studying the religious facets of the African culture; from the drum beats to black magic to the rich death and burial rites. Hall and Landers [1995] both suggest that the Florida region had been influenced by the African-American more than other states because they were to some extent allowed to retain their moral and religious personalities by the law and church. The slaves colonial Spanish area were till a greater part of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century allowed to continue their own cultural rituals and it was only after annexation of the Florida area to the American states that the slave rights began to be suppressed.

Yet, while both these writers contend that the African-Americans had their basis in Western Africa to some extent they fail to pursue the cultural base. They focus more on the influence of African-Americans on Florida through the kaleidoscope of slavery than actually tracing the origin of the culture from the Africa's. In

Black Women in America Speech
Words: 871 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12735835
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" (Zeleza, 2003, p. 1) in the U.S. "there least four waves of African diasporas: first the historical communities of African-Americans, themselves formed out of complex internal and external migrations over several hundred years; second, migrant communities from other diasporic locations, such as the Caribbean that have maintained or invoke, when necessary or convenient, national identities such as Jamaicans, Puerto icans, Cubans....; third, the recent immigrants from the indigenous communities of Africa; and finally, African migrants who are themselves diasporas from Asia or Europe." (Zeleza, 2003, p. 2) Each of these diasporas "...has its own connections and commitments to Africa, its own memories and imaginations of Africa and its own conceptions of the diasporic condition and identity." (Zeleza, 2003, p. 2) the following figure illustrates these linkages among African-American women in American Institutions and throughout the world.

Linkages between African-American Women in American Institutions and Throughout the World


Recent immigrants from the indigenous communities of Africa. (Zeleza, 2003)

African migrants who are themselves Diasporas from Asia or Europe. (Zeleza, 2003)

African-American women in American Institutions and their linkages in the African Diasporas. (Zeleza, 2003)

Black Reconstruction in America by W E B Du
Words: 860 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 81579112
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Black Reconstruction in America by .E.B. Du Bois

The Perpetuation of the "Color Caste" and Socio-economic Stratification in "Black Reconstruction in America" by .E.B. Du Bois

illiam E.B. Du Bois, American writer and historian, is known for his active participation in promoting Black Power movements in American society during the early 20th century, a period wherein society is dominated and controlled by the white American race. During this period also, there is a strong sentiment of racism and prejudice against black Americans, then called Negro slaves, wherein, Du Bois himself experienced the struggles and challenges his fellow black Americans had to go through in order to achieve emancipation from the bondage of slavery and racism.

Du Bois had written numerous discourses about black American prejudice throughout his lifetime. However, the essay "Black Reconstruction in America," written in 1935, provides an insightful and fresh perspective in looking at the socio-economic factors…

Work cited

Du Bois, W.E.B. (1935). E-text of "Black Reconstruction in America." Available at:

Black Diamond Case Raises a
Words: 2537 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 65166350
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Such data gathering helped decide the number to be produced and the time frame to be given for the manufacturing process for the first batch at least. Similarly, data is now sought on the problem that has developed and for the development of alternatives for addressing the problem and achieving a better procedure for the future.


Management is aware that what the company needs are both short- and long-term solutions, and the two are clearly linked. If the short-term solution includes a product recall, for instance, then the long-term reputation of the company may suffer and require specific attention. The alternatives for the short-term include the following:

product recall ignore the issue as if it were a one-time freak accident continue to sell the product with a warning label sell the current inventory while also taking a look at the product and its manufacture for possible changes for the…

Black-Scholes Model Is Essentially a Formula Used
Words: 1189 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77624458
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Black-Scholes model is essentially a formula used in the calculation of a theoretical call price for options. It is considered to be the fundamental model for pricing in the option market (Cretien, 2006). This model uses in its calculation the five main determinants of an option's price, which include stock price, strike price, volatility, time left until expiration, as well as risk-free, short-term interest rate (Hoadley, 2010). The computations executed by the Black-Scholes model result in prices that are close to actual market value as long as input variables are determined that are reasonably accurate (Cretien, 2006). A benefit resulting from the use of this model is that it provides traders with a means to compare market prices with alternative values while using different inputs (Cretien, 2006). The Black-Scholes model also assists in the prediction of movements in price for investments other than options by providing a way to compute…


Crawford, Gregory. "A new model; The world of finance was changed when Myron Scholes and Fischer Black penned a paper on how to price an option.(P&I at 30: The class of '73)." Pensions & Investments. Crain Communications, Inc. 2003. HighBeam Research. 8 Dec. 2010 .

Cretien, Paul D. "Comparing option pricing models." Futures. . 2006. HighBeam Research. 8 Dec. 2010 .

Hoadley, Peter, (2010). Option pricing models and the 'Greeks'. Hoadley Trading and Investment Tools. Retrieved from  8 Dec. 2010.

McKenzie, Scott; Gerace, Dionigi; Subedar, Zaffar. "AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE BLACK-SCHOLES MODEL: EVIDENCE FROM THE AUSTRALIAN STOCK EXCHANGE." Australasian Accounting Business & Finance Journal. University of Wollongong School of Accounting and Finance. 2007. HighBeam Research. 8 Dec. 2010 .

Black & Decker Supply Chain
Words: 3883 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 89480933
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The Black & Decker DOM system aligns with the Distributed Order Management (DOM) Hierarchical Model shown in Figure 1 as is shown in the Appendix of this study. This model conceptually illustrates how the Black & Decker supply chain, DOM, and distribution networks are integrated with each other (Johnson, 2003,

The Data Services of Black & Decker, as defined by its customer- and shipment history databases, anchor the model, followed by Application Services, Presentation Services, and a separate Presentation Services specifically for Internal and External Constituents of the logistics provider.

The Master Data Services component is where Black & Decker 'normalizes and synchronizes data on customers, products, accounts, and suppliers is the primary building block. There are several techniques Black & Decker relies on building a system of record from database consolidation to the development of virtual objects that are a composite of various systems. egardless of the overall…


David Drickhamer (2005, October). Bringing Value to the Table: How Today's Logistics Service Providers Stay One Step Ahead. Material Handling Management, 60(10), 25-27. Retrieved August 16, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 918963711).

Joseph Galli (1998, January). Retooling Black & Decker. Chief Executive,(131), 59. Retrieved August 15, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 26830773).

Sidney Hill Jr. (2002). Not your father's SPC. Quality, 41(2), 29-33. Retrieved August 1, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 105856969).

William Hoffman (2006, July). Hunting for Hidden Costs. Traffic World,20-21. Retrieved August 5, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1078955011).

Black Churches New Pastors
Words: 4891 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 99514907
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There are some generalizations from the survey that are useful in the sense that they offer solid social reasons why pastors should be in touch with today's unmarried parents, in order to provide services for them outside their attendance for Sunday sermons: one, unmarried parents are "twice as likely to live below the poverty line as married parents"; two, unmarried parents are "twice as likely to have dropped out of school as married parents"; three, unmarried parents are "twice as likely" to have reported being in some degree of trouble with alcohol or with illegal drugs; four, unmarried parents "are younger than married parents" by an average of 7 years; and five, forty-three percent of unmarried mothers "have children with at least two men," while just 15% of married mothers "have children with different fathers."

In conclusion, Parke writes that the data from the research helps to dispel the myth…


Baldwin, Lewis. 2003. Revisiting the 'All-Comprehending Institution': Historical

Reflections on the Public Roles of Black Churches, in New Day Begun: African-

American Churches and Civic Culture in Post-Civil Rights America. Durham, NC:

Billingsley, Andrew. 1992. Climbing Jacob's Ladder: The Enduring Legacy of African-

Black Women at Work 1900-1970
Words: 1662 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97279105
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Black Women in Law Profession Early Twentieth Century

Black women attempting to enter careers in law during the period from 1900 through 1970 faced a variety of unique challenges. During this era, many women of all races began to question their role and place into society; it was during this time that civil rights campaigns were beginning to flourish, and African-American women as faced the prospect of not only being a minority as a woman, but also being a minority because of their skin color and ethnic heritage.

African-American women attempting to pursue careers during this time rarely had the opportunity to hold leadership positions, which was common for women of any race. Another challenge facing black women was the lack of adequate representation, influence and emphasis in the workforce. The lack of attention to black women's careers is even evident in the context of textual references and history; the…


Benjamin, Lois H. "Black Women in the Academy: Promises and Perils." University Press of Florida: 1997

Coquery-Vidrovitch, C., Raps, B. "African Woman: A Modern History." Boulder: Westview Press, 1997.

Fassinger, Ruth E., Johnson, J., Linn, Sonja, Prosser, J., Richie, B., Robinson, S. "Persistence, Connection, and Passion: A Qualitative Study of the Career Development of Highly Achieving African-American Black and White Women." Journal of Counseling Psychology, Vol. 44, 1997

High Beam Research, LLC. "History." {Online}. Available:

Black Rednecks and White Liberals
Words: 901 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25511215
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Furthermore, he gave a comparison of the northern blacks and southern blacks, demonstrating as to how the northern blacks were more educated, gained higher on tests, and had a higher graduation rate. The reason was because 'north' had 4x more schools than the south (Dutch, 2005).

He commented that racism in the north began when ghetto blacks moved to north, being that both whites and blacks were not much comfortable with the redneck culture within their own community. Also, it was due to the migration of the blacks from the South to North after the liberation of the slaves that racism became common in the north as well as there were many black slave holders, particularly in the southern regions of Louisiana (Dutch, 2005).

He further noted on the history of slavery, which according to him was the estern civilization itself that took a stand against slavery around the world,…

Works Cited

Martin, Dutch. A review on "Black Rednecks and White Liberals by Thomas Sowell"

September 2005. Intellectual Conservative.Com. "Black Rednecks and White Liberals by Thomas Sowell."

Book review

Black Experience in American Culture This Is
Words: 2599 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17779611
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Black Experience in American Culture

This is a paper that analyzes the black experience in American culture as presented by Hughes, Baldwin, Wright and Ellison. It has 20 sources in MLA format.

African-American authors have influenced American culture as they have come forward to present issues that the society would rather have forgotten. Authors such as ichard Wright alph Ellison, Langston Hughes and James Baldwin have come under fire as they have written about the racial and biased experiences throughout their life [Capetti, 2001] and through their narratives they have forged a link between the past, the present (themselves) and their future (the unborn generation).

These literary works are an effort on their part to prove to their nations that regardless of the perceived realities their existence and lives have valuable. The slave past some of these authors have had created a void in their lives that at times left…


1] Sundquist, Eric J. who was Langston Hughes? Relevancy: 100; (Commentary) 12-01-1996

2] Buttitta, Anthony. "A Note on Contempo and Langston Hughes." London: Cunard, 1934. 141.

3] Langston Hughes on Scottsboro. College Literature, 10-01-1995, pp. 30(20). Vol. 22

4] Okafor-Newsum, Ikechukwu, of Dreams Deferred, Dead or Alive: African Perspectives on African-American Writers.. Vol. 29, Research in African Literatures, 03-22-1998, pp. 219(12).

Black Writers on What it Means to
Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83262393
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Black Writers on What it Means to Be White

In his introduction to Black Writers on What it Means to be White, David R. Roediger critiques traditional white historiographies and pays credence to the work of prominent Black scholars the likes of W.E.B. Du Bois and James Baldwin. Roediger shows that whites frequently write about what it means to be Black, but that Black historians, philosophers, and writers are summarily ignored. Most white scholars, according to Roediger, don't feel that Blacks have much insight into the features or characteristics of "whiteness." On the other hand, so-called liberal academics claims to know a lot about the needs, wants, histories, and passions of African-Americans. As the author sets out to prove, Blacks actually have more insight into white culture than vice-versa. Blacks have in fact been uniquely able to perceive whites culture objectively and to understand and criticize their means of oppression.…

Black White and Jewish by Rebecca Walker
Words: 1741 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97405355
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Black, White, Jewish

Black, White, and Jewish -- the Source of All Rebecca Walker's Angst?

Rebecca Walker's memoir Black, White, and Jewish, is subtitled "Autobiography of a Shifting Self." Walker states that is a woman who is most comfortable "in airports" because they are "limbo spaces -- blank, undemanding, neutral." (3) In contrast, because of her multi-racial and multi-ethnic identity, she is both never 'neutral' and also never quite 'of a color.' nly in airports to the rules of the world completely apply to her as well as to the rest of the world, Walker states -- and even then, this statement has an irony, given the recent events and controversies over airport racial profiling that occurred after the book's publication. The book does on to describe, with great poignancy, the author's perceived difficulty of living with a dual, often uncomfortable identity of whiteness and blackness, of Jewishness and 'gentileness.'…

One might ask Walker, however, if this sense of alienation from one's own parents, from one's own past identity, even one's own ancestry, is a condition of a multi-racial and mixed religious background, or a product of American adolescence? But the conventional existence eventually chosen by her father suggests that a White man can return to the mainstream after spurning all these things as a rite of adolescent passage, while Walker cannot. Walker's physical appearance forces her into a continual existence of protest, whether she chooses to conform or not. Even her mother's bohemian existence is chosen, and offers the comfort of ancestry, even an enslaved one.

How constructed, however, one might ask is the idea of ancestry and connection? The unbroken line between African-Americans might itself, one say, be a construction, a tracing together between various Africans who were enslaved centuries ago. An African-American immigrant from Haiti might be 'read' the same by white eyes as one from South Carolina, causing a sense of identity diffusion because of societal mis-reading, as one cannot always see Rebecca Walker's Jewishness upon her. Making a social argument about the destructive legacy of the 1960's from hurt, from the depression and parental and personal conflict that seems to be characteristic of American adolescence is difficult. Individuals of different sexualities, of conflicted relationships even with homogenous paths might make the same argument of placenessness, of existing in a space they must create, rather than find. Although Rebecca Walker's book is a powerful personal testimony, it does not quite hold up -- nor perhaps should it aspire to -- as a sociological document. It is written, as the author admits, with emotion and in her own blood, and cannot admit the alternative perspectives of other American twenty and thirty-somethings undergoing similar identity crisis.

But unlike the identity crisis of leaving and returning to the bosom of the family, Walker has no family to return to -- her parents are divorced and have returned from their respective crisis of identities, into the bosoms of their own ethnic identities. They have been changed and perhaps improved by their heightened cultural exposure. But after her own rebellion, Rebecca Walker has no place to comfortably rest and return to -- except, ironically, the airport, she might say. "I am flesh and blood but I am also ether," she states at the end of her work. She attempts to create anew rather than return to ancestors, like her parents, and this re-creation is a constant source of consternation.

Black Athena First Discuss Your Overall Thoughts
Words: 806 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12684841
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lack Athena

First, discuss your overall thoughts on the controversial lack Athena theory, and discuss the extent to which you think this theory holds weight (be specific: avoid empty answers like "I totally agree" or "this theory is stupid").

The theory itself is reasonable. That is, ernal's critique of earlier historians and their failure to recognize the tremendous cultural influence of North Africa, noted by the ancient Greeks themselves, on Greece in their study of Greek history. However, much of the support that ernal gives, regarding the presence of Greco-African contacts are not directly relevant to his major claim that the Greeks originated in Africa. The revelation of African contact and influence on ancient Greece during the Iron Age, though a valuable contribution to our understanding of the region, is not in itself sufficient to prove the origin of the Greek people.

Overall, ernal's study is interesting and provocative. Also,…


Iliffe, John. Africans: The History of a Continent. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995. Print.

Levtzion, Nehemia; Hopkins, John F.P. eds. And trans. (2000), Corpus of Early Arabic Sources for West Africa, New York, NY: Marcus Weiner.

Black Fem Thought a History
Words: 1983 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15383721
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Another distinction central to the Black feminist's thoughts is the alienation she suffers due to the omission of her presence in history. This omission is not only found in traditional examples of history, but also in Eurocentric feminist views of history. The following quotation from Lorde in her letter to Daly shows the frustration and lack of understanding about the reason such an omission is propagated even among those of her same sex. "…why doesn't Mary deal with Afreket as an example? hy are her goddess-images only white, western-european, judeo-christian…here are the warrior-goddesses of the Vodun, the Dohomeian Amazons and the warrior-women of Dan…Mary has made a conscious decision to narrow her scope and to deal only with the ecology of western-european women (Lorde, 1979, p. 94)." The exclusion of African goddesses from Daly's text, which described the historical roots of women's power, is only a slight example of the…

Works Cited

1. Carby, H. (1982) "White Woman Listen! Black Feminism and the Boundaries of Sisterhood" in Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies The Empire Strikes Back: Race and Racism in 70s Britain. London: Hutchinson.

2. hooks, b. (1981) Aint I a Woman: Black Women and Feminism. Boston: South End Press.

3. hooks, b. (1990) Yearning: Race, Gender and Cultural Politics. Boston: South End Press.

4. Lourde, A. (1981) "An Open Letter to Mary Daly" in Moraga C. And Azadula G. This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Colour. Watertown: Persephone Press.

Black Feminist Thought by Patricia
Words: 797 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Book Review Paper #: 86746261
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Collins cites participation in the abolitionist movement, anti-lynching campaigns of the early 20th century, and recent civil rights work in the South, where Black women have not only worked on behalf of themselves but for all African-Americans (Collins, p. 218). The overarching theme, however is the belief that teaching people how to be self-reliant fosters empowerment. Collins cites Angela Davis (1989), who wrote that activism was designed to empower everyone: "We must climb in such a way as to guarantee that all our sisters, regardless of social class, and indeed all of our brothers climb with us" (Collins, p. 219).

Collins writes "epistemology points to the ways in which power relations shape who is believed and why" (Collins, p. 251). She charges that many Black women are not viewed as credible witnesses for their own experiences (Collins, p. 254) and that the ideas of a relatively select few are safe…


Collins, P.H. (2000). Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness & the Politics of Empowerment.

Eschle, C. (2001). Book review: Black Feminist Thought. International Feminist Journal of Politics 3 (3), 484-486.

Inniss, L.B. (1991). Book review: Black Feminist Thought. Social Science Quarterly (University

of Texas Press) 72 (3), 625-626.

Black Tailored Schools the November
Words: 957 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14807524
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The education reporters of the article cite complaints by students who charge that white teachers give up on them, do not take them seriously as students, and that they detect a difference in the attitude of the teacher towards them that they do not note in the teacher's approach or perception of white students. First, if we finding students making those complaints about teachers, there should be some immediate and serious evaluation of the teacher, and perhaps even training for social sensitivity that such a teacher might be lacking.

In conclusion, it is evidenced by a review of the information in table 4.3, it quickly becomes clear that there is a move afoot to - according to the table - to cause social welfare agencies and the government to be more proactive in addressing the needs of minority students. This may be a good idea, and certainly a necessary move…

Black Susan 2009 The Role
Words: 870 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 95463220
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The authors also provide a great summary on techniques related to developing a hypothesis and how to arrive at questions related to testing and proving a hypothesis.

9. Rogers, R. (2002). Through the eyes of the institution: critical discourse analysis of decision-making in two special education meetings. nthropology and Education

Quarterly, 33(2): 213. Retrieved June 9, 2009 from ProQuest Psychology Journal database.

10. Socio-economic factors. (2004). Environmental health Houston. Retrieved May 9,

2009 from

s pointed out at this website, socio-economic factors may include income, ethnicity, a sense of community and other factors. For example, studies have shown that certain segments of society are disproportionately exposed to environmental hazards and may be more vulnerable to such hazards than other populations.

11. Schram, Thomas H. (2005). Conceptualizing and proposing qualitative research. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

By using friendly, practical tips and an informal, jargon-free writing style, Thomas…

According to the publisher, this up-to-date book is the first of its kind to build upon the basic skills needed to do qualitative research, such as observing, conversing, participating and interpreting. Shanks has also included a comprehensive process associated with the basic skills, such as being a skilled qualitative researcher, conceptualizing, reasoning, analyzing, and narrative writing.

13. The case study of a research method. (2006). Retrieved May 20, 2009 from .

This very long web article points out that case study research excels at creating a clear understanding of a complex issue or object and can extend experience or add strength to what is already known through previous research. Case studies emphasize detailed contextual analysis of a limited number of events or conditions and their relationships and many researchers have used the case study research method across a variety of disciplines. For example, social scientists have made wide use of this qualitative research method to examine contemporary real-life situations and as a way of providing the basis for the application of ideas and the extension of methods.

Black Church the Redemptive Role
Words: 16899 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 2523902
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It will use historical evidence to examine the role of the church is a spiritual entity. It will examine the role of the church as a political entity throughout changing political landscapes. It will explore the role of the church as a social service provider with regards to the importance of this role in helping black people to redeem themselves in light of historical cultural atrocities that they have faced.

esearch Questions

In order to examine that topics of interest un this research study the following research questions be addressed.

1. How has the black church served as redemptive force in helping the black people to heal?

2. What factors served as a redemptive force in helping the image of black people in the black church to improve?

3. How has a black church helped black communities to regain and maintain their self-sufficiency?

4. How has the black church served…


Primary Sources

Aaron. (1845), the Light and Truth of Slavery. Aaron's History: Electronic Edition. Retrieved June 19, 2010 from 

Adams, John Quincy. (1872). Narrative of the Life of John Quincy Adams. Retrieved June 19,

2010 from

Black Feminism Patricia Hill Collins
Words: 1080 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 53446443
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Solidarity created via black feminist discourse is empowering. The acknowledgment of a collective black female identity can lead African-American women to value rather than shun their identities and to embrace the fullness of their culture. Psychological empowerment is a precursor to economic and political empowerment. Empowerment ultimately does not depend on conformity to the predominant social institutions. Another reason why it is important to sustain black feminist thought is that this alternative discourse is the only means by which the voices of the oppressed may be heard. In the same way that empowerment means not having to participate in or condone white male institutions, black feminist ideology defines its own methodological tools. Those tools cannot rely on scholastic sources or the scientific method. A European-masculinist academic institution imposes positivism on all discourse. This shuts down valid voices offering personal opinion, immediate experience, narrative, and other means by which black women…

Black Comedians and Racism in Society
Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37487268
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Black Comedians
Chris Rock and Dave Chappelle are two black comedians who use racial humor as a base for their routine. However, I do think that black comedians making fun of blacks (and whites for that matter, as both Rock and Chappelle routinely do) does encourage amalgamation. The reason for this is that in highlighting in a humorous way our differences, comedians can make is feel more comfortable with each other. There is a kind of cathartic experience in having truths told about yourself or your community in a way that is funny. It makes you feel less sensitive or vulnerable, and as everyone is laughing at the same joke there is a feeling of unity or community because the truth is really what unites people in the end. Comedians can say those truths that might be too uncomfortable to say in a formal manner because they add a touch…

Independence of the Black Church
Words: 2578 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88906127
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Resistance meant affirming one's own cultural heritage, in this case an African-American or black heritage (Lincoln and Mamiya 15).

By the 1990s, the problems encountered and caused by young black students in public schools had become a national priority and among the initiatives proposed by black leader at the time was the establishment of special schools exclusively for young black males. The rationale for this educational initiative was that this would provide the possibility of concentrating exclusively on the learning potential, learning styles, and the learning and behavioral difficulties of these students in a more effective manner than can be done in the traditional coeducational interracial settings that were typically dominated by white and feminine cultures (Billingsley 107). According to this author, "It was an idea, simple and straightforward, that grew out of the best motivations to improve the performance of these boys. It seemed to have a great deal…

Works Cited

Billingsley, Andrew. Mighty like a River: The Black Church and Social Reform. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Billingsley, Andrew, Cleopatra Howard Caldwell, and Roger H. Rubin. (1994). "The Role of the Black Church in Working with Black Adolescents." Adolescence 29(114):251.

Buck, Pearl. The Good Earth. New York: Washington Square Press, 1931 (2004 ed.).

Frederick, Marla F. Between Sundays: Black Women and Everyday Struggles of Faith. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2003.

Raisin in the Sun A Play About a Black Family - Using Universal Themes
Words: 1100 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93680787
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Raisin in the Sun

Reading this play carefully, a person can see that while the characters and setting -- and dialogue -- are related to African-Americans, this play has a universal tone to it. The problems facing this family and the way children interact with their parents are not unique to black folks. Certainly the issued presented in the play relate to African-Americans and to their culture in the 1950s, but the interaction and the conflicts and tension are not unique to one culture. In the Journal of Black Studies scholar Richard A. Duprey points out that A Raisin in the Sun is "…full of human insights that transcend any racial 'concerns'" (Brown, 1974).

Examples that illustrate the truth about life found in the play's passages

omen's practicality: hen alter is discussing one of his dreams, owning a liquor store, he mentions the cost of the investment and then adds…

Works Cited

Brown, Lloyd W. "Lorraine Hansberry as Ironist: A Reappraisal of A Raisin in the Sun."

Journal of Black Studies, 4.3 (1974): 237-247.

Hansberry, Lorraine. A Raisin in the Sun. New York, New York: Vintage Books, 1958.

Black Rednecks and White Liberals
Words: 2740 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28992389
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In addition, they were often enslaved by fellow blacks, capitalizing on the white man's desires, and so, another misconception about slavery is demolished, races did not band together; they worked against each other when enslaving their neighbors.

Slavery ended due to several instances, such as nations becoming larger and larger, taking over more territory, and thus reducing the areas available for slave capture. These areas tended to be small and weak, and when they were taken over, they were no longer acceptable for slave capture (Sowell 115). Serfdom, a popular agricultural solution in Europe, tended to supplant slavery, ending it there, as well. A true philosophy of ending enslavement began in Britain in the 18th century, before that, most civilizations did not view slavery as a problem at all. In fact, the people who first objected were extremely conservation religious members of society, but this is often overlooked or ignored.…


Sowell, Thomas. Black Rednecks and White Liberals. San Francisco, Encounter Books, 2005.

Black Churches and the Struggle for Civil Rights
Words: 1036 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 87522345
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Civil ights: The ole of Black Churches

The audience will understand the role that black churches played in the ongoing Civil ights Movement.

In this speech, I will show that black churches -- through methods of advocacy, spiritual leadership and active participation -- play a significant role in the ongoing Civil ights Movement that began in the mid-20th century and clearly continues on into today's times.

Everyone knows of Martin Luther King, Jr., and the important role he played in the Civil ights Movement. But how many people know about or realized that King was one of many black pastors to bring black churches into the Movement, providing leadership, spiritual nourishment, and advocacy to African-Americans struggling for equality? Or that black churches continue today to be part of that ongoing struggle? Just as black churches are making an impact in cities around the country where communities are torn by racial…


African-American Registry. (n.d.). The Black Churches: A Brief History. AARegistry.

Retrieved from 

Calhoun-Brown, A. (2000). Upon this rock: The black church, nonviolence, and the Civil Rights Movement. PS: Political Science and Politics, 33(2): 168-174.

Dagan, D. (2015). Black churches led the Civil Rights Movement. Can they do it again? The Huffington Post. Retrieved from

Black and White Binary Central to Race Discussion
Words: 1312 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97301537
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1. Black/White binary been central to the discussion of race?

Black/White binary been has been central to the discussion of race because of Perceived racial discrimination (PRD). This is even more so with Black women. Precisely, there has been a decline in obvious racial discriminatory conduct (segregation, rights to vote) and quick rise in subtle racial discriminatory behavior. At the center of these issues for Black women is a struggle over nationality, power, and control that rotates around not just, but gender.

Black/White binary has been central to the discussion of race because indirect racial discrimination has likewise been theorized as racial microaggressions. Racial microaggressions are defined as an everyday exchange that sends demeaning messages to individuals of color for the reason that they belong to a racial minority class. All these conceptualizations highlight the secondary nature of this new racism that is entrenched in undecided attitudes in the direction…

Blacks in Florida
Words: 861 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 71466266
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Jim Crow Florida:

Views expressed by James Weldon Johnson and Zora Neale Hurston

This paper will examine the lives and beliefs of James Weldon Johnson and Zora Neale Hurston as well as exploring each of these individuals interpretation of class and gender in relation to race. This paper will answer the question as to whether their personal reflections of Jim Crow Florida were similar or different and how so.

Zora Neale Hurston, novelist, dramatist, folklorist, and anthropologist was born in, Eatonville Florida, on the day of the 7th, she "heard tell," of January in 1903. It is fairly certain that she was the fifth child born in a total of eight to her parents. That which Hurston, "heard tell" were her brothers different versions of her date of birth appearing to her that none of the brothers actually remembered exactly when she was actually born.

Her father, after her mother…


Glassman, S. & Seidel, K. eds. "Zora in Florida" Orlando: U. Of Central

Florida P, 1991 [Online] Website avaliable at 

Learning Adventures in Citizenship " Zora Neale Hurston" [Online] available at 

Learning Adventures in Citizenship "James Weldon Johnson" [Online] available at

Blacks in America
Words: 474 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 10625838
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United States is a country that thrives on the achievements of various people groups. The achievements of African-Americans in the United States are particularly significant. African-Americans have contributed greatly to the world of literature, medicine, and business. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the role that African-Americans have played in the formulation of American culture.

lacks in America

Although the history of blacks in America has been steeped in bigotry, hatred, and segregation, the culture has managed to face these adversities with courage and triumph. African-American's have fought for equal rights since their arrival in this country. Initially, they were forced to fight for the right to be free men and to end slavery. Eventually, African-Americans also struggled for integration during the civil rights movement. There were several individuals that were instrumental in ensuring that African-Americans were free from slavery and that they gained their civil rights. These…


Bennet, L. 1989. The 50 most important figures in Black American history; experts list men and women who made indispensable contributions. Ebony. Volume: 44 Issue

Black Churches and Targeted Funding
Words: 3348 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 6088776
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Disparity of Targeted Funding in the Black Urban Community

There are many ways to get funding for different types of projects, no matter where a person or organization is located. Some of the areas most in need of funding for projects are in black, urban communities (Barnes, 2005; Day, 2002; Haight, 1998; Patillo-McCoy, 1998). Money is often scarce there, and without funding there are few programs that can help people who really need it. This puts these residents at a distinct disadvantage, and makes it more difficult for them to get out of poverty and build better lives for themselves. No matter what types of programs need funding and financial help, there are different ways in which getting that funding can be considered.

Church congregations often help raise money for community projects, but there are other ways in which these congregations can help those in need (Billingsley, 1999; Brown &…


Barnes, S.L. (2005). Black church culture and community action. Social Forces, 84(2): 967-994.

Billingsley, A. (1999). Mighty like a river: The black church and social reform. NY: Oxford University Press.

Brown, R.K., & Brown, R.E. (2003). Faith and works: Church-based social capital resources and African-American political activism. Social Forces, 82(2): 617-641.

Calhoun-Brown, A. (1996). African-American churches and political mobilization: The psychological impact of organizational resources. The Journal of Politics, 58(4): 935-953.

Black Perspective
Words: 1464 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32964077
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Racial Profiling: Driving While Black

For years, the Black community believed that Black Americans were routinely and disproportionately stopped by police officers while driving in their cars.

Statistical evidence now supports the anecdotal evidence that had been fermenting for so many years.

For example, one scholar conducted a study in New Jersey which concluded that from 1988 to 1991, more than 73% of the persons stopped and arrested while driving on the New Jersey Turnpike were Black. Shockingly, less than 14% of the cars on the Turnpike even carried a Black person - whether as a passenger or driver.

Other studies have come to the same findings and conclusions, and more and more reports of such evidence has been reported as the problem becomes widely known.

Racial profiling affects the victim not just incidentally and individually, but it also affects and reflects many larger societal issues and injustices involving race…

Glisson, C. The Art of the State of Social Work Research: Implications for Mental Health. Research on Social Work Practice 5. 1995: 201-2

Marsh, Jeanne. "Learning from Clients." Social Work.

Davis Angela J.."Prosecution and Race: The Power and Privilege of Discretion." Fordham Law Review. 67 (1998)..

Black Person With Slightly Odd
Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 7814845
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..from living in a racially segregated society" simply because he can discriminate against other races. (osenfeld 1991: 112). In other caricature of racist attitude, legal philosopher ichard Wasserstrom wrote: "to be nonwhite -- especially to be black -- is to be treated and seen to be a member of a group that is different from and inferior to... adult white males."

Though these may be true to certain extent, however it is not correct to regard every person in the United States a racist or charge everyone who makes an observation about people of other races with racial bigotry. ace is as much a part of one's identity as family names and country of origin. There is absolutely no denying that. Therefore to refer to someone as 'black' or 'Hispanic' doesn't really make you a racist. However when claims are made about people of color being deficient or inferior in…


Nickel J. 1975. "Preferential Policies in Hiring and Admissions: A Jurisprudential Approach." Columbia Law Review 75: 534-555.

Thomson J. 1977. "Preferential Hiring." In Cohen, Nagel and Scanlon, eds.: 19-39.

Rosenfeld M. 1991. Affirmative Action and Justice. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.

Wasserstrom R. 1985a. "On Racism and Sexism." In Wasserstrom, ed.: 1-29.

Black No More
Words: 916 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50510219
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Black No More

There is a book I used to read when I was younger by Dr. Seuss called The Sneetches. The main plot is about two groups of Sneetches: "The Star-Bell Sneetches," who "had bellies with stars," and "the Plain-Belly Sneetches" who "had none (stars) upon thars."

Naturally, those with the stars believed that they were much better than those without. They would walk around bragging and looking down on everyone else, "We're the best kind of Sneetch on the beaches.' With their snoots in the air, they would sniff and they'd snort, 'We'll have nothing to do with the Plain-Belly sort!'" Such a situation is prime for Sylvester McMonkey McBean, who is always looking for a way to make some quick money. He sets up a machine that adds stars to the individuals without them. Of course, the ones with stars then want theirs removed. McBean is pleased…

Black White Other Racial Categories
Words: 656 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 66287203
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However, this is not the case for three reasons: people traditionally clustered in a certain race are not at all homogeneous (read: variation in hair color among Europeans). Indeed, genetics have confirmed that there is far more genetic diversity within groups than between groups. The second reason there isn't considerable homogeneity between groups of people and conspicuous differences between groups is that, since our ancestors spread out of Africa, different human populations have always been in genetic contact with each other, constantly 'mixing' genes and making conspicuous difference between groups impossible. Third, there are a number of 'unclassifiable' peoples (darkly pigmented Indians with European-like faces), which, by their very nature, dispel the idea that there are a specific number of races in the world.

By the end of the article, Marks concludes, as he says in the beginning, that race is not a biological factor, but a cultural one. While…


Marks, Jonathan. "Black, White, Other: Racial Categories are Cultural Constructs Masquerading

as Biology."

Black Power and Black Feminism
Words: 1935 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38079545
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Power, Inequality and Conflict
The two theorists used in this paper to explore the theme of “power, inequality and conflict” are W. E. B. Du Bois and Patricia Hill Collins. The theme is one that gets to the heart of the struggle within the American Experience. The great attraction of the American Dream has always been that people are created equal and are endowed with a natural right to pursue life, liberty and happiness. For many minorities and marginalized persons in America, however, the Dream has a way of turning into a nightmare. Whether because of segregation, Jim Crow laws, gender pay gaps, or all manner of harassment (both sexual and racial), the theme of “power, inequality and conflict” has been a constant one throughout American history. While Du Bois explores this theme in “The Conversation of Races,” it is Patricia Hill Collins who is most helpful in providing understanding…

Black Wall Street
Words: 925 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 27052535
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Tulsa Race Riot: What Happened and Why

In 1921, Tulsa, Oklahoma, like many other American cities, was a hotbed of racial tension and the Ku Klux Klan was large, accepted and active in "keeping blacks in their place." Although Jews and Catholics were also targeted, African-Americans were far and away their primary targets. Blaming these minorities for the mainstream society's problems was a simple answer to a complex problem. The brutalities that were visited upon the African-America community in Tulsa were so severe and widespread that the event should be called the "Tulsa Race assacre."

The prosperity that was being enjoyed by many blacks in Tulsa at the time in an area known as "Black Wall Street" and the nice homes that the whites could see from downtown Tulsa served to infuriate many of them to the point where any excuse would be sufficient to exact their revenge for being…

Moreover, even if the charges had been true, the white community's reaction was blown so far out of proportion that it is clear that whites in Tulsa were looking for an excuse to do away with "Black Wall Street" and put the prosperous blacks "back in their place." In order for an event of this magnitude to have occurred, the groundwork must have been in place and the growing strength and increasing popularity of the Ku Klux Klan in Tulsa was matched in other cities in the country as well. All of this indicates that if Rowland had not stumbled, the white community in Tulsa would have likely manufactured another reason for a race riot against the blacks in their city because of this overarching unfettered racist-based hatred. The riot's actual beginnings were also bizarre, with gunfire erupting after a group of blacks assembled at the courthouse to protect Rowland from the lynching that was clearly intended to take place that night.

Although people still talk about how bad race relations are in the United States, it is apparent that the country has come a long way since whites rioted in 1921 in Tulsa and it is reasonable to suggest that no black person anywhere in the country would receive anywhere near the reaction that Rowland evoked at this time. Indeed, it was not even considered at crime at all for a white man to kill a black man during this ugly period in Tulsa's history and the city's history is replete with examples of this happening. It was as it Tulsa existed outside of the United States and the Fourteenth Amendment entirely, existing as it were on another planet where the Constitution did not exist and human beings were judged and executed based solely on the color of their skin.

Certainly, Tulsa was not alone in its treatment of blacks during this period in America's history and two blacks were being lynched somewhere in the country each week. Many legislators in Oklahoma, like several other states, were also members of the Ku Klux Klan. Likewise, all of the elected city officials in Tulsa were elected based on their support of the Klan In this environment, although it is shocking, it is not surprising that an incident like the Tulsa Race Riot of 1921 could occur. To their credit, the state has taken steps to memorialize the incident and Tulsa has established a memorial park to the victims of the race riot near Greenwood Avenue that was dedicated in 2010.

Black Man's Burden by Basil
Words: 1131 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97001301
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Like Nigeria, other African societies where given 'extended histories,' where one African society associates their experiences through the years through the European experience. The author shared the fact that nation-statism is not applicable because Africa has a collective social structure, wherein affinities are created not through geographic location, but rather, through family and kinship (206).

This characteristic led to a disastrous establishment of nation-statism. This political framework is aimed at creating a political system ran by individuals and leaders who are objective -- that is, they work towards achieving the common good of their society. However, in Africa, politics does not work this way. hat happens is that subjectivity is always present in governance, where one's interest is for his clan or tribe only bad intentions targeted towards an enemy clan or tribe. This set-up hardly characterizes an objective political organization. Because of this, according to the author, one can…

Works Cited

Davidson, B. (1992). The Black Man's Burden: African and the curse of the nation-state. NY: Times Books.

Black Vernacular English
Words: 1808 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74008057
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African-American Vernacular English can be described as an assortment of American English that is mostly used by urban-working class and mostly bi-dialectical middle-class black Americans. The language is also commonly known as Black Vernacular English or Black English. In some cases, particularly outside the academic community, it is referred to as Ebonics given its distinctive features and similarities with other non-standard English varieties. The similarities with other varieties are evident when compared to various standard and non-standard English languages that are commonly used in the United States and the Caribbean. In the past few years, African-American Vernacular English has been the subject of various public debates and attracted considerable attention among sociolinguists. This paper examines the development of this language, its distinctive features, cultural context, and socio-economic implications of the use of African-American Vernacular English.

oots of African-American Vernacular English

The history and origin of African-American Vernacular English and other…


Fisher, D. & Lapp, D. (2013, May). Learning to Talk Like the Test: Guiding Speakers of African

American Vernacular English. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 56(8), 634-648.

Harris, Y.R. & Schroeder, V.M. (2013, January 24). Language Deficits or Differences: What We

Know about African-American Vernacular English in the 21st Century. International Education Studies, 6(4), 194-204.

Black's Law Dictionary 1991 Child
Words: 5968 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76815004
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Moreover, it is unclear whether Jim has attempted to reestablish any meaningful contact with his children; rather, his entire focus has been on becoming a better person. While there is certainly nothing wrong with that goal in and of itself (it is, after all, a universal human quality), he appears to have pursued this goal to the total exclusion of making any substantive reparations to his family. Finally, it is interesting that Jim somehow feels compelled to tell others -- including potential employers -- about his criminal past and his current status in treatment, as if this ongoing commitment to all-out honesty somehow absolves him from a deceptive and duplicitous history, or at least helps to explain it (which it does if one is interested). According to Jim, "Entering into society again was very difficult. I had lost my business, my friends and was now divorced. After leaving jail, I…


Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Bryant, J.K. (2009, June). School counselors and child abuse reporting. Professional School

Counseling, 12(5), 130-132.

Bryant, J. & Milsom, a. (2005, October). Child abuse reporting by school counselors.

Black Seminoles
Words: 4377 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 4635779
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Politics makes strange bedfellows, we are told, with the implication that those brought together by the vagaries of politics would be best kept apart. But sometimes this is not true at all. In the case of the Black Seminoles, politics brought slaves and Seminole Indians politics brought together two groups of people who would - had the history of the South been written just a little bit differently - would never have had much in common. But slaves fleeing their masters and Seminoles trying to lay claim to what was left of their traditional lands and ways found each other to be natural allies in Florida and in time in other places as well. This paper examines the origin of this particular American population, describing how the Black Seminoles changed over time and how their culture reflected both African and Seminole elements.

The Black Seminoles began in the early 1800s…

Works Cited

Amos, Alcione M., and Thomas Senter (eds). The Black Seminoles. History of a Freedom-Seeking People. Gainesville: UP of Florida, 1996.

Hancock, I. The Texas Seminoles and Their Language. Austin: African and Afro-American Studies and Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, 1980. 

Jahoda, G. The Trail of Tears. Kansas City: Wings Press, 1995.

Blacks Break the Barriers
Words: 2295 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 59954712
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African-Americans reaking arriers in World War II

arrier reakers

African-Americans and Non- Combat Jobs

First General: enjamin O. Davis, Sr.

Howard Perry

Doris Miller: "The Hero"

Tuskegee Airmen

Phyllis Mae Daliey

African-Americans reaking arriers in World War II

History shows very well that African-American soldiers were a group of men that played a significant role in World War II. Furthermore, it actually shows that more than half a million had actually served in Europe. In spite of the numbers they still encountered racial discrimination: prior to the war the military maintained a racially segregated force. In recent that have been done by studies from the military, blacks were most of the time classified as not being the best fit but being very unfit for combat and were not permitted on the front lines. It is also important to note that they were typically given support duties, and were not permitted…


Bennie J. McRae, Jr. African-Americans in World War II. December 9, 2013.  / (accessed April 18, 2014).

Charleen E. Mcgee, Ph.D. Smith. "Tuskegee Airman: The Biography of Charles E. McGee, Air Force Fighter Combat Record Holder ." 1-204. New York: Branden Pub Co; 2nd edition, 2014.

Miles, Johnnie H. "Educator's Sourcebook of African-American Heritage (Book of Lists)." 1-456. New York: Jossey-Bass; 1 edition, 2005.

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Study of Henry V Act IV Scene 1
Words: 1391 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 14237458
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Henry V is the last, and perhaps most important, play of Shakespeare's tetralogy. Shakespeare's three earlier plays, Richard II, Henry IV, Part I, and Henry IV, Part II, established the foundation for Henry V. hat makes Henry V so pivotal is that it shows King Henry V as the ideal Christian monarch, i.e., a figure of enlightenment and perfection.

This paper examines the function and significance of Act IV, Scene I in the overall development of the play. One of the most remarkable facets of this scene is that it allows the readers to gain an understanding of the common soldiers' view of the matter as well as witness the doubts and insecurities that plague Henry as he prepares for the crucial Battle of Agnicourt. This battle resulted from a dispute between England and France over certain lands and titles.


Act IV, Scene I is critical…


Henry V

W.R. Owens and Lizbeth Goodman, eds. Shakespeare, Aphra Behn and the Canon. London: Routledge, 1996.

An indepth analysis of Black Women Diversity and Inclusion Programs
Words: 1782 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 30314789
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Black Women: Diversity and Inclusion Programs - Are they really assisting?

In the last few decades, researchers, policymakers, economic development experts, and analysts of public policy are increasingly concentrating on the aspect of entrepreneurship in the African-American community, with respect to devising distinct strategies for facilitating economic success. Establishment of set-aside initiatives for minorities (or disadvantaged business initiatives) is one political strategy which serves as an instrument for enhancing small, poor businesses' chances of survival. Several of these businesses were African-American-owned and -run businesses (House-Soremekun, 2007; Chatterji, Chay & Fairlie, 2013). This paper will look into the economics-politics interrelationship, by analyzing the aforementioned disadvantaged business initiatives' effect on African-American businesswomen's economic outcomes.

Policy Background

Set-aside initiatives for minorities first developed during the 1930s, with President oosevelt's Great-Depression-era New Deal initiatives for addressing economic issues (House-Soremekun, 2007). The 1933 Unemployment elief Act prohibited discrimination against people on the basis of color,…


Bardach, E. (2011). Practical guide for policy analysis: the eight-fold path to more effective problem solving, 4th Edition. Sage

Bates, T. and Williams, D. (1995). Preferential Procurement Programs and Minority-Owned Businesses, Journal of Urban Affairs, 17(1): 1-17.

Bates, T. and Williams, D.L. (1993). Racial Politics: Does It Pay? Social Science Quarterly, 74(3): 507-22.

Boston, T. D. (1998). Trends in Minority-Owned Businesses, prepared for the National Research Council Conference on Racial Trends in the United States, Georgia Tech Working Paper.