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Development of the Brain in 1st 2 Years of Life
Words: 774 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56682709
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Brain Development

What Kinds of Changes Are Occurring Within the Brain During the First 2 Years of Life?"

There are several kinds of changes that occur within the brain during the first 2 years of life (Bornstein & Lamb, 89). In fact, some developmental specialists believe that if first two years of life periods in brain development are not utilized, opportunities for brain development can never be regained because in later years the flexibility of using brain is lost. By the time a baby is born, she will have l00 billion brain cells, but these cells are not connected in circuits the way they will be, when the brain begins to mature. In the first two years of life, the brain rapidly forms connections between brain cells and ultimately a single cell can connect with as many as 15,000 other cells (Bruer, 75-81).

During the first year of life, the…

References

Bornstein, M.H. & Lamb, M.E. Development in Infancy: An Introduction. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1992

Bruer, J.T. The Myth of the First Three Years: A New Understanding of Early Brain Development and Lifelong Learning. NY: Free Press, 1999.

Campbell, F.A. & Ramey, C.T. Cognitive and school outcomes for high-risk African-American students at middle adolescence: Positive effects of early intervention. American Educational Research Journal, 1995, 32(4): 742-772.

Dawson, G & Fishcer, K. Human Behavior and the Developing Brain. NY: Guilford, 1994.

Brain Effects from Video Games
Words: 1216 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95461143
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Technology has emerged and pervaded the lives of many people as it becomes more advanced and more a part of society. A good and prominent example of this is video games. Even with the leisure and perceived positive effects of video games, their effect on the brain is a cause for concern among many in the scientific and academic communities. While many of the effects could absolutely be good, there are other effects that could be bad with age and stage of brain development being important factors to keep in mind.

One factor that clearly aggravates the situation of people playing video games and it might or does affect the brain is the fact that the younger people who still have the development of their brains in motion. As such, verifying whether or not there are effects on cognition and that development of the brain structure is an important item…

Development in Early Childhood Play Years
Words: 954 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19394624
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Early Childhood: Play Years

Early childhood is a time of rapid mental, physical and emotional growth. As children move past infancy, they begin to explore their surroundings and to build relationships with other children. Four areas of early childhood will be explored; the differences between male and female brain development, pretend play in early childhood, conflict negotiation, and the male and female approaches to relationships and problem solving.

Biology and Language

Scientists have been aware for many years that there are physical differences between the physiology of male and female brains, especially in the way that language is processed. Experts generally tend to agree that women are superior at language skills, while men are stronger in spatial skills. The reason women are better at language is because females have a larger and thicker corpus callosum, which is a bundle of neurons that connects the two hemispheres of the brain and…

References

Bergen, D. (2002). The role of pretend play in children's cognitive development. Early Childhood Research and Practice, 4(1), 193-483.

Block, C. (2003). Literacy difficulties: diagnosis and instruction for reading specialists and classroom teachers. (2nd ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.

Church, E. (n.d.) The importance of pretend play. Scholastic Parents. Retrieved January 30, 2010 from http://www2.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=10175

Slavin, R. (2009). Education psychology: theory and practice. New Jersey: Pearson.

Manifestations of Psychopathy Brain Factors
Words: 1411 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12372252
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Brain Factors That Influence Psychopathy

Psychopathy is among the conditions that burden the performance of most global states in the current contemporary society. A variety of factors causes psychopathy. The factors include biological, environmental, and brain factors. Psychopathy presents with different symptoms including, violence, deceitfulness, aggression, irresponsibility, lack of guilt, and impulsiveness among other symptoms associated with it. Significant researches conducted in the past have failed to create an understanding of the brain factors that cause the psychopathy. Therefore, the following essay presents an analysis of the brain factors that cause the psychopathy. The analysis presents results obtained from studies conducted to create an understanding of the relationship.

Introduction

According to Verona, Sprague, and Sadeh (2012) psychopathy refers to a condition characterized by diminished abilities for remorse and low abilities to control behaviors. Cale and Lilienfeld (2002) show in their definition that defining psychopathy should not only focus on the…

References

Anderson, J.L., et al., (2014). Examining the Associations between Section III Antisocial Personality Disorder Traits and Psychopathy in Community and University Samples. Journal of Personality Disorders, 12(3), 1-23.

Cale, E.M., & Lilienfeld, S.O. (2002). Histrionic Personality Disorder and Antisocial Personality Disorder: Sex-Differentiated Manifestations of Psychopathy?. Journal of Personality Disorders, 16(1), 52-72.

Coid, J., & Ullrich, S. (2010). Antisocial Personality Disorder Is On A Continuum With Psychopathy. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 51(4), 426-433.

Harmer, C., Perrett, D., Cowen, P., & Goodwin, G. (2001). Administration of the beta-adrenoceptor blocker propranolol impairs the processing of facial expressions of sadness. Psychopharmacology, 154(4), 383-389.

Brain to Body Impulse Impact
Words: 1037 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21628894
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" This allows the palm of the hand to go either up or down when in motion. The radius and the ulna connect with the bones which that are attached to the wrist and hand.

The thumbs of the human hand make it possible for the hand to lift and carry objects. The movement of the human hand is due to evolutionary development of bipedalism. The human hand consists of twenty seven bones. The wrist has cube shaped bones placed in rows of two or four each. The palm of the hand consists of bones called the carpals. hen lifting a glass of water the striated muscle pulls the radius and ulna allowing the arm to reach for the glass. The flexor muscles in the hand and fingers are used to flex the fingers around the glass making it possible to grip. The flexors which are located near the elbow…

Work Cited

"sliding filament theory." A Dictionary of Biology. 2004. Feb 13, 2010.

Adolesents Development of Adolescents it
Words: 2058 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33357353
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Farris (1990) cites Glasser's Control Theory as a foundation for developing activities to motivate adolescent learners. Briefly this theory asserts humans have five basic needs: the need for survival, belonging, power, freedom and fun. Effective teachers recognize and respond to students' needs and a critical part of that response lies in helping students accept and maintain that essential control.

