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Bone Marrow Advocacy
Bethematch.org is the website for the National Bone Marrow Donor Program. Through the website and the Be the Match organization, people can register to become potential bone marrow donors. Be the Match is the central bone marrow donation registry for the United States. It is a non-profit organization, and it works with doctors, patients, and donors to help match recipients. It does not provide compensation to donors and does not require payment from patients in order to provide matches. Becoming a potential donor registered with Be the Match is an easy process, which requires little initial commitment from potential donors, though any person signing up as a potential donor should be prepared for a high level of commitment is chosen as a match for a patient.
Bone marrow transplants can be used to treat a variety of different medical functions, and the concept of marrow donation has…
Armitage, J.O. (1994) Bone marrow transplantation. The New England Journal of Medicine,
Attwood, K. (2004). Plea for Marrow Donors: First Edition. The Independent: 22. 2004. Print.
Bone Marrow Wait Over: FINAL Edition. (1999). The Independent: 5. Print.
Ethical considerations and implication to medical practice for physicians when using the new technology of OnControl power bone marrow biopsy systems
The OnControl power bone marrow biopsy has been found to be significantly less painful than other forms of bone marrow biopsies and also more accurate which raises significant ethical questions regarding the impetus to use the product. The OnControl Bone Marrow (OBM) Biopsy System achieves this result by using a battery-powered drill to penetrate the bone, thus reducing trauma (eed et al. 2011). Not only is OBM less traumatic; it is also more accurate, given that "the mean length of the marrow biopsy specimens," is significantly longer with the use of ONM and comparatively, side effects are no greater with the use of OBM than that of a conventional control group (eed et al. 2011). The greater accuracy of OBM also meant that there was less of a need…
Park, I.H, Micic, I.D. & Jean, I.H. (2008). A study of 23 unicameral bone cysts. Foot Ankle Int.,
(2):164-70. doi: 10.3113/FAI.2008.0164.
Reed, R.J. (2011 et al.). The OnControl bone marrow biopsy technique is superior to the standard manual technique for hematologists-in-training: A prospective, randomized comparison. Hematol Rep, 3(3): e21. Retrieved from:
The two types of chronic leukemia must be discussed separately. In CML, "the leukemia cell that starts the disease makes blood cells (red cells, white cells and platelets) that function almost like normal cells" (Leukemia and Lymphoma, 2010). Moreover, the number of red cells usually declines in CML, which causes anemia (Leukemia and Lymphoma, 2010). CML does not tend to reduce the number of white cells or platelets, and their performance remains somewhat normal, however their counts are high and can continue to rise, causing health complications (Leukemia and Lymphoma, 2010). If white blood counts rise too high, blood flow can slow down, causing severe anemia (Leukemia and Lymphoma, 2010).
In CLL, the leukemia cell makes lymphocytes that do not function properly, instead, "the leukemia cell that starts the disease makes too many lymphocytes that do not function. These cells replace normal cells in the marrow and lymph nodes. They…
The Leukemia and Lymphoma Society. (2010, Mar. 3). Leukemia. Retrieved from http://www.leukemia-lymphoma.org/all_page-item_id=7026
My Health Code. (Unk). Circulatory system. Retrieved from http://www.circulatory-
Cartilage epairing Techniques
Both cartilage and bone are critical components of the human skeleton although cartilage is more flexible and resistant to breakage than bone. Both bone and cartilage are capable of growth and remodeling as they are living tissues but cartilage has generally proven to be more challenging to repair than bone until recently. One of the most common methods of cartilage repair is shaving or debridement in which the surgeon uses an arthroscope inserted into the knee through a small incision to shaves and smooth cartilage that has shredded or frayed due to damage and wear. However, shaving is often not a permanent solution as it does not fix underlying problems such as gait abnormalities ("Techniques for repairing knee cartilage," 2007).
For some patients, shaving is not appropriate because the damage has penetrated all the way to the bone. In these cases, the use of microfracture or abrasion…
Stem cells repairing cartilage with fat: Problems and potential solutions. (2012). Angiogenesis
Techniques for repairing knee cartilage. (2007, Dec 04). The Washington Post.
Scientists have been aware of the existence of these stem cells for many years but have only recently realized the potential medical applications of the cells. More than a decade ago, scientists discovered that if the normal connections between the early cellular progeny of the fertilized egg were disrupted, the cells would fall apart into a single cell progeny that could be maintained in a culture. These dissociated cells, otherwise known as embryonic stem cell lines, continue to divide in culture, producing large numbers of cells at a fast pace. However, these early embryonic cells would lose the coordinated activity.
Scientists quickly discovered that these cells retain the ability to generate a great number of mature cell types in culture if they are provided with appropriate molecular signals (Reaves, 2001). Scientists have made significant progress in discovering these signals and are still working on it. hile it is a difficult…
Colino, Stacey. (2001). Making Sense of Stem Cells. Lifetime.
Prescott, Bonnie. (2001). Animal Study Find Embryonic Stem Cells Can Repair Heart Muscle. Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center.
Reaves, Jessica. (2002). The Great Debate Over Stem Cell Research. Time Magazine.
Recer, Paul. (2002). Study says stem cells have fewer mutations than previously thought. AP Online.
Current practices in the Blood Marrow Transplant Unit (BMTU) are to administer Tylenol and/or Benadryl as pre-medications prior to the administration of blood products before a transplant takes place. This paper will study whether such pre-medicating actions are detrimental to the patient due to the masking effects of the medicines and the occurrence(s) of mostly mild reactions to the blood transfusions that are normal occurrences before BMTU surgery. The paper will seek to discern whether the practice of pre-medicating patients is a viable practice or one that needs to be changed or terminated.
The purpose of the study is to determine whether a change can be made to improve the care of patients undergoing bone marrow transplants. The improvement could take a number of different forms; two of those forms include; first a fewer number of reactions to the blood transfusions that take place before and during the transplant,…
Bringman, H.; Giesecke, K.; Thorne, A.; Bringman, S.; (2009) Relaxing music as pre-medication before surgery: a randomized controlled trial, Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, Vol. 53, Issue 6, pp. 759 -- 764
Horng, H.C.; Wong, C.S.; Hsiao, K.N.; Huh, B.K.; Kuo, C.P.; Cherng, C.H.; Wu, C.T.; (2007) Pre-medication with intravenous clonidine suppresses fentanyl-induced cough, Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, Vol. 51, Issue 7, pp. 862 -- 865
Kennedy, L.D.; Case, L.D.; Hurd, D.D.; Cruz, J.M.; Pomper, G.J.; (2008) Transfusion: A prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of acetaminophen and diphenhydramine pretransfusion medication vs. placebo for the prevention of transfusion reactions, Tranfusion, Vol. 48, pp. 2285-2291
Ethics of Embryo Design
Selecting the Perfect Baby
With all the recent advances in science and technology, there are new options for couples looking to get pregnant. This includes not only first time couples who have had trouble getting pregnant, but also couple looking to design their perfect baby using science to pick out the most desired genetic markers. This is the choice given to the Shannons, who are looking to have certain genetic markers in their next child to avoid a diagnosis of fanconi anemia that their older child has, as well as to provide a potential future match for a bone marrow donor for their current daughter, Sally.
Thus, the Shannons are looking into the pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) procedure. According to the research, this procedure is "a technique that enables people with a specific inherited condition in their family to avoid passing it on to their children.…
American Pregnancy Association. (2013). Preimplantation genetic diagnosis: PGD. Infertility. Web. http://americanpregnancy.org/infertility/preimplantationgeneticdiagnosis.html
Human Fertilization & Embryo Authority. (2014). Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Treatment and Storage Options. Web. http://www.hfea.gov.uk/preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis.html
Genetic Components of the Disease
Metabolic Components of the Disease
Causes of the disease
Symptoms of the disease
Diagnosis of the disease
Treatment of the disease
Cord lood Transfusion
Treatment for Late on-set Form
Incidence and Longevity of the disease
Krabbe disease, also referred as globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), causes a deficiency in galactocerebrosidase (GALC), the enzyme responsible for preventing a build-up of galactolipids in the brain. Without the regulation of galactolipids, the growth of the myelin sheath around the nerve cells is severely impaired. Krabbe disease usually presents in first 6 months of the life. A child in the last stages of Krabbe disease is immobilized and has decreased level of responsiveness. Most of them die at the age of 2. (Lantos, 2011)
Genetic Components of the Disease
GLD is one of the subgroup of metabolic disorders called leukodystrophies. The leukodystrophies are caused…
(2011). The Case of Krabbe Disease. In J. Lantos, Dangerous and Expensive Screening and Treatment for Rare Childhood Diseases. Kansas City, Missouri.
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2011, June). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved March 2013, from Krabbe Disease: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/krabbe-disease/DS00937/DSECTION=risk-factors
Orchard, P. (2013). National Marrow Donor Program. Krabbe Disease.
Rosenberg, R.N. (2008). The Molecular and Genetic Basis of Neurologic and Psychiatric Disease. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Osteomyelitis in the Diabetic Patient
Management OF OSTEOMYELITIS IN THE DIABETIC PATIENT
Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone or bone marrow which is typically categorized as acute, subacute or chronic.1 It is characteristically defined according to the basis of the causative organism (pyogenic bacteria or mycobacteria) and the route, duration and physical location of the infection site.2 Infection modes usually take one of three forms: direct bone contamination from an open fracture, puncture wound, bone surgery, total joint replacement, or traumatic injury; extension of a soft tissue infection such as a vascular ulcer; or hematogenous (blood borne) spread from other infected areas of the body such as the tonsils, teeth or the upper respiratory system.2(p807) Bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli are the most common causative agents of the disease, although viruses, parasites and fungi may also lead to the development of osteomyelitis.3
1. Stedman's Medical Dictionary. 27th ed. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000.
2. Butalia S, Palda V, Sargeant R, Detsky A, Mourad O. Does This Patient With Diabetes Have Osteomyelitis of the Lower Extremity?. JAMA: Journal of The American Medical Association [serial online]. February 20, 2008; 299(7):806-813. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
3. Lavery L, Peters E, Armstrong D, Wendel C, Murdoch D, Lipsky B. Risk factors for developing osteomyelitis in patients with diabetic foot wounds. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice [serial online]. March 2009; 83(3):347-352. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
4. Turns M. The diabetic foot: an overview of assessment and complications. British Journal of Nursing [serial online]. August 12, 2011;:S19-S25. Available from: Academic Search Premier, Ipswich, MA. Accessed September 19, 2012.
Summary and Conclusion
However, even in the developed world, rickets is not as rare as one would hope. Mothers who breastfeed must be aware that, despite the rhetoric about breastfeeding being the best way to feed a baby, they must still give their children supplements. Children must have adequate supplementation, nutritionally dense diets, and adequate exposure to sunlight. The balance between covering up with sun protection and getting sunlight, between breastfeeding and vitamin supplements may prove difficult to communicate to the public -- as well as the fact that what are widely-regarded as 'healthy diets' such as vegan, vegetarian, and macrobiotic diets may not be appropriate for children, or even for many adults, espeically if they have absorption complaints.
American Dietetic Association (ADA) (2004) "Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding, Positon Paper on Maternal Health. Article accessed on Internet database of ADA on 22 Oct 2005 at http://www.eatright.org/cps/rde/xchg/SID-5303FFEA-E7B53036/ada/hs.xsl/advocacy_1728_ENU_HTML.htm…
American Dietetic Association (ADA) (2004) "Promoting and Supporting Breastfeeding, Positon Paper on Maternal Health. Article accessed on Internet database of ADA on 22 Oct 2005 at http://www.eatright.org/cps/rde/xchg/SID-5303FFEA-E7B53036/ada/hs.xsl/advocacy_1728_ENU_HTML.htm
Goldenring, John. (14 Jul 2004) "Rickets." ADAM. URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). Last updated 11 Oct 2005. Retrieved 22 Oct 2005 at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000344.htm
Kirchner, Jeffrey. (15 Jan 2000) "Calcium and Vitamin D in the Treatment of Rickets." American Family Physician. Journal Article retrieved by Find Articles on 23 Oct 2005 at http://www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m3225/is_2_61/ai_59486900
Morantz, Carrie & Brian Torrey (1 Jun 2003) "AAP Guidelines on Rickets and Vitamin D Supplementation."American Family Physician. . Journal Article retrieved by Find Articles on 23 Oct 2005
The investigators noted that because patients who have skip metastases and negative pelvic lymph nodes have been found to later develop distant metastases, ProstaScint imagine was instrumental in detecting metastatic disease and prompting further investigation." (2004)
The work of Murphy and Troychak (2000) entitled: "Follow-Up Prostascint Scans Verify Detection of Occult Soft-Tissue Recurrence After Failure of Primary Prostate Cancer Therapy" published in the Prostrate Journal reports a study conducted for the evaluation of the ability of ProstaScint scan in the detection of prostatic bed recurrent and metastases to regional or distant lymph nodes. The study reported is of one hundred sequential patients who were evaluated with repeated ProstaScint scans due to evidence of recurrence during the disease course. These patients were followed from November 1994 and April 1999 and had "concurrent bone scans and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) evaluations. They have had hormone therapy (n = 53) and/or experienced a…
Elgamal AA, Troychak MJ, Murphy GP. (1998) ProstaScint scan may enhance identification of prostate cancer recurrences after prostatectomy, radiation, or hormone therapy: analysis of 136 scans of 100 patients. Prostate. 1998 Dec 1;37(4):261-9.
Kahn D, Williams RD, Manyak MJ, et al. 111 Indium-capromab pendetide in the evaluation of patients with residual or recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. The ProstaScint Study Group. J Urol. 1998;159:2041-2046. discussion 2046-2047.
Murphy GP, Elgamal AA, Troychak MJ, Kenny GM. (2000) Follow-up ProstaScint scans verify detection of occult soft-tissue recurrence after failure of primary prostate cancer therapy. Prostate. 2000 Mar 1;42(4):315-7.
Murphy GP, Snow PB, Brandt J, Elgamal a, Brawer MK. (2000) Evaluation of prostate cancer patients receiving multiple staging tests, including ProstaScint scintiscans. Prostate. 2000 Feb 1;42(2):145-9.
Calcium is needed in blood clotting, stability and permeability of the membrane, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, cellular secretion, enzyme activity, and cell growth. Magnesium is needed for the metabolism of potassium and calcium and for the mobilization of calcium from bones. Phosphorus plays and important role in the development and maturation of the bone. Its chief role in bone resorption, mineralization and collagen synthesis makes it essential in calcium homeostasis (Michael's).
Diseases and disorders of the skeletal system include leukemia, bursitis, osteoporosis, sprains, fractures, spina bifida, scurvy, arthritis, scoliosis, talipes equinovarus or clubfoot, tendonitis, kyphosis and poliomyelitis (Family Shock 2001). Leukemia is also called cancer of the blood where abnormally large numbers of white blood cells multiply at an uncontrolled manner so that they interfere with the body's production of red blood cells. The cause is still unknown. ursitis is a painful condition, which most commonly affects the hips and…
Discovery Kids. Skeletal system. Discovery Communications, Inc., 2000. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://yucky.discovery.com/flash/body/pg000124.html
Family Shock. Diseases and Disorders. The Shock Family, December 21, 2001. Retrieved May 30, 2007 at http://www.shockfamily.net/sksleton/DISEASE.htmL
Michael's. Skeleton Factors. Michael's Naturapathic Programs: Inner Health Group, Inc., 1996 Retrieved on May 30, 2007 at http://www.michaelshealth.com/pdf/skeletalfactors.pdf
ThinkQuest. Skeletal System. Think Quest USA: Oracle Education Foundation, 1999. Retrieved on May 30, 2007 at http://library.thinkquest.org/5777/sked.htm
Partly because anatomical variation contributes to the development of metatarsal fractures, footwear is particularly important to mitigating any existing predisposing factors to the condition. While conflicting data as to the effect of hard surfaces call into question the assumption that surface density is directly related to metatarsal problems (Laker, Saint-Phard, Tyburski, et al., 2007), the insufficient cushioning properties of athletic footwear likely increases the overall risk nevertheless.
Proper fitting, particularly in the lateral dimension (i.e. width) is directly related to increased susceptibility to metatarsal problems because it further (artificially) contracts the overall surface areas available to dissipate and absorb dynamic forces by squeezing the metatarsals closer to each other as well (Cullen & Hadded, 2004). Finally, excessive roominess in athletic footwear can also contribute to stress fractures and other debilitating foot problems by allowing the foot to develop momentum within the shoe and resulting in momentarily high loads when…
Barsom, R. (2005) Fracture and Fatigue Control in Structures: Applications of Fracture
Mechanics. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Cullen, N. & Hadded, F. (2004). How would you manage the painful midfoot? Pulse,
64(24), p.50 -- 52. Retrieved March 16, 2009, from EBSCO online database.
Fibrous connective tissue is also found in ligaments, tendons, cartilage, and bone (CliffsNotes.com, 2009, What are the four types of tissue found in the human body).
4: In Chapter 2 we discussed the importance polarity as it related to electron distribution around some molecules, such as water. In Chapter 4, however, polarity takes on a slightly different meaning. What does polarity refer to in this chapter? Please provide a specific cellular example of this form of polarity other than the epithelial example given in the text.
Cell polarity is involved in the "differentiation, proliferation and morphogenesis of unicellular and multicellular organisms. Cell polarity relies on the asymmetric organization of cellular components and structures, and the establishment and maintenance of cell polarity involves many processes including signaling cascades, membrane trafficking events and cytoskeletal dynamics, all of which need to be coordinated in a highly regulated manner" (Cell polarity, 2009, Nature.com).
Q6: Matrix is extracellular, that is, it exists outside the cell. How does the matrix get to its characteristic position, that is, how is it made?
"Components of the ECM are produced intracellularly by resident cells, and secreted into the ECM via exocytosis. Once secreted they then aggregate with the existing matrix. The ECM is composed of an interlocking mesh of fibrous proteins and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs)" (Extracellular matrix, 2009).
Q7: What tissue classification does blood fall under? Consider the four general functions of this broad tissue classification. Make an argument for how blood
Pressure on the superior vena cava may produce SVC syndrome, a swelling of the head and arms. SVC syndrome involving the brain can be fatal and must be treated immediately. But enlarged lymphatic tissue in the chest cavity generally tends to displace -- rather than press upon or encase -- adjacent structures. Therefore, compromised breathing and SVC syndrome are relatively uncommon signs of lymphoma. (Hodgkin's Disease, 1998-2008)
Effects on Bone Marrow
Night sweats, fevers or anemia (a low red-blood-cell count), fevers may indicate Hodgkin's disease has spread to an individual's bone marrow. In these scenarios, a physician may order bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. In biopsy, medical staff uses a large needle to remove a narrow, cylindrical piece of the patient's bone. In another option, medical staff performs an aspiration, a process utilizing a needle to remove small bits of bone marrow. Generally, in both instances, to help determine cancer…
Atlas of the Body: The Lymphatic System." (1999). American Medical Association. 2 June 2008 http://www.medem.com/medlb/article_detaillb.cfm?article_ID=ZZZG0S6CGJC&sub_at=518 .
Carson-DeWitt, Rosalyn S; Alic, Margaret. "Hodgkin's Disease," Gale Encyclopedia of Cancer, January 1, 2002. 2 June 2008 http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G2-3405200219.html .
Detailed Guide: Hodgkin Disease What Is Hodgkin Disease? American Cancer Society. Revised: 08/30/2007. 2 June 2008 http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_1x_What_Is_Hodgkin_Disease.sp?rnav=cri .
Hodgkin's Disease Signs and Symptoms. (1998-2008). 3 June 2008 http://www.oncologychannel.com/hodgkins/symptoms.shtml.
Chonic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML): Teatment Options
Patients suffeing fom chonic myelogenous leukemia (CML) expeience ecuent infections, anemia, and thombocytopenia, signs and symptoms often manageable without pofessional help. Accodingly, patients often failed to seek medical cae until late in the disease couse and would have had a poo pognosis in the 20th centuy. Today, a numbe of effective teatments ae available, including the highly effective kinase inhibito imatinib. Kinase inhibitos suppess the activity of the fusion potein p210BCR-ABL, which is the poduct of a chomosomal tanslocation between chomosomes 9 and 22. Ove half of all CML patients will become symptom fee with the use of kinase inhibitos and live a long and poductive life, but a smalle pecentage will equie moe aggessive and iskie teatment appoaches, among which is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell tansplantation following high dose chemotheapy.
Chonic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a pogessive disease that impais…
Myelodysplastic Syndromes, which were previously considered rare, are currently known as some of the most frequently occurring hematological neoplasms, perhaps affecting over 30,000 patients each year within the U.S. The nation's regulatory permission of lenalidomide, azacitidine and decitabine, from 2004 to 2006 appeared to indicate a new age in the improvement of therapy for disease modification for these disorders. However, no indications of drugs being approved for MDS appear to be present in the U.S. for the past 8 years. There are no curative drugs available so far. However, some compounds under development may be approved soon. Consequently, diagnoses of MDS are still quite a heavy load, both on patients and medical care systems (Bejar & Steensma, 2014).
Myelodysplastic Syndromes are a set of distinct disorders of the bone marrow that prevent the victim's bone marrow from producing sufficient fit blood cells. The disorders are often called "failure of…
Physiological Effects of Hodgkin's Disease
In this paper I shall give an overview of Hodgkin's disease while focusing on its physiological effects. Specifically, the paper consists of an overview of the disease, describes how the disease affects the body cells and tissues, and how the treatment attacks the disease and affects the body, besides reviewing the treatments available.
Hodgkin's disease is one of the two (and less severe) types of cancer of the lymphatic system; the other type being non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The disease is named after the British physician, Thomas Hodgkin, who first discovered the condition in 1832. Hodgkin's disease commonly occurs in young adults (between the ages of 15 to 35) and in older people (over 50-year-olds. However, about 10%-15% of cases have been diagnosed in children below 16 years of age. Statistics also show that more men than women are afflicted by it. ("What are the Key Statistics…
'Autologous Bone Marrow Stem Cell Transplantation" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_Autologous_Bone_Marrow_Stem_Cell_Transplantation_and_Peripheral_Blood_Stem_Cell_Transplantation_20.asp?rnav=cri 'Chemotherapy." (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_Chemotherapy_20.asp?rnav=cri 'Do We Know What Causes Hodgkin's Disease?" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_2X_Do_we_know_what_causes_Hodgkins_disease_20.asp?rnav=cri
"Hodgkin's Disease." (2000) The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Columbia University Press: New York.
'Hodgkin's disease: Overview" (2004) Oncology Channel Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.oncologychannel.com/hodgkins / 'How is Hodgkin's Lymphoma and the Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas Different?" (2004) Lymphoma Information Network. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.lymphomainfo.net/lymphoma/comparison.html
'How Is Hodgkin's Disease Treated?" (2004). American Cancer Society. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_4X_How_Is_Hodgkins_Disease_Treated_20.asp?rnav=cri 'The Lymphatic System." (2004) CancerBACUP. Retrieved on September 28, 2004 from http://www.cancerbacup.org.uk/Cancertype/LymphomaHodgkins/General/Thelymphaticsystem
However, Harvard Medical School (HMS) reports that in that study of 1,400 patients, 222 "composite events occurred." Those "events" included 65 deaths, 101 "hospitalizations for congestive heart failure, 25 myocardial infarctions and 23 strokes."
In an understatement, the HMS report - written by Dr. Singh - concluded that while improving the lives of patients with CKD is "of paramount importance," this particular study reveals, "...Aiming for a complete correction of anemia is associated with increased risk, increased cost and no quality of life benefits." The study was published in the November 16, 2006 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Meantime, the National Institutes of Health / Medline Plus (www.nim.nih.gov) explains that epoetin alfa is also used with people who have HIV, it is used prior to surgery and after surgery "to decrease the number of blood transfusions needed" in the predicable loss of blood during surgery. It is…
Harvard Medical School. (2005). Blood test can accurately diagnose heart failure in patients
With kidney dysfunction. Retrieved February 10, 2008, at http://www.hms.harvard.edu .
Harvard Medical School. (2006). Higher Doses of Anemia Drug for Chronic Kidney Disease
Does Not Improve Quality of Life and Increases Risk for Cardiovascular Events. Retrieved February 9, 2008, at
The authors did a comparison study of 682 adults with acute leukemia. All these patients received a hematopoietic stem-cell (HSC) transplant from a donor that was unrelated to them. The authors compared them to patients who received UCB instead of HSC. One of the important characteristics of UCB is that it does not have to match the donor, which makes it much more flexible in leukemia and other treatments.
The study covered two groups of people. The authors note, "98 received cord blood and 584 received bone marrow. The transplantations were performed from 1998 through 2002 and reported to Eurocord and the European Blood and Marrow Transplant Group" (ocha, V., et al., 2004. p. 2276). They traced participants' ages, weights, level of severity of the disease, and other influences to discover what treatment worked best in treating adults with leukemia. They found that rates of mortality and relapse were very…
Mauro, MJ., and Maziarz, R.T. (2006). Stem cell transplantation in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia: When should it be used? Mayo Clin Proc. March; 81(3):404-416.
Rocha, V., et al. (2004). Transplants of umbilical-cord blood or bone marrow from unrelated donors in adults with acute leukemia. New England Journal of Medicine 351; 22. 2276-2286.
Tse, WW, SL Zang, KD Bunting and MJ Laughlin. (2008). Umbilical cord blood transplantation in adult myeloid leukemia. Bone Marrow Transplantation 41, 465 -- 472.
Vago, L., et al. (2009). Loss of mismatched HLA in leukemia after stem-cell transplantation. New England Journal of Medicine. 361: 478-88.
Donated body organs like hearts and kidneys contribute to the saving of hundreds of lives each year. The fact is that bequeathed tissues like skin, bone and heart valves could remarkably enhance the value of life for the persons receiving them. A patient who is dead following a cardiac arrest i.e. whose heartbeat has stopped permanently cannot be an organ donor but can be a tissue donor. Though in case of tissue donation the urgency of restoring a life by donation of liver or heart is absent, yet it is no way less critical to bring back vision by the help of a donated cornea, avert the severing of a leg using a bone donated by somebody or brighten the odds of survival of a patient having sustained burn injuries by skin donation.
Transplanted tissues offer advantages like it helps in alleviating trauma, assisting individuals to see again,…
Chabot-Long, Lynn. A Gift of Life: A Page from the Life of a Living Organ Donor,
Je-Lynn Publications, 1996
LaTour, Stephen A; Manrai, Ajay K. Interactive Impact of Informational and Normative influence on Donations. Journal of Marketing Research. Volume: 26; No: 3;
August, 1989, pp: 327-335.
Dimitrios Karussis and Ibrahim Kassis, in the article, "Use of Stem Cells for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis," conclude,
"In the current review, the various types of stem cells, which were mainly studied in animal models, will be reviewed as a potential therapeutic approach for MS. The main and common mechanisms of action of all stem cells include induction of neuroregeneration and remyelination through the activation of resident stem cells, or production of new CNS cell lineage progenitors, paralleled by local and systemic immunomodulating effects" (Karussis & Kassis, 2007, Conclusion ¶).
