Boston Tea Party Essays Examples

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Tea Party the American Tea Party the

Words: 3344 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48526296

Tea Party

The American tea party

The Tea Party is a populist movement that promotes several conservative values which include the following;

Limitations on the authority of the U.S. federal government

Reduction of government spending and the national debt

Reduction of personal and corporate taxes

This is a party that has been known over the historical moments to pull frustrated and concerned Americans together to protest against excessive government spending coupled with increased debt burden. This conservative group has it that the government's growing involvement in business and indulgence in individual freedom is a deviation from conservative values.

Since its inception to date, the mission of the Tea Party Coalition has been to organize and launch in a rapid response fashion special nationwide projects that will help to advance the goal of a return to a constitutionally limited government that does not go overboard, through whichever arm to disenfranchise the American citizens in whichever situation the country may find itself.

Background

The American tea party came into being way back in 1773. It was at the peak of victory over the long French- Indian war which was so instrumental and costly to Britain that Britain thought of implementing tea tax.…… [Read More]

Resources:
David W. Koeller, (1999). The Boston Tea Party 1773. Retrieved July 28, 2011 from http://www.thenagain.info/webchron/usa/teaparty.html

Eye Witness to History, (2002). The Boston Tea Party, 1773. Retrieved July 28, 2011 from  http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/teaparty.htm 
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Boston Paving the Way for

Words: 1179 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90885414

This bias permeates throughout social circles and businesses seeking qualified job applicants. Yet, Boston's strong economy accommodates growth for anyone who is motivated to succeed.

Culturally, Boston is no New York. but, for a city of 600,000, great cultural activities are available without the burden of dealing with an overwhelmingly large city.

The city's numerous theaters include the Cutler Majestic Theatre, Boston Opera House, the Wang Center for the Performing Arts, Schubert Theater, and the Orpheum Theater. Performing arts groups are some of the best to be found in the country and include the Boston Ballet, Boston Symphony Orchestra, Boston Pops, Boston Lyric Opera Company, and the Handel and Haydn Society. Free summer concerts on the Charles River Esplanade are a joy with excellent acoustics and a festive atmosphere. Boston also has several fine museums such as the Museum of Fine Arts, the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, and the Museum of Science.

Unless you can deal with weather extremes, Boston is not the place to be, at least weather wise. Most notably, Boston's winters are long, cold, windy and snowy. The city averages 42 inches of snowfall a year with brutal nor'easter storms that can dump as much as 20…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Banner, David. "The History of Boston, Massachusetts." Retrieved from Web site: http://www.searchboston.com/history.html

Boston: History." Retrieved from Web site: http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/the-Northeast/Boston-History.html
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Boston of Revolutions and Red

Words: 1598 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31880715

The name of Horace Mann is still known today, the first Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education, as he tried to make a practical education available to all, including recent immigrants, which he argued would be an important part of their socialization into the national culture (Browne, 2003, p.3).

Boston suffered a great deal during the Great Depression. "With the outbreak of War II, factories were retooled for the war effort, and people went back to work on the production lines. Again Boston was a major arms manufacturer during wartime" (Banner 2008). And because of the new importance of science and technology, its considerable intellectual capital proved a great source of profit, and continues to, to this day. Today, Boston has become a leader in the computer and other technology-dominated industries. Financial and service industries are also strong. Fenway Park, the Museum of Fine Arts, and the Freedom Trail draw tourists from around the world. Although controversies still exist about what Boston will look like in the future, such as the debate surrounding the creation of the Freedom Tunnel and the Leonard P. Zakim Bunker Hill Bridge, as part of the Big Dig Project, it seems the city will…… [Read More]

Sources:
Banner, David. "Boston History." Search Boston. 2008. http://www.searchboston.com/history.html

Boston, Massachusetts: City History." CityLight.com 20 Apr 2008.  http://www.bycitylight.com/cities/us-ma-boston-history.php 
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Tea Act 1773 Was Responsible

Words: 588 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92712769

The monopoly of he Act was responsible for the infuriating of violence, which was due to the offensive approach of the 'angered influential merchants' (Ray, 1976), the interests and gains of the merchants were at stake, and they expected that the monopoly of the East India company will adversely affect their business activities. The Tea Act offered a partial economic relief to the locals, but the local population was reluctant to appreciate such major, because that would have been the acceptance of the taxation policy of the British Empire without the representation of the locals. The colonies shared grievances and concerns with reference to the Tea Act, and mutually their agreed over the complete boycott of the Tea Act, which eventually 'mobilized a large segment of colonial society' (Ray, 1976). After the enactment, the influential figures of different colonies developed different plans to avoid the landing of tea shipments of East India Company. As the wave of opposition grew stronger, the locals allover the American territory sabotaged the activities and business operations of East India Company. The British parliament retaliated, and punished Boston, where the agitation was widespread, the ports of the Boston colony were sealed, and their autonomy was…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Ray Allen Billington. American History before 1877. 1976. Rowman & Littlefield Publication. pp. 86.
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George Hewes Biographical Moments George Robert Twelves

Words: 1430 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67530619

George Hewes

Biographical Moments

George Robert Twelves Hewes was an interesting figure in the American Revolutionary period was born in Boston, on September 5th 1742. The environment in which he lived saw many transformations throughout his life and Hewes also experienced more inward transformations as well. Hewes life can be defined by some of the more significant events that we personally witnessed and/or participated in. These events also happened to be defining moments in American History. One such incident that worked to transform Hewes as a person was undoubtedly the Boston Massacre in 1770. During this period the city was occupied with a large concentration of British troops that were stationed in Boston to enforce and collect tax obligations from the colonies.

Hewes worked as a shoemaker and one day he had made shoes for a soldier who claimed they were for the captain and then refused to pay for them. The tensions between 4,000 British soldiers who occupied Boston, a town of only about 16,000 citizens, erupted in a series of horrific scenes. In one such event, a local barber's apprentice attempted to collect an overdue bill from a British officer which led to a confrontation on the street.…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Young, A. The Shoemaker and the Tea Party. Beacon Press, 2000.
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Thomas Jefferson's Legacy His Innovations

Words: 765 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28107423



Though Jefferson played a major role in the development of the United States he preferred to be remembered for the things he gave the people and not the things the people gave to him. His final request was that his tombstone read: HERE WAS BURIED THOMAS JEFFERSON, AUTHOR of the DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE, of the STATUTE of VIRGINIA for RELIGIOUS FREEDOM, and FATHER of the UNIVERSITY of VIRGINIA.

The Townsend Acts were a series of laws passed by the Parliament of Great Britain beginning in 1767. These acts were intended to raise revenue to pay the salaries of governors and judges, enforce compliance with trade regulations, punish New York for failure to comply with the Quartering Act, and establish a precedent that Parliament had the right to tax the colonies.