Farris (1990) proposes possible classroom responses designed to meet these needs. To satisfy the need to belong a teacher should create a classroom with an accepting atmosphere, create a sense of ownership, recognize student's attempts to be accepted, praise students' performance, teach using groups, and discipline or reprimand in private whenever possible to avoid humiliating students. The need for freedom can be addressed by involving students in rule making, providing opportunities for free expression, encouraging creativity in assignments, and possibly consider eliminating assigned seating. The need for power can be addressed…

References

Caissy, G. (1986, November/December). Early adolescence: The physical transition. FWTAO newsletter.

Caissy, G. (1987a, January). Early adolecscence: A time of stormy emotions. FWTAO newsletter.

Caissy, G. (1987b, February/March). Early adolecscence: The social demension. FWTAO newsletter.

Caissy, G. (1987c, June). Early adolecscence: The intellectual domain. FWTAO newsletter.

Teenager's Brain
Words: 2246 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 4404191
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Teenager's Brain

A Teenagers Brain

The teenage brain is different from the normal adult's brain in which "…various parts of the brain work together to evaluate choices, make decisions and act accordingly in each situation." (Edmonds, 2010) The teenage brain can be compared to an entertainment center, according to Edmonds "that hasn't been fully hooked up. There are loose wires, so that the speaker system isn't working with the DVD players, which in turn hasn't been formatted to work with the television yet. And to top it all off, the remote control hasn't even arrived." (2010)

Brain Development

Edmonds (2010) explains that the remote control for the brain is the 'prefrontal cortex' described as "a section of the brain that weighs outcomes, forms judgments, and controls impulses and emotions. This section of the brain also helps people understand one another." (Edmonds, 2010) Synapses are used by the prefrontal cortex in…

References

Edmonds, M. (2010) Are Teenage Brains Really Different From Adult Brains? Discovery Health. Brain and Central Nervous System. Retrieved from:  http://health.howstuffworks.com/human-body/systems/nervous-system/teenage-brain2.htm 

Adolescent Brain Development (2002) ACT for Youth -- Upstate Center of Excellence. Cornell University, University of Rochester and the NYS Center for School Safety. May 2002. Research Facts and Findings. Retrieved from:  http://www.actforyouth.net/documents/may02factsheetadolbraindev.pdf 

Sohn, Emily (2005) Teen Brains, Under Construction. Science News. 28 Sept 2005. Retrieved from:  http://www.sciencenewsforkids.org/articles/20050928/Feature1.asp 

Winters, KC and McLellan, AT (2008) Adolescent Brain Development and Drug Abuse. Jan 2008. TRI Science Addiction (Treatment Research Institute) Philadelphia PA Retrieved from:  http://www.tresearch.org/archives/2008Jan_TeenBrain.pdf

Mind and the Brain
Words: 1327 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 50702242
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Mind and the Brain by Schwartz and Begley

In their book, The Mind and the Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force, Jeffrey Schwartz and Sharon Begley look into the concept of the mind as something separate and distinct from the physical brain. They do so by beginning with a discussion of behaviorism, an approach that has had tremendous influence on the world of psychology, not just in theory but in shaping of treatments for people who exhibited disordered or disturbed reasoning. They talk about how behaviorism strips the humanity from people, placing human learning on roughly the same level as animal conditioning. Moreover, they also discuss the idea that, even if behaviorist approaches can effectuate therapeutic results, such as in habituation training for patients suffering from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, there are other means that do not involve the same level of cruelty towards the patients, but can still achieve…

References

Schwartz, J. & Begley, S. (2002). The Mind and the Brain: Neuroplasticity and the Power of Mental Force. New York: Regan Books.

effects of poverty on the brain
Words: 737 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22559031
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.....backed by other research works, is chiefly grounded in Luby and coworkers' 2013 research project titled "The Effects of Poverty on Childhood Brain Development: The Mediating Effect of Caregiving and Stressful Life Events". It was obtained from EBSCOhost's database via a search activity, utilizing the expression "poverty and the brain".

Poverty during the early childhood stage of life has an adverse effect on the development of the individual's brain, as indicated by school-goers' MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scans (Lipina & Colombo, 2009; Lende, 2012). That environmental stimuli serve to enhance the production of hippocampal cells within lab animals in comparison to animals subject to relatively rare stimuli is an established fact ("Poverty, neglect in childhood...", 2013). This research work aimed at ascertaining whether or not the early childhood income-needs ratio influences school age kids' brain development and at examining the mediating factors of the abovementioned influence.

For analyzing the impacts…

Left Brain and Right Brain Integration
Words: 1034 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88879911
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Brain and Child Counseling

The effects of divorce on children can be diverse and include various factors that affect the outcome. Family is deemed to be an important variable in positively impacting a child's development (Farrell, Mays, Henry, Schoeny, 2011). However, not all families are the same: some have two parents, some have none, some are of upper income socio-economic status, others are of lower income status; some have religious/deep cultural backgrounds, others do not. Divorce is but one variable in how a child can be impacted; nonetheless, it is an important one (Amato, Bruce, 1991; Sandstorm, Huerta, 2013). This paper will discuss the effects of divorce on children by showing how various studies have indicated correlation between divorce and stress on children and what short-term and long-term effects are likely to occur in children of various backgrounds as a result of divorce. It will assess whether divorce is more…

References

Amato, P., Bruce, K. (1991). Parental divorce and the well-being of children: A meta-

analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 110(1): 2-46.

Farrell, A., Mays, S., Henry, D., Schoeny, M. (2011). Parents as moderators of the impact of school norms and peer influences on aggression in middle school students. Child Development, 82(1): 146-161.

Sandstrom, H., Huerta, S. (2013). The negative effects of instability on child d evelopment: A research synthesis. Urban Institute.

Adolescent Development
Words: 1909 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54397299
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There are multiple stages of development that all children go through. The depth and breadth of these developmental changes ebb and flow greatly as growing children move from one stage of development to the next. Overall, there are several major developmental stages in the life of a child. There are the toddler years, the prepubescent years and the adolescent/teenage years. The brief literature review that follows in this report shall focus on the last of those. To be complete with this analysis, adolescence is not the end of human development given that many suggest that development extends into the 20's and 30's. Even so, the adolescent years of development are hailed by many as being the most pivotal, at least in some regards. While many would debate the above, it is clear that the adolescent years are among the most important.