The other diseases that are showing promise in treatments resulting from stem cells usage includes: as cancer, diabetes, osteopetrosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, heart disease, immune system disorders, blood disorders; the list goes on (Diseases Treated by Cord lood, 2010).
Stem cells are a valuable weapon in the future treatment of disease and in…
"Adult stem cell Plasticity and Transdifferentiation." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.studentsguide.in/animal-biotechnology/stem-cell-technology/adult-stem-cell-plasticity-and-transdifferentiation.html
"Asymmetric Division of Stem Cells." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.molecular-plant-biotechnology.info/animal-biotechnology-genomics/pluripotent-stem-cell-lines/asymmetric-division-of-stem-cells.html
"Diseases Treated by Cord Blood." 2010. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.womens-health.co.uk/diseases_treated.html
Jessen, W. "Exactly What are Stem Cells?" 7, July 2008. Retrieved on May 20, 2010 from http://www.highlighthealth.com/did-you-know/exactly-what-are-stem-cells/
Stem Cell Differentiation
The need to restore the lives of the individuals calls for more of transplantation than that which is available. There are fewer organs, which can help in the transplantation process, which means that overdependence on the process makes it to be reliable. Further, the process may also end up endangering the life of the donator. Transplantation is the only available process that can for the individuals having kidney and lung problems. However, the numbers of individuals who are suffering from kidney and lung failure are always more than those who are ready to supply the needed organs. This calls for an alternative way, which can help in compensating the loss that the individuals face. One of the major alternatives for the process of translation is stem cell differentiation that may occur in any body cell. The stem cells differentiation offer the possibility of a renewable source of…
Wang, J., Collins, J. et al., (2012). Functional analysis of transcription factor binding sites in human promoters. Genome Biology, doi:10.1186/gb-2012-13-9-r50
Guillot PV, Cui W, Fisk NM, Polak DJ. (2007). Stem cell differentiation and expansion for clinical applications of tissue engineering. J Cell Mol Med. 11:935-944.
Gerrard L, Rodgers L, Cui W. (2005). Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells to Neural
Lineages in Adherent Culture by Blocking Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling. Stem Cells 23: 1234-1241.
Beta thalassemia is the severer of the two main types of thalassemia -- an inherited blood disease resulting from defective production of hemoglobin. About 100,000 people are born worldwide every year with beta thalassemia which occurs most frequently in people of Italian, Greek, Middle Eastern, Southern Asian and African Ancestry. (Learning about...," 2004) People with beta thalassemia usually develop anemia, resulting in inadequate delivery of oxygen to the body's tissues and it proves fatal in most cases, if left untreated. In this paper we shall discuss the disease develops; the types of beta thalassemia, how it is inherited, its symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.
How Beta Thalassemia develops?
Hemoglobin, the protein that transports oxygen in the blood, is made up of four chains of amino acids: two identical alpha chains and two identical beta chains. Thalassemia is the result of an imbalance in the production of beta…
Beta Thellasemia." (2001) Child Health A-Z. Website of Children's Hospital, Boston Updated on 04/03/2004. Retrieved on April 4, 2003 at http://web1.tch.harvard.edu/cfapps/A2ZtopicDisplay.cfm?Topic=Beta%20Thalassemia
Beta Thellasemia." (2004) Medicinenet.com. Retrieved on April 4, 2003 at http://www.medicinenet.com/Beta_Thalassemia/article.htm
Learning About Thalassemia." (2004) National human Genome research institute. Genome.gov. Retrieved on April 4, 2003 at http://www.genome.gov/page.cfm?pageID=10001221
Nathan, David G. And Nisbet-Brown, Eric. (2003). "Thalassemia." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003
Condic, M.L. (2007, January). What We Know about Embryonic Stem Cells. First Things: A Monthly Journal of eligion and Public Life 25+.
Patel, K., & ushefsky, M. (2005). President Bush and Stem Cell Policy: The Politics of Policy Making. White House Studies, 5(1), 37+.
Pickrell, J. (2006, September). "Instant Expert: Stem Cells." NewScientist.com news service. etrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex/stem-cells/dn9982
Shapiro, .S. (2006). Bioethics and the Stem Cell esearch Debate. Social Education, 70(4), 203+.
Stem Cell Basics." (2006). Stem Cell Information from the National Institute of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. etrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/
Wagner, C.G. (2007, January/February). Values Conflicts in Stem-Cell esearch: Governments Struggle with Bioethical Issues. The Futurist, 41, 8+.
Precursor cells are also known as pluripotent cells, i.e., having the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells that make…
Condic, M.L. (2007, January). What We Know about Embryonic Stem Cells. First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 25+.
Patel, K., & Rushefsky, M. (2005). President Bush and Stem Cell Policy: The Politics of Policy Making. White House Studies, 5(1), 37+.
Pickrell, J. (2006, September). "Instant Expert: Stem Cells." NewScientist.com news service. Retrieved on March 4, 2007 at http://www.newscientist.com/channel/sex/stem-cells/dn9982
Shapiro, R.S. (2006). Bioethics and the Stem Cell Research Debate. Social Education, 70(4), 203+.
A biopsy of the bone marrow is the only way to be sure that it is leukemia.
Treatments for leukemia can vary depending on the stage, the age of the patient, the type of leukemia, and the advanced or infant stages that it is in, but most leukemia patients do go through a host of treatments that include chemotherapy.
Treatment also depends on the stage that the disease is placed in. Staging is simply a method by which the cancer is categorized for the purpose of developing a treatment plan and for research purposes with regards to cure rates and treatment successes or failures (Leukemia (http://www.emedicinehealth.com/leukemia/article_em.htm).
In most cases of the disease, including Kate's case the treatment of choice is chemotherapy. There is a scene in the novel in which Anna, Kate and their mother are dancing around the kitchen together after shaving their heads so Kate would not…
Leukemia (Accessed 11-11-06)
Signs and Symptoms (accessed 11-12-06)
Stem Cell Ethics
Debating the Ethics of Stem Cells
The term 'stem cells' can mean different things to different people. For some, it conjures images of medical miracles providing solutions for heart disease, diabetes, and dementia. For others, it terrifies with a future filled with cloned humans. Still others cringe at the thought of mass producing cultured human embryos for the sole purpose of providing organs and tissues for a paying public. As with most complex issues, news media coverage tends to exaggerate easily understood concepts at the expense of the overall truth and the public accordingly remains ignorant of the subtleties surrounding this debate. This seems to add fuel the emergence of polarized camps and a shrinking of a common middle ground. To better define this middle ground, this essay will discuss both sides of this debate and argue instead that the vast majority of people would likely support…
Antiniou, Michael. "The Case Against & #8230;" Nature Medicine 7.4 (2001): 397-399. Web. The author argues that the use of embryonic stem cells for research and medicine poses significant ethical and moral issues that cannot be overcome. Of particular concern is the potential for reproductive cloning, a door that the author believes was opened when the UK government approved the use of embryonic stems cells for research and medicine.
Blow, Nathan. "In Search of Common Ground." Nature 451.7180 (2008): 855-858. Web. The author presents several issues facing researchers who work with stem cells and discusses why they are important to advancing this field of research. Of primary concern is developing standard protocols for producing stem cells and creating the necessary protocols and reagents that will allow the therapeutic use of stem cells in humans.
Leeb, C., Jurga, M., McGuckin, C., Forraz, N., Thallinger, C., Moriggl, R. et al. "New Perspectives in Stem Cell Research: Beyond Embryonic Stem Cells." Cell Proliferation 44.1 (2011): 9-14. Web. The focus of this article is the promises and limitations of embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent stem cells, from the perspective of scientists working in this field. The ethical decisions concerning the use of embryonic stem cells are only mentioned in passing.
Power, Carl and Rasko, E.J. "Promises and Challenges of Stem Cell Research for Regenerative Medicine." Annals of Internal Medicine 155.10 (2011): 706-713. Web. The authors discuss in detail the three main types of stem cell technologies: embryonic, adult, and induced pluripotent. Ethical issues are mentioned occasionally, but not discussed.
B and T. Lymphocytes
The Biology of B. And T. Lymphocytes and the eactions between Them
The Biology of B. Lymphocytes
B lymphocytes originated in 1960s and 1970s era through experiments conducted in animal models, clinical evaluation of patients having immune system diseases, and the nascent technology of cell surface molecule characterization. In fact, the origin of B. And T. lymphocytes took place simultaneously. The differentiation of the haematopoietic stem cells gives birth to the formation of common lymphoid progenitors, which actually generate B. lymphocytes. They are generated and developed in yolk sac, fetal liver, and the adult liver present in the body (Austyn & Wood, 1994). B lymphocytes are present in areas that come in close contact with foreign substances. They act as defensive mechanism against invading microorganisms, viruses and parasites and play a vital role in humoral immune response. Since these cells originate in the Bone marrow, they…
Austyn, J., M. And Wood, J., K. (1994). Principles of Cellular and Molecular Immunology. New York: Oxford University Press.
Beltman, J., B., Maree, A. & Boer, R. (2007), Spatial modelling of brief and long interactions between T cells and dendritic cells, Australian Society for Immunology, Pp. 1-9, Retrieved October 14, 2012.
House, B., R. & Descotes, J. (2010), Cytokines in Human Health: Immunotoxicology, Pathology,
and Therapeutic Applications (Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology), New
patient is a 35-year-old (male?), he was diagnosed with diabetes twenty five years ago at the age of ten years old, he claims that this is hereditary in his family. He has one sister who has Type 2 diabetes and a brother who has type 1 diabetes. He manages his diabetes and other illnesses from home and through a medical clinic; for most of his life he has known he has diabetes and manages to regulate it through insulin shots, glucose tablets as well as through the right nutrition, however he claims that this is difficult and there are most days where he experiences draw backs. Many complications have arisen from his diabetes. This patient was selected because of the certain case he has in regards to his diabetes and other complications which had developed from it. His treatment and management also includes an extensive study. At the young age…
This has been the traditionally used mode of treatment for non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas, but the fact remains that there have not been many clinical trials conducted that would reveal the benefits of CHOP in comparison to various other chemotherapy options for the treatment of CLL, which is a very slowly growing form of cancer and is therefore conversely very difficult to treat and cure because of the fact that all the traditional methods of treatment, whether chemotherapy or radiation, are meant to quickly and rapidly destroy the fast growing cancerous cells. (Cancer Treatment and Prevention)
Curing a patient with the CLL or SLL forms of cancer is considered to be highly unusual, but it is true that these patients will b able to lead productive lives even after 6 to 10 years after the cancer have been diagnosed for them. A patient when he is making the choice of treatment for…
Bischof, Delaloye a. (2003) "The role of nuclear medicine in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)" Leuk Lymphoma. Volume: 44 Suppl 4; pp: S29-36
Cancer Treatment and Prevention" Retrieved at http://patient.cancerconsultants.com/treatment.aspx?id=782Accessed on 26 December, 2004
CHOP - complementary considerations. Lymphoma-tion" (2 October, 2004) Retrieved at http://www.lymphomation.org/chemo-CHOP.htm . Accessed on 26 December, 2004
CHOP Patient Information Sheet" Newcastle General Hospital, Northern Center for Cancer treatment. (June, 2005) Retrieved at http://www.newcastle-hospitals.org.uk/v2/PDF/patientleaflets/NCCT/Standard/CHOP.PDFAccessed on 26 December, 2004
How long this process takes and whether it will prevent the loss of seeded cells probably depends to a significant extent on the surrounding tissue and therefore represents another unknown.
HIF-1? And VEGF are also involved in osteogenesis, so the influence of these growth factors on the differentiation choices being made by the seeded stem cells is unknown (Polzer 7). The impact of prolonged hypoxic conditions on the seeded cells is another. Although Polzer and colleagues examined the timing of cell seeding relative to prevascularization, they discovered that the artificial scaffold rapidly filled with connective tissue. This process effectively clogged the matrix and prevented efficient seeding.
By comparison, researchers conducting spinal cord injury research into the efficacy of regenerative medicine techniques have been producing promising results (Sykova et al. 1113-1114). Hydrogels seeded with mesenchymal stem cells or bone marrow stem cells have produced positive results in both animal models and…
Park, Alice. "Cancer Patient Received a Man-Made Windpipe." Time.com, 12 Jan. 2012, Online. Internet. 1 Jul. 2013. Available http://healthland.time.com/2012/01/13/cancer-patient-receives-a-man-made-windpipe/ .
Polzer, Hans et al. "Comparison of Different Strategies for in Vivo Seeding of Prevascularized Scaffolds." Tissue Engineering: Part C, published online May 21 ahead of print. Online.
Sifferlin, Alexandra. "Toddler gets New Windpipe from Her Own Stem Cells." Time.com, 1 May 2013, Online. CNN.com. Internet. 1 Jul. 2013. Available http://www.cnn.com/2013/05/01/health/toddler-stem-cells-windpipe .
Sykova, Eva et al. "Bone Marrow Stem Cells and Polymer Hydrogels -- Two Strategies for Spinal Cord Injury Repair." Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 26.7-8 (2006): 1113-1129.
For this reason, it is important to speak with your doctor about any complementary or alternative therapies you are currently using or considering.
The prognosis for Hodgkin lymphoma has shown a gradual improvement over the years and today it is estimated that more than eighty percent of patients with this disease will recover with appropriate treatment. However, a central complicating factor and danger is the high level of toxicity that accompanies conventional treatment. This has also been linked to high levels of stress and anxiety.
While there is no proof that massage therapy can cure to reduce the risk of cancer, there is evidence that it helps alleviate stress and tension that accompany the treatment methods. Coupled with his is the fact that this disease is strongly linked to immune system response and in this regard it has been found that consistent massage therapy, as well as many other…
Ahles T. ( 1999) Massage Therapy for Patients Undergoing Autologous Bone Marrow
Transplantation. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 18(3), 157-163.
Complementary & Alternative Therapies For Leukemia, Lymphoma, Hodgkin's Disease, & Myeloma: No. 8 in a series providing the latest information on blood. Cancers (1999) Retrieved from http://www.leukemia-lymphoma.org/attachments/National/br_1098117258.pdf
Definition of Allopathic. Retrieved from http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=33612
People with family histories of blood disease, for example, could benefit greatly from a private supply of compatible blood cells. Mixed-ethnicity children could also stand to benefit, since this population often experiences difficulty finding genetically compatible donors for organs or bone marrow (Peterson 56).
The sad reality is that despite its many benefits, the use of stem cells from umbilical cords is hampered by a lack of supply. There are private banks that extract and store a baby's umbilical stem cells for private use, but the costs are too prohibitive for most families. For many private banks, parents have to pay $1,300 up front for the extraction, and an additional $95 each year for storage. Also, many parents are simply unaware of the importance of umbilical stem cells. Sprage, a beneficiary of a cord stem cell transplantation, finds it disturbing that "most cord blood ends up as medical waste." (Peterson…
Peterson, Holly. "Cord-blood Controversy." Newsweek. August 18, 2003: 56.
Seppa, Natan. "Baby Rescue." Science News. May 21, 2005: 323-324.
Smith, Wesley J. "Umbilical Accord." Human Life Review. 31:4, Fall 2005: 87-89.
Value of Umbilical Stem Cell Research in Curing Disease
For some the issue then arises when the pluripotent cells are removed from the blastocyst, as this very act negates the ability for the cell group to develop into a human being. "Note that the process of changing from totipotent to pluripotent to multipotent cells is not reversible -- that is, pluripotent stem cells do not produce totipotent stem cells, and multipotent stem cells do not produce pluripotent stem cells."
Borror, O'Rourke and Skirboll 54) Additionally, the proponents of stem cell work cite the pluripotent as incapable of producing a human being therefore not a destruction of life, hence leading to the Bush decision to ban the creation of new lines of stem cells, as it would require the destruction of further human totipotent cells.
Multipotent. The pluripotent stem cells undergo further specialization into multipotent stem cells, which are committed to giving rise to cells that have a particular function.…
Care of Cancer
In many cases the sooner cancer is diagnosed and treatment begins the better the chances of a person recovering fully. If one develops cancer they can improve the chance of early detection if they have regular medical checkups and do some self-exams. Doctors often find early cancer during a physical exam or when carrying out routine tests even when there were no symptoms presented.
There are several methods that are used to diagnose cancer .with technological advancement these methods are now better as they help in a better understanding of cancer .there are now many diagnostic tools that can be used in cancer detection. Once cancer I suspected a diagnosis is made by pathologists and oncopathologists and imaging radiologists. The common diagnostic methods are;
This test involves a small tissue sample being taken from the area where cancer is suspected using a fine tipped…
Mandal, A.(2010). Cancer Diagnosis.Retrieved September 24,2013 from http://www.news-medical.net/health/Cancer-Diagnosis.aspx
American Society of Clinical Oncolog.(2013). Stages of Cancer. Retrieved September 24,2013 from http://www.cancer.net/all-about-cancer/treating-cancer/stages-cancer
Armstrong, B.(2012).What are the different stages of cancer and what do they mean? Retrieved September 24,2013 from http://www.cancerinstitute.org.au/patient-support/what-i-need-to-know/about-cancer/what-are-the-different-stages-of-cancer
Info.com.(2013).Cancer complications. Retrieved September 24,2013 from http://topics.info.com/Cancer-Complications_3416
Neutropenic Patients with Fever in the MICU
Neutropenia can be defined as a reduction in the total blood neutrophil count. It is frequently the cause of greater susceptibility to infections with fungal or bacterial pathogens and is often a cause of iatrogenic disease, morbidity and mortality within the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU). Neutropenia us generally classified based upon the relative granulocyte count. (Total white blood cell [WBC} count multiplied by the percent of granulocytes) as well as the individual patient's relative risk of infection, based upon intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Neutropenia may be classified as mild (1000 to 2000/microliter), moderate (500 to 1000/microliter) and severe (
Finberg RW, Talcott JA: Fever and neutropenia -- how to use a new treatment strategy. N Engl J. Med 1999 Jul 29; 341(5): 362-3
Vial T, Gallant C, Choquet-Kastylevsky G: Treatment of drug-induced agranulocytosis with haematopoietic growth factors- A review of clinical experience. Biodrugs 1999 Mar; 11(3): 185-200.
ithout a doubt, one of the most controversial topics of popular discourse is stem cell research. Indeed, one would be hard pressed to peruse the newspaper or magazine stand without encountering some reference to the global stem cell debate -- but what, exactly, are stem cells, and why are they so controversial?
Stem cells intended for use in human applications are harvested from humans, umbilical cords and embryos. The reason these cells are so valuable is because of their capability to produce or "become" other cell types -- for example, brain cells, heart cells, skin, etc. In short, these are "master cells," holding the ability to divide in cultures, and to be manipulated allowing it to transform into any type of cell. Of course, this is extremely important due to the fact that scientists can use this capability to either create organs (thereby helping to meet the tremendous…
Hall, MiMi and Kiely, Kathy. "Proponents of Stem-Cell Research Put on Pressure." USA Today. Online. July 2001. 10 April 2002. Retrieved from Web site on 15 March, 2004
This was followed by the enactments by House of Lords in 1897 in Solomon v. Solomon & Company. The concepts of corporate entity and limited liability were incorporated in English law in the same period. In this case, the head court announced that a company is a separate legal individual completely different from the members or shareholders.
From this announcement, we can say that a company is a separate legal entity having a separate life, different from its members. A company can be an owner of any property, can sue anyone, can be sued by anyone and has a life just as any going concern. It is a commonplace of the law, is a very heavy veil drawn between the two can be lifted in many cases; it seems that only a limited number of changes is based on current judicial thinking.
2.2 Some doctrines about Corporate Veil
AW Machen, "Corporate Personality" (1910) 24 Harvard Law Review 253
J Dewey, "The Historic Background of Corporate Legal Personality" (1926) 35 Yale Law Journal 655
C Alting, "Piercing the corporate veil in German and American law - Liability of individuals and entities: a comparative view" (1994 -- 1995) 2 Tulsa Journal Comparative & International Law 187
AA Berle, "The Theory of Enterprise Entity" (1947) 47(3) Columbia Law Review 343
To date, adoptive T-cell therapy have used peripheral blood, tumors, malignant effusions, and drained lymph nodes as sites for injecting the T-cells for adoptive transfer. Those are routinely used are allogenic bone marrow transplantation and peripheral blood stem cell infusion. It is possible that the bone marrow might be a good place too. It is also arguable which precise T-cells are the best to transfer, since T- cells are differentiated into many subsets.
Furthermore, in order to produce enough effectors T-cells, specific T-cells from peripheral blood or tumor specimens are isolated and generated in vitro, and these are then clonally expanded using various approaches. The T-cells are then reinfused into the patient with the expectation that they will then target antigens. There is much evidence that this approach works, although it also seems that this can be engineered in vivo under certain situations.
For most effective T-cell therapy, it has…
Greenberg, P.D. 1991, 'Adoptive T cell therapy of tumors. Ad. Immunol. 49, pp. 281-355.
Jamieson, B.D., & Ahmed, R. 1989,'T cell memory. J. Exp. Med. 169, pp. 1993-2005
June, C.H. 2007, 'Principles of adoptive T cell cancer therapy', J. Clin. Invest., 117, pp.11204-1212.
MedecineNet.com. Definition of T cell. Online. Available at: http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=11300
The First Nuclear Test
Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.
This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached…
Adams, Cecil. 1984. "Did John Wayne die of cancer caused by a radioactive movie set?" The Straight Dope. http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a2_016.html (Accessed August 19, 2008).
American Cancer Society. 2006. "Radiation exposure and cancer." Cancer.org. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_1_3X_Radiation_Exposure_and_Cancer.asp?sitearea=PED (Accessed August 19, 2008).
Ball, Howard. 1996. "Downwind from the bomb." The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DEED61438F93AA35751C0A960948260&sec=health&spon=&pagewanted=1 (Accessed August 19, 2008).
Brodersen, Tom. 2002. "Compensation available to fallout cancer victims." Sharlot Hall
Universal and Development Self-equisites in the Context Of a Nursing Practice Scenario
Orem's Theory of Self-Care
Self-care is the key concept in Orem's nursing model (1991). It is defined as the practice of activities that maturing and mature persons initiate and perform, within time frames, on their own behalf in the interests of maintaining life, healthful functioning, continuing personal development, and well-being A self-care deficit occurs when an individual is unable to engage in self-care Orem's self-care model has, throughout the years, provided the basis for training and support programs for groups of patients with both chronic and acute diseases, e g diabetic patients (Allison 1973, Fitzgerald 1980), employees with rheumatoid arthritis (Dear & Keen 1982), renal transplant patients (Hoffart 1982), stroke patients (Anna et al. 1978, Faucett et al. 1990), bone marrow transplant patients (Mack 1992) and patients with cancer (Dodd & Dibble 1993).
The universal self-care requisites are…
Allison S. (1973) A framework for nursing action in a nurse conducted diabetes managed clinic Journal of Nursing Administration 3, 53-60
Anna D., Christensen D. G, Hohon, S. A, Ord L & Wells SR (1978). Implementing Orem's conceptual framework. Journal of Nursing Administration 8, 8-11
Dear M.R. & Keen M.F. (1982) Promotion of self-care in the employee with rheumatoid arthntis. Occupational Health Nursing 30, 32-4
Dodd IN J & Dibble SL (1993) Predictors of self-care a test of Orem's model. Oncology Nursing Forum 20, 895-901
Contracts with doctors often contain a clause which doesn't allow the doctors to discuss
Health care 7 with their patients financial incentives to deny treatment or about treatments not covered by the plan (Glazer, 1996). This has caused many consumers, especially those with chronic illnesses, to form organizations with the American Medical Association and physician specialty groups to promote legislation forbidding "gag rules" (Glazer, 1996). One group, Citizen Action, has 3 million members and "has been lobbying in state legislatures for laws that would require plans to disclose how they pay their doctors; give patients the right to choose specialists outside the plan; and provide appeals for patients who get turned down for expensive treatments" (Glazer, 1996).
The doctor-patient relationship is also affected if a patient must switch to a new doctor under managed care. Having a longterm relationship with a primary doctor is important because he or she is…
Bennett Clark, Jane (1996, July). What you should ask your HMO.
Kiplinger's Personal Finance Magazine. pp. 92-93.
Glazer, Sarah (1996, April 12). Managed Care. CQ Researcher, 6,
Koop, C. Everett (1996, Fall). Manage with care. Time. pp. 69.
ursing Annotated Bibliography
This article categorizes diabetes as an epidemic that can responds well with the adjunctive treatment of HBOT. The authors use two clinical case studies in their literature review of how oxygen plays a part in the healing of lower extremity diabetic ulcers. They argue for the necessity of further study and research into HBOT because of its efficacy and the potential to drastically lower medical costs for diabetic patients, whose numbers continue to increase steadily. There is a very clear focus on the costs of diabetic treatments on a global scale in relation to the number of diabetic patients worldwide, as part of the authors' strategy to advocate the widespread use of HBOT. Charts and color photographs contextualized the text and make the research more concrete in the mind of the reader, especially the photographs of diabetic amputees who have not had…
Neal, M.S. (2001). Benefits of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for diabetic foot lesions. Journal of Wound Care, 10(1), 507 -- 509.
This article provides a quantitative explanation for the presence of lower extremity ulcers and wounds in diabetic patients. The article additional explains how HBOT elevate the presence of circulating stem cells in diabetic patients. Their research aims to prove how HBOT stimulates the vasculogenic stem cell mobilization in the bone marrow of diabetics, which then are used to heal skin wounds. The authors explain their experience with these types of patients and HBOT treatments because at the hospital where they all work, HBOT is standard operating procedure for the qualifying patients in they study. This is another example of a highly statistical article with the presence of charts and graphs, even digital images of blood samples from the participants both in color and in black and white. Images have the potential to bring the reader closer to the content of the text. Their research shows that HBOT increases important agents in diabetics' bone marrow that lead to increased circulation and healing properties.
Thom, MD, PhD, S.R., Milovanova, MD, PhD, T.N., Yang, MD, M., Bhopale, PhD, V.M., Sorokina, E.M., Uzun, MD, G., Malay, D.S., Troiano, M.A., Hardy, MD, K.R., Lambert, MD, D.S., Logue, MD, C.J., & Margolis, MD, PhD, D.J. (2011). Vasculonic stem cell mobilization and wound recruitment in diabetic patients: Increased cell number and intracellular regulatory protein content associated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Wound Rep Reg, 19(2011), 149 -- 161.
Polycythemia Vera and Lou Gehrig's Disease
Polycythemia Vera (PV)
PV is in basic terms "a stem cell disorder characterized by proliferation of a clone of hematopoietic precursors, nearly all of which arise from a mutation in the JAK2 (janus kinase 2) gene" (Hines & Marschall, 2012, p.417). Being a bone marrow disease, PV leads to what MedicinePlus (2013), a U.S. National Library of Medicine service, refers to as an unusual increase in primary red blood cell numbers.
Symptoms and Causes
Some of the symptoms of this PV include but they are not limited to fatigue and shortness of breath, reddened and itchy skin, dizziness and unexplained headaches, and breathing difficulties (MedicinePlus, 2013). Other symptoms in this case could include unexplained weight loss and general body weakness.
PV essentially comes about when there is a problem with the production of blood cells as a result of a mutation in the affected…
ALS Association. (2010). What is ALS? Retrieved from http://www.alsa.org/about-als/what-is-als.html
Hines, R.L. & Marschall, K.E. (2012). Stoelting's Anesthesia and Co-existing Disease (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Health Sciences.
MedicinePlus. (2013). Polycythemia Vera. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000589.htm
Mills, E.J. (2005). Handbook of Medical-Surgical Nursing (4th ed.). Ambler, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Proclaimed by scientists, the thriving cloning of an adult sheep and the prospect to clone a human being is one of the most striking and latest instances of a scientific innovation turning out to be a major argumentative issue. A variety of critics, physicians and legal specialists, scientists and theologians, talk-radio hosts, as well as editorial column writers, for the period of the preceding few months, have been effectively reacting to the news, a number of them bringing up fears and apprehensions on the ethical and moral side of the subject, of the viewpoint of cloning a human being.
The National ioethics Advisory Commission (NAC), at the appeal of the President, held inquiries, as well as organized a report on the ethical, religious, as well as lawful subjects contiguous to human cloning. The Commission suggested a suspension on attempts to clone human beings, at the same time as…
National Bioethics Advisory Commission. Cloning Human Beings. Report and Recommendations. June 9, 2001.
James Q. Wilson. The Paradox of Cloning. Weekly Standard. May 26, 2001.
Jean Bethke Elshtain. Ewegenics. New Republic. March 31, 2001.
R.C. Lewontin. The Confusion over Cloning. New York Review of Books. October 23, 2001.
Ethics of Human Cloning
In 1971, Nobel Prize winning-scientist James atson wrote an article warning about the growing possibility of a "clonal man." Because of both the moral and social dangers cloning posed to humankind, atson called for a worldwide ban on any research leading to cloning technology (atson 8).
Until then, cloning had been largely relegated to the realm of science fiction. Scientific research concerning cloning and in vitro fertilization was obtuse and technical, and hardly written about in the news. atson, however, was a highly-respected scientist, a Harvard professor famous for his discovery of the double helix structure of the DNA. The article he wrote sparked an intense debate over cloning, a debate that was renewed with the 1996 birth of Dolly the lamb, the first cloned mammal.
The argument no longer centers on whether cloning is possible, but on whether cloning is ethical. This paper examines the…
Annas, George. "Scientific Discoveries and Cloning: Challenges for Public Policy." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
Bailey, Ronald. "Cloning is Ethical." Ethics. Brenda Stalcup, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
Garcia, Jorge L.A. "Cloning Humans is Not Ethical." The Ethics of Genetic Engineering. Lisa Yount, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002.
Kass, Leon. "The Wisdom of Repugnance." Flesh of My Flesh: The Ethics of Cloning Humans. Gregory E. Pence, ed. Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998.
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN) is also called erythroblastosis fetalis. This condition occurs when there is an incompatibility between the blood types of the mother and baby. "Hemolytic" means breaking down of red blood cells; "erythroblastosis" refers to making of immature red blood cells; "fetalis" refers to fetus (alker et al. 1957).
HDN most frequently occurs when an Rh negative mother has a baby with an Rh positive father. hen the baby's Rh factor is positive, like the father's, problems can develop if the baby's red blood cells cross to the Rh negative mother (Issit & Anstee 1998). This usually happens at delivery when the placenta detaches. However, it may also happen anytime blood cells of the two circulations mix, such as during a miscarriage or abortion, with a fall, or during an invasive prenatal testing procedure (i.e., an amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling).
The mother's immune system sees…
Frigoletto, F., et al. "Ultrasonographic fetal surveillance in the management of the isoimmunized pregnancy." New England Journal of Medicine 315-1986: 430-32.
Issit, P. & Anstee, D. Applied Blood Group Serology, 4th Edition. Durham, NC: Montgomery
Scientific Publications, 1998.
Judd, W., et al. "Prenatal and perinatal immunohematology: recommendations for serologic management of the fetus, newborn infant, and obstetric patient." Transfusion 30, 1990: 175-83.
Altering the Universe: From Gutenberg to Biotech
Revolution is in the air. hile the digital revolution is transforming our view of the universe, the biotech revolution has the potential to alter the universe itself. The parallel with the invention of the printing press and the Renaissance is clear. (Blake, 2001). "Gutenberg's and Caxton's inventions turned the world figuratively and intellectually upside down and heralded new patterns of human activity and organization that were inconceivable prior to the early 15th century." (Blake, 2001, pg. 9). One of the great achievements of that era was the quick adaptation of this communications revolution to every aspect of human life. Today, "we are at the beginning of a new Renaissance...." (Blake, 2001, pg. 9). One of the more controversial elements of this new Renaissance is stem cell research. There is perhaps no field fraught with more possibility along with questions of morality and medical…
Bartlett, Roscoe G. "Do Stem-Cell Research without Killing Embryos." Insight on the News 3 Sept. 2001: 44.
Blake, Christopher R.L. "A Different Reason for Worrying about Stem Cell Research." Matrix: The Magazine for Leaders in Higher Education Oct. 2001: 9.
Care of Cancer:
In the past few years, cancer has developed to become one of the major leading causes of deaths across the globe. The disease can be described as the uncontrolled growth or development of abnormal cells in the body even as cancerous cells are also known as malignant cells. Since cells are the building blocks of humans and other living things, cancer develops out of the normal cells within the body. Generally, the normal cells multiply when needed by the body and die when the body does not need them. When the growth of the cells in the body is out of control and cells divide too quickly, cancer appears to occur. Nonetheless, cancer also appears to happen when cells in the body forget how to die.
Causes of Cancer:
There are various kinds of cancer because the disease can develop in nearly every tissue or organ like…
Barraclough, J. (2002). Integrated Cancer Care. Retrieved from Royal College of Psychiatrists
"Cancer Complications." (n.d.). Info.com. Retrieved August 31, 2012, from http://topics.info.com/Cancer-Complications_3416
"Cancer Staging." (2010, September 22). National Cancer Institute Factsheet. Retrieved from National Cancer Institute website: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/detection/staging
80s and the 90s, an unknown but virulent cattle disease, called "Mad Cow," destroyed 180,000 livestock in the United Kingdom and some other European countries and plunged other major cattle-producing nations - including the United States - into global panic (Freudenrich 2004). Health experts assured the public that humans were not prone to it. Nonetheless, its symptoms resemble those of an already existing and similarly deadly human nervous condition called Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), believed to afflict only those 50 years old and older. CJD was then linked to Mad Cow, but believed to be limited to the older population. In the mid 90s, however, several ritish young people, died of a new variety of disease with similar symptoms to both Mad Cow's and CJD's, this time plaguing the young (nvCJD). In all those troubled years, contaminated ritish cattle were exported to as many as countries, including the U.S.A., as animal…
Dealler, Steve. BSE Statistics. The Pathology Laboratory: Burnley General Hospital, 1999. http://bse.airtime.co.uk/statb.htm
Department of Health. Monthly CJD Statistics. Jan 2004, http://www.doh.gov.uk/cjd/stats/jan04.htm
Freundenrich, Craig C. How Mad Cow Disease Works. HowStuffWorks, 2004. http://science.howstuffworks.com/mad~cow-disease.htm
Lohn, Martiga. Why Mad Cow Could Happen in America. Natural Health: Weider Publications, Oct-Nov 2001. http://www.findarticles.com
Macrophages also stimulate the production of white blood cells, particularly neutrophils. As these neutrophils die, they (along with dead cells, dead bacteria, and white blood cells) form a whitish material called pus. The appearance of pus indicates the body is attempting to fight the infection.
The tissue that results depends on the extent of the injury. If the injury is minor, the damaged tissue is replaced when fibroblasts form new collagenous tissue that heals the wound. Additionally, growth factor released by the connective tissue matrix stimulates the regeneration of tissue. However, if the wound is more extensive, scar tissue may result. Scar tissue is composed of collagenous tissue which is formed as a result of granulations developing in the damaged tissue.
D) as much as possible in your own words: What is prolotherapy? What does the physician do to the site of the damaged tissue? Why is it called proliferation…
Brody, J., (2007). Injections to kick-start tissue repair. NY times: personal health.
Mader, S., (2003). Inquiry into life (10th ed.). New York, New York: McGraw Hill.
However, recently, anesthesiologists have suggest a low to mid thoracic epidural combined with adequate general anesthesia. This anesthetic technique will allow for adequate inter-operative monitoring. After the operation, the anesthesiologist must continue to monitor the patient for either hypertension, hypotension and hypoglycemia. The presence of either of these conditions may alter the course of the medication given to the patient once the patient is removed from the anesthesia.
Neurofibroma can cause systemic problems within the various components of the Respiratory System. As has already been presented, Neurofibromas can cause partial blockages within upper parts of the trachea. However, Neurofibromas can also pose challenges or the anesthesiologist when dealing with nasal, sinus or maxilofacial cavities with Neurofibromas present within. One example of how devastatingly complex the Neurofibroma can become is seen when a benign neurofibroma can cause a superior vena cava compression. Such was the case of a 21-year-old…
S. Congress that the prospects of stem cell research were so vast that it could touch all the realm of medicine (Connor 2000). An unlimited source of embryonic stem cells will solve the problem of shortage of transplants. Embryonic stem cells will save lives by curing generative diseases of the brain, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and diseases of the heart and kidneys. ut current laws restrict the use of stems cells on embryos less than 14 days old and for correcting fertility, reproduction or congenital disorders. The restriction is grounded in the belief that the embryo is a potential human being from the moment of conception. It thus possesses a soul and a dignity just like any other viable person (Connor). Previous scientific research presented evidence that genetically engineering cells could partly repair a defective immune system (Travis 2002). Two new studies bolstered this…
Bauer, D.G. (2005). Review of the endocrine system. MedSurg Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc.
Connor, S. (2000). Science: the miracle cure with a catch. The London Independent: Newspaper Publishing PLC
Degen. D (2008). Body organization and homeostasis. 1 page. Bones, Muscles and Skin. Pearson Education, Inc.: Pearson Prentice Hall
Farabee, M.J. (2006). Animal organ systems and homeostasis. 18 web pages. Estrella Mountain Community College. Retrieved on February 1, 2006 at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookMUSSKEL.html
Going back further, the same religious principals also inspired opposition to organ transplants and blood transfusions; before that, the Catholic Church strictly forbade any forensic scientific research, necessitating the need to dissect cadavers for medical education entirely in secret (Levine, 2008).
Just as the news media are partially at fault today for their failure to distinguish legitimate concerns from ludicrous fears in connection with the ongoing political debate over American healthcare, they are equally responsible for allowing unfounded fears of "human cloning" in connection with the beneficial uses of stem cell science. Specifically, the main source of secular opposition to stem cell research is attributable to unnecessary fears of rampant misuse of human cloning technology to clone human beings. While human cloning is hypothetically possible, no responsible scientific researcher would ever misuse current biomedical technology in that fashion. The complexities of cloning entire organisms have been well documented in animal…
Dershowitz, a. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. Boston: Little
Brown & Co.
Friedrich, M. "Researchers Make the Case for Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research"
The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 292(7); August 18, 2004:
Analysis of the Issues: The ethical concern for the rights and welfare of viable infants is certainly a legitimate concern, but the central ethical analysis that pertains to stem cell research revolves around the issue of defining human life appropriately. Objective criteria like anatomical development, cognitive awareness, and above all, sentience of any degree and in any form are all legitimate bases for the definition of life and for identifying the period of gestation corresponding to the earliest conceivable safeguards necessary to prevent suffering.
On the other hand, purely subjective doctrinal claims without objective criteria of any kind are wholly inappropriate bases for defining scientific concepts like when life begins. The fact that human development varies among individuals and that it may be impossible to know exactly where sentience and other elements of "humanness" first begin in the fetus does not mean that it is impossible to identify periods of…
Dershowitz, a.(2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age.
Boston: Little Brown, 2002
Healy, B. On Health: The Other Stem Cells; U.S. News & World Report (Jun. 14/04), p. 77.
Hellemans, a., Bunch, B. (1998) the Timetables of Science. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Main Functions of the Kidneys
The kidneys are bean-shaped organs, 12 centimeters long, which lie at the sides of the spinal column behind the abdominal cavity (Merck 2010). Their main function is to maintain the proper balance of water and minerals in the body. Their other major functions include filtration and elimination of wastes and toxins, regulation of blood pressure and secretion of some hormones. The amount of water taken into the body must match the amount being eliminated. If the balance is not maintained, water will accumulate fast and illness or death may occur. Excess water will dilute the body's electrolyte and inadequate amount will concentrate electrolytes. The kidneys regulate and help maintain the precise concentrations (Merck).
The kidneys' second major function consists of filtration and excretion (Merck 2010). They pass out urea, a main waste product from protein metabolism. Urea moves through the glomerulus and into…
DHS 2008, 'Developmental disabilities nursing,' Department of Human Services
[Online] Available at http://www.oregon.gov/DHS/spd/provtools/nursing/ddmanuel/companion.pdf ?
Franz 2009, 'Nursing care plan -- renal failure,' Nursing Crib [Online] Available at http://nursingcrib.com/nursing-care-plan/nursing-care-plan-renal-failure
Hudson, K 2007, 'Acute renal failure -- nursing CEs,' Dynamic Nursing Education
Study of human embryonic stem cell will lead to major advances in human biology, specifically:
Embryonic stem cell research will provide critical insights into mechanisms of cell differentiation, growth, and death (Young, 2006).
Understanding stem cells may provide keys to why people age (Young, 2006).
Scientists are interested in stem cells because they have the potential to become very practical in a way that any other kind of cell in the body might be used to replace tissues that have failed (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3144925.stm,2003).
And lastly, scientists believed that if they become successful in finding cure for lymphoma, and leukemia with this study, there is a great possibility that they can also cure diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, diabetes among others in the near future (http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/engage/materials/presentation1.ppt,2006).
Mitalipova, Maisam et. al. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Discarded Embryos 2003. AlphaMed Press. 7 October 2006. http://stemcells.alphamedpress.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/5/521
Young, ise. Morality of…
Mitalipova, Maisam et. al. Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Derived from Discarded Embryos 2003. AlphaMed Press. 7 October 2006. http://stemcells.alphamedpress.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/5/521
Young, Wise. Morality of Stem Cells.. 7 October 2006. http://carecure.rutgers.edu/Lectures/Morality/StemCells_Notes.ppt
Embryonic Stem Cells; an Introduction to Science ethics and Legislation.. 7 October 2006. http://www.stemcellnetwork.ca/engage/materials/presentation1.ppt
Mining Stem Cells.. 7 October 2006. http://arts.usask.ca/policynut/courses/soc292-8.ppt
hat treatments did the individual seek? ere any available at the time?
Reeve had to have a major operation a few days after his accident to replace the shattered vertebrae through artificial means. After his operation, he was put through physical rehabilitation and occupational therapy. Eventually he was able to move his wrist, fingers, and feet (Hecht & Hecht 2004). He could also breathe without assistance for up to 90 minutes. Intense physical therapy continued throughout the remainder of his life. Other treatments he received included: weight-bearing exercises, calcium supplements, and medication to reverse osteoporosis, or thinning of the bones which happens frequently to paraplegics.
Reeve sought further means of overcoming his disability, particularly with stem cell research. In this therapy, embryonic stem cells or, less often, adult stem cells are introduced to the damaged body which and allows the body to regenerate damaged tissue. It has been shown to…
Crews, C. (1998, May 3). The role he can't escape. Washington Post. Washington Post
Hall, F. (2005). Christopher Reeve. UU World: The Magazine of the Unitarian Universalist
Human Genome, Stem Cells, & Reparations
Stems Cells are the source of all body tissues. Growth and development of the human body arises from the stem cell and is maintained by it. Although all cells can divide or copy themselves, stem cells are unique because they can replicate and create all other types of cells. This ability of the stem cell to develop into any of the 220 cell types that make up the human body makes it a powerful tool for biological research and medicine. Scientists believe that stem cell research has the potential of leading to previously incurable diseases.
How are Stem Cells Formed?
When a sperm cell fertilizes an egg, a zygote (fertilized egg) is formed. The zygote divides itself almost immediately to form stem cells. These unspecialized stem cells have the ability to replicate (to form other stem cells) and to make all other specialized cells…
James Harper. "About Reparations." [available online] at http://www.blackvoices.com/feature/reparations/trial/
Peter Viles. "Suit Seeks Billions in Slave Reparations." [Available online] at http://www.cnn.com/2002/LAW/03/26/slavery.reparations/index.html
Alterations of Hematology and Cardiovascular Systems
Sickle Cell Anemia
Ms. A is suffering from Sickle cell anemia. In this disease, the red blood cells appear in the shape of sickles or letter C. The normal red blood cells are disk-shaped. The disk-shape allows them to move smoothly in the blood vessels. Normal red blood cells have hemoglobin. The hemoglobin is responsible the red color. It helps in the transportation of oxygen. Sickle cells, on the other hand, have abnormally low hemoglobin, which results in the C-shape. This form is sticky and stiff and so cannot move easily through the blood vessels. Ms. A's condition was a case of Menorrhagia as well as dysmenorrhea. The sickle cells lump together and block the flow of blood through the blood vessels leading to the organs and the limbs. Such blocked blood vessels may lead to pain, infections and even organ damage (Health 24,…
Health24. (2014, APRIL 30). The seven types of anaemia. Retrieved from Health24.com: http://www.health24.com/Lifestyle/Your-Blood/Anaemia-20130216-2
UoM. (n.d.). Sickle cell disease. Retrieved from University of maryland: https://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/sickle-cell-disease