The Stamp Act of 1765 was a direct tax imposed by Parliament on the American colonies. The act required that printed materials in the colonies be produced on stamped paper procured in London. The act intended to raise revenue to help pay for troops stationed in North America.

The Coercive Acts were passed in retaliation to the Boston Tea Party uprising. The series of Acts included in the Coercive Acts…… [Read More]

References:
"Brief Biography of Thomas Jefferson." Thomas Jefferson's Monticello. Web. Accessed 31

March 2011.
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Bacon Rebellion Has Been Considered

Words: 2870 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41842170



During the 18th century there was a fierce competition between the British and the French colonial empires which ultimately led to The Seven Years War. The final result of the conflict favored the English who, nonetheless, were forced to make appeal to the force of the American colonies in order to defeat the French. Following such an action, the opponents of the British rule over the American territories would later on recall and use in supporting the cause of independence the aid the Americans provided the British in tackling the French threat.

The British considered the Americans as being the closest political ally and colonial region. Moreover, the historical context determined such an approach. This special treatment protected the American colonies from any external and foreign threat; in return, the British sought to maintain a preferential trade connection with the American colonies who were, without a doubt, one of the most successful achievements of the British imperial phenomenon.

On the other hand, from the American perspective, few were those who would have argued against a tight relationship inside the British Empire. The colonies enjoyed a state of prosperity through the special system of trade relations which made the basis of…… [Read More]

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Paine Letter a Letter in

Words: 1039 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32152262



The Sons of Liberty, a clandestine network of individuals dedicated to the freedom of enterprise and the fairness of government that the British Crown once stood as the protector of, have caused enough damage with their secretive acts to both the Crown and the forces here that oppose it. Would it not be better to move their actions from the shadows they have been forced into do to the label of sedition they have been branded with, and allow for the airing of the legitimate grievances and concerns of the people inhabiting these several colonies? Would not the Sons of Liberty, and indeed all Sons of Man, be better served by an open declaration of our independence from the Crown rather than continued unnecessary belligerence?

It has been well argued by the loyalists here that to denounce the King and his Crown as authority figures here would be a matter of great and grave dishonor, even tantamount to heresy. But is it not the greater dishonor -- the greater heresy, even -- to allow for the unjust and un-Godly rule of a man so far removed from his people, both geographically and insofar as our divided interests? I understand that…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Nash, Gary; Jeffrey, Julie; Howe, John; Frederick, Peter; Davis, Allen; Winkler, Allan; Mires, Charlene; Pestana, Carla. The American People: Creating a Nation and a Society, 6th Ed. New York: Longman, 2007.

Oliver, Susan. "Creating Demand for Revolution: Thomas Paine's Common Sense." Accessed 12 July 2009. http://www.cerritos.edu/soliver/American%20Identities/Thomas%20Paine/thomas_paine.htm
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Shoemaker & Douglass Expansion More

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49104607

Certainly there were myriad slave rebellions, in the American South and elsewhere, before Douglass's time. But Douglass came along when the time was right for social change, when the South had been recently defeated and American slavery was in its most precarious state ever. Therefore, Douglass and Abolitionists like him: black and white; male and female, seized the moment, and in 1865 slavery was outlawed.

The name Frederick Douglass is a household word in most American households. However, it was not until publication, in 1999, of Alfred F. Young's historical biography of the Shoemaker and the Tea Party (Boston: Beacon Press) that a brave shoemaker who risked his life in the Boston Massacre and the Boston Tea Party, George Robert Twelve Hewes was known to history at all. Though he, too, was a man of his era, Hewes was not nearly as representative as Douglass. Nor was Hewes's era representative of Hewes: poor and shoemaker, who came to John Hancock's attention by freakish accident. As Young notes of Hewes, for example:

Hewes's role in... events fits few of the categories that historians have applied

To the participation of ordinary men in the Revolution. He was not a member of Any…… [Read More]

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American Colonists vs British Policymakers 1763-1776 American

Words: 1586 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99420266

American Colonists vs.

British Policymakers 1763-1776

American Colonists vs. British Policymakers 1763-1776

Great Britain's victory in the "French and Indian War" (1689 -- 1763) gained new territory west of the Appalachian Mountains for the Empire but also saddled It with enormous war debt (The Independence Hall Association, 2011) in addition to Its existing debts. Great Britain's national debt had grown "from £72,289,673 in 1755 to £129,586,789 in 1764" (The Independence Hall Association, 2011), and British citizens were already so heavily taxed that the government faced the possibility of revolt. Consequently, Great Britain looked for revenue from American colonists, as loyal British citizens. Great Britain's attempts to control American colonists' settlement of the new territory, to exert power over the colonists as British subjects, and to gain revenue from American colonists to ease British debts all heightened tensions between the colonies and Great Britain. Great Britain's attempts, in a series of Acts from 1763 to 1776 and created/spearheaded by the First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer, Lord George Grenville, were met with considerable resentment and resistance by the American colonists, eventually exploding into the American Revolution.

2. Proclamation Act of 1763

The American colonists believed the newly-won…… [Read More]

References:
Independence Hall Association. (2011). The Declaratory Act. Retrieved from U.S. History.org Web site: http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/related/declaratory.htm

The Independence Hall Association. (2011). Proclamation of 1763. Retrieved from U.S. History.org Web site: http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/related/proc63.htm
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American Revolution Motivations of the

Words: 717 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41975285

Many colonists had come to the new world in search of a lifestyle infused with greater freedom. The colonists' ideas about government differed greatly from their English counterparts. While the English still focused on the power of the monarchy, the colonists had been holding popular assemblies since 1763 ("The American Revolution: First Phase"). They began to believe in rights that they saw the English and their stationed guards as there to violate. In addition, they believed that they, not a country across the ocean, should have the right to control or at least have a say in the political decisions that would affect their lives.

In addition to these highly popularized economic and ideological causes of the revolution, social causes also added fuel to the fire of revolution. As the 1700s wore on, More and more Americans came from European countries other than England. As these people began to immigrate to the new world, the melting pot culture that America boasts of today began its birth. The conglomeration of multiculturalism, as well as religions diversity not present in England, lead the colonists to further distance themselves from the English ("American Revolution"). Finally, the culture of fear propagated by the French…… [Read More]

Sources:
American Revolution," Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia

http://encarta.msn.com© 1997-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved.
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National Period American History Technically

Words: 1347 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44920961

The Great Awakening brought people together (though it did also divide them), but its influence on what the United States would later become is great. First of all, it forced people to have their own religious experience and it decreased the heavy hands of the clergy; new denominations also would come to be because of the Great Awakening as a direct result of the importance that was put on personal faith and views on salvation. The Great Awakening also brought the American colonies together and though there was also some division, there was more unification than ever before in the colonies.

The Great Awakening is so significant in the shaping of American and what it would later become because it gave individuals the freedom to find their own peace with life and God as it pertained to their earthly life -- and also to their later salvation. The United States of America is a country that holds up the rights of individuals to have their own individual experience and the foundation for that freedom started with the Great Awakening in the colonies.