Analysis

Regardless of the development or life stage that…

child development
Words: 2081 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19470962
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Infancy is the stage between birth and two years of age. This stage is characterized by rapid physical growth than any other stage of life. Very interesting changes occur in this couple of years. Brain development also occurs rapidly at this stage. Prior to birth, the unborn baby has most of the brain cells, but not all. There is a very rapid development of the neural connections between the cells. Contrary to what most people think, the baby is not entirely helpless. It is capable of all the basic activities required to sustain life -- breathing, suckling, swallowing and excretion. By the first week, the newborns can identify the direction from which sound is coming, recognize the voice of the mother from other voices and is capable of simple imitating basic gestures such as opening the mouth and sticking out the tongue (Shaffer & Kipp, 2013).

Physical Changes

Reflexes (automatic…

Human Personality Development Is One
Words: 1749 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97431379
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Glossary

Emotional regulation -- the ability to control one's emotions so that they are within the "average" for the population surrounding them

In-utero- while the child is developing in the woman's uterus

Schizophrenia -- a serious mental illness affecting the person's perceptions of the world around them

Stimuli -- an input from a person's environment, something that the person experiences

eferences

Braungart-ieker, J., Hill-Soderlund, a. & Karrass, J. (2010). Fear and Anger eactivity Trajectories From 4 to 16 Months: The oles of Temperament, egulation, and Maternal Sensitivity. Developmental Psychology. 46 (4), 791-804.

Corapci, F., Calatroni, a. & Kaciroti, N. et al. (2009). Longitudinal Evaluation of Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems Following Iron Deficiency in Infancy. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. etrieved November 29, 2010 from http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2009/09/07/jpepsy.jsp065.full.pdf+html

DiGirolamo, a. & amirez-Zea, M. (2009). ole of zinc in maternal and child mental health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89 (30), 940S-945S.

Lozoff, B.,…

References

Braungart-Rieker, J., Hill-Soderlund, a. & Karrass, J. (2010). Fear and Anger Reactivity Trajectories From 4 to 16 Months: The Roles of Temperament, Regulation, and Maternal Sensitivity. Developmental Psychology. 46 (4), 791-804.

Corapci, F., Calatroni, a. & Kaciroti, N. et al. (2009). Longitudinal Evaluation of Externalizing and Internalizing Behavior Problems Following Iron Deficiency in Infancy. Journal of Pediatric Psychology. Retrieved November 29, 2010 from  http://jpepsy.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2009/09/07/jpepsy.jsp065.full.pdf+html 

DiGirolamo, a. & Ramirez-Zea, M. (2009). Role of zinc in maternal and child mental health. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89 (30), 940S-945S.

Lozoff, B., Beard, J. & Connor, J. et al. (2006). Long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of iron deficiency in infancy. Nutritional Review. 64,34 -- 44.

Human Development
Words: 1350 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38690716
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Personal Journal

A person's development includes the changes that continue throughout one's life. Development is usually described in periods of time, so there is consistency among different theories that describe the stages that people go through in their learning process. The most widely used way of classifying developmental periods consists of the following order: the prenatal period, infancy, early childhood, middle and late childhood, and adolescence.

Healthy brain development during the pre-birth period is best when the mother has a nutritionally balanced diet, takes needed vitamins and does not abuse substances. When this is not followed, there is the possibility of brain development and behavior/learning problems such as learning disabilities. My mother is a Cherokee Indian who, like many Native Americans, was raised in a terrible physical and emotional situation. She was only 15 years old when she became pregnant with me. Because she was young, poor and basically alone…

Cognitive Development
Words: 1516 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 25723502
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Cognitive Development

Jean Piage is a luminary as far as cognitive development theory goes. This is because of his contributions in his intellectual development theory. According to Piaget, intellectual development is a continuation of innate biological processes. He emphasizes that children go through four sequential processes of development. These four stages also occur with sub stages within them.

The sensory motor stage: 0 to 2 years; intuitive stage: 2 to 7 years; concrete operations stage: 7 to 11 years; and the formal operations stage: 11 to 15 years (Simatwa, 366).

hat "Active Construction of Knowledge and Understanding" Means

A person's way of understanding occurs in five ways that are related. These are referred to as cognition domains. These ways include understanding as a representation, understanding as connectivity between knowledge types, understanding that forms active knowledge construction and understanding as cognition situation. Understanding as a representation refers to owning internalized ideas,…

Works Cited

Aleven, Vincent and Koeginger, Kenneth. "An Effective Metacognitive Strategy: Learning by Doing and Explaining with A Computer-Based Cognitive Tutor." Cognitive Science, 26 (2002): 147-179. Print.

Casey, Betty, Jones, Rebecca, and Hare, Todd. "The Adolescent Brain." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124 (2008): 111-126. Print.

Hill, Patrick and Lapsley, Daniel. "Egocentrism." Education.com,  http://www.education.com/reference/article/egocentrism/ . Accessed 23 August 2016.

Hurst, Melissa. "Differences between Piaget and Vygotsky's Cognitive Development Theories." Study.com,  http://study.com/academy/lesson/differences-between-piaget-vygotskys - cognitive-development-theories.html. Accessed 23 August 2016.

Effects of Teratogenic Agents on Fetal Development
Words: 2018 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 33963352
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Teratogens and Fetal Development

Teratogens can be described as agents that contribute to fetal injury and birth defects or an abnormality because of fetal exposure during pregnancy. Some of these agents that lead to fetal injury or birth defects include chemicals, environmental contaminants, infections, and drugs. These agents tend to result in such abnormality in fetal development when a woman is exposed to them during the term of the pregnancy. The agents are always discovered following an increased prevalence of a specific birth defect or abnormality. Pregnant women are increasingly susceptible to teratogens since these agents can be found in various settings at home in the working environment. Notably, the effect of the agents on fetal development is dependent on the kind of agent, duration, and extent of the exposure. Generally, teratogens and fetal development can be about legal and/or illegal drugs and the effects on the fetus while in…

References

Aboubakr et. al. (2014). Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Norfloxacin in Pregnant

Female Albino Rats. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences, 2014, 1-6.

Bercovici, E. (2010). Prenatal and Perinatal Effects of Psychotropic Drugs on Neuro-cognitive

Development in the Fetus. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 11(2), 1-20.

