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The "philosophy" in the sense allow us to carefully reflect and conscientiously revise our outlook. The person who holds such a worldview can be said to be critically present in his or her culture, society, and political community and to be truly educated.
The philosophy raises several questions about human existence, their aim, and human minds.
An attempt to unify these various analyses into a comprehensive and consistent understanding of reality is considered critical in evaluating the value of the philosophy.
Since philosophy involves to the study the arguments and assess evidence for controversial claims, it provides excellent preparation for closely examining the pros and cons of an argument.
One of the aims of the philosophy is that encourages human being to systematically and critically reason to understand the fundamental questions of life that cannot easily be solved through the science.
The main value of philosophy lies that provides one…… [Read More]
The size of the black middle class has increased considerably, and research reveals that there is a steady improvement in the attitudes of whites. And yet negative racial stereotypes continue to cause subtle discrimination which influences how people view and treat each other. It is thought that almost two-thirds of the U.S. population growth over the next 50 years will come from immigrant families which will make race and color once again come to the forefront of public policy (Building One Nation, n.d.).
For a majority of low-income blacks living in conditions of concentrated poverty, and for impoverished members of other minority groups, barriers to full inclusion in American society remain high. In remote communities of concentrated poverty, these individuals often lack access to education and job training opportunities and to networks of social mobility and the support that is necessary in order to advance. Examples of systematic hiring discrimination…… [Read More]
Black Studies -- Research Issues
Wittenbrink, J.F. Judd, B., and Park, M. P "Spontaneous prejudice in context:
Variability in automatically activated attitudes." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 81, No. 5 (2001): 815-827.
The quantitative approach to this research question would collect data in the form of the numerical breakdown of responses. It would consider questions such as the relative percentages of subjects who expressed various positions or exhibited various responses to the experimental situations. For example, a quantitative study of this experimental issue might report that eighty percent of Caucasians exhibited prejudicial attitudes in connection with the presentation of African-Americans in the gang conflict situation, that thirty percent exhibited prejudicial attitudes in the family barbeque situation, and that more Caucasians exhibited prejudicial attitudes in connection with certain contextual backgrounds than in others.
The qualitative approach to this research question would collect data in the…… [Read More]
While all of these do not exist in each behavioral change, but there are specific principles that must be applied for the behavioral change to be effective and long lasting.
One population-based application of TTM is quitting smoking, which is difficult for anyone who smokes, just as most cessation models are difficult. Creating an effective way to quite smoking for entire populations would save lives and millions of dollars in health care costs around the world. The model would need to reach a large number of smokers, it would need to develop reports and manuals to help the smokers during the five stages of intervention, and it would have to include follow-up for those who needed more help with the cessation process. It would also require assessment to the general good of the population, and assess which treatment methods were more successful (reactive or proactive). The results in the study…… [Read More]
Beachum & McCray (2004) point out that the media is the primary means of information dissemination for youth, and portrayals of hip-hop culture in the media is highly likely to influence African-American youth.
The research will first analyze the content of hip-hop music, videos, and club culture to count instances of misogynistic or stereotypical gender roles. Ayana (2009) points out that women are portrayed as sexual objects, prostitutes, and also as socially submissive vs. males. The research will therefore begin with a thorough and honest account of how endemic these images are in hip-hop. esearch questions include the following. Do African-American females fulfill the images of themselves portrayed in hip-hop? Do African-American males perceive and treat African-American females based on input from hip-hop culture? The research hypothesis is as follows. Exposure to mainstream hip-hop culture reinforces misogynistic gender roles and norms, and affects both African-American males and females.
Next, a…… [Read More]
However, our modern perspective and appreciation of objective moral concepts and standards allows us to extract the most beneficial core elements of various religions. At their root, the most fundamental religious principles are much more similar to modern secular moral beliefs than dissimilar and they do not conflict at all with mutual respect and consideration among private religious values and beliefs that may differ substantially.. Ultimately, it is the incorporation of these underlying common principle of love, whether conceived as relating primarily to the relationships among men or those between God and man, which form the basis of genuine morality in human life (Einstein 1930).
Einstein, a. (1950) the World as I See it. Ed. Harris, a. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Equiano, O. (1789) the Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African. Written by Himself. London.
Friedman, L.M. (2005) a History of…… [Read More]
More study needs to go into minority health issues, rather than simply comparing their health experiences with the white community.
There can also be negative connotations held toward some ailments, such as AIDS, which has been called the "gay" disease, which stigmatizes all those who contract the disease. Biases such as these can often affect the outcome of a study or even bias the researchers, even if they do not realize it. Thus, truly defining "whiteness" and who is actually white can affect the outcomes of studies in the future, and can help keep bias from entering into health care studies.
Another interesting statistic is that the United States is the only nation in the West who does not report health information by class. This indicates that many Americans do not feel there are distinct classes in American society, but most sociologists believe there are, and so, health data reported…… [Read More]
Perhaps the biggest argument for monogamy is the moral argument. Most religious groups do not accept polygamy and believe it is a sin against nature and against one another. Even the first residents of Earth, Adam and Eve, were monogamous, and this tradition has continued throughout history in the Christian religion. In addition, there are emotional considerations to think about in polygamous relationships that are usually not present in monogamous relationships. Women may become jealous of each other, especially if the husband pays more attention to one woman rather than another. Even experts note that in polygamous relationships, it is common for two individuals to "pair up" and bond more fully than all the individuals in the group (Fisher 73). In addition, monogamy is natural, while polygamy is not. Author Fisher maintains, "Human beings almost never have to be cajoled into pairing. Instead, we do this naturally. We flirt. We…… [Read More]
This is understandable. However, the way the two writers tell their stories is quite different, somehow. Prince's is told from a woman's point-of-view that is more sensitive, more emotional, and "female." She worries more about others, and becomes very emotionally attached to some of her families. Equiano is emotional too, and not afraid to talk about his emotions, but many of his descriptions are less emotional and more full of facts and actual happenings. Equiano's writing is much more formal. For example, he writes, "During this time I was out of employ, nor was I likely to get a situation suitable for me, which obliged me to go once more to sea. I engaged as steward of a ship called the Hope, Capt. ichard Strange, bound from London to Cadiz in Spain" (Equiano 142). He states the facts, and often without emotion, while Prince's narrative is more like sitting down…… [Read More]
Additionally stated is that substance abuse treatment admission rates among adults aged 55 or older "tended to be highest in northern and northeaster states...in 1999. (Reach of Louisville, SIG, 2009 ) It is reported that study findings have demonstrated that the most benefit from counseling and treatment for substance abuse is that which elderly people "may derive most benefit from..." (Reach of Louisville, SIG, 2009 )
X. Case Study Review
The work of Welte and Mirand (1995) entitled: "Drinking, Problem Drinking And Life Stressors In The Elderly General Population" relates that it is shown in research that while "...heavy drinking in the United States is less prevalent among older persons, some maintain or increase heavy drinking. Late-onset heavy drinking is believed to be related to stressors of aging such as retirement or bereavement, particularly when coping resources or social supports are inadequate. This study investigated that relationship." (Welte and Mirand,…… [Read More]
In fact, by 1850, studies show that about 20% of adult white southerners could not read or write, which was far more than the national figure of 8% (Mintz). Thus, there was less impetus and need for change and growth in the South. There were more undereducated people who only knew how to farm for a living, and there were fewer opportunities for these people to better themselves in thriving economic centers. The economy of the South was rooted in slavery, and there was little else for Southerners who wanted change to do to better themselves and their economy.
Clearly, slavery had a huge and lasting impact on the nation. From the first, slavery was contentious. It was even debated during the writing of the Declaration of Independence, and even then, the North and the South were sharply divided on this issue. The North developed a more viable economy that…… [Read More]
Known as the "artistic sister of the Black Power movement," Black Arts refers to the collective expressions of African-American culture during the 1960s and 1970s. Corresponding with the climax of the Civil Rights movement and the self-empowerment of the African-American community, the Black Arts was a politically charged yet aesthetically ripe collection of visual, performance, music, and literary art forms. Amiri Baraka is credited widely with the genesis of the Black Arts movement. The assassination of Malcolm X is said to have inspired Baraka to move to Harlem and delve into the transformative power of art for emboldening the black community (Salaam). Even when he was still known as LeRoi Jones, Baraka had been involved in the publishing industry, and had worked as a poet, arts critic, and playwright. His founding of the Black Arts Repertory Theatre/School (BARTS) is the "formal beginning" of the movement, which Baraka himself…… [Read More]
lack Women on Early Television
African-American portrayals on television have been based on negative stereotypes that do not objectively or accurately portray reality... These stereotypes include, but are not limited to, the portrayal of African-Americans as inferior, lazy, dumb, dishonest, comical, unethical, and crooked (U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 1977). Dates (1990) was able to add to this list: insolent, bestial, brutish, power-hungry, money hungry and ignorant." (Rada)
The image of lack people on television has changed somewhat since the early era of television. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the roles that black women played in the early era of Television. We will discuss how the roles of lack women were limited to playing the role of mammies during the early era of television. The paper will also discuss roles for lack women that were labeled as being too white. In addition, our research will examine the…… [Read More]
Notwithstanding its roots in African dance, in actuality, it was a fighting style designed by African slaves as a means of protecting themselves from government agents searching for them after their escape from enslavement. Likewise, Levine focuses heavily on the connection between the slave culture that was evident in the American South, while much of it may actually have been shaped by the need to conceal it from white society.
The mere fact that Christianity, and more specifically, Southern Baptism, became the predominant religion of the millions of descendants of the Africans enslaved in America would seem to provide the most support for Rock's position. It is difficult to know how many of the slaves who eventually (and ironically) adopted the very religious traditions of those who enslaved them and held them captive for generations. Certainly, there are elements of contemporary black religious culture that can be traced back to…… [Read More]
This story clearly outlines the level of difference and separation that is experienced by many members of the African-American community in a variety of ways, and most clearly deals with the economic impact and institutional nature of the racism this community has experienced.
Another very interesting perspective is provided in McPherson's memoir regarding his own experiences, Crabcakes (1999). Many different episodes reflecting sometimes subtle and sometimes quite obvious differences in perspective appear in this memoir, yet one strain that appears significant several times is the role of religion -- and more specifically, of Church -- in the development of the African-American community and African-American individuals. Again, a clear lack of consensus amongst the community is seen here, as some individuals are very religious while others regard it with outright contempt, yet there is also a cohesion in the Church-centered communities that exist. This makes for an interesting juxtaposition of perspectives…… [Read More]
Uncle Tom characters were common in both white and black productions of the time, yet no director before Micheaux had so much as dared to shine a light on the psychology that ravages such characters. By essentially bowing to the two white men, Micheaux implied that Old Ned was less than a man; an individual whittled down to nothing more than yes-man and wholly deprived of self-worth. At this point in the history of black films, with some of the most flagrant sufferings of blacks exposed to the American public, the only logical path forward that African-Americans could take was to begin making cogent demands to improve their collective social situation.
Slowly, black characters in film took on greater and more significant roles in film. Sidney Poitier was one of the most powerful film stars of the mid twentieth century. In roles like the 1950 film by…… [Read More]
.. The history of miscegenation in this country...demonstrate[s] how society has used skin color to demarcate lines between racial groups and to determine the relative position and treatment of individuals within racial categories. (Jones, 2000, p. 1487)
Prior to the civil war lighter skinned blacks were more likely to gain their freedom, and own property, through favor or inheritance. This is probably in part to the public, sometimes even official, recognition of their lineage, often they were the product of their white masters and favored slaves.
The large number of mulattoes among the slaves freed in Missouri suggests the master's benevolence was a genuinely warm feeling he had for persons he knew to be his blood relations. By 1860, the presence of 1,662 mulattoes in the total free Negro group of 3,572 in Missouri, indicates considerable race-mixing. (Official Manual State of Missouri, 1973-1974 "The ole of the Negro in Missouri…… [Read More]
Once they arrived, they were brought to a slave market and usually auctioned off to the highest bidder just as cattle and horses were auctioned off. he slaves then spent their lives of servitude helping white farm and plantation owners in their agricultural operations. he slaves weren't typically compensated and lived in deplorable conditions. Slavery helped many white land owners become rich, and the southern colonies, which turned into the southern states, remained slave states, while those in the north became know as free states, where slavery was not legal. his dichotomy of cultures, between the northern and southern states, eventually led to further economic and cultural rifts leading up to the Civil War in 1860.
During the Civil War, the northern states allowed blacks to serve in the Union Army. Southern states, eager to fight for their way of life and economic interests, were against the abolition of slavery.…… [Read More]
Black Culture Films
Black Culture Documentaries
Quite often and particularly in the United States, it is commonplace to understand the black cultural experience largely through the lenses of slavery and the Civil Rights movement. And to be certain, these are aspects of the experience that have left indelible imprints on black identity. However, as the collection of documentaries assessed here denotes, the black cultural experience is diverse and nuanced in a way that often goes unnoted in the discourse over struggle and oppression. This is particularly on display in the pair of documentary installments by Basil Davidson, which are concerned with the cultural conditions both historical and present in different parts of Africa.
Indeed, what is so compelling about works such as Caravans of Gold is that such films alter the discussion on the black cultural experience by reflecting on the variant of positive contributions made to the evolution of…… [Read More]
Blacks in Florida
The history of slavery that has haunted the African-Americans for centuries has allowed the society to forget the heritage of their culture. The shame and considerable violence that surrounds their slave pasts overwhelms people so that they are apt to forget that these peoples had a history before they came or were brought to the 'western' world. Most historians and academics follow the impact of the African-American culture on the U.S. lands and people, much like the influence of the African-Americans on Spanish Colonial Florida as presented by Jane Landers in her article, "Traditions of African-American Freedom and Community in Spanish Colonial Florida" and Hall's "African eligious etentions in Florida" through the basis of slaves being seen as mere 'animals' that had to be civilized. What influence they are seen to have then is seen to emerge from their repressive slave pasts rather than from the time…… [Read More]
" (Zeleza, 2003, p. 1) in the U.S. "there are...at least four waves of African diasporas: first the historical communities of African-Americans, themselves formed out of complex internal and external migrations over several hundred years; second, migrant communities from other diasporic locations, such as the Caribbean that have maintained or invoke, when necessary or convenient, national identities such as Jamaicans, Puerto icans, Cubans....; third, the recent immigrants from the indigenous communities of Africa; and finally, African migrants who are themselves diasporas from Asia or Europe." (Zeleza, 2003, p. 2) Each of these diasporas "...has its own connections and commitments to Africa, its own memories and imaginations of Africa and its own conceptions of the diasporic condition and identity." (Zeleza, 2003, p. 2) the following figure illustrates these linkages among African-American women in American Institutions and throughout the world.
Linkages between African-American Women in American Institutions and Throughout the World
SHAPE…… [Read More]
Black Reconstruction in America by .E.B. Du Bois
The Perpetuation of the "Color Caste" and Socio-economic Stratification in "Black Reconstruction in America" by .E.B. Du Bois
illiam E.B. Du Bois, American writer and historian, is known for his active participation in promoting Black Power movements in American society during the early 20th century, a period wherein society is dominated and controlled by the white American race. During this period also, there is a strong sentiment of racism and prejudice against black Americans, then called Negro slaves, wherein, Du Bois himself experienced the struggles and challenges his fellow black Americans had to go through in order to achieve emancipation from the bondage of slavery and racism.
Du Bois had written numerous discourses about black American prejudice throughout his lifetime. However, the essay "Black Reconstruction in America," written in 1935, provides an insightful and fresh perspective in looking at the socio-economic factors…… [Read More]
Such data gathering helped decide the number to be produced and the time frame to be given for the manufacturing process for the first batch at least. Similarly, data is now sought on the problem that has developed and for the development of alternatives for addressing the problem and achieving a better procedure for the future.
Management is aware that what the company needs are both short- and long-term solutions, and the two are clearly linked. If the short-term solution includes a product recall, for instance, then the long-term reputation of the company may suffer and require specific attention. The alternatives for the short-term include the following:
product recall ignore the issue as if it were a one-time freak accident continue to sell the product with a warning label sell the current inventory while also taking a look at the product and its manufacture for possible changes for the…… [Read More]
Black-Scholes model is essentially a formula used in the calculation of a theoretical call price for options. It is considered to be the fundamental model for pricing in the option market (Cretien, 2006). This model uses in its calculation the five main determinants of an option's price, which include stock price, strike price, volatility, time left until expiration, as well as risk-free, short-term interest rate (Hoadley, 2010). The computations executed by the Black-Scholes model result in prices that are close to actual market value as long as input variables are determined that are reasonably accurate (Cretien, 2006). A benefit resulting from the use of this model is that it provides traders with a means to compare market prices with alternative values while using different inputs (Cretien, 2006). The Black-Scholes model also assists in the prediction of movements in price for investments other than options by providing a way to compute…… [Read More]
The Black & Decker DOM system aligns with the Distributed Order Management (DOM) Hierarchical Model shown in Figure 1 as is shown in the Appendix of this study. This model conceptually illustrates how the Black & Decker supply chain, DOM, and distribution networks are integrated with each other (Johnson, 2003, et.al.).
The Data Services of Black & Decker, as defined by its customer- and shipment history databases, anchor the model, followed by Application Services, Presentation Services, and a separate Presentation Services specifically for Internal and External Constituents of the logistics provider.
The Master Data Services component is where Black & Decker 'normalizes and synchronizes data on customers, products, accounts, and suppliers is the primary building block. There are several techniques Black & Decker relies on building a system of record from database consolidation to the development of virtual objects that are a composite of various systems. egardless of the overall…… [Read More]
There are some generalizations from the survey that are useful in the sense that they offer solid social reasons why pastors should be in touch with today's unmarried parents, in order to provide services for them outside their attendance for Sunday sermons: one, unmarried parents are "twice as likely to live below the poverty line as married parents"; two, unmarried parents are "twice as likely to have dropped out of school as married parents"; three, unmarried parents are "twice as likely" to have reported being in some degree of trouble with alcohol or with illegal drugs; four, unmarried parents "are younger than married parents" by an average of 7 years; and five, forty-three percent of unmarried mothers "have children with at least two men," while just 15% of married mothers "have children with different fathers."
In conclusion, Parke writes that the data from the research helps to dispel the myth…… [Read More]
Black Women in Law Profession Early Twentieth Century
Black women attempting to enter careers in law during the period from 1900 through 1970 faced a variety of unique challenges. During this era, many women of all races began to question their role and place into society; it was during this time that civil rights campaigns were beginning to flourish, and African-American women as faced the prospect of not only being a minority as a woman, but also being a minority because of their skin color and ethnic heritage.
African-American women attempting to pursue careers during this time rarely had the opportunity to hold leadership positions, which was common for women of any race. Another challenge facing black women was the lack of adequate representation, influence and emphasis in the workforce. The lack of attention to black women's careers is even evident in the context of textual references and history; the…… [Read More]
Furthermore, he gave a comparison of the northern blacks and southern blacks, demonstrating as to how the northern blacks were more educated, gained higher on tests, and had a higher graduation rate. The reason was because 'north' had 4x more schools than the south (Dutch, 2005).
He commented that racism in the north began when ghetto blacks moved to north, being that both whites and blacks were not much comfortable with the redneck culture within their own community. Also, it was due to the migration of the blacks from the South to North after the liberation of the slaves that racism became common in the north as well as there were many black slave holders, particularly in the southern regions of Louisiana (Dutch, 2005).
He further noted on the history of slavery, which according to him was the estern civilization itself that took a stand against slavery around the world,…… [Read More]
Black Experience in American Culture
This is a paper that analyzes the black experience in American culture as presented by Hughes, Baldwin, Wright and Ellison. It has 20 sources in MLA format.
African-American authors have influenced American culture as they have come forward to present issues that the society would rather have forgotten. Authors such as ichard Wright alph Ellison, Langston Hughes and James Baldwin have come under fire as they have written about the racial and biased experiences throughout their life [Capetti, 2001] and through their narratives they have forged a link between the past, the present (themselves) and their future (the unborn generation).
These literary works are an effort on their part to prove to their nations that regardless of the perceived realities their existence and lives have valuable. The slave past some of these authors have had created a void in their lives that at times left…… [Read More]
Black Writers on What it Means to Be White
In his introduction to Black Writers on What it Means to be White, David R. Roediger critiques traditional white historiographies and pays credence to the work of prominent Black scholars the likes of W.E.B. Du Bois and James Baldwin. Roediger shows that whites frequently write about what it means to be Black, but that Black historians, philosophers, and writers are summarily ignored. Most white scholars, according to Roediger, don't feel that Blacks have much insight into the features or characteristics of "whiteness." On the other hand, so-called liberal academics claims to know a lot about the needs, wants, histories, and passions of African-Americans. As the author sets out to prove, Blacks actually have more insight into white culture than vice-versa. Blacks have in fact been uniquely able to perceive whites culture objectively and to understand and criticize their means of oppression.…… [Read More]
Black, White, Jewish
Black, White, and Jewish -- the Source of All Rebecca Walker's Angst?
Rebecca Walker's memoir Black, White, and Jewish, is subtitled "Autobiography of a Shifting Self." Walker states that is a woman who is most comfortable "in airports" because they are "limbo spaces -- blank, undemanding, neutral." (3) In contrast, because of her multi-racial and multi-ethnic identity, she is both never 'neutral' and also never quite 'of a color.' nly in airports to the rules of the world completely apply to her as well as to the rest of the world, Walker states -- and even then, this statement has an irony, given the recent events and controversies over airport racial profiling that occurred after the book's publication. The book does on to describe, with great poignancy, the author's perceived difficulty of living with a dual, often uncomfortable identity of whiteness and blackness, of Jewishness and 'gentileness.'…… [Read More]
First, discuss your overall thoughts on the controversial lack Athena theory, and discuss the extent to which you think this theory holds weight (be specific: avoid empty answers like "I totally agree" or "this theory is stupid").
The theory itself is reasonable. That is, ernal's critique of earlier historians and their failure to recognize the tremendous cultural influence of North Africa, noted by the ancient Greeks themselves, on Greece in their study of Greek history. However, much of the support that ernal gives, regarding the presence of Greco-African contacts are not directly relevant to his major claim that the Greeks originated in Africa. The revelation of African contact and influence on ancient Greece during the Iron Age, though a valuable contribution to our understanding of the region, is not in itself sufficient to prove the origin of the Greek people.
Overall, ernal's study is interesting and provocative. Also,…… [Read More]
Black-Scholes Option Pricing Model was developed in the 1970s as a way to generate a legitimate and accurate valuation model for stock prices based on specific circumstances in the market and the stock options. It is the creation of economists Myron Scholes and Fischer Black who aimed to better forecast call options at various times within the option life cycle (PBS, 2000). According to the research, "this work involved calculating a derivative to measure how the discount rate of a warrant varies with time and stock price" (ubash, 2012). Essentially, the formula is a method for analyzing and forecasting call and put options within specific market circumstances for individual stock options. It is often used in modern investing and trading for "calculating the premium of an option" (Investopedia, 2013). Since its inception, the formula has become a powerful tool that greatly strengthens the ability of investors to forecast just the…… [Read More]
Another distinction central to the Black feminist's thoughts is the alienation she suffers due to the omission of her presence in history. This omission is not only found in traditional examples of history, but also in Eurocentric feminist views of history. The following quotation from Lorde in her letter to Daly shows the frustration and lack of understanding about the reason such an omission is propagated even among those of her same sex. "…why doesn't Mary deal with Afreket as an example? hy are her goddess-images only white, western-european, judeo-christian…here are the warrior-goddesses of the Vodun, the Dohomeian Amazons and the warrior-women of Dan…Mary has made a conscious decision to narrow her scope and to deal only with the ecology of western-european women (Lorde, 1979, p. 94)." The exclusion of African goddesses from Daly's text, which described the historical roots of women's power, is only a slight example of the…… [Read More]
Collins cites participation in the abolitionist movement, anti-lynching campaigns of the early 20th century, and recent civil rights work in the South, where Black women have not only worked on behalf of themselves but for all African-Americans (Collins, p. 218). The overarching theme, however is the belief that teaching people how to be self-reliant fosters empowerment. Collins cites Angela Davis (1989), who wrote that activism was designed to empower everyone: "We must climb in such a way as to guarantee that all our sisters, regardless of social class, and indeed all of our brothers climb with us" (Collins, p. 219).
Collins writes "epistemology points to the ways in which power relations shape who is believed and why" (Collins, p. 251). She charges that many Black women are not viewed as credible witnesses for their own experiences (Collins, p. 254) and that the ideas of a relatively select few are safe…… [Read More]
The education reporters of the article cite complaints by students who charge that white teachers give up on them, do not take them seriously as students, and that they detect a difference in the attitude of the teacher towards them that they do not note in the teacher's approach or perception of white students. First, if we finding students making those complaints about teachers, there should be some immediate and serious evaluation of the teacher, and perhaps even training for social sensitivity that such a teacher might be lacking.
In conclusion, it is evidenced by a review of the information in table 4.3, it quickly becomes clear that there is a move afoot to - according to the table - to cause social welfare agencies and the government to be more proactive in addressing the needs of minority students. This may be a good idea, and certainly a necessary move…… [Read More]
Black Swan: A Study in Hollywood Psychology
The film Black Swan was noteworthy in the way it explored the dark side of ballet, including eating disorders, psychological manipulation, and how the pressures of achieving perfection can wreak havoc with the developing psyche of a young woman. The central protagonist Nina is a rising star in a prestigious city ballet company. She is given the task of dancing the lead role of Swan Lake. This is one of the most technically and emotionally demanding of all roles in ballet. The White Swan Odette, is supposed to embody purity, while the Black Swan Odile, embodies all that Odette is not and thus temporarily seduces the prince and the audience with her sexuality and bravado. Nina is told early on in the film by the ballet company director that while she is technically proficient she lacks the qualities needed to embody the Black…… [Read More]
The authors also provide a great summary on techniques related to developing a hypothesis and how to arrive at questions related to testing and proving a hypothesis.
9. Rogers, R. (2002). Through the eyes of the institution: critical discourse analysis of decision-making in two special education meetings. nthropology and Education
Quarterly, 33(2): 213. Retrieved June 9, 2009 from ProQuest Psychology Journal database.
10. Socio-economic factors. (2004). Environmental health Houston. Retrieved May 9,
2009 from http://envirohealthhouston.org/hazards/socioeconomic.html.
s pointed out at this website, socio-economic factors may include income, ethnicity, a sense of community and other factors. For example, studies have shown that certain segments of society are disproportionately exposed to environmental hazards and may be more vulnerable to such hazards than other populations.
11. Schram, Thomas H. (2005). Conceptualizing and proposing qualitative research. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
By using friendly, practical tips and an informal, jargon-free writing style, Thomas…… [Read More]
It will use historical evidence to examine the role of the church is a spiritual entity. It will examine the role of the church as a political entity throughout changing political landscapes. It will explore the role of the church as a social service provider with regards to the importance of this role in helping black people to redeem themselves in light of historical cultural atrocities that they have faced.
In order to examine that topics of interest un this research study the following research questions be addressed.
1. How has the black church served as redemptive force in helping the black people to heal?
2. What factors served as a redemptive force in helping the image of black people in the black church to improve?
3. How has a black church helped black communities to regain and maintain their self-sufficiency?
4. How has the black church served…… [Read More]
Solidarity created via black feminist discourse is empowering. The acknowledgment of a collective black female identity can lead African-American women to value rather than shun their identities and to embrace the fullness of their culture. Psychological empowerment is a precursor to economic and political empowerment. Empowerment ultimately does not depend on conformity to the predominant social institutions. Another reason why it is important to sustain black feminist thought is that this alternative discourse is the only means by which the voices of the oppressed may be heard. In the same way that empowerment means not having to participate in or condone white male institutions, black feminist ideology defines its own methodological tools. Those tools cannot rely on scholastic sources or the scientific method. A European-masculinist academic institution imposes positivism on all discourse. This shuts down valid voices offering personal opinion, immediate experience, narrative, and other means by which black women…… [Read More]
Chris Rock and Dave Chappelle are two black comedians who use racial humor as a base for their routine. However, I do think that black comedians making fun of blacks (and whites for that matter, as both Rock and Chappelle routinely do) does encourage amalgamation. The reason for this is that in highlighting in a humorous way our differences, comedians can make is feel more comfortable with each other. There is a kind of cathartic experience in having truths told about yourself or your community in a way that is funny. It makes you feel less sensitive or vulnerable, and as everyone is laughing at the same joke there is a feeling of unity or community because the truth is really what unites people in the end. Comedians can say those truths that might be too uncomfortable to say in a formal manner because they add a touch…… [Read More]
Resistance meant affirming one's own cultural heritage, in this case an African-American or black heritage (Lincoln and Mamiya 15).
By the 1990s, the problems encountered and caused by young black students in public schools had become a national priority and among the initiatives proposed by black leader at the time was the establishment of special schools exclusively for young black males. The rationale for this educational initiative was that this would provide the possibility of concentrating exclusively on the learning potential, learning styles, and the learning and behavioral difficulties of these students in a more effective manner than can be done in the traditional coeducational interracial settings that were typically dominated by white and feminine cultures (Billingsley 107). According to this author, "It was an idea, simple and straightforward, that grew out of the best motivations to improve the performance of these boys. It seemed to have a great deal…… [Read More]
Raisin in the Sun
Reading this play carefully, a person can see that while the characters and setting -- and dialogue -- are related to African-Americans, this play has a universal tone to it. The problems facing this family and the way children interact with their parents are not unique to black folks. Certainly the issued presented in the play relate to African-Americans and to their culture in the 1950s, but the interaction and the conflicts and tension are not unique to one culture. In the Journal of Black Studies scholar Richard A. Duprey points out that A Raisin in the Sun is "…full of human insights that transcend any racial 'concerns'" (Brown, 1974).
Examples that illustrate the truth about life found in the play's passages
omen's practicality: hen alter is discussing one of his dreams, owning a liquor store, he mentions the cost of the investment and then adds…… [Read More]
In addition, they were often enslaved by fellow blacks, capitalizing on the white man's desires, and so, another misconception about slavery is demolished, races did not band together; they worked against each other when enslaving their neighbors.
Slavery ended due to several instances, such as nations becoming larger and larger, taking over more territory, and thus reducing the areas available for slave capture. These areas tended to be small and weak, and when they were taken over, they were no longer acceptable for slave capture (Sowell 115). Serfdom, a popular agricultural solution in Europe, tended to supplant slavery, ending it there, as well. A true philosophy of ending enslavement began in Britain in the 18th century, before that, most civilizations did not view slavery as a problem at all. In fact, the people who first objected were extremely conservation religious members of society, but this is often overlooked or ignored.…… [Read More]
Civil ights: The ole of Black Churches
The audience will understand the role that black churches played in the ongoing Civil ights Movement.
In this speech, I will show that black churches -- through methods of advocacy, spiritual leadership and active participation -- play a significant role in the ongoing Civil ights Movement that began in the mid-20th century and clearly continues on into today's times.
Everyone knows of Martin Luther King, Jr., and the important role he played in the Civil ights Movement. But how many people know about or realized that King was one of many black pastors to bring black churches into the Movement, providing leadership, spiritual nourishment, and advocacy to African-Americans struggling for equality? Or that black churches continue today to be part of that ongoing struggle? Just as black churches are making an impact in cities around the country where communities are torn by racial…… [Read More]
1. Black/White binary been central to the discussion of race?
Black/White binary been has been central to the discussion of race because of Perceived racial discrimination (PRD). This is even more so with Black women. Precisely, there has been a decline in obvious racial discriminatory conduct (segregation, rights to vote) and quick rise in subtle racial discriminatory behavior. At the center of these issues for Black women is a struggle over nationality, power, and control that rotates around not just, but gender.
Black/White binary has been central to the discussion of race because indirect racial discrimination has likewise been theorized as racial microaggressions. Racial microaggressions are defined as an everyday exchange that sends demeaning messages to individuals of color for the reason that they belong to a racial minority class. All these conceptualizations highlight the secondary nature of this new racism that is entrenched in undecided attitudes in the direction…… [Read More]
Jim Crow Florida:
Views expressed by James Weldon Johnson and Zora Neale Hurston
This paper will examine the lives and beliefs of James Weldon Johnson and Zora Neale Hurston as well as exploring each of these individuals interpretation of class and gender in relation to race. This paper will answer the question as to whether their personal reflections of Jim Crow Florida were similar or different and how so.
Zora Neale Hurston, novelist, dramatist, folklorist, and anthropologist was born in, Eatonville Florida, on the day of the 7th, she "heard tell," of January in 1903. It is fairly certain that she was the fifth child born in a total of eight to her parents. That which Hurston, "heard tell" were her brothers different versions of her date of birth appearing to her that none of the brothers actually remembered exactly when she was actually born.
Her father, after her mother…… [Read More]
United States is a country that thrives on the achievements of various people groups. The achievements of African-Americans in the United States are particularly significant. African-Americans have contributed greatly to the world of literature, medicine, and business. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the role that African-Americans have played in the formulation of American culture.
lacks in America
Although the history of blacks in America has been steeped in bigotry, hatred, and segregation, the culture has managed to face these adversities with courage and triumph. African-American's have fought for equal rights since their arrival in this country. Initially, they were forced to fight for the right to be free men and to end slavery. Eventually, African-Americans also struggled for integration during the civil rights movement. There were several individuals that were instrumental in ensuring that African-Americans were free from slavery and that they gained their civil rights. These…… [Read More]
Disparity of Targeted Funding in the Black Urban Community
There are many ways to get funding for different types of projects, no matter where a person or organization is located. Some of the areas most in need of funding for projects are in black, urban communities (Barnes, 2005; Day, 2002; Haight, 1998; Patillo-McCoy, 1998). Money is often scarce there, and without funding there are few programs that can help people who really need it. This puts these residents at a distinct disadvantage, and makes it more difficult for them to get out of poverty and build better lives for themselves. No matter what types of programs need funding and financial help, there are different ways in which getting that funding can be considered.
Church congregations often help raise money for community projects, but there are other ways in which these congregations can help those in need (Billingsley, 1999; Brown &…… [Read More]
Racial Profiling: Driving While Black
For years, the Black community believed that Black Americans were routinely and disproportionately stopped by police officers while driving in their cars.
Statistical evidence now supports the anecdotal evidence that had been fermenting for so many years.
For example, one scholar conducted a study in New Jersey which concluded that from 1988 to 1991, more than 73% of the persons stopped and arrested while driving on the New Jersey Turnpike were Black. Shockingly, less than 14% of the cars on the Turnpike even carried a Black person - whether as a passenger or driver.
Other studies have come to the same findings and conclusions, and more and more reports of such evidence has been reported as the problem becomes widely known.
Racial profiling affects the victim not just incidentally and individually, but it also affects and reflects many larger societal issues and injustices involving race…… [Read More]
..from living in a racially segregated society" simply because he can discriminate against other races. (osenfeld 1991: 112). In other caricature of racist attitude, legal philosopher ichard Wasserstrom wrote: "to be nonwhite -- especially to be black -- is to be treated and seen to be a member of a group that is different from and inferior to... adult white males."
Though these may be true to certain extent, however it is not correct to regard every person in the United States a racist or charge everyone who makes an observation about people of other races with racial bigotry. ace is as much a part of one's identity as family names and country of origin. There is absolutely no denying that. Therefore to refer to someone as 'black' or 'Hispanic' doesn't really make you a racist. However when claims are made about people of color being deficient or inferior in…… [Read More]
Black No More
There is a book I used to read when I was younger by Dr. Seuss called The Sneetches. The main plot is about two groups of Sneetches: "The Star-Bell Sneetches," who "had bellies with stars," and "the Plain-Belly Sneetches" who "had none (stars) upon thars."
Naturally, those with the stars believed that they were much better than those without. They would walk around bragging and looking down on everyone else, "We're the best kind of Sneetch on the beaches.' With their snoots in the air, they would sniff and they'd snort, 'We'll have nothing to do with the Plain-Belly sort!'" Such a situation is prime for Sylvester McMonkey McBean, who is always looking for a way to make some quick money. He sets up a machine that adds stars to the individuals without them. Of course, the ones with stars then want theirs removed. McBean is pleased…… [Read More]
However, this is not the case for three reasons: people traditionally clustered in a certain race are not at all homogeneous (read: variation in hair color among Europeans). Indeed, genetics have confirmed that there is far more genetic diversity within groups than between groups. The second reason there isn't considerable homogeneity between groups of people and conspicuous differences between groups is that, since our ancestors spread out of Africa, different human populations have always been in genetic contact with each other, constantly 'mixing' genes and making conspicuous difference between groups impossible. Third, there are a number of 'unclassifiable' peoples (darkly pigmented Indians with European-like faces), which, by their very nature, dispel the idea that there are a specific number of races in the world.
By the end of the article, Marks concludes, as he says in the beginning, that race is not a biological factor, but a cultural one. While…… [Read More]
Tulsa Race Riot: What Happened and Why
In 1921, Tulsa, Oklahoma, like many other American cities, was a hotbed of racial tension and the Ku Klux Klan was large, accepted and active in "keeping blacks in their place." Although Jews and Catholics were also targeted, African-Americans were far and away their primary targets. Blaming these minorities for the mainstream society's problems was a simple answer to a complex problem. The brutalities that were visited upon the African-America community in Tulsa were so severe and widespread that the event should be called the "Tulsa Race assacre."
The prosperity that was being enjoyed by many blacks in Tulsa at the time in an area known as "Black Wall Street" and the nice homes that the whites could see from downtown Tulsa served to infuriate many of them to the point where any excuse would be sufficient to exact their revenge for being…… [Read More]
Power, Inequality and Conflict
The two theorists used in this paper to explore the theme of “power, inequality and conflict” are W. E. B. Du Bois and Patricia Hill Collins. The theme is one that gets to the heart of the struggle within the American Experience. The great attraction of the American Dream has always been that people are created equal and are endowed with a natural right to pursue life, liberty and happiness. For many minorities and marginalized persons in America, however, the Dream has a way of turning into a nightmare. Whether because of segregation, Jim Crow laws, gender pay gaps, or all manner of harassment (both sexual and racial), the theme of “power, inequality and conflict” has been a constant one throughout American history. While Du Bois explores this theme in “The Conversation of Races,” it is Patricia Hill Collins who is most helpful in providing understanding…… [Read More]
Like Nigeria, other African societies where given 'extended histories,' where one African society associates their experiences through the years through the European experience. The author shared the fact that nation-statism is not applicable because Africa has a collective social structure, wherein affinities are created not through geographic location, but rather, through family and kinship (206).
This characteristic led to a disastrous establishment of nation-statism. This political framework is aimed at creating a political system ran by individuals and leaders who are objective -- that is, they work towards achieving the common good of their society. However, in Africa, politics does not work this way. hat happens is that subjectivity is always present in governance, where one's interest is for his clan or tribe only bad intentions targeted towards an enemy clan or tribe. This set-up hardly characterizes an objective political organization. Because of this, according to the author, one can…… [Read More]
African-American Vernacular English can be described as an assortment of American English that is mostly used by urban-working class and mostly bi-dialectical middle-class black Americans. The language is also commonly known as Black Vernacular English or Black English. In some cases, particularly outside the academic community, it is referred to as Ebonics given its distinctive features and similarities with other non-standard English varieties. The similarities with other varieties are evident when compared to various standard and non-standard English languages that are commonly used in the United States and the Caribbean. In the past few years, African-American Vernacular English has been the subject of various public debates and attracted considerable attention among sociolinguists. This paper examines the development of this language, its distinctive features, cultural context, and socio-economic implications of the use of African-American Vernacular English.
oots of African-American Vernacular English
The history and origin of African-American Vernacular English and other…… [Read More]
Moreover, it is unclear whether Jim has attempted to reestablish any meaningful contact with his children; rather, his entire focus has been on becoming a better person. While there is certainly nothing wrong with that goal in and of itself (it is, after all, a universal human quality), he appears to have pursued this goal to the total exclusion of making any substantive reparations to his family. Finally, it is interesting that Jim somehow feels compelled to tell others -- including potential employers -- about his criminal past and his current status in treatment, as if this ongoing commitment to all-out honesty somehow absolves him from a deceptive and duplicitous history, or at least helps to explain it (which it does if one is interested). According to Jim, "Entering into society again was very difficult. I had lost my business, my friends and was now divorced. After leaving jail, I…… [Read More]
Politics makes strange bedfellows, we are told, with the implication that those brought together by the vagaries of politics would be best kept apart. But sometimes this is not true at all. In the case of the Black Seminoles, politics brought slaves and Seminole Indians politics brought together two groups of people who would - had the history of the South been written just a little bit differently - would never have had much in common. But slaves fleeing their masters and Seminoles trying to lay claim to what was left of their traditional lands and ways found each other to be natural allies in Florida and in time in other places as well. This paper examines the origin of this particular American population, describing how the Black Seminoles changed over time and how their culture reflected both African and Seminole elements.
The Black Seminoles began in the early 1800s…… [Read More]
African-Americans reaking arriers in World War II
African-Americans and Non- Combat Jobs
First General: enjamin O. Davis, Sr.
Doris Miller: "The Hero"
Phyllis Mae Daliey
African-Americans reaking arriers in World War II
History shows very well that African-American soldiers were a group of men that played a significant role in World War II. Furthermore, it actually shows that more than half a million had actually served in Europe. In spite of the numbers they still encountered racial discrimination: prior to the war the military maintained a racially segregated force. In recent that have been done by studies from the military, blacks were most of the time classified as not being the best fit but being very unfit for combat and were not permitted on the front lines. It is also important to note that they were typically given support duties, and were not permitted…… [Read More]