The Boston Tea Party is remembered often these days with the attention the Tea Party has gotten lately.…… [Read More]

References:
Middleton, Richard. Colonial America: A History, 1565 -- 1776. Wiley-Blackwell; 3rd

edition, 2002.
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American Revolution There Were Many

Words: 1307 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41719633



In 1775, Patrick Henry gave his famous speech ("give me liberty or give me death") to lawmakers in Virginia; he urges a citizens' army to defeat the British. The first shots of the Revolutionary War are fired after Paul Revere rode his horse through Concord and Lexington to warn colonists that the British soldiers are coming. Also in 1775, George Washington is given command of the Continental army, and John Hancock is appointed president of the Second Continental Congress. In August of 1775, King George III makes a declaration that the colonies are in open rebellion against the British.

The Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4, 1776, in Philadelphia, by the Continental Congress. "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal..." is the beginning of the declaration. Thomas Jefferson is given credit for most of the writing of the declaration, along with John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and others.

In December, 1776, things are not looking good for General Washington's troops; four months of battle has left 6,000 volunteers in his army very weary and wishing to go home for Christmas. Washington's troops have been "swept off" of Long Island (www.pbs.org),and is camped on…… [Read More]

Resources:
Library of Congress. "Religion and the Founding of the American Republic." Retrieved 9 Nov. 2006 at  http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/religion/rel03.html .

Public Broadcast Service. "Liberty! The American Revolution / Chronicle of the Revolution."
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British Legislation Between 1764 and

Words: 1799 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46157749

These Acts, along with the Quebec Act, which extended the southern boundary of Canada into territories claimed by Massachusetts, Connecticut and Virginia, proved to be the last straw and hurtled the country into the Revolutionary War ("Intolerable Acts").

Conclusion

Although it is still debatable whether the American independence from the British was inevitable, there is hardly any doubt that the required the series of legislation enacted by the British Parliament between 1764 and1774, outlined in this essay, served to greatly antagonize the American colonists. Almost all measures taken to tax the American colonies and tighten British administrative control met with resentment and, ultimately, open hostility. These measures proved to be a major reason for the Revolutionary War, and eventual independence of America.

Works Cited

America During the Age of Revolution, 1764-1775." The Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/continental/timeline.html

British Actions After the French Indian War." Multied.com. November 26, 2008. http://www.multied.com/Revolt/sugart.html

Cogliano, Francis D. "Was the American Revolution Inevitable?" April, 2001. November 26, 2008. BBC Web site. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/american_revolution_01.shtml

Intolerable Acts." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2008. November 26, 2008. http://encarta.msn.com/encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761579222

Prelude to Revolution: 1763 to 1775." The History Place: American Revolution. n.d. November 26, 2008. http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/revolution/rev-prel.htm

Towards Independence." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2008. November…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
America During the Age of Revolution, 1764-1775." The Library of Congress. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/continental/timeline.html

British Actions After the French Indian War." Multied.com. November 26, 2008. http://www.multied.com/Revolt/sugart.html
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England's Financial System and Its

Words: 4145 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 16290222

Instead, Britain could use its vast navy and naval blockades to enforce the provisions of the Sugar Act. Therefore, while the Sugar Act actually lowered the amount of the duties, it resulted in far stricter enforcement of the laws. The result of the Sugar Act was immediate economic hardship in the colonies:

Rum distilling slumped badly and colonial exports overall dropped sharply. The slowing economy was further impacted by currency contraction as people, uncertain of the future, tried to retain their funds; efforts were made to settle debts with paper money rather than gold or silver.

The Sugar Act caused alarm in the American colonies, partly because of the expected economic disadvantages, but also because of a number of other reasons, one of the most important being the severe implementation by the navy." Although the colonists grumbled about the Sugar Act and threatened to boycott British merchants, the Sugar Act was actually the only successful direct tax that England was able to impose upon the colonists.

After seeing how the colonists responded to the Sugar Act, Britain became wary of imposing another direct tax upon the colonists. After all, England was not in the habit of imposing direct taxes upon…… [Read More]

Sources:
Association. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/related/currencyact.htm, accessed 10 August 2006.

Adams, Charles. 2006. The Rocky road of American taxation. Auburn, AL: Ludwig von Mises

Institute. Online. Available from Internet, http://www.mises.org/story/2110,accessed 10 August 2006.
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Merchants and Traders of the American Revolution and the Non-Importation Agreements

Words: 2259 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43254956

Merchants and Traders of the American Revolution

The American Revolution occurred during the 1700's as the early settlers underwent a period of change. During this time, settlers in the Americas gained religious freedom, became prosperous merchants, and established a more democratic government. However, during this time, the settlers were also controlled and taken advantage of by England.

The American War was fought from 1776 to 1778 yet the American Revolution started much before the war. John Adams summed up the sentiment of the American Revolution when he stated, "But what do we mean by the American Revolution? Do we mean the American war? The Revolution was affected before the war commenced. The Revolution was in the minds and hearts of the people...This radical change in the principles, opinions, sentiments, and affections of the people, was the real American Revolution."

The American Revolution was fought by the colonists, many of whom were merchants and traders, to obtain an economic, political and social order. In order to understand the context of the American Revolution, it is important to examine the preexisting conditions of the colonies.

The economy of America was basically divided into three parts: New England, where the economy was predominately…… [Read More]

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Western Civilization Samuel Adams' the

Words: 1294 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81778125



The long debate that had occurred over taxes explained the fundamental constitutional questions that were at stake and raised many political issues. The solution would have required Parliament to abandon its claims to sovereign power in America and this was almost unthinkable given its search for authority. There were two violent incidents showed how difficult it would be to achieve any peaceful constitutional compromise. In Boston during 1770 the British troops fired on an unruly mob, killing five people. This episode became known as the Boston Massacre. Two years later, a Rhode Island mob destroyed a British customs ship known as the Gaspee, wounding its captain in the process. In both of these cases, the British ministry declined to take any action. Their hope was that time and patience would resolve the crisis. Many members of Parliament wanted a more aggressive approach saying that American violence should be met with British force (American Revolution, 2009).

These incidents played heavily into the hands of those Americans who wanted independence. After the Stamp Act crisis, the Sons of Liberty in the various colonial towns contacted each other. Assertive leaders of the colonial assemblies began to also correspond and gradually an organized Patriot…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
American Revolution. (2009). Retrieved July 26,2009, from MSN Encarta Web site:

http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569964_3/American_Revolution.html
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South Carolina American Revolution

Words: 3031 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82854572

The colonists did not necessarily want independence from their mother country, but they wished for the British to return to the position they had before the 1763 war. Unintentionally, on the 10th of May 1775, the colonies had opened the road towards the war of independence instead of planning a simple rebellion.

As the war started, the British had been certain of obtaining victory in a short time. Clearly, all signs led people into thinking that it would not be long before the colonies would be defeated. However, after several clashes between the British small, yet professional, army and the untrained colonist group, fate appeared to have favored the Americans.

Next to the colonies which were desperate to escape from under the British government's command, there had also been colonies which truly enjoyed being part of the British Empire.

One of the colonies to benefit from her connection to Britain had been South Carolina. During the time of the beginning of the revolution, South Carolina had been regarded as being less likely to join the cause of the other colonies. This had been mostly due to people considering that the colony would only have to lose in a potential revolution.…… [Read More]

References:
John Richard Maas, "The Day it Rained Militia: Huck's Defeat and the Revolution in the South Carolina Backcountry, May-July 1780"

Janie B. Cheaney, "Charles Earl Cornwallis," available at http://jrshelby.com/kimocowp/cornwal.htm;Internet; accesed 8 December 2008.

The War of the Revolution 1775 to 1783," available at http://www.britishbattles.com/american-revolution.htm;Internet; accesed 8 December 2008.
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Polisci American Political Identity Has

Words: 1937 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41363054

" Real Americans support the right of religious people to worship, and would never base legislation on a religious conviction rather than a conviction based on constitutional rights, constitutional law, and Enlightenment ethics.

American political identity is continually changing also because of the incredible ethnic and cultural diversity within the nation's borders. When gender, sexual identity, socio-economic class, and other factors are also included in the mix, America's political philosophy is naturally heterogeneous. When new immigrants enter the United States, they contribute to the common ideals of a nation founded on principles like universal liberty and justice. "Debates about immigration and national identity cut to the core of our national self-image as a nation of immigrants, and invariably includes allusions to the past -- real and idealized -- as a way of under- standing and coping with social and demographic changes today," (Segura 278). White supremacist Americans are currently in a state of panic, which is a good sign. The president has African blood. Latinos have gained a significant amount of political clout. Women are no longer willing to accept patriarchy as the status quo. As Bell Hooks states, an America that is "dominated primarily by the voices of white…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Brooks, David "One Nation, Slightly Divisible." The Atlantic Monthly; Dec 2001; 288, 5; ABI/INFORM Global pg. 53

Hartz "The Concept of a Liberal Society"
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War for Independence and Colonial

Words: 2278 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52871009

Because the country was essentially thirteen colonies fighting separately, the British had to deal with battles throughout the country, with people who were fighting for their homes and towns. The American forces knew their surroundings better, and they were motivated to fight well to protect their loved ones and neighbors.

The Declaration of Independence, written in July 1776, indicates how resolved most of the population was to independence from Great Britain. Thomas Jefferson, author of the document, wrote that the British government had become "destructive," and people believed they must assert their independence and be free of the country, or their lives would never be free from oppression. He wrote, "That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness" (Jefferson). Essentially, the people declared their freedom before they won the war, letting Britain know that even if they lost, they would never put up with tyranny again. The document shows the mood of the…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Editors. "Revolutionary War Causes." Son of the South. 2009. 20 Feb. 2009.  http://www.sonofthesouth.net/revolutionary-war/cause-revolutionary-war.htm .

Gerlach, Larry R., James a. Dolph, and Michael L. Nicholls, eds. Legacies of the American Revolution. Logan, UT: Utah State University Press, 1978.
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Sea Power to the Achievement

Words: 1698 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92102628

Things got no better for d'Estaing and the French navy in 1779 when they were defeated near Savannah, Georgia, by the British. But what such skeptics fail to realize is that even though the British triumphed in these early attempts of France's Navy to provide some form of power at sea, the final victory was, of course, France's and the colonialists', largely because of the effort end expenditure that such battles took on the British. The Colonial war was fought over a period of six years, during which time the British were fighting a war on multiple fronts against multiple opponents. The aggregate of British victories, then, became so pyrrhic that British forces were eventually defeated.

Despite the fact that the French fleet suffered some early losses, it was able to gain the final victory largely because of its prowess on the waterways and the aid it was able to supply the colonialists with as a result. The great irony of this victory, of course, was the fact that 15 years prior to this triumph, France and her fleet were soundly defeated by the same British forces during the French and Indian war. Yet it was the combination of the…… [Read More]

Resources:
Brecher, F.W. (2003). Securing American Independence: John Jay and the French Alliance. Westport: Praeger Publishers.

Chartrand, R. Francis, R. (1991). The French Army in the American War of Independence. Long Island City: Osprey.
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America Revolution

Words: 645 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77091126

Gage

American Revolution

General Thomas Gage and the American Revolution

In 1774 Thomas Gage was chosen to succeed Thomas Hutchinson as governor of Massachusetts, where the most serious conflicts between the colonists and the British government existed at that time. Gage's appointment was initially well received by the colonists, who were happy to be rid of Hutchinson. However, Gage tried to put down the dissident forces in the colony and enforce the Intolerable Acts, a series of five laws designed to punish the colonists for the Boston Tea Party and the boycott against British goods and reestablish British rule. These acts included the Boston Port Act, legislation the dictated that the port of Boston was closed to shipping until restitution was made to the India Tea company and the King for the lost tea and taxes; The Massachusetts Government Act, designed to increase royal control over the colony's administration; The Administration of Justice Act, providing royal officials the option to request a change of venue to another colony or Great Britain if charged with criminal acts while fulfilling their duties; The Quartering Act, expanding the types of buildings in which solders could be billeted; and the Quebec Act, which transferred…… [Read More]

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Music & Skimmington Riots an

Words: 8558 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34158478

In this regard, when wage levels fell in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the standard of living for laborers and cottagers in England declined precipitously and they were compelled to use the majority of their cash, garden crops, and milk just to buy bread and clothing (Kulikoff 2000:19). Not surprisingly, many of these workers found it almost impossible in some cases to even survive, even with the entire family - including young children - working as hard as possible (Kulikoff 19).

In some cases, laborers (but not their families) were paid in food and drink as part of their wages and some likely kept fowl or a pig, and cottagers, of course, produced much of their own food; nevertheless, poor landless families ate bread and porridge, on occasion supplemented by milk, ale, cheese, eggs, or cheap meat, a diet that was far removed from the same level enjoyed by the contemporary gentry or even medieval peasants, who enjoyed puddings, butter, cheese, fish, and meats of all kinds (Kulikoff 19). Even during periods of plenty, many laborers and their families experienced malnutrition; in times of paucity, though, others simply died of starvation while some resorted to stealing food or…… [Read More]

Sources:
Abramovitz, Mimi. Regulating the Lives of Women: Social Welfare Policy from Colonial Times to the Present. Boston: South End Press, 1988.

Bonomi, Patricia U. Under the Cope of Heaven: Religion, Society, and Politics in Colonial America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
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Domestic Terrorism

Words: 3000 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90284008

Domestic Terrorism

America is home to people with varied cultural backgrounds who have been confined into one political and geographical territory. These people may have issues and conflicts but still find themselves living together because of shared territorial borders (Zalman, 2013). The United States has managed for a very long time to contain multitude of people with diverse religious, political, and cultural views in relative harmony. Incidences of terrorist attacks that have been meted out on America domestically, exemplifies the distrust people have with the American ideal of democracy where people from backgrounds can all claim loyalty to and the benefits of the American system. Domestic terrorism is not something unique to the 20th and 21st century America (Zalman, 2013). It is something that dates back to the pre-independence period when the colonialists used violence to proclaim independence. Colonists staged rebellion to the British authorities to into changing its policy of taxing colonist tea importers' imports, while offering a tariff-free trade to East India Tea Company (Zalman, 2013). This example paints the Boston Tea Party as the pioneer domestic terrorists. This classification is important when it comes to comparing the goals and tactics of different national liberation groups. The first…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Ackerman, G.A. (2003). Beyond Arson? A Threat Assessment of the Earth Liberation Front.

Political Violence, 15(4), 155-156.
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American History From the Origins of the

Words: 979 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27815762

American History from the Origins of the Revolution to the Close of War of 1812

In the 16th century, America, in its development as a new nation, had been colonized by the British government, and for a decade, Americans had shown little resistance against the British colonizers. However, a decade after their conquest, the British forces and government in America had met resistance from the people, and these acts of resistance were triggered by a number of events and policies that further illustrated the growing inequality and injustices of the British to the Americans. As the American Revolution became successful, and America had finally achieved independence, the War of 1812 broke out, pitting the country once again against the British forces. The War of 1812 had also encountered problems that had happened before and during the development of the said war. These conflicts and major problems are essential to the study of American history because these major problems show a relationship on how America had emerged from a colonial to a free nation, and how it further expanded and developed to become a 'superpower' nation of the world. Economic, political, and social-civic problems have been the primary themes of the…… [Read More]

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Open Border Immigration the USA

Words: 1060 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38551473



(E).

Loss of jobs: though most Americans are skilled unlike the unskilled Mexican population, there is a small number of Americans estimated at 10 million who lack high school degree who are under threat from job losses due to availability of cheap unskilled labor from the immigrants.

It is worth noting however, that the immigration issue does not only cover the Mexicans alone but also the Canadian immigrants into the U.S. As well. A good number of these are educated and skilled. What that portends for USA is that there would be someone who may take up a skilled job, at equal salary since they have same qualifications and education as an American. This may not benefit the community since it brings about the unfair competition for jobs between immigrants and the native-born Americans. Then again the issue of money circulation comes up since the Canadians will send the cash back to their country to circulate there, further hurting the American economy (the Boston Tea Party, 2011).

(F).

Hampering other industries: the Mexican population ahs been studied to be majority under the poverty line. Amazingly even those who have been in the U.S. For over 20 years and acquired legal…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Centre for Immigration Studies (CIS) (2001). Immigration from Mexico

Study Examines Costs and Benefits for the United States. Retrieve March 21, 2011 from www.cis.org/articles/2001/mexico/release.html
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Creation of the United States 1776-1786

Words: 1053 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62171866

United States,1776-1786

Previous to 1776, the United States of America was formed by colonies ruled by British government. The colonists were no longer willing to be ruled by England, and as a result they started to fight for their independence. There were a series of important events which drove to the unification of the colonies into United States of America. Colonist complaints drove to a revolution which soon transformed into a full-scale war.

The colonists were unhappy because the British government denied them a series of essential rights. They could not trade resources with any other country but England, and in addition to that British government increased taxes significantly. In 1770 colonists started to protest against the British government. In 1773 England issued a law meant to have colonists pay taxes on tea and send the money to England. In December 1773 a group of colonists dressed as Native American attacked three English ships in Massachusetts. The colonists tossed all the boxes with tea into the sea, and as a result the event was called the Boston Tea Party.

During the First Continental Congress from 1774 colonists prepared a revolution against England. There were representatives from all thirteen colonies at…… [Read More]

Sources:
1. America's Fight for Independence, Retrieved December 17, 2012 from the San Diego Community College District website: http://programs.sdce.edu/elcivics/resources/independence

2. Conway, Stephen, American War of Independence (1775-1783), November 13, 2011, Retrieved December 17, 2012, from the Wiley Online Library website: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781444338232.wbeow016/pdf
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Stamp Act What Role Did the Stamp

Words: 725 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18937848

Stamp Act

What role did the Stamp Act play in the American Revolution?

The Stamp Act of 1765 was enacted by British Parliament as an attempt to raise revenue that would help to pay off the debt that Britain had incurred during the Seven Years' War, also known as the French and Indian War. The Stamp Act required that American colonists pay a tax on "every piece of paper they used" (Summary of the 1765 Stamp Act, n.d.). While American colonials were used to being taxed by the British Parliament as they were still English subjects, they were most upset by the principle of the Act. The passage of the Stamp Act by British Parliament helped to bring attention to how American colonials were unjustly and unfairly being governed and helped to provide a political platform that would justify revolution.

One of the major reasons that colonials were highly against the Stamp Act is because they felt that they were not being represented within Parliament and that they had no say in how they should be governed. The colonists felt that there should be "no taxation without representation" (No Taxation Without Representation, n.d.). While Parliament supported the idea of virtual…… [Read More]

References:
No Taxation Without Representation. (n.d.). Accessed 11 November 2011 from,  http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h640.html 

The Sons of Liberty. (n.d.). Declaration of Independence. U.S. History. Accessed 11 November
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Birth of a Republic 1763-89 The Chicago

Words: 1331 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18005323

Birth of a Republic 1763-89: The Chicago History of American Civilization (Revised Edition) by Edmund S. Morgan. The University of Chicago Press, 1977, 202 pp. Edited by: Daniel J. Boorstin.

The delayed results of the Presidential elections of 2000 also known as the "Florida Fiasco" raised several questions. Two among them: What were the differences between a democracy and republic? Which of the two (democracy or republic) was the United States of America? Cries of "the will of the people" being denied were heard loud and often. Some pundits suggested that since Mr. Gore had won the popular vote, the constitution might be amended to accommodate the "democratic aspect" of the government. Fortunately (and not for political reasons) the sanctity of the constitution was preserved.

Edmund Morgan, Professor Emeritus at Yale University, had already answered all the above questions in his eminently readable "The Birth of a Republic." The book traces the chronological history of the United States. The author concentrates on: the events leading to the American War of Independence, the achievement of freedom, and then, perhaps the more difficult part, establishing a nation with specific rules of governance -- the establishment of a republic complete with a written…… [Read More]

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How Revolutionary Was the American Revolution

Words: 3820 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79397572

revolutionary the American Revolution was in reality. This is one issue that has been debated on by many experts in the past and in the present too. The contents of this paper serve to justify this though-provoking issue.

American Revolution-how revolutionary was it?

When we try to comprehend why the American Revolution was fought, we come to know that the residents of the American colonies did so to retain their hard-earned economic, political and social order when the British had stated to neglect them. However, before we began to understand what The American Revolution was all about, it is necessary for us to look at conditions of the colonies preceding the war. The economy of Colonial America were divided into three separate parts: New England, where the economy was commerce; the South, where cash crops were the major source of earning; and the middle colonies, a combination of both. [Account of a Declaration 1]

The main idea we need to explore is what do we understand by the American Revolution? Was this just an American war fought by Americans or was the Revolution already in progress long before the war had began because the reality is that the Revolution was…… [Read More]

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Reasons for the American Revolution and the Arguments Made by the Colonists After 1763

Words: 833 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69877722

American Revolution after 1763

There are several factors leading to the American Revolution. During the 18th century, the British colonists in North America established themselves as a new nation. Increasingly, they had begun to see themselves as American rather than British. This new consciousness contributed to increasing resentment of any British attempts at control and influence in America. British action deemed unfair by American colonies, such as taxes on tea and sugar, contributed significantly to this problem.

Exacerbated American Grievances after 1763

The Stamp Act is one of the greatest British thorns in the American side when 1766 arrived (Benjamin Franklin Testifies Against the Stamp Act, p. 3). The problem was that this tax had to be paid by order of a Parliament where the colonials were not specifically represented. Franklin in fact threatens the British with a loss of respect and "affection" from the colonials if this Act were not repealed (p. 5). He also displays the American pride in self-sufficiency when he explains that everything provided by the British can also be produced within American borders, or otherwise be done without, if necessary (p. 6).

Another tax problem involved tea. The colonials resented British attempts at indirectly taxing…… [Read More]

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Freemasons Contributions to Today's Society

Words: 6522 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94133902

In addition, both governments and churches began to grow suspicious of the group, probably because of the "organization's secrecy and liberal religious beliefs" (Watson, 2009). As a result, Portugal and France banned Freemasonry; in fact, it was a capital offense to be a Freemason in Portugal (Watson, 2009). Moreover, "Pope Clement XII forbade Catholics from becoming Freemasons on penalty of excommunication" (Watson, 2009). Feeling pressure in Europe, many Freemasons decided to flee the Old World and travel to the European colonies scattered throughout the world, most notably, America.

Influence on America

Anyone with even a rudimentary knowledge of the Freemasons and American history understands that, whatever resistance the Freemasons met with in Europe was not to be found in America. The Freemasons set up lodges in Boston and Philadelphia, and some of the founding fathers, including Benjamin Franklin and George Washington. More importantly, the Freemasons are reported to have played a crucial role in the American Revolution:

A story exists that Freemasons were among the dozens of men who, dressed as Native Americans, boarded three British ships in Boston Harbor on December 16, 1773 and dumped hundreds of crates of tea into the water, setting off the American Revolution. Whether…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Crowe, F. (2003). Things a Freemason should know. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.

Decker, E. (Unknown). Masonic rituals for the Blue Lodge. Retrieved April 14, 2009 from Saints Alive in Jesus.
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Setting in Hawthorne's My Kinsman

Words: 1720 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48208302

The various places he stops represent certain alternative futures, and the brothel promises one of pleasure. His ability to resist it -- whether through morality or lack of money -- and continue on his journey is indicative of the revolutionary spirit. The fact that he keeps moving, and keeps searching in new places, matched the movement of the revolution and indeed of the country since then as it goes through its great democratic experiment.

Hawthorne's story is very enjoyable just as a piece of fiction. It is also an interesting historical piece, describing the feel of life in pre-Revolutionary America and the different opinions at various levels of society. These things are brought out in the setting perhaps more than in any other single element of the story. Time and place are incredibly essential to this story; the story is, in fact, about the changing political setting of the American Revolution and the years preceding it. Hawthorne is a master of storytelling not because of the subject matter of his stories, but because of the ways he describes the settings. Though he employs other literary elements with equal alacrity, his use of setting is of paramount importance in "My Kinsman,…… [Read More]

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Historical Perspective on Ethics

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94351705

Business Ethics in Precapitalist America

Precapitalist America

The American Revolution was kindled by a growing dissatisfaction with the way colonial merchants were being treated by the English ruling class (Collins, 2011). In response to the Ottoman Empire's capture of Constantinople and the levying of onerous tariffs on trade goods coming from Western Europe, the Spanish Monarchy funded an exploratory venture that took Christopher Columbus west to map out a new trade route to Asia. The goal was gold at any cost, even at the expense of human life. One of the new markets that Columbus helped to establish was the Atlantic slave trade, with 'goods' moving east instead of west.

Over the next several centuries many of the Europeans arriving on the eastern shores of North America were indentured servants (Collins, 2011). When the number of European servants became insufficient to meet the demands of colonial merchants and farmers, more slaves were culled from the indigenous tribes. By 1619 the need for cheap labor to manage the expanding tobacco crop grew to the point that the Atlantic slave trade from Africa began. The wealth generated by the colonies in precapitalist America was therefore possible only through the widespread use of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Collins, Denis. (2011). Business Ethics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Bassiry, G.R. And Jones, Marc. (1993). Adam Smith and the ethics of contemporary capitalism. Journal of Business Ethics, 12(8), 621-627.
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Freemasonry in America the Purpose

Words: 1915 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72368411

Because of this, many modern Masonic lodges offer tours to the public where non-Masons can visit the lodge and learn more about Masonic activities (Rich & Merchant, 2003).

Since the mid-nineteenth century, many scholars have also equated Masonry with Mormonism, because of both groups' reliance on secret rituals and closed temples. This is one reason the Masons have begun to open up their temples to the public. Authors Rich and Merchant continue, "In summary, in the United States, Masonic policies have evolved and gradually moved away from the secrecy and pseudo-historical claims that once characterized the society. Secrecy was not abandoned, but it became less important" (Rich & Merchant, 2003). Thus, Masons have changed with the time, and modernized their organizations until they fit in our modern western society, and that is probably one reason that so many Masonic lodges still exist today.

Today, the rituals and secrecy of the Masonic lodge has been replaced by a group that is dedicated to service in the community and the world. They are especially active in disaster relief efforts around the world, including earthquake and hurricane relief, and they have had a history of this support since the 1920s. They also provide…… [Read More]

Sources:
Editors. (2007). History of freemasonry. Retrieved from the Masonic Service Association of North America Web site: http://www.msana.com/historyfm.asp20 Sept. 2007.

Fuller, R.C. (2001). Spiritual, but not religious: Understanding unchurched America. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Delimitations Today Modern Business Systems

Words: 20751 Length: 75 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13650636

A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social change; the order's original tenets included an opposition to superstition, a rejection of organized Christianity, and an acceptance of free love (Stewart, 2002). When authorities in Bavaria became aware of the organization's existence after lightning killed a courier who was carrying documents from leaders of the Illuminati 1785, they were…… [Read More]

References:
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
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American Political Development America's Political

Words: 1985 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87954252


American politics took another turn with problems that would lead to
the Civil War, as the North and the South each had their own interests.
Tariffs to protect some Northern manufacturing interests greatly angered
the South leading to attempts to nullify acts of the federal government,
ultimately resulting in conflict between the powers of the states and the
federal Union. The result of this conflict led to the Civil War and
American political development became one in which decisions over slave and
free-states were the most prominent. America became increasingly partisan
and the Republican party emerged to compete along with Know Nothings and
Democratic Party. Ultimately the South seceded resulting in a Confederacy
that split from the Union as the debates over slavery reached an all-time
involving all aspects of political life.
The Civil War split America in two and then brought it back together
again. But the new America was not the same as there were many contentious
interests after the war, expansion, and immigration. America was now much
more pluralistic and would face new problems into the future, including
many dealing with foreign policy. The system as it grew also excluded more
people, and new forces would come…… [Read More]

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European Imperialism Up Until 1858 the British

Words: 2292 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99643970

European Imperialism

Up until 1858, the British East India Company had a monopoly on trade with Asia and also governed most of the Indian subcontinent, although it was replaced by direct British rule after the Rebellion of 1757-58. Initially, the Company was not interested in 'modernizing' or reforming India, but only in expanding its power and profits. It would either buy off of eliminate all of its competitors and interlopers, as it did by hanging Captain Kidd in 1701 on charges of piracy. It sold opium to China to help finance its activities, and Chinese attempts in restrict this trade in the Opium Wars of 1839-42 and 1856-60 resulted in the British takeover of Hong Kong. In the Boston Tea Party of 1774, the East India Company's monopoly on trade with Asia sparked the American Revolution, led in part by merchants who preferred free trade policies along the lines of those recommended by Adam Smith and other liberal reformers. Opposition to the Company's rule did not yet take the form of modern nationalist or radical movements, but traditional rulers and local feudal elites who resented its encroachments. Mahatma Gandhi created the mass populist movement that finally drove the British out…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Chandi Prasad, N (2008). Vocalizing Silence: Political Protests in Orissa, 1930-42. New Delhi: SAGE India.

Easwarum, E (2011). Gandhi, the Man: How One Man Changed Himself to Change the World. N/A: Nilgiri Press.
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North America Assessing the Drivers

Words: 1504 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78607970



Political/cultural climate

The prosperity of the North American continent arguably depended in large part on the Protestant work ethic found in both the United States and Canada. In general, too, both nations are 'free trade' nations, although there have been some missteps that had a dampening effect. The raising of tariffs in the U.S. In the 1920s and 1930s constitutes one such misstep. Some contend that doing so caused, or at last aggravated, the Great Depression. In turn, coping with the Depression prevented North America's early intervention in Germany, and so was indirectly responsible for World War II (Lind 1994, p. 16+). Those same analysts see a willingness to "police the world and promote global free trade" as essential to the economy of North America, which is, when all the opinions are laid to rest, founded on global trading of its still-abundant natural resources and endowments.

References

Durning, a.T. (1996, November/December). The six floods. World Watch, 9, 28+. Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Lind, M. (1994, Fall). The Op-Ed history of America. The National Interest, 16+. Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Nivola, P.S. (2002, Spring). Energy independence or…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Durning, a.T. (1996, November/December). The six floods. World Watch, 9, 28+. Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.

Lind, M. (1994, Fall). The Op-Ed history of America. The National Interest, 16+. Retrieved June 9, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
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Start of the 16th Century This Was

Words: 619 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68780583

start of the 16th century. This was largely because society began to develop its initial modern practices during this time. Many things throughout this time had a large impact on the world, and still affect us today. Three things, however, can be singled out as being most important. The American Revolution, the founding of America by Christopher Columbus, and the reformation of the Catholic Church were all instrumental in affecting our world.

In the political arena, the American Revolution was extremely important. The revolution was not a single isolated event; rather, it encompassed occurrences from the 1660's all the way into the late 1700s. Many acts were passed during this time, including regulations on navigation, printed materials, and many everyday items. The Boston Tea Party also occurred during this time, as well as the Boston Massacre. Many battles were fought during the American Revolution which finally led to the drafting of the articles of Confederation. The Treaty of Paris ended the war that America was fighting with the British over who had control of the colonies, and the United States was born. After this happened, the Constitution was planned with delegates from all 12 of the states. The Bill of…… [Read More]

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American History and Culture Contributes

Words: 2472 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36047997

Nevertheless, there have been many decisions over the years that have tended to weaken the intent of the Framers. In 2001, in Zelman v. Simmons Harris the Supreme Court ruled that school voucher programs did not violate the establishment clause of the First Amendment. The decision represented a blow to the essentially secular nature of the American state and system. By allowing public money to be given to religious schools, the Supreme Court was permitting the violation of a more than two hundred year old principle. In reaching its decision, the Supreme Court chose to accept the argument that giving money to schools was not a case of advancing religion but rather one of who should have power over education - the state or individual parents.

Personal freedom was now being re-defined as something that included the right to government assistance if the government provided assistance in similar situations. Persons seeking a religious education for their children could not be denied this use of tax funds if indeed the government was willing to pay for a non-religious form of education.

Numerous groups have advanced these arguments in one fashion or another. For many the argument comes down to a belief…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Bolick, Clint. "School Choice: Sunshine Replaces the Cloud." Cato Supreme Court Review 2001-2002. Ed. Robert a. Levy, James L. Swanson, and Timothy Lynch. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, 2002. 149-169.

Censer, Jack. "7 France, 1750-89." Press, Politics and the Public Sphere in Europe and North America, 1760-1820. Ed. Hannah Barker and Simon Burrows. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 159-178.
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George Washington the Indespensable Man

Words: 1397 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57005645

Its effects would have impact on the political decisions of all future generations; any mistake could have had disastrous consequences for the ones to come. Regarding the matter, the president at some point wrote to James Madison that given the historical circumstances and precedents his presidency constituted, he preferred that all decisions be made on a moral basis.. Washington couldn't have been more right; for instance, his refusal to serve a third term, in 1797 became common practice until today. The norm states that no other president could seek power for more than two terms.

His huge burden derived not only from the great amount of social changes that were to take place and not only from the laborious political measures and laws that had to be adopted; as first president of the newly-born nation, he was also to become the symbol of the ones he presided over.

People have always felt the need to use symbols as a means to reinforce their belief in being an integrated part of a community. As Edmund Morgan explains in his book "The Meaning of Independence," "the creation, manipulation and recognition of symbols has been central to human history and seems somehow essential…… [Read More]

References:
Gregg, Gary L. II and Spalding, Matthew. "Patriot Sage, George Washington and the American Political Tradition." Wilmington, Delaware: ISI Books,1989

Middlekauf, Robert. "The Glorious Cause, (The American Revolution, 1763-1789)." London:Oxford Press, 2005
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Letter From a Birmingham Jail

Words: 313 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80386793

He knew that racial divides could be conquered as long as men remained rational.

King's appeal to authority, or ethos, emerges when he states it was "was evidenced sublimely in the refusal of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego to obey the laws of Nebuchadnezzar, on the ground that a higher moral law was at stake . . . To a degree, academic freedom is a reality today because Socrates practiced civil disobedience" (King). Here King illustrates how civil disobedience has good consequences and, in the end, one must follow one's on inclination. When he refers to the Boston Tea Party, he is appealing to ethos because they were disobeying, too. His appeal is logical and more difficult to dispute. The last thing King wanted to do was seem illogical and irrational.

Work Cited

King, Martin Luther. "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." 1963. University of Pennsylvania online.

Information Retrieved January 27, 2009.… [Read More]

Sources:
King, Martin Luther. "Letter from a Birmingham Jail." 1963. University of Pennsylvania online.

Information Retrieved January 27, 2009.
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Rise of East Asia Was

Words: 2594 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49316685

The British Empire gained significant land share within North America through its conquests and emigration. From the founding of Jamestown to the growth of the greater New England region, the North American territories represented a significant portion of the British Empire. Following the Seven Years War, England won the entire territory of New France and doubled the territory possession within North America. Although from a trade perspective North America was not the furtive economic zone that Britain originally envisioned, it did become a several exporter of tobacco, cotton and rice to the British Empire, as well as naval material and furs from the northern region. The American Revolution affected the British Empire in several different ways, it proved to be a symbolic blow the largest empire of the European Continent, and it provided a model for liberation and freedom throughout the rest of the colonial territories. The American Revolution occurred as a result of strict British rules against trading outside of defined British parameters. It resulted in the Boston Tea Party and a plethora of legislative attempts to control colonial trade. In the ensuing military defeat of the trained British army at the hands of George Washington was a severe…… [Read More]

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Economics Definitions Name Three Major

Words: 1124 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68920389

The wage subsidy idea - combined with training and technical placement - could work well, even though it may be seen as a "government hand-out" to some. To those who cannot find work, public employment, if handled well, increases the labor supply ("net job growth") and reduces the amount of money paid out in unemployment benefits.

The answer to the question of how to increase the labor supply is perhaps simpler than increasing the demand: to wit, by increasing the number of immigrants one also increases the labor supply; the downside to that is that wages for native-born workers tend to decrease. A second way to increase the labor supply is to raise the age of retirement for workers, and/or raise the age at which pensions for older workers kick in. In either case, more workers remain in the market.

Why do our political leaders favor exports of U.S. goods and "Buy American" policies?

When a nation's trade deficit grows to over $58 billion, as it currently is for the United States, the wise policy for political and economic leaders is to encourage more exports of American goods and better marketing on the global market of American goods.

There is…… [Read More]

Resources:
Suranovic, Steven M. (2006). International Trade Theory and Policy. George Washington

University. Retrieved April 12, 2007 at http://internationalecon.com/trade/Tch10/T10-2.php.
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American Women's History There Were

Words: 1529 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48783405

Boycotting British goods meant that American women were going to have to make sacrifices, and stop consuming goods that were imported from Britain. The cartoon of the women of Edenton, NC signing a non-consumption agreement represent American women involving themselves in the political and economic boycott of Britain by the American colonies. ("A Society of Patriotic Ladies") However, it is actually a criticism of women's involvement in political affairs by representing the women who signed as silly women engaging in silly activities. The entire cartoon is designed to give the impression that women are not able to take on political issues seriously and deal with them effectively. Instead, the women in the cartoon are engaging in sex, playing, drinking, and are generally distracted from the important issue at hand.

Works Cited

"A Society of Patriotic Ladies- North Carolina Digital History." LEARN NC. Web. 14

Oct. 2011. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-revolution/4305

2000. Print.

"Laws on Indentured Servants." Virtual Jamestown. Web. 14 Oct. 2011.

http://www.virtualjamestown.org/servlaws.html

"Legal Case: Thomas/sine Hall; Virginia, March 25, 1629" OutHistory.org. Web. 14 Oct,

2011.http://www.outhistory.org/wiki/Legal_case:_Thomas/sine_Hall;_Virginia,_March_25,_1629

Sheppard, William. Portrait of Pocahontas. 1891. National Portrait Gallery of the Smithsonian, Washington D.C.

"Trial and Interrogation of Anne Hutchinson, Trial Transcript Pt. 1." Anne Hutchinson.

Web.…… [Read More]

References:
"A Society of Patriotic Ladies- North Carolina Digital History." LEARN NC. Web. 14

Oct. 2011.  http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-revolution/4305 
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Thomas Paine's Common Sense

Words: 993 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25360305

Thomas Paine's influential pamphlet, Common Sense, provided the inspiration for America's independence from Great Britain. Common sense reflected the common belief that British rule was often heavy-handed, unnecessary, and even unfounded. Thus, the success of Paine's Common Sense can be attributed to Paine's ability to tap into the beliefs of his audience, the American people.

Paine's Common Sense is divided into four key sections, plus an introduction. The first section describes Paine's thoughts on the origin and design of government and the relationship of these spots to the English constitution. The second section presents Paine's arguments against the validity of the English and monarchy in the colonies. Section three is an examination all of American political life in the late 1770s. The final, fourth section, describes the present ability of America to exist as a nation independent of British rule.

Paine's arguments for American independence are based on his understanding of the difference between government and society. To Paine society is what is good and constructive, and what joins people together. In contrast, government exists to protect human life, liberty, and property. Essentially, Paine then argues that British government is abundant with contradictions and inefficiencies that were damaging to American…… [Read More]

Sources:
Paine, Thomas. Common Sense. Dover Publications, 1997.
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Terrorism Americans' Views of Terrorism Were Forever

Words: 612 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66133867

Terrorism

Americans' views of terrorism were forever established on September 11, 2001, when terrorists flew two planes into the World Trade Towers in New York, collapsing them both, and one plane into the Pentagon, causing severe damage. A fourth plane crashed into the countryside in Pennsylvania instead of hitting its target, probably in Washington, D.C., only because passengers challenged the hijackers and fought back. Over 3,000 people lost their lives that day.

Until that day, terrorism had been a somewhat distant concept to most Americans. We heard about terrorism in Israel, and perhaps some of us had friends or family to worry about, and we heard about I.R.A. attacks in Great Britain, but September 11 was the firsts time international terrorists had done major damage on U.S. soil. Virtually everyone in the United States became vocally opposed to terrorism on that day even if they hadn't given it much thought before then.

In fact, it is difficult to think anything positive about terrorism, especially in the era of smart bombs, when our military is able to bomb with such precision that civilians are rarely killed and injured, and only the target is taken out. The fact that our military is…… [Read More]