Visual Acuity and Child Development
Words: 641 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96470135
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Visual Perception: Child Development

The concept of preferential looking in regards to visual perception suggests that even infants will show preference in fixating upon certain interesting objects versus other, less stimulating objects. This occurs before they are able to verbally articulate why and have formed specific associations with those images. A good example of this is that infants show a preference for looking at faces that are visually coherent, versus faces which are scrambled. Infants in a series of studies conducted by obert Fantz, as noted in the video "Visual acuity testing (part 1): History of preferential looking and early testing" shifted preference from non-human objects such as a bull's eye image versus stripes and vice versa, preference for intact faces remained consistent.

Fantz also found that when confronted with images of patterns, even ones without faces, infants will tend to prefer visually interesting or varied patterns, versus spaces absent…

References

McLeod, S. A. (2015). Sensorimotor stage. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from:

www.simplypsychology.org/sensorimotor.html

Visual acuity testing (part 1): History of preferential looking and early testing. (2014).

Perkins School for the Blind. Retrieved from:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oMUlti4QarQ

The Role of Art in the Development of Children
Words: 4304 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60696362
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Psychology and Teaching- The Importance of Art

How Childhood Events develop a lifetime in Art

One of the crucial times in an individual's life is early childhood. Early childhood acts as the basis for all later undertakings in one's life. It is not only the kids who suffer in case we, as a community, fall short in meeting their needs. We, the community, also suffer as a result. It is essential to note that their achievements are also our achievements. According to a recent report, the cost of every high school dropout is approximately at $292,000 (Sum, Khatiwada, McLaughlin, & Palma, 2009). Dropping out from high school is not a singular incident, but also a conclusion of several factors, commencing in early childhood. Encouraging parents and kids in the childhood years would possess some influence into elementary school, high school, early years of adulthood, and far beyond. The executives of…

References

Adolf Hitler: Biography and Character. (2015, September 20). Retrieved from www.suu.edu/faculty/ping/pdf/hitlerbiography.pdf

Brown, J. (2008). Educating the whole child Curriculum Development. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and.

Clark, E. (2012). A Psychological Analysis of Adolf Hitler. Washington DC: University of Mary.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York, NY: Harper & Row.

Psychological Development of Preterm Babies
Words: 1585 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 96503144
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Prematurely Born BabiesAccording to the orld Health Organization, approximately 15 million babies are born prematurely across the globe each year (par, 1). Premature babies are those born before 37 complete weeks of gestation. They are classified into three categories i.e. extremely preterm, very preterm, and moderate to late preterm (orld Health Organization par, 1). Extremely preterm babies are those born less than 28 weeks whereas very preterm are those born between 28 and 32 weeks and moderate to late preterm are born between 32 and 37 weeks (Gatta, p.1). As the number of prematurely born babies continues to increase across the globe, the survival of these babies is a major issue for public health professionals and mothers. The survival of prematurely born babies requires examining its contributing factors and developing measures to promote their health and wellbeing. This paper examines the similarities between prematurely born babies and how they affect…

Works CitedDance, Amber. Survival of the Littlest: The Long-Term Impacts of Being Born Extremely Early. Nature News, Nature Publishing Group, 2 June 2020,  https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-01517-z . Gatta, Michela, et al. A Psychological Perspective on Preterm Children: The Influence of Contextual Factors on Quality of Family Interactions. BioMed Research International, vol. 2017, 12 Oct. 2017, pp. 110.,  https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9152627 . Ionio, Chiara, et al. Mothers and Fathers in Nicu: The Impact of Preterm Birth on Parental Distress. Europes Journal of Psychology, vol. 12, no. 4, 18 Nov. 2016, pp. 604621.,  https://doi.org/10.5964/ejop.v12i4.1093 . Luu, Jenny, et al. A Comparison of Children Born Preterm and Full-Term on the Autism Spectrum in a Prospective Community Sample. Frontiers in Neurology, vol. 11, 3 Dec. 2020, pp. 112.,  https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.597505 . Peacock, Janet L., et al. Neonatal and Infant Outcome in Boys and Girls Born Very Prematurely. Pediatric Research, vol. 71, no. 3, 18 Jan. 2012, pp. 305310.,  https://doi.org/10.1038/pr.2011.50 . World Health Organization. Preterm Birth. World Health Organization, World Health Organization, 19 Feb. 2018,  https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/preterm-birth .

Brain Structures Systems Are Affected in
Words: 2651 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31587043
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Alternatively, degeneration of the ascending cholinergic and catechola- minergic neuronal systems may contribute, at least in part, to the occurrence of this frontal-lobe-like symptomatology associated with Parkinson's disease. (Dubois & Pillon, 1996, pp.2-8)

The development of a greater understanding, over time of the causal factors as well as the manifestations and possible interventions for cognitive function in Parkinson's disease has continued since this time. Greater functional understanding of neurotransmitters and receptors as well as brain function in general have also significantly aided in the treatment Parkinson's Disease. esearch has even led to the conclusion that standards dopamine (pharmacological) treatments while they improve some cognitive function (switching between two tasks "thought to depend on circuitry connecting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal cortex to the dorsal caudate nucleus) might impair others that are usually spared by PD (probabilistic reversal learning, which; "implicates orbitofrontal cortex -- ventral striatal circuitry." involvement)…

References

Aarsland, D. Laake, K. Larsen, J.P. & Janvin, C. (2002) Donepezil for cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease: a randomised controlled study. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry. 72 (6), 708-712.

Cools, R. Barker, R.A. Sahakian, B.J. & Robbins, T.W. (December 2001) Enhanced or Impaired Cognitive Function in Parkinson's Disease as a Function of Dopaminergic Medication and Task Demands. Cerebral Cortex, 11 (12), 1136-1143.

Drapier, D. Peron, J. Leray, E. Sauleau, P. Biseul, I. Drapier, S. Le Jeune, F. Travers, D. Bourguignon, a. Haegelen, C. Millet, B. & Verin, M. (September 2008) Emotion recognition impairment and apathy after subthalamic nucleus stimulation in Parkinson's disease have separate neural substrates. Neuropsychologia 46 (11), 2796-2801.

Dubois, B. Pillon, B. (November 1996) Cognitive deficits in Parkinson's Disease. Journal of Nuerology. 244 (1), 2-8.

Development Thru Early Middle or Late Adulthood
Words: 1809 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 33383822
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Young adults are on the threshold between youthful behaviors and the adult world. Humans in their late teens begin to accept responsibilities for their own lives and learn to depend upon themselves financially, socially, and psychologically. This is also the time when they make life choices which will ultimately shape their futures and the people they eventually become. Renowned theorist Daniel Levinson defines adult development in the age between 17 and 33 as the novice phase, because this is the point where the young person takes on new responsibilities in the same way as an amateur or novice in a specific occupational field. According to theorist Erik Erikson:

In this stage, the most important events are love relationships. Intimacy refers to one's ability to relate to another human being on a deep, personal level. An individual who has not developed a sense of identity usually will fear a committed relationship…

Works Cited

Advocates for Youth. (2008). Growth and development, ages 18 and over -- what parents need to know. Retrieved from  http://www.advocatesforyouth.org/parents/157?task=view 

Beaty, L. (2002). Developmental counseling: the young adult period. Critical Issues in Young

Adult Development.

Beck, M. (2012). Delayed development: 20-somethings blame the brain. The Wall Street

Brain Mechanisms in Early Language
Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 60581008
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Thus, lessons can utilize elements learned from understand how the brain naturally learns a language to augment the student's ability to progress more efficiently in learning a second language later on in life. Lessons would produce the environment which calls on the same type of brain functions that were so crucial in language acquisition in early childhood. Thus, teaching can become an extension of pre-existing strategies the students have already used earlier on in their lives without even knowing it. This means lesson plans built on a structure that highlights the importance of language at the phonic level, as this is what the author asserts as the primary vehicle for language acquisition in young children.

Lightbrown & Spada (2006) also provide evidence which would back up Kuhl's claims in the text How Languages Are Learned. In their discussion of early language acquisition, Lightbrown & Spada (2006) explain how the child's…

References

Kuhl, Patricia K. (2010). Brain mechanisms in early language acquisition. Neuron, 67(5), 713-727. Doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.08.038

Lightbrown, Patsy M. & Spada, Nina. (2006). How Languages are Learned. Oxford University Press.

Development of Children Under 7
Words: 653 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 37421488
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Developmental Evidence for Contemporary Law

Criminal behavior is unfortunate at any age. Yet, when the one committing the crime is a child, society tends to not know how to digest the actual acts as they unfold. Children are supposed to be so innocent, yet they can be capable of heinous acts. Much of this is learned through exposure to such acts, making the act itself reflexive in that the child weighed its potential success. However, it is clear that the undeveloped cognitive abilities of a child, especially at the age of six, makes that child void of responsibility of criminal acts because they lack the proper fully developed cognitive structures to understand the very real consequences for their actions.

It is true; children are a lot smarter than we often think they are. They are true sponges, in that they absorb what they see and then reenact that behavior to…

References

Berger, Kathleen. The Developing Person through the Life Span. 8th ed.

Development in the Life of a 4 Year Old Boy
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Old Boy at a Children's Museum Play Area

Soren is a 4-year-old boy. He has light blonde hair that is cut short on the sides and is longer on the top. He is a generally smiley child. He likes to interact with his surroundings and likes to run and hop, crouch and spring into action with a cry of delight as though he were taking great amusement in catching the world by surprise.

He is viewed at a play area in a children's museum. The observation begins just before noon and continues until a quarter past 1 pm.

The play area is very crowded and full of children around his own age, with parents standing nearby watching their children. Most of the children are playing on their own, looking at the environment around them, engaging with the activities (puzzles, blocks, interactive equipment, play sets, scooters, and jungle gym equipment). Soren's…

Brain Modeling
Words: 554 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 58637042
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Neurological Models of Behavior

Understanding the roots of human behavior is a complicated process. Attempting to explore this concept from a neurological perspective is even more complicated, as it requires some sense of an ongoing pattern to describe the neurological process of learning certain behavior traits. Kozma et al. attempted to generate a mathematical model within a controlled environment.

According to Kozma et al., the human psyche is composed of complex combinations, known as vectors, which represent particular values at any one moment in question. Each neuron has a designated condition that ultimately impacts the conditions of surrounding neurons, thus allowing for a mathematical modeling of human behavior given the combinations of values that exert their influence on numerological components of the brain (Sayama et al., 2013). This model is within a controlled environment, where learning inputs invoke a response but do not need full neurological supervision to conduct learning…

References

Kelso, J.A. Scott, Dumass, Guillaume, & Tongoli, E. (2013). Outline of a general theory of behavior and brain coordination. Neural Network, 37(1), 120-131.

Sayama, Hiroki, Pestov, Irene, & Gross, Thilo. (2013). Computers and mathematics with applications. Science Direct, 65(10), 1645-1664.

Development of Canine Behavior Genetics vs Environment
Words: 4662 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91836586
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Canine Behavior: Genetics vs. Environment

The debate over nature vs. nurture as it applies to learning dates back over a hundred years. Certainly, during much of the 20th century, the distinction between learned and inherited behavior appeared much clearer than it does today. The concept that any type of behavior was either learned or merely developed without learning seemed a rationale and straightforward belief. esearch based on these expectations caused some scientists to conclude that rat-killing behavior among cats, for example, is a learned behavior rather than an instinctive one, that human fears are all acquired, or that intelligence is completely the result of experience. Learning theorists were arguing at this point that most behavior is learned and that biological factors are of little or no importance. The behaviorist position that human behavior could be explained entirely in terms of reflexes, stimulus-response associations, and the effects of reinforcers upon them…

References

Ader, R., Baum, A., & Weiner, H. (1988). Experimental foundations of behavioral medicines: Conditioning approaches. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Black, A.H., Solomon, R.L., & Whiting, J.W.M. (1954, April). Resistance to temptation as a function of antecedent dependency relationships in puppies. Paper presented at the Eastern Psychological Association meeting, New York. In American Psychologist, 9, 579.

Brush, F.R., Overmier, J.B., & Solomon, R.L. (1985). Affect, conditioning, and cognition: Essays on the determinants of behavior. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Dogs and People: The History and Psychology of a Relationship. (1996). Journal of Business Administration and Policy Analysis, 24-26, 54.

Developments in Optical Microscopy and Its Application
Words: 2972 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14806533
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Evolution, Principle and Application of the Optical Microscope

The application of optical microscopy has grown tremendously over the last few decades, this has been so in various disciplines where micron and submicron level investigations are applicable. The spreading out of fluorescence microscopy in research and laboratory applications has been fast-tracked by the instantaneous development of new fluorescent labels. Microscopists have also been able to get quantitative measurements faster and efficiently due to the developments in digital imaging and analysis. It is also possible to obtain very thin optical sections when optical microscopy is enhanced using digital video, the application of confocal optical systems is as well becoming common in a number of major research institutions. Before the nineteenth century, microscopists faced various shortcomings including, optical aberration, blurred images, and poor lens design (Davidson and Abramowitz, 2009). However, in the mid-nineteenth century there was partial correction to aberration through the use…

References

Bradbury, S, 1967.The Evolution of the Microscope. New York: Pergamon Press.

Davidson, M.W., & Abramowitz, M. 2009. Optical Microscopy. Olympus America, Inc., 2

Corporate Center Dr., Melville, New York

Herman, B. And Lemasters J.J. (eds.), 1993. Optical Microscopy: Emerging Methods and Applications. Academic Press, New York, 1993.

Psychology Development Early Childhood Medelein N Moody
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Psychology Development

Early Childhood

Medelein N. Moody, (2013). A Relational Aggression Intervention in Early Childhood. University of Nebraska. ProQuest LLC.

The paper was aimed at interrogating the relational aggression in early childhood and if there are interventions within the school setting that can act to reduce the aggression. This intervention is referred to as the Early Childhood Friendship Project and entailed taking stock of the changes in the behavior of the children as they undergo the study and the project. The preliminaries within the article indicates that there is usually a significant differences between the relational aggression between the boys and girls in school with the later recording a higher rate of aggression.

The study was conducted through a survey method and formal testing as the children went through the project and the teachers concerned recorded the results and any noticeable changes over time.

The results that were observed showed…

Sebastian H. Scharf, (2013). Chronic social stress during adolescence: Interplay of paroxetine treatment and ageing. Neuropharmacology 72 (2013) 38e46

The research is centered on the effect of exposure to chronic stress during development especialy at the adolescent and the possibility of developing psychiatric disorders. This was motivated by the fact that little is known about the long lasting effects of the exposures to stress and their relation to age.

The study was focused on the direct and long-lasting impact of chronic social stress during adolescence as well as the chronic treatment of SSRI. Adult and aged animals were used since the experiment could potentially harm human subjects. There was use of CD1 mice at the age of 28 days and these were subjected to a chronic social stress for 7 weeks among other treatments with chemicals. It was observed that the chronic stress as well as the antidepressant treatment at the end of the development period could have a significant and long-lasting impact which is very relevant to healthy ageing.

How the Brain Learns to Read
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Brain Learns to ead

The human brain is an incredibly complex structure. It learns common actions and skills in an intensely intriguing manner that we often take for granted. Take for example the case of reading, an incredibly complicated process which is learned over time through repeated exposure and emulation that builds and strengthens knowledge about language in print.

The process of learning to read is incredibly complex yet is incredibly interesting. Interestingly, many fundamental skills involved with early reading learning are done before the child even beings on his or her journey. For example, phonetic learning helps establish a strong foundation for future reading capabilities. It is important that young readers focus on learning and recognizing phonemes that are at the base of the words they are seeing. Here, the research states that "Learning to read starts with the awareness that speech is composed of individual sounds," (Sousa 2005…

References

Sohn Design Studio. (2011). Give young readers books that sing and rhyme: Build confidence, motivation and reading stamina! Nellie Edge. Web.  http://www.nellieedge.com/articles_resources/Resources_singRhyme.htm 

Sousa, David A. (2005). How the Brain Learns to Read. Corwin Press.

Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury and Disease
Words: 3403 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5754060
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Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury and Disease

The care of patients with brain injury and diseases has improved substantially over the last thirty years. Nonetheless, the acute cognitive effects caused by brain injury are still a problem for the survivors. Such impairments are substantial contributors to functional disability after brain injury and reduce quality of life for affected persons and their families (Schultza, Cifub, McNameea, Nicholsb; Carneb, 2011). Accordingly, it is important for clinicians providing care to persons with brain injury to be familiar with the cognitive squeal of such injuries, their neuropathophysiologic bases, the treatment options that may alleviate such problems, and their effects on functional ability and quality of life.

Literature eview: Cognitive Effects

The anatomy, pathophysiology, and cognitive sequel of brain injury and diseases vary as a function of cause of brain injury. Accordingly, identification of the specific cause of injury and other relevant factors (e.g., age,…

References

Aaro, Jonsson C., Smedler, AC., Leis, Ljungmark M., & Emanuelson, I (2009). Long-term cognitive outcome after neurosurgically treated childhood traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury: ISSN: 1362-301X, Vol. 23 (13-14), pp. 1008-16. doi:10.3109/02699050903379354

Cozzarelli, Tara A. (2010). Evaluation and Treatment of Persistent Cognitive Dysfunction Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. LCDR USPHS. Journal of Special Operations Medicine. Volume 10, Edition 1.pg 39-42. Retrieved from:  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed 

Howard, RS., Holmes, PA & Koutroumanidis, MA. (2011). Hypoxic-ischaemic brain injury. Practical Neurology [Pract Neurol], ISSN: 1474-7766, Vol. 11 (1), pp. 4-18; PMID: 21239649. doi:10.1136/jnnp.2010.235218

Kinnunen, Kirsi Maria., Greenwood, Richard., Powell, Jane Hilary., Leech, Robert., Hawkins, Peter Charlie., Bonnelle, Valerie., Patel, Maneesh Chandrakan., Counsell, Serena Jane., and Sharp, David James (2011). White matter damage and cognitive impairment after traumatic brain injury. Brain A Journal Of Neurology. 134; 449 -- 463. doi:10.1093/brain/awq347

Social Media and Its Effects on the Developing Brain
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Social Network and Its Effects on the Developing Brain

The enhancing quantity of time kids are investing on computer systems in their home and institution has actually raised concerns about how using computer innovation might make a distinction in their lives-- from assisting with research to triggering depression to motivating terrible habits. This short article offers a review of the restricted study on the impacts of personal computer use on kids' physical development. Preliminary study recommends, for instance, that access to computer systems enhances the overall quantity of time kids invest in front of a TV or computer screen at the expenditure of other individual tasks, therefore putting them at danger for excessive weight. At the exact same time, intellectual study recommends that playing video game can be an essential foundation to computer proficiency due to the fact that it boosts kids' capability to check out and picture images in…

References

Deadwyler, S.A. (2008) 'Systemic and nasal delivery of Orexin -- A (Hypocretin-1) reduces the effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance in nonhuman primates', Journal of Neuroscience, 27 (52): 14239 -- 47.

Linn, S. And Poussaint, A.F. (1999). The Trouble With Teletubbies. The American prospect. May 1, 1999. June.

Sigman, A. (2007a) Remotely Controlled: How Television Is Damaging Our Lives, Vermilion, London

Sigman, A. (2007b) 'Visual voodoo: the biological impact of watching television', The Biologist, 54 (1): 14 -- 19

Music on Brain and Emotions the Effect
Words: 1346 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 5252637
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Music on Brain and Emotions

The Effect of Music on the Brain and Emotions

The study of human's mental state on subjection to music has been a research subject to many with interest. Over the past decade, interconnection between human's physical and mental strength and music has been subject to research with a number of positive outcomes. These research endeavors suggest that music exhibits the healing power in certain elements, in a human's life. A sample of music with the best or strongest healing power is the Indian music. What music does is that it injects a calming effect into a human's mind. This speeds recovery-time of certain health ailments. Music positively effects the human's hormone system allowing easy brain concentration and information assimilation (Adalarasu, K.K. et al., 2011). This means that music boosts the learning process thereby augmenting cognitive skills. This paper outlines a brief overview of the various…

References

Adalarasu, K.K., Jagannath, M.M., Naidu Keerthiga Ramesh, S.S., & Geethanjali, B.B. (2011). A Review on Influence of Music on Brain Activity Using Signal Processing and Imaging System. International Journal of Engineering Science & Technology, 3(4), 3276-3282.

Figueiredo P, Pereira CS, Castro SL, Teixeira J, Figueiredo P, Xavier J, et al. (2011). Music and Emotions in the Brain: Familiarity Matters. PLoS ONE 6(11): e27241. Doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0027241]

Koelsch, S. (2009). A Neuroscientific Perspective on Music Therapy. Annals Of The New York Academy Of Sciences, 1169374-384. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2009.04592.x

Wiring of the Teenage Brain The Teenage
Words: 555 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2130661
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wiring of the teenage brain?

The teenage brain undergoes major restructuring during the formative teen years. The frontal cortex goes through a growth spurt right before puberty. This leads to a thickening of the area brain responsible for thinking. Typically the human brain is already ninety-five percent the size of an adult's by age six. However, during the teenage years the growth spurt results in new neural interconnections and pathways.

It is hypothesized that skills that are in constant use during the teenage are reinforced by the brain. While those skills or areas of the brain that are not in use, do not get the same reinforcement. This is known as the "use it or lose it" principal. For example, those students who engage in high levels of music and art see those neural pathways reinforced, therefore poised to flourish in the latter years, while other skill sets and pathways…

Fine Motor Skill Development in Children Fine
Words: 1769 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 93982067
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Fine Motor Skill Development in Children

Fine motor skills are important for a variety of activities such as writing and feeding, so its important they develop properly in young kids. This paper talks about the importance of fine motor skills and how it can be improved with proper intervention and the right activities.

Fine motor skills and their importance

Fine motor skills are the skills that involve the use of small muscles in the hands such as fingers. The biggest challenge in fine motor skills is the coordination of the hand with the eyes and brain and it is more complicated than what many people imagine. It develops at a young age, typically before five or six and it plays an important role in the way our hands function during adolescence and adulthood.

The development of fine motor skills is vital in young children because it is these skills that…

References

Smith, Jodene. (2003). Activities for Fine Motor Skills Development Grd PreK-1. Westminster, CA: Teacher Created Resources.

No author. (2011). Fine motor control. Medline Plus. Retrieved from:  http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002364.htm 

Curtis, Kathleen; Newman, Peggy. (2005). The PTA Handbook: Keys to Success in School and Career for the Physical Therapist Assistant. New Jersey: Slack Incorporated.

Charlesworth, Rosalind. (2010). Understanding Child Development. Mason, OH: South-western Cengage Learning.

Family-Centered Approach in Child Development Family Centered
Words: 2739 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59304760
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Family-Centered Approach in Child Development

Family centered

Child Development: Importance of Family Involvement

Family plays a vital role in the upbringing of a child. A child has not developed his/her senses at the time of his birth. Senses are present from the time of the birth and give the child enough potential to step out in the practical world. Apart from five basic senses i.e. taste, smell, touch, sight and sound, there are countless of other senses that are fed by the family. Ideally a person must be able to utilize every resource he has in him but this does not happen. Einstein being the world's genius person utilized his potential up to 11% approximately which means 89%of his brain was left unexplored. Similarly a lot of other people can do better if their family helps them to explore their personalities while growing up. This research will investigate a family's…

References

Britto, P.R. & Brooks-Gunn, J. (Eds.). (2001). The Role of Family Literacy Environments in Promoting Young Children's Emerging Literacy Skills. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Davies, D. (2010). Child Development. NY: Guilford.

Hojat, M., Gonnella, J.S., Nasca, T.J., Mangione, S., Vergare, M., & Magee, M. (2002). Physician empathy: Definition, components, measurement, and relationship to gender and specialty. American Journal of Psychiatry.

Meggitt, C. (2006). Child Development: An Illustrated Guide. UK: Hienemann.

Stutter During Childhood Human Development
Words: 1530 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 15089311
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While the primary cause of stuttering may be related to physiological disposition of the brain (the way it handles language skills and speech patterns), environmental factors may affect the physical condition or may even play a decisive role in triggering its activation. Psychoanalytical therapies may also help stuttering children "re-teach" the behavior of brain -- in other words, adapt to its different functioning -- and help overcome it before reaching adulthood.

eferences

Buchel, C., & Sommer, M. (2004) What causes stuttering? PLoS Biology, 2(2): 159-163. etrieved 5 March 2012 from http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0020046

Duckworth, D. (n.d.) Causes and treatment of stuttering in young children. SuperDuper Handy Handouts, 65. etrieved 5 March 2012, from http://www.superduperinc.com/handouts/pdf/65_Cause_and_Treatment_of%20Stuttering.pdf

Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, . (2008). Late childhood stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing esearch, 51(3), 669-687.

Klaniczay, S. (2000). On childhood stuttering and the theory of clinging. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 26(1), 97-115. doi:10.1080/007541700362186…

References

Buchel, C., & Sommer, M. (2004) What causes stuttering? PLoS Biology, 2(2): 159-163. Retrieved 5 March 2012 from  http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pbio.0020046 

Duckworth, D. (n.d.) Causes and treatment of stuttering in young children. SuperDuper Handy Handouts, 65. Retrieved 5 March 2012, from  http://www.superduperinc.com/handouts/pdf/65_Cause_and_Treatment_of%20Stuttering.pdf 

Howell, P., Davis, S., & Williams, R. (2008). Late childhood stuttering. Journal of Speech, Language & Hearing Research, 51(3), 669-687.

Klaniczay, S. (2000). On childhood stuttering and the theory of clinging. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 26(1), 97-115. doi:10.1080/007541700362186

Child Poverty and Its Effects on Education and Development
Words: 1864 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23179533
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Child Poverty and Its Effects on Education and Development

Beyond problems of financial inequality that occur when countless young children reside in poor as well as persistently inadequate households, poor children can easily perpetuate the never-ending cycle when they achieve adulthood. Prior study implies that children who're born poor as well as are constantly poor are considerably much more most likely to remain poor as grownups, quit school, give teenage premarital births, and also have spotty employment details than all those not very poor at birth (atcliffe and McKernan 2010). This previous research focused on the earliest cohort of youngsters reviewed here-children born in between 1967 and 1974 as well as who turned Thirty amid 1997 and 2004. An important query is whether or not this link has endured with time. Even though information aren't accessible to see outcomes via age 30 for children born within the subsequent two cohort…

References

Duncan, Greg, W. Jean Yeung, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Judith Smith. 1998. "How Much Does Childhood Poverty Affect the Life Chances of Children?" American Sociological Review 63(3): 406 -- 23.

Ratcliffe, Caroline, and Signe-Mary McKernan. 2010. "Childhood Poverty Persistence: Facts and Consequences." Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Ratcliffe, Caroline, and Signe-Mary McKernan. 2012. "Child Poverty and Its Lasting Consequence." Washington, DC: Urban Institute

Vericker, Tracy, Jennifer Macomber, and Olivia Golden. 2010. "Infants of Depressed Mothers Living in Poverty: Opportunities to Identify and Serve." Washington, DC: Urban Institute.

Children's Development Early Childhood Language
Words: 1286 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 89179616
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esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…

References

Cooper, Janice L. (2009). Social-emotional development in early childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at  http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_882.html 

This publication explores the factors which influence a child's social development within the preschool years. It gives clear research findings regarding parental and caregiver influences along with social and neighborhood ones as well. It also outlines the potential hazards and issues of a child who develops within a problem area.

Lopes, Marilyn. (1995). Selecting books for children. National Network for Childcare. University of Massachusetts. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nncc.org/Literacy/select.books.html

This site is a recommendation-based site which takes proven strategies and concepts developed by child psychologists at the University of Massachusetts. As part of the national network for child care, it aims to help parents make appropriate decisions for their children regarding books based on that child's age.

Younger Brother's Development Since He Was Born
Words: 1550 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22242402
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younger brother's development since he was born in 1985, I would not have been able to until the beginning of this century. Until the early 1900s, no one was studying the changes that occurred in individuals from childhood to adulthood.

Now psychologists and other social scientists recognize that children go through similar behavioral, intellectual and mental, and physical steps while growing up. By using these theoretical steps as a guide, I can keep track of the development of my brother and any other child. It should always be remembered, however, that the time frames presented are averages and some children may achieve various developmental milestones earlier or later than the average but still be within the normal range. This information is presented to help interested parties understand what to expect from a child.

The idea that specific development stages exist for adults as well as children began with the initial…

References

Healy, Jane. Your child's growing mind. Galena, IL: Main Street Books, 1994.

Murray, Thomas. Human development theories. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999.

Singer, Dorothy. A Piaget primer: How a child thinks. New York: Plume, 1996.

Understanding Human Development From a Piagetian Perspective
Words: 2528 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52130111
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Health -- Nursing

Piaget Theoretical Perspective On Human Development

Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development

Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development

The theory of cognitive development by Piaget presents a comprehensive approach in evaluating human intelligence development and nature in developmental psychology. Piaget shares that children play active roles in growing of intelligence through learning by doing and by examples. The intellectual development theory involves a focus on believing, reasoning, perceiving and remembering the natural environment. The primary term for this is developmental stage theory dealing with knowledge and how humans gradually acquire, use, and construct nature. Piaget adds that the cognitive development provides progressive mental reorganization for thinking processes resulting from environmental experience and biological maturation. Children construct an appreciation of the real world through experience discrepancies between their knowledge and their discoveries within the environment. According to Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman (2009), the theory insists that the cognitive development…

References

Ashford, J., LeCroy, C. (2009). Human Behavior in the Social Environment: A Multidimensional Perspective. New York: Cengage Learning

Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2012). Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning

Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2013). Essentials of Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning

Newman, B.M., Newman, P.R. (2010). Theories of Human Development. New York: Psychology Press

Psychology -- the Development of
Words: 616 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37385660
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Among other choices, those related to eating, drinking alcohol, sexuality, and peer group selection are some of the most important. In some respects, those decisions have a lot to do with the way that adolescent brains perceive, process, and react to external circumstances and experiences. The development of eating disorders is one example (Leon, Fulkerson, Perry, & Cudeck, 1993). Specifically, there is empirical cross-sectional data illustrating that specific teenage perception and interpretations of self-image (especially body-image) correspond to eating disorders. That valuable information provides a good strategy for identifying teens at greatest risk of developing eating disorders without knowing anything about their actual eating habits (Leon, Fulkerson, Perry, & Cudeck, 1993).

Adolescents value their peer group associations more than the approval of society more generally. They are also much less receptive to absolutes such as firm "all-or-none" rules prohibiting them from drinking any alcohol or requiring absolute sexual abstinence. Generally,…

Reference

Gloria R. Leon, Jayne a. Fