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Tea was more than something to drink -- it was a valuable, so valuable, says McGill that some "deemed it a 'second currency'" (McGill). It was also valuable socially. Norton maintains that tea was an important aspect of social life, with the elite socializing and holding tea parties. The colonists wanted not just to prove a point but a valuable one when they dumped the tea overboard. hen Samuel Adams and others dumped the entire shipment into the harbor, they were telling Britain that one of their most prized imports was not worth anything to them if it meant giving up some of the freedoms the colonists left Britain for in the first place. Norton claims the total cost of the tea dumped into the harbor was around $14,000. The British concern might have been monetary, but the meaning was already deeper than that for the colonists and thei ability…
Brinkley, Douglas. "The Sparck of Rebellion." American Heritage. 2010. Vol. 59. 4. 05 June,
2010. EBSCO Resource Database. http://search.epnet.com Web.
McGill, Sara Ann. "The Road to Revolution." Road to Revolution, 2009. 05 June, 2010. EBSCO
As they joined the Sons of Liberty in meetings and marches, these patriotic women often engaged in physical confrontation with Loyalists. hen writing to her husband (after the Revolutionary ar began), Abigail Adams tells about the siege of the stingy storeowner Thomas Boylston who was charging exorbitant prices:
Number of Females some say a hundred, some say more assembled with a cart and trucks, marchd down to the are House and demanded the keys, which he refused to deliver, upon which one of them seazd him by his Neck and tossd him into the cart. Upon his finding no Quarter he deliverd the keys, when they tipd up the cart and discharged him, then opend the arehouse, Hoisted out the Coffe themselves, put it into the trucks and drove off.
Today, the story of the Boston Tea Party is well-known: On the cold and damp night of December 16, 1773,…
American Revolution. 21 Sept., 2007. http://www.americanrevwar.homestead.com/files/WOMEN.htm
Berkin, Carol.Revolutionary Mothers: Women in the Struggle for America's
Independence. New York: Alfred a. Knopf, 2005
Errikkila, Betsy Errikkila, "Revolutionary Women " Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature
The American tea party
The Tea Party is a populist movement that promotes several conservative values which include the following;
Limitations on the authority of the U.S. federal government
eduction of government spending and the national debt
eduction of personal and corporate taxes
This is a party that has been known over the historical moments to pull frustrated and concerned Americans together to protest against excessive government spending coupled with increased debt burden. This conservative group has it that the government's growing involvement in business and indulgence in individual freedom is a deviation from conservative values.
Since its inception to date, the mission of the Tea Party Coalition has been to organize and launch in a rapid response fashion special nationwide projects that will help to advance the goal of a return to a constitutionally limited government that does not go overboard, through whichever arm to disenfranchise the…
David W. Koeller, (1999). The Boston Tea Party 1773. Retrieved July 28, 2011 from http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/usa/teaparty.html
Eye Witness to History, (2002). The Boston Tea Party, 1773. Retrieved July 28, 2011 from http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/teaparty.htm
James L. Roark et.al. Eds. The American Promise: A History of the United States. Fourth Ed.
Vol I. Bedford/St. Martin's: New York.
This bias permeates throughout social circles and businesses seeking qualified job applicants. Yet, oston's strong economy accommodates growth for anyone who is motivated to succeed.
Culturally, oston is no New York. but, for a city of 600,000, great cultural activities are available without the burden of dealing with an overwhelmingly large city.
The city's numerous theaters include the Cutler Majestic Theatre, oston Opera House, the Wang Center for the Performing Arts, Schubert Theater, and the Orpheum Theater. Performing arts groups are some of the best to be found in the country and include the oston allet, oston Symphony Orchestra, oston Pops, oston Lyric Opera Company, and the Handel and Haydn Society. Free summer concerts on the Charles River Esplanade are a joy with excellent acoustics and a festive atmosphere. oston also has several fine museums such as the Museum of Fine Arts, the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, and the Museum…
Banner, David. "The History of Boston, Massachusetts." Retrieved from Web site: http://www.searchboston.com/history.html
Boston: History." Retrieved from Web site: http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/the-Northeast/Boston-History.html
Massachusetts Tourist Information. "Boston Area Information." Retrieved from Web site: http://www.masstourist.com/boston.htm
Wikipedia, "Boston Massachusetts." Retrieved from Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boston,_Massachusetts
The name of Horace Mann is still known today, the first Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, as he tried to make a practical education available to all, including recent immigrants, which he argued would be an important part of their socialization into the national culture (Browne, 2003, p.3).
Boston suffered a great deal during the Great Depression. "ith the outbreak of ar II, factories were retooled for the war effort, and people went back to work on the production lines. Again Boston was a major arms manufacturer during wartime" (Banner 2008). And because of the new importance of science and technology, its considerable intellectual capital proved a great source of profit, and continues to, to this day. Today, Boston has become a leader in the computer and other technology-dominated industries. Financial and service industries are also strong. Fenway Park, the Museum of Fine Arts, and the Freedom Trail…
Banner, David. "Boston History." Search Boston. 2008. http://www.searchboston.com/history.html
Boston, Massachusetts: City History." CityLight.com 20 Apr 2008. http://www.bycitylight.com/cities/us-ma-boston-history.php
Boston Brahmins." Murder at Harvard. People & Events. 20 Apr 2008. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/murder/peopleevents/p_brahmins.html
Browne, Lynne. "Technology Explosion." The Economic Adventure. Published by the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. 2003. http://www.economicadventure.org/gazette/ch3.pdf
The monopoly of he Act was responsible for the infuriating of violence, which was due to the offensive approach of the 'angered influential merchants' (ay, 1976), the interests and gains of the merchants were at stake, and they expected that the monopoly of the East India company will adversely affect their business activities. The Tea Act offered a partial economic relief to the locals, but the local population was reluctant to appreciate such major, because that would have been the acceptance of the taxation policy of the British Empire without the representation of the locals. The colonies shared grievances and concerns with reference to the Tea Act, and mutually their agreed over the complete boycott of the Tea Act, which eventually 'mobilized a large segment of colonial society' (ay, 1976). After the enactment, the influential figures of different colonies developed different plans to avoid the landing of tea shipments of…
Ray Allen Billington. American History before 1877. 1976. Rowman & Littlefield Publication. pp. 86.
George Robert Twelves Hewes was an interesting figure in the American Revolutionary period was born in oston, on September 5th 1742. The environment in which he lived saw many transformations throughout his life and Hewes also experienced more inward transformations as well. Hewes life can be defined by some of the more significant events that we personally witnessed and/or participated in. These events also happened to be defining moments in American History. One such incident that worked to transform Hewes as a person was undoubtedly the oston Massacre in 1770. During this period the city was occupied with a large concentration of ritish troops that were stationed in oston to enforce and collect tax obligations from the colonies.
Hewes worked as a shoemaker and one day he had made shoes for a soldier who claimed they were for the captain and then refused to pay for…
Young, A. The Shoemaker and the Tea Party. Beacon Press, 2000.
During the 18th century there was a fierce competition between the British and the French colonial empires which ultimately led to The Seven Years War. The final result of the conflict favored the English who, nonetheless, were forced to make appeal to the force of the American colonies in order to defeat the French. Following such an action, the opponents of the British rule over the American territories would later on recall and use in supporting the cause of independence the aid the Americans provided the British in tackling the French threat.
The British considered the Americans as being the closest political ally and colonial region. Moreover, the historical context determined such an approach. This special treatment protected the American colonies from any external and foreign threat; in return, the British sought to maintain a preferential trade connection with the American colonies who were, without a doubt, one of the…
Though Jefferson played a major role in the development of the United States he preferred to be remembered for the things he gave the people and not the things the people gave to him. His final request was that his tombstone read: HERE AS BURIED THOMAS JEFFERSON, AUTHOR of the DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE, of the STATUTE of VIRGINIA for RELIGIOUS FREEDOM, and FATHER of the UNIVERSITY of VIRGINIA.
The Townsend Acts were a series of laws passed by the Parliament of Great Britain beginning in 1767. These acts were intended to raise revenue to pay the salaries of governors and judges, enforce compliance with trade regulations, punish New York for failure to comply with the Quartering Act, and establish a precedent that Parliament had the right to tax the colonies.
The Stamp Act of 1765 was a direct tax imposed by Parliament on the American colonies. The act required that…
"Brief Biography of Thomas Jefferson." Thomas Jefferson's Monticello. Web. Accessed 31
"Short History of the University of Virginia." University of Virginia. Web. Accessed 31 March
The Sons of Liberty, a clandestine network of individuals dedicated to the freedom of enterprise and the fairness of government that the British Crown once stood as the protector of, have caused enough damage with their secretive acts to both the Crown and the forces here that oppose it. ould it not be better to move their actions from the shadows they have been forced into do to the label of sedition they have been branded with, and allow for the airing of the legitimate grievances and concerns of the people inhabiting these several colonies? ould not the Sons of Liberty, and indeed all Sons of Man, be better served by an open declaration of our independence from the Crown rather than continued unnecessary belligerence?
It has been well argued by the loyalists here that to denounce the King and his Crown as authority figures here would be a matter…
Nash, Gary; Jeffrey, Julie; Howe, John; Frederick, Peter; Davis, Allen; Winkler, Allan; Mires, Charlene; Pestana, Carla. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, 6th Ed. New York: Longman, 2007.
Oliver, Susan. "Creating Demand for Revolution: Thomas Paine's Common Sense." Accessed 12 July 2009. http://www.cerritos.edu/soliver/American%20Identities/Thomas%20Paine/thomas_paine.htm
Certainly there were myriad slave rebellions, in the American South and elsewhere, before Douglass's time. But Douglass came along when the time was right for social change, when the South had been recently defeated and American slavery was in its most precarious state ever. Therefore, Douglass and Abolitionists like him: black and white; male and female, seized the moment, and in 1865 slavery was outlawed.
The name Frederick Douglass is a household word in most American households. However, it was not until publication, in 1999, of Alfred F. Young's historical biography of the Shoemaker and the Tea Party (Boston: Beacon Press) that a brave shoemaker who risked his life in the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party, George Robert Twelve Hewes was known to history at all. Though he, too, was a man of his era, Hewes was not nearly as representative as Douglass. Nor was Hewes's era representative…
Many colonists had come to the new world in search of a lifestyle infused with greater freedom. The colonists' ideas about government differed greatly from their English counterparts. hile the English still focused on the power of the monarchy, the colonists had been holding popular assemblies since 1763 ("The American Revolution: First Phase"). They began to believe in rights that they saw the English and their stationed guards as there to violate. In addition, they believed that they, not a country across the ocean, should have the right to control or at least have a say in the political decisions that would affect their lives.
In addition to these highly popularized economic and ideological causes of the revolution, social causes also added fuel to the fire of revolution. As the 1700s wore on, More and more Americans came from European countries other than England. As these people began to immigrate…
American Revolution," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia
http://encarta.msn.com© 1997-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
The American Revolution: The First Phase." 2005. 9 December 2008. The American
The Great Awakening brought people together (though it did also divide them), but its influence on what the United States would later become is great. First of all, it forced people to have their own religious experience and it decreased the heavy hands of the clergy; new denominations also would come to be because of the Great Awakening as a direct result of the importance that was put on personal faith and views on salvation. The Great Awakening also brought the American colonies together and though there was also some division, there was more unification than ever before in the colonies.
The Great Awakening is so significant in the shaping of American and what it would later become because it gave individuals the freedom to find their own peace with life and God as it pertained to their earthly life -- and also to their later salvation. The United States…
Middleton, Richard. Colonial America: A History, 1565 -- 1776. Wiley-Blackwell; 3rd
Geiter, Mary K., & Speck, W.A. Colonial America: From Jamestown to Yorktown.
Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
In 1775, Patrick Henry gave his famous speech ("give me liberty or give me death") to lawmakers in Virginia; he urges a citizens' army to defeat the British. The first shots of the Revolutionary ar are fired after Paul Revere rode his horse through Concord and Lexington to warn colonists that the British soldiers are coming. Also in 1775, George ashington is given command of the Continental army, and John Hancock is appointed president of the Second Continental Congress. In August of 1775, King George III makes a declaration that the colonies are in open rebellion against the British.
The Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4, 1776, in Philadelphia, by the Continental Congress. "e hold these truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal..." is the beginning of the declaration. Thomas Jefferson is given credit for most of the writing of the declaration, along with John…
Library of Congress. "Religion and the Founding of the American Republic." Retrieved 9 Nov. 2006 at http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel03.html .
Public Broadcast Service. "Liberty! The American Revolution / Chronicle of the Revolution."
2005). Retrieved 9 Nov. 2006 at http://www.pbs.org/ktca/liberty/index.html .
Public Broadcast Service. "Timeline of the Revolution." Retrieved 10 Nov. 2006 at http://www.pbs.org/ktca/liberty/chronicle_timeline.html .
These Acts, along with the Quebec Act, which extended the southern boundary of Canada into territories claimed by Massachusetts, Connecticut and Virginia, proved to be the last straw and hurtled the country into the Revolutionary ar ("Intolerable Acts").
Although it is still debatable whether the American independence from the British was inevitable, there is hardly any doubt that the required the series of legislation enacted by the British Parliament between 1764 and1774, outlined in this essay, served to greatly antagonize the American colonists. Almost all measures taken to tax the American colonies and tighten British administrative control met with resentment and, ultimately, open hostility. These measures proved to be a major reason for the Revolutionary ar, and eventual independence of America.
America During the Age of Revolution, 1764-1775." The Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/continental/timeline.html
British Actions After the French Indian ar." Multied.com. November 26, 2008. http://www.multied.com/Revolt/sugart.html
America During the Age of Revolution, 1764-1775." The Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/continental/timeline.html
British Actions After the French Indian War." Multied.com. November 26, 2008. http://www.multied.com/Revolt/sugart.html
Cogliano, Francis D. "Was the American Revolution Inevitable?" April, 2001. November 26, 2008. BBC Web site. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/american_revolution_01.shtml
Intolerable Acts." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2008. November 26, 2008. http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761579222
Merchants and Traders of the American Revolution
The American Revolution occurred during the 1700's as the early settlers underwent a period of change. During this time, settlers in the Americas gained religious freedom, became prosperous merchants, and established a more democratic government. However, during this time, the settlers were also controlled and taken advantage of by England.
The American War was fought from 1776 to 1778 yet the American Revolution started much before the war. John Adams summed up the sentiment of the American Revolution when he stated, "ut what do we mean by the American Revolution? Do we mean the American war? The Revolution was affected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people...This radical change in the principles, opinions, sentiments, and affections of the people, was the real American Revolution."
The American Revolution was fought by the colonists, many of whom…
American Revolution. World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago:World Book Inc. 1997, pp. 270-274.
Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1967.
Goldfield, David etal. The American Journey: A History of the Untied States. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1998, pp. 130-153.
Gorn, Elliot J., Roberts, Randy and Blizhar, Terryt. Constructing the American Past: A Source Book of a People's History - Volume I. 3rd ed. New York: Longman, 1999.
" Real Americans support the right of religious people to worship, and would never base legislation on a religious conviction rather than a conviction based on constitutional rights, constitutional law, and Enlightenment ethics.
American political identity is continually changing also because of the incredible ethnic and cultural diversity within the nation's borders. hen gender, sexual identity, socio-economic class, and other factors are also included in the mix, America's political philosophy is naturally heterogeneous. hen new immigrants enter the United States, they contribute to the common ideals of a nation founded on principles like universal liberty and justice. "Debates about immigration and national identity cut to the core of our national self-image as a nation of immigrants, and invariably includes allusions to the past -- real and idealized -- as a way of under- standing and coping with social and demographic changes today," (Segura 278). hite supremacist Americans are currently in…
Brooks, David "One Nation, Slightly Divisible." The Atlantic Monthly; Dec 2001; 288, 5; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 53
Hartz "The Concept of a Liberal Society"
Hooks, Bell. "Postmodern Blackness." 19 Apr 1994.
King, Martin Luther. "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." 16 April 1963.
Because the country was essentially thirteen colonies fighting separately, the British had to deal with battles throughout the country, with people who were fighting for their homes and towns. The American forces knew their surroundings better, and they were motivated to fight well to protect their loved ones and neighbors.
The Declaration of Independence, written in July 1776, indicates how resolved most of the population was to independence from Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson, author of the document, wrote that the British government had become "destructive," and people believed they must assert their independence and be free of the country, or their lives would never be free from oppression. He wrote, "That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the ight of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in…
Editors. "Revolutionary War Causes." Son of the South. 2009. 20 Feb. 2009. http://www.sonofthesouth.net/revolutionary-war/cause-revolutionary-war.htm .
Gerlach, Larry R., James a. Dolph, and Michael L. Nicholls, eds. Legacies of the American Revolution. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 1978.
Sweeney, Jerry K., ed. A Handbook of American Military History: From the Revolutionary War to the Present. 2nd ed. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2006
Ward, Harry M. The War for Independence and the Transformation of American Society. London: UCL Press, 1999.
Things got no better for d'Estaing and the French navy in 1779 when they were defeated near Savannah, Georgia, by the British. But what such skeptics fail to realize is that even though the British triumphed in these early attempts of France's Navy to provide some form of power at sea, the final victory was, of course, France's and the colonialists', largely because of the effort end expenditure that such battles took on the British. The Colonial war was fought over a period of six years, during which time the British were fighting a war on multiple fronts against multiple opponents. The aggregate of British victories, then, became so pyrrhic that British forces were eventually defeated.
Despite the fact that the French fleet suffered some early losses, it was able to gain the final victory largely because of its prowess on the waterways and the aid it was able to…
Brecher, F.W. (2003). Securing American Independence: John Jay and the French Alliance. Westport: Praeger Publishers.
Chartrand, R. Francis, R. (1991). The French Army in the American War of Independence. Long Island City: Osprey.
Corwin, E.S. (1962) French Policy and the American Alliance of 1778. North Haven: Archon Books.
Dull, J.R. (1985). A Diplomatic History of the American Revolution. New Haven: Yale U. Press.
General Thomas Gage and the American Revolution
In 1774 Thomas Gage was chosen to succeed Thomas Hutchinson as governor of Massachusetts, where the most serious conflicts between the colonists and the British government existed at that time. Gage's appointment was initially well received by the colonists, who were happy to be rid of Hutchinson. However, Gage tried to put down the dissident forces in the colony and enforce the Intolerable Acts, a series of five laws designed to punish the colonists for the Boston Tea Party and the boycott against British goods and reestablish British rule. These acts included the Boston Port Act, legislation the dictated that the port of Boston was closed to shipping until restitution was made to the India Tea company and the King for the lost tea and taxes; The Massachusetts Government Act, designed to increase royal control over the colony's administration; The…
In this regard, when wage levels fell in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the standard of living for laborers and cottagers in England declined precipitously and they were compelled to use the majority of their cash, garden crops, and milk just to buy bread and clothing (Kulikoff 2000:19). Not surprisingly, many of these workers found it almost impossible in some cases to even survive, even with the entire family - including young children - working as hard as possible (Kulikoff 19).
In some cases, laborers (but not their families) were paid in food and drink as part of their wages and some likely kept fowl or a pig, and cottagers, of course, produced much of their own food; nevertheless, poor landless families ate bread and porridge, on occasion supplemented by milk, ale, cheese, eggs, or cheap meat, a diet that was far removed from the same level enjoyed…
Abramovitz, Mimi. Regulating the Lives of Women: Social Welfare Policy from Colonial Times to the Present. Boston: South End Press, 1988.
Bonomi, Patricia U. Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
Breen, T.H. The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
Daunton, M.J. Progress and Poverty: An Economic and Social History of Britain, 1700-1850. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1995.
American History from the Origins of the evolution to the Close of War of 1812
In the 16th century, America, in its development as a new nation, had been colonized by the British government, and for a decade, Americans had shown little resistance against the British colonizers. However, a decade after their conquest, the British forces and government in America had met resistance from the people, and these acts of resistance were triggered by a number of events and policies that further illustrated the growing inequality and injustices of the British to the Americans. As the American evolution became successful, and America had finally achieved independence, the War of 1812 broke out, pitting the country once again against the British forces. The War of 1812 had also encountered problems that had happened before and during the development of the said war. These conflicts and major problems are essential to the…
An Outline of American History." An online book published by the U.S. Department of State International Information Program. Available: http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/history/toc.htm.
Loss of jobs: though most Americans are skilled unlike the unskilled Mexican population, there is a small number of Americans estimated at 10 million who lack high school degree who are under threat from job losses due to availability of cheap unskilled labor from the immigrants.
It is worth noting however, that the immigration issue does not only cover the Mexicans alone but also the Canadian immigrants into the U.S. As well. A good number of these are educated and skilled. What that portends for USA is that there would be someone who may take up a skilled job, at equal salary since they have same qualifications and education as an American. This may not benefit the community since it brings about the unfair competition for jobs between immigrants and the native-born Americans. Then again the issue of money circulation comes up since the Canadians will send the cash…
Centre for Immigration Studies (CIS) (2001). Immigration from Mexico
Study Examines Costs and Benefits for the United States. Retrieve March 21, 2011 from www.cis.org/articles/2001/mexico/release.html
Seattle Post, (2002). Dropout rates highest among Mexican immigrants, study says. Retrieve March 21, 2011 from http://www.seattlepi.com/national/57060_dropout05.shtml
The Boston Tea Party, (2011). Concerns about an Immediate Open Borders Policy. Retrieve March 21, 2011 from http://www.bostontea.us/node/907
Previous to 1776, the United States of America was formed by colonies ruled by British government. The colonists were no longer willing to be ruled by England, and as a result they started to fight for their independence. There were a series of important events which drove to the unification of the colonies into United States of America. Colonist complaints drove to a revolution which soon transformed into a full-scale war.
The colonists were unhappy because the British government denied them a series of essential rights. They could not trade resources with any other country but England, and in addition to that British government increased taxes significantly. In 1770 colonists started to protest against the British government. In 1773 England issued a law meant to have colonists pay taxes on tea and send the money to England. In December 1773 a group of colonists dressed as Native American…
1. America's Fight for Independence, Retrieved December 17, 2012 from the San Diego Community College District website: http://programs.sdce.edu/elcivics/resources/independence
2. Conway, Stephen, American War of Independence (1775-1783), November 13, 2011, Retrieved December 17, 2012, from the Wiley Online Library website: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781444338232.wbeow016/pdf
3. Barnes, Dr. Ian, Royster, Charles, The Historical Atlas of the American Revolution, Routledge, 2000
Birth of a Repulic 1763-89: The Chicago History of American Civilization (Revised Edition) y Edmund S. Morgan. The University of Chicago Press, 1977, 202 pp. Edited y: Daniel J. Boorstin.
The delayed results of the Presidential elections of 2000 also known as the "Florida Fiasco" raised several questions. Two among them: What were the differences etween a democracy and repulic? Which of the two (democracy or repulic) was the United States of America? Cries of "the will of the people" eing denied were heard loud and often. Some pundits suggested that since Mr. Gore had won the popular vote, the constitution might e amended to accommodate the "democratic aspect" of the government. Fortunately (and not for political reasons) the sanctity of the constitution was preserved.
Edmund Morgan, Professor Emeritus at Yale University, had already answered all the aove questions in his eminently readale "The Birth of a Repulic." The ook…
bibliography of sources used; and, all of them treat each chapter of the book in great detail. True. But then, Edmund Morgan also does his readers a disservice. He teases. He leaves the reader dangling. He challenges the reader to seek out his sources. If he were thus successful, the reader would be disappointed on finding the sources lacking Morgan's narrative brilliance. His enormous abilities could serve to provide a little bit more information to the reader.
Two examples are salient. These are instances that most people have heard of, and no doubt would like to learn more about. The famous Boston Tea Party incident merits only a, "The people of Boston and the surrounding towns took up the challenge and on the night of December 6, 1773, unloaded the tea themselves -- into the harbor." (p. 58). To be fair, Morgan does provide a background to events leading to this incident. But a detailed discussion would have been better. Similarly, consider one of the more famous (and significant) battles in the War of Independence -- the battle of Bunker Hill. Once again, all Morgan can offer is, "In the Battle of Bunker Hill, as it was called, the British showed a courage that wiped out the stain of their hurried retreat from Concorde two months ago." (p. 69) A few books have been written about these incidents. One would expect a little more detail from Morgan about these events in the grander scheme of the revolution.
To its intended audience, "The Birth of a Republic" is perhaps one of the best books available. It presents, a nutshell two American struggles: A struggle for freedom; and, the struggle to create a nation borne out of principles that would stand the test of time.
revolutionary the American evolution was in reality. This is one issue that has been debated on by many experts in the past and in the present too. The contents of this paper serve to justify this though-provoking issue.
American evolution-how revolutionary was it?
When we try to comprehend why the American evolution was fought, we come to know that the residents of the American colonies did so to retain their hard-earned economic, political and social order when the British had stated to neglect them. However, before we began to understand what The American evolution was all about, it is necessary for us to look at conditions of the colonies preceding the war. The economy of Colonial America were divided into three separate parts: New England, where the economy was commerce; the South, where cash crops were the major source of earning; and the middle colonies, a combination of both. [Account…
Bailyn, Bernard. The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (Harvard University Press, 1967).
Kurtz and Hutson (eds), Essays on the American Revolution (University of North Carolina Press, 1973).
Account of a Declaration 1, available at: http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/account/ , accessed on: February 11, 2004
American Journey, available at:
American Revolution after 1763
There are several factors leading to the American Revolution. During the 18th century, the ritish colonists in North America established themselves as a new nation. Increasingly, they had begun to see themselves as American rather than ritish. This new consciousness contributed to increasing resentment of any ritish attempts at control and influence in America. ritish action deemed unfair by American colonies, such as taxes on tea and sugar, contributed significantly to this problem.
Exacerbated American Grievances after 1763
The Stamp Act is one of the greatest ritish thorns in the American side when 1766 arrived (enjamin Franklin Testifies Against the Stamp Act, p. 3). The problem was that this tax had to be paid by order of a Parliament where the colonials were not specifically represented. Franklin in fact threatens the ritish with a loss of respect and "affection" from the colonials if this Act were…
"History 205 - Documents for Chapters 5&6.
Garraty, John A. & McCaughey, Robert A. The American Nation: A history of the United States. New York: Harper & Row, 1987.
1776: Adam Smith opposes Mercantilism (1776), p. 1
In addition, both governments and churches began to grow suspicious of the group, probably because of the "organization's secrecy and liberal religious beliefs" (Watson, 2009). As a result, Portugal and France banned Freemasonry; in fact, it was a capital offense to be a Freemason in Portugal (Watson, 2009). Moreover, "Pope Clement XII forbade Catholics from becoming Freemasons on penalty of excommunication" (Watson, 2009). Feeling pressure in Europe, many Freemasons decided to flee the Old World and travel to the European colonies scattered throughout the world, most notably, America.
Influence on America
Anyone with even a rudimentary knowledge of the Freemasons and American history understands that, whatever resistance the Freemasons met with in Europe was not to be found in America. The Freemasons set up lodges in Boston and Philadelphia, and some of the founding fathers, including Benjamin Franklin and George Washington. More importantly, the Freemasons are reported to have played…
Crowe, F. (2003). Things a Freemason should know. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.
Decker, E. (Unknown). Masonic rituals for the Blue Lodge. Retrieved April 14, 2009 from Saints Alive in Jesus.
Web site: http://www.saintsalive.com/freemasonry/blue_lodge/blue_lodge_index.htm
How it began. (1998). Retrieved April 13, 2009 from Grand Lodge a.F. & a.M. Of North
The Short-Term Causes of the American Revolution
Essayist Colin Bonwick writes that a short-term cause from the British perspective was the loss of revenue from taxes generated by American businesses and trading companies. And the short-term legislative measures by the British government were called the "Intolerable Acts" (Bonwick, 2002). More on the Intolerable Acts later on this page, but from the prospective of the colonists, their short-term causes included their rage at the " . . . indebtedness to rapacious British merchants and of navigations acts requiring them to trade through Britain" (Bonwick, 70).
On the subject of the Intolerable Acts (also called Coercive Acts), the short-term cause was created by the anger and frustration the colonists felt when Britain handed down unreasonable laws, designed to pinch the colonists in their pocketbooks, and basically punish them for their drift towards independence. The Boston Massacre happened on March 5, 1770, when…
The various places he stops represent certain alternative futures, and the brothel promises one of pleasure. His ability to resist it -- whether through morality or lack of money -- and continue on his journey is indicative of the revolutionary spirit. The fact that he keeps moving, and keeps searching in new places, matched the movement of the revolution and indeed of the country since then as it goes through its great democratic experiment.
Hawthorne's story is very enjoyable just as a piece of fiction. It is also an interesting historical piece, describing the feel of life in pre-Revolutionary America and the different opinions at various levels of society. These things are brought out in the setting perhaps more than in any other single element of the story. Time and place are incredibly essential to this story; the story is, in fact, about the changing political setting of the American…
Business Ethics in Precapitalist America
The American evolution was kindled by a growing dissatisfaction with the way colonial merchants were being treated by the English ruling class (Collins, 2011). In response to the Ottoman Empire's capture of Constantinople and the levying of onerous tariffs on trade goods coming from Western Europe, the Spanish Monarchy funded an exploratory venture that took Christopher Columbus west to map out a new trade route to Asia. The goal was gold at any cost, even at the expense of human life. One of the new markets that Columbus helped to establish was the Atlantic slave trade, with 'goods' moving east instead of west.
Over the next several centuries many of the Europeans arriving on the eastern shores of North America were indentured servants (Collins, 2011). When the number of European servants became insufficient to meet the demands of colonial merchants and farmers, more…
Collins, Denis. (2011). Business Ethics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Bassiry, G.R. And Jones, Marc. (1993). Adam Smith and the ethics of contemporary capitalism. Journal of Business Ethics, 12(8), 621-627.
Because of this, many modern Masonic lodges offer tours to the public where non-Masons can visit the lodge and learn more about Masonic activities (ich & Merchant, 2003).
Since the mid-nineteenth century, many scholars have also equated Masonry with Mormonism, because of both groups' reliance on secret rituals and closed temples. This is one reason the Masons have begun to open up their temples to the public. Authors ich and Merchant continue, "In summary, in the United States, Masonic policies have evolved and gradually moved away from the secrecy and pseudo-historical claims that once characterized the society. Secrecy was not abandoned, but it became less important" (ich & Merchant, 2003). Thus, Masons have changed with the time, and modernized their organizations until they fit in our modern western society, and that is probably one reason that so many Masonic lodges still exist today.
Today, the rituals and secrecy of the…
Editors. (2007). History of freemasonry. Retrieved from the Masonic Service Association of North America Web site: http://www.msana.com/historyfm.asp20 Sept. 2007.
Fuller, R.C. (2001). Spiritual, but not religious: Understanding unchurched America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Johnson, M.M. (1917). Freemasonry in America prior to 1750. Boston: Caustic-Claflin. Retrieved from Books.google.com Website: http://books.google.com/books?id=CfNGEeB2nuoC&dq=freemasonry+America20 Sept. 2007.
Rich, P., & Merchant, D. (2003). Religion, policy, and secrecy: The Latter Day Saints and Masons. Policy Studies Journal, 31(4), 669+.
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-
Jacobs at p. 237.
American politics took another turn with problems that would lead to
the Civil War, as the North and the South each had their own interests.
Tariffs to protect some Northern manufacturing interests greatly angered
the South leading to attempts to nullify acts of the federal government,
ultimately resulting in conflict between the powers of the states and the
federal Union. The result of this conflict led to the Civil War and
American political development became one in which decisions over slave and
free-states were the most prominent. America became increasingly partisan
and the Republican party emerged to compete along with Know Nothings and
Democratic Party. Ultimately the South seceded resulting in a Confederacy
that split from the Union as the debates over slavery reached an all-time
involving all aspects of political life.
The Civil War split America in two and then brought it back together
again. But the new America…
The prosperity of the North American continent arguably depended in large part on the Protestant work ethic found in both the United States and Canada. In general, too, both nations are 'free trade' nations, although there have been some missteps that had a dampening effect. The raising of tariffs in the U.S. In the 1920s and 1930s constitutes one such misstep. Some contend that doing so caused, or at last aggravated, the Great Depression. In turn, coping with the Depression prevented North America's early intervention in Germany, and so was indirectly responsible for World War II (Lind 1994, p. 16+). Those same analysts see a willingness to "police the world and promote global free trade" as essential to the economy of North America, which is, when all the opinions are laid to rest, founded on global trading of its still-abundant natural resources and endowments.
Durning, a.T. (1996,…
Durning, a.T. (1996, November/December). The six floods. World Watch, 9, 28+. Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Lind, M. (1994, Fall). The Op-Ed history of America. The National Interest, 16+. Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Questia database,
start of the 16th century. This was largely because society began to develop its initial modern practices during this time. Many things throughout this time had a large impact on the world, and still affect us today. Three things, however, can be singled out as being most important. The American Revolution, the founding of America by Christopher Columbus, and the reformation of the Catholic Church were all instrumental in affecting our world.
In the political arena, the American Revolution was extremely important. The revolution was not a single isolated event; rather, it encompassed occurrences from the 1660's all the way into the late 1700s. Many acts were passed during this time, including regulations on navigation, printed materials, and many everyday items. The Boston Tea Party also occurred during this time, as well as the Boston Massacre. Many battles were fought during the American Revolution which finally led to the drafting…
Nevertheless, there have been many decisions over the years that have tended to weaken the intent of the Framers. In 2001, in Zelman v. Simmons Harris the Supreme Court ruled that school voucher programs did not violate the establishment clause of the First Amendment. The decision represented a blow to the essentially secular nature of the American state and system. By allowing public money to be given to religious schools, the Supreme Court was permitting the violation of a more than two hundred year old principle. In reaching its decision, the Supreme Court chose to accept the argument that giving money to schools was not a case of advancing religion but rather one of who should have power over education - the state or individual parents.
Personal freedom was now being re-defined as something that included the right to government assistance if the government provided assistance in similar situations. Persons…
Bolick, Clint. "School Choice: Sunshine Replaces the Cloud." Cato Supreme Court Review 2001-2002. Ed. Robert a. Levy, James L. Swanson, and Timothy Lynch. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2002. 149-169.
Censer, Jack. "7 France, 1750-89." Press, Politics and the Public Sphere in Europe and North America, 1760-1820. Ed. Hannah Barker and Simon Burrows. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 159-178.
Champlin, Dell P., and Janet T. Knoedler. "American Prosperity and the "Race to the Bottom: " Why Won't the Media Ask the Right Questions?" Journal of Economic Issues 42.1 (2008): 133+.
Milner, Murray. Freaks, Geeks, and Cool Kids: American Teenagers, Schools, and the Culture of Consumption. New York: Routledge, 2004.
Its effects would have impact on the political decisions of all future generations; any mistake could have had disastrous consequences for the ones to come. Regarding the matter, the president at some point wrote to James Madison that given the historical circumstances and precedents his presidency constituted, he preferred that all decisions be made on a moral basis.. Washington couldn't have been more right; for instance, his refusal to serve a third term, in 1797 became common practice until today. The norm states that no other president could seek power for more than two terms.
His huge burden derived not only from the great amount of social changes that were to take place and not only from the laborious political measures and laws that had to be adopted; as first president of the newly-born nation, he was also to become the symbol of the ones he presided over.
Gregg, Gary L. II and Spalding, Matthew. "Patriot Sage, George Washington and the American Political Tradition." Wilmington, Delaware: ISI Books,1989
Middlekauf, Robert. "The Glorious Cause, (The American Revolution, 1763-1789)." London:Oxford Press, 2005
Morgan, Edmund. "The Meaning of Independence." Charlottesville:University of Virginia Press, 1976
Wikipedia Online Encyclopedia, www.wikipedia.org
He knew that racial divides could be conquered as long as men remained rational.
King's appeal to authority, or ethos, emerges when he states it was "was evidenced sublimely in the refusal of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego to obey the laws of Nebuchadnezzar, on the ground that a higher moral law was at stake . . . To a degree, academic freedom is a reality today because Socrates practiced civil disobedience" (King). Here King illustrates how civil disobedience has good consequences and, in the end, one must follow one's on inclination. hen he refers to the Boston Tea Party, he is appealing to ethos because they were disobeying, too. His appeal is logical and more difficult to dispute. The last thing King wanted to do was seem illogical and irrational.
King, Martin Luther. "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." 1963. University of Pennsylvania online.
Information Retrieved January 27, 2009.
King, Martin Luther. "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." 1963. University of Pennsylvania online.
Information Retrieved January 27, 2009.
The British Empire gained significant land share within North America through its conquests and emigration. From the founding of Jamestown to the growth of the greater New England region, the North American territories represented a significant portion of the British Empire. Following the Seven Years War, England won the entire territory of New France and doubled the territory possession within North America. Although from a trade perspective North America was not the furtive economic zone that Britain originally envisioned, it did become a several exporter of tobacco, cotton and rice to the British Empire, as well as naval material and furs from the northern region. The American Revolution affected the British Empire in several different ways, it proved to be a symbolic blow the largest empire of the European Continent, and it provided a model for liberation and freedom throughout the rest of the colonial territories. The American Revolution occurred…
The wage subsidy idea - combined with training and technical placement - could work well, even though it may be seen as a "government hand-out" to some. To those who cannot find work, public employment, if handled well, increases the labor supply ("net job growth") and reduces the amount of money paid out in unemployment benefits.
The answer to the question of how to increase the labor supply is perhaps simpler than increasing the demand: to wit, by increasing the number of immigrants one also increases the labor supply; the downside to that is that wages for native-born workers tend to decrease. A second way to increase the labor supply is to raise the age of retirement for workers, and/or raise the age at which pensions for older workers kick in. In either case, more workers remain in the market.
hy do our political leaders favor exports of U.S. goods…
Suranovic, Steven M. (2006). International Trade Theory and Policy. George Washington
University. Retrieved April 12, 2007 at http://internationalecon.com/trade/Tch10/T10-2.php.
Institute of Chartered Financial Analysts of India. (2004). Trade Barriers. Retrieved April 13, 2007 at http://www.icfai.org .
MSN. (2007). Autos: Top Ten Car Lists. Retrieved April 13, 2007, at http://autos.msn.com/advice/article.aspx?contentid=2885 .
Boycotting British goods meant that American women were going to have to make sacrifices, and stop consuming goods that were imported from Britain. The cartoon of the women of Edenton, NC signing a non-consumption agreement represent American women involving themselves in the political and economic boycott of Britain by the American colonies. ("A Society of Patriotic Ladies") However, it is actually a criticism of women's involvement in political affairs by representing the women who signed as silly women engaging in silly activities. The entire cartoon is designed to give the impression that women are not able to take on political issues seriously and deal with them effectively. Instead, the women in the cartoon are engaging in sex, playing, drinking, and are generally distracted from the important issue at hand.
"A Society of Patriotic Ladies- North Carolina Digital History." LEARN NC. eb. 14
Oct. 2011. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-revolution/4305
"A Society of Patriotic Ladies- North Carolina Digital History." LEARN NC. Web. 14
Oct. 2011. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-revolution/4305
"Laws on Indentured Servants." Virtual Jamestown. Web. 14 Oct. 2011.
Americans' views of terrorism were forever established on September 11, 2001, when terrorists flew two planes into the World Trade Towers in New York, collapsing them both, and one plane into the Pentagon, causing severe damage. A fourth plane crashed into the countryside in Pennsylvania instead of hitting its target, probably in Washington, D.C., only because passengers challenged the hijackers and fought back. Over 3,000 people lost their lives that day.
Until that day, terrorism had been a somewhat distant concept to most Americans. We heard about terrorism in srael, and perhaps some of us had friends or family to worry about, and we heard about .R.A. attacks in Great Britain, but September 11 was the firsts time international terrorists had done major damage on U.S. soil. Virtually everyone in the United States became vocally opposed to terrorism on that day even if they hadn't given it much thought…
In fact, it is difficult to think anything positive about terrorism, especially in the era of smart bombs, when our military is able to bomb with such precision that civilians are rarely killed and injured, and only the target is taken out. The fact that our military is able to conduct war with a precision never before achieved is one reason why terrorism seems more shocking than ever before. There's a jarring difference between warfare and terrorism in 2004. When the United States wages war we go to great lengths to protect the civilian population as much as possible. The opposing forces have taken advantage of that fact in Iraq, storing weapons in mosques and allowing combatants to use them as a staging arena for their efforts.
The truth is that terrorism has changed since its beginnings. The United States was born out of terrorism and revolution. If the American Revolution were taking place today, the British would describe the Boston Tea Party as a terrorist act, and the guerilla-like tactics used by small bands of civilian men against British encampments during that time would be viewed as crimes. In more recent times, many French citizens were outraged at how easily their country gave up and surrendered to the Nazi German army, and even more distressed to see how completely the Vichy government cooperated with those who had defeated them in war. The French resistance movement was one result. Private citizens who were determined to continue to fight for their country. At great risk to themselves and their families, they worked under cover of darkness to blow up bridges so the German army could not use them, snuck British spies into the country and reported troop movements to the Allies. Because the Allies won the war and France was liberated, they are called heroes, but if Germany had won, they would have been terrorists. The victors write history.
However, it's a poor analogy. American revolutionaries of the 18th century never deliberately harmed thousands of civilians to make a point. They did not blow up civilian public transportation. The members of the French resistance, while they dealt swiftly with people who gave away their secrets, worked very hard to avoid any harm to innocent citizens. On September 11, the attackers defined anyone who disagreed with them as the "enemy" and had no problem with the fact that nearly all the people they killed or maimed had no quarrel with them. Comparing today's terrorists to Revolutionary War heroes or the French resistanceis a little like comparing a cobra with a garter snake. The only thing terrorism can accomplish is to draw attention to a group's cause. People so passionate about their causes ought to be able to think up better ways to express it.
Views on the Nature of Knowledge: Social Scientists vs. Natural Scientists
hat is knowledge? A simple question, or so most people would think. Knowledge is the accumulation of information on a given subject or subjects. It is a collection of facts, of things known to be true...or is it? The closer one looks, the more one comes to realize that there are many different approaches to obtaining knowledge, and many different definitions of precisely what constitutes knowledge. One's use of the term varies with one's own background and objectives. To some, knowledge is an absolute, to others; it is that which is gained through long hours of observation and long years of experience. The facts that make up what we call knowledge may be composed of absolutes, or they may be composed of many opinions, opinions that we believe to be most accurate or most correct. But what then…
Caldwell, Chris. The Prime Glossary: Perfect Number. 2002. URL: http://primes.utm.edu/glossary/page.php?sort=PerfectNumber
Gal Einai Institute of Israel. "Yud - The Mystical Significance of the Hebrew Letters." The Inner Dimension. No Date. URL:
Pederson, K.C. "Scotland Raising Shedding Sheep for Wool Production." Twisted Spinsters: Obsessive Fiber Disorder. November 2000. URL: http://www.twistedspinsters.com/page14.html.
American Terrorist Threat
Since the events of September 11. 2001. Americans have had an increased concern about the possibility of more terrorism within United States borders. Although our government has made monumental efforts to prevent future attacks. A terrorist only has to slip through once. whereas our vigilance has to be 100% successful at all times. ecause of that fact it seems inevitable that eventually. we will see more terrorist attacks within the United States.
ecause we were attacked by people from outside our borders. many Americans tend to think of terrorist threats as in terms of outsiders who come here to do harm. Thus we have increased supervision at border entries. We know that this can work; an alert border guard between Washington state and Canada stopped a car and probably foiled a terrorist attack planned for Los Angeles.
However, some terrorist experts believe that we already have terrorist…
Emerson, Steven. American Jihad: The Terrorists Living Among Us. 2002. Free Press.
Government Accounting Office (GAO). 2002. "Key Elements to Unify Efforts are Underway but Uncertainty Remains." GAO-02-610. June 7.
Hoffman, Bruce. Inside Terrorism. 2000. New York: Columbia University Press.
Ledeen, Michael A. The War Against the Terror Masters: Why It Happened. Where We Are Now. How We'll Win. 2002. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Martin Luther King, Jr. And Lewis Van Dusen, Jr. state their respective positions on the feasibility of civil disobedience. Each argument is eloquent, well-organized, impassioned, and thorough. Martin Luther King, Jr. asserts that civil disobedience is an absolute necessity to achieve the aims of the civil rights movement, while Lewis Van Dusen, Jr. claims that civil disobedience subverts the democratic process and can potentially lead to violence. It is difficult, if not impossible, to find weaknesses in King's actual argument: his position is supported with historical fact, personal experience, and ethics. He challenges the status quo, which is always irksome, but his argument is sound. Van Dusen, while he has a point about the destructive consequences of mob mentality, fails to understand the ingrained prejudices in the democratic system he holds so dear. Martin Luther King, Jr. And Lewis Van Dusen, Jr. disagree on several levels, the most fundamental of…
Accusations of Ignorance
When a new version of an old evil appears on the event horizon of mankinds slow march toward evolutionary progress, those who preach cultural diversity and tolerance are the first to stake out a position of acceptance. Modern man must be tolerant of new ideas, because through the new ideas, man evolves into a more progressive, and advances creature. This approach seems to be the popular mantra regardless of what lessons have been learned through similar events in the past. Regardless of the lessons mankind has learned about the evil which man can perpetrate against himself, there are those who believe that with enough time, and modern advancements in knowledge, technology, and understanding, man can overcome our propensity toward depraved behavior, which we have shown over and over again that we are willing to perpetrate on others. The surprising aspect of this cultural phenomenon is that those…
International Law on Terrorism
The purpose of this essay is to highlight and discuss pertinent issues regarding international law and its lack of ability to administer without shortcomings. Specifically, the impact of terrorism will be discussed to highlight the holes in international law and how it ultimately fails to fully practice in a just and fair manner. To support this argument, the definition of terrorism will be discussed. The difficulty in assigning a proper quality to this word stands at the root of many of the legal problems associated with its principles. This essay will then discuss the United Nations and its role in international law. Finally the issues of global culture and evolution will be highlighted to demonstrate the impossibility of a global law that can justly decide on what is and what is not terrorism.
The Definition of Terrorism
The laws is very dependent upon definitions and the…
Byers, M. (2002). Terrorism, the use of force and international law after 11 September. International Relations, 16(2), 155-170.
Cassese, A. (2001). Terrorism is also disrupting some crucial legal categories of international law. European Journal of International Law, 12(5), 993-1001.
Duursma, J. C. (2008). Definition of Terrorism and self-determination. Harvard International Review.
Goldsmith, J. L., & Posner, E. A. (2005). The limits of international law (Vol. 199). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Echoes of the Colonial Era in American Identity Essay
The American Identity during the 1700s was still very much in development. Prior to the American Revolution in the latter half of the century, the colonists for the most part considered themselves subjects of England and the British crown. They had a king, they had local governments in their territories with members who represented the crown, but their identity as citizens of an autonomous, independent nation was not nearly as full-fledged as it is today. The American Identity really came into being thanks to writings of individuals like Ben Franklin, whose autobiography laid the blueprint for the American Dream and showed that hard work and self-reliance can lead one to the “promised land” of happiness in America. Likewise, the oppression that many colonial leaders felt under the British and their dislike of having to pay taxes to the crown added to…
com). Sedate it is definitely not. e read, "Even from this distance the tower's abundant ornamentation is clear. Its Northern Italian Gothic style adds exotic elements to the neighborhood's skyline." (iboston.org). Trinity Church cannot be overlooked when examining the history and architecture of Boston. It is said, "James O'Gorman described Trinity as 'a cultural event of the first importance in American history'" (O'Gorman qtd. In iboston.org). Trinity church is significant because it "represents a departure of the Boston's mind from its Puritan past, and emergence of American creativity as a force in architecture" (iboston.org). The churches of Boston are not special to Bostonians. It is written in the Catholic Historical Review that in 2005, "The National Trust for Historic Preservation announced... that it had included the Historic Catholic Churches of Greater Boston, Massachusetts, in its 2005 list of America's Eleven Most Endangered Historic Places" (Catholic Historical Review). The churches of…
The Old State House Museum." Boston History Online. Retrieved May 15, 2008. http://www.bostonhistory.org
Old State House." Story of Boston Online. Retrieved May 15, 2008. http://www.storyofboston.com
Boston History and Architecture. Retrieved May 15, 2008. http://www.iboston.org
Historic Places." Catholic Historical Review. Gale Resource Database. Retrieved May 15, 2008. http://www.infotrac.galegroup.com
One of the most important events in the history of the United States is the American Revolution, which is regarded as more important in the country development that ideas, trends, and actions. The significance of the American Revolution in the nation's history and development is highlighted in the fact that it was one of the seminal instances of the Enlightenment. During this period, the political philosophy of the Enlightenment was established and utilized in creating an entirely new country that has developed to become the world's super power. However, the American Revolution was fueled by a series of several major events and incidents brought by various factors including rebellion by the American colonies and Declaration of Independence.
Overview of the American Revolution
As previously mentioned, the American Revolution is one of the most important and remarkable events in the country's history given its role in the birth of…
American Revolution History. A & E Television Networks, LLC. accessed November 30, 2015.
Hubley, Benrard. The History of the American Revolution, Including the Most Important Events
and Resolutions of the Honorable Continental Congress During that Period and also the Most Interesting Letters and Orders of His Excellency General George Washington, Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces. New York, NY: The New York Public Library Reference Department, 1805.
In regard to the naval force of the British, these frictions affected in particular the effective number of the marines that made up the fleet, despite the fact that the threat of the American uprising was looming and that the British strategists were well aware of the fact that the English power relied mostly on the naval forces. Therefore, once this aspect of the military force was weakened, the eventual failure of the naval operations was obvious. The internal situation in the Empire also led to a lack of consideration for the treatment of the sailors who had constantly rebelled against the negligence and the mistreatment they had been throughout the years subject to. (Trevelyan, 1962) Even more, following the actual clash with the American revolutionaries, the state of the navy was, according to Trevelyan, "a deplorable one (as) its ships were being evicted from the Mediterranean Sea, where the…
Boatner, Mark M. (1966) Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. New York: D. McKay & Co.
Gardner, Allen. (1913) a naval history of the American Revolution. Boston, Houghton. Retrieved 30 May 2007. http://www.americanrevolution.org/nav1.html
Halsall, Paul. Thomas Paine's Common Sense. Penguin: New York, 1982. Internet Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved 30 May 2007 http://www.ushistory.org/paine/commonsense/singlehtml.htm
Jenkins, P. (1997). A history of the United States. New York: Palgrave.
, 10). Certainly, it is no mystery that given this reliance upon the mother country that the British government would be surprised and ill equipped to deal with a full scale and united rebellion in the American colonies on the eastern American seaboard.
The policy of the British prior to the period of the evolution had largely been hands off. However, the Tea Party went too far and the British had to respond (one wonders what else they would have done). They had just won the equivalent of world war in 1763. British had fought in almost every of the globe from India to Canada, India, the Philippines and the 13 American colonies. Unfortunately, to borrow an apt analogy, the British had only the military in the tool kit once their tax collection efforts failed. If a hammer is all one has in the toolbox, most solutions will look like…
Beer, George Louis. British Colonial Policy, 1754-1765. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University
Press, 2010. (accessed February 9, 2012).
McDougall, Walter. "The Colonial Origins of American Identity." Orbis (2004): 7-19.
White, Richard. The Middle Ground: Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region.
There were a number of causes of the American Revolution, both short-term and long-term. The colonists were mainly of British descent, and so they had roughly the same culture as the ruling English, but over time there were enough differences and disagreements that ultimately would lead to the Revolutionary War. At the core of the disagreement was the economic status of the colonies and the people that lived in them. This was the primary long-run tension that led to the revolution.
Great Britain was the world's most powerful nation at the time, and was in the process of building an expansive empire, all over the world. The empire was still rising at the time of the revolution, and would only peak in the 19th century. Great Britain essentially saw its colonies as a source of wealth. The people that lived in those colonies were British subjects. Both Crown…
Allowing the students to "choose" the lesson, both empowers them and allows them a more engaging learning experience.
Part 3 -- Questioning - Ineffective questioning typically asks for a rote memorization paradigm, as opposed to a more robust use of higher-level questions designed to go beyond the text and make the issue relevant, personal, and interesting. Instead, look at the learning target and formulate questions that will continually guide the students towards discovering answers -- not the answer. Use nonverbal clues such as nodding, eye contact, moving around the classroom. Continually ask students "why," or follow up on another student's answer with, "Mary thought this, in your situation, what would you say?" In effect, if the teacher can take Bloom's taxonomy of learning, and simply superimpose that on every lesson (certainly not using every issue every time), but more of a method of moving to evaluation, analysis, and synthesis; the…
As recent events in the Middle East have clearly demonstrated, Facebook is more on the side of the politically disadvantaged and the poor as they have increasingly embraced Facebook and other social media while the governments in the region tried to ban them. Many governments such as that of China do not allow Facebook primarily because they want to avert scenarios they have seen in the Middle East.
It was in the wake of 2008 when Oscar Morales, a young man in Columbia, decided that he had had enough of FARC (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia), a Marxist group which routinely kidnaps people, keeping them as hostages for months or years, while many of the hostages die in captivity. Angry and depressed by the actions of FARC, one night he turned to Facebook which he had been using to connect with his friends and high school classmates. He…
Alexanian, Janet A.. "Eyewitness Accounts and Political Claims: Transnational Responses to the 2009 Postelection Protests in Iran." Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East 31.2 (2011): 425-442. Project MUSE. Web. 3 Oct. 2011. .
Burns, Alex and Ben Eltham, "Twitter free Iran: an evaluation of twitter's role in public diplomacy and information operations in Iran's 2009 election crisis," in Papandrea, Franco & Armstrong, Mark (Eds.). Record of the Communications Policy & Research Forum 2009. Sydney: Network Insight Institute. Web. 26 Nov. 2011 .
China, Walid. "The Facebook Revolution." New African 503 (2011): 24. MasterFILE Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
Eltahawy, Mona. "The Middle East's Generation Facebook." World Policy Journal 25.3 (2008): 69-77. Academic Search Premier. Web. 26 Nov. 2011.
Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.
Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…
Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
The year was 1819 and I suddenly found myself in a society and culture that was starkly different than the one I was accustomed to. I am not sure how it all transpired but it was only yesterday that I had gone to a party to celebrate New Year 2005. I vividly remember meeting my friends and thoroughly enjoying myself before I took that drink. What happened after that? I don't know but it appears I was sent into some time machine because when I woke up today, life was just not the same anymore.
I woke up in a room, which is as dull and dreary as they can get. There are no pictures on the wall, no stereo, no collection of CDs and no television. The room has just one large-sized wooden bed, long flowing curtains, which have been closely drawn, a ceiling fan and a dressing…
Indeed. Gertrude Stein wrote for "herself" for many years prior to ever being noticed as the marvelously talented and versatile writer that she was. That fact was a reality simply because she did not have the opportunity for many years to publish the work she was so tirelessly putting out. Meanwhile, her legacy today is that of an extraordinarily insightful and respected woman of letters, an innovator, an elite member of the artistic avant garde in Europe, a prolific poet and writer, a visionary, something of a rebel, and more. Although she died in 1946 (of intestinal cancer), her work is discussed, debated, dissected and analyzed like the work of few other poets/writers. It's almost as if she were alive today.
Certainly this paper focuses on a gifted thinker whose poetic form is sometimes misunderstood, but rarely ignored. And it also delves into the life of a…
Cook, Dana. "Meeting Gertrude Stein...a miscellany of first encounters."
Time-Sense: an electronic quarterly on the art of Gertrude Stein. 2002. http://www.tenderbuttons.com/gsonline/timesense/1_2cook.html.
Hartley, George. "Textual Politics and the Language Poets." English Department
University of Pennsylvania 2002. http://www.english.upenn.edu/~afilreis/88/hartley.html
products or service of your chosen organization, and two (2) key factors in the organization's external environment that can affect its success. Provide explanation to support the rationale.
De Beers is the world's famous diamond company, established in 1888, with proficiency in exploration, mining and marketing of diamonds. More than 20,000 employees make contribution to the communities in which we work. De Beers carries out profitable business which helps the government reach their aims of turning natural resources into natural wealth and is working to provide good long-term development for Africa. Anglo American and the Government of the epublic of Botswana are the two shareholders of De Beers, 85% and 15% respectively. This company is made up of fully owned partnerships, investments and subsidiaries. It is involved in most of the diamond chain value such as exploration in four continents, mining in Namibia, Canada, South Africa and Botswana; valuation, arrangement,…
Austin JE (2000) The Collaboration Challenge: How Nonprofits and Businesses Succeed Through Strategic Alliances. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Baker, R (2010). Pepsi Reveals Sustainable Business Plan', Marketing Week U.K., 19 October. Available from: http://www.marketingweek.co.uk/sectors/sustainability/pepsico-reveals-sustainable-businessplan/3019459.article
Barkay, T. (2013). When Business and Community Meet: A Case Study of Coca-Cola. Critical Sociology, 39: 277.
Bieri1, F. And Boli, J. (2011). Trading Diamonds Responsibly: Institutional Explanations for Corporate Social Responsibility. Eastern Sociological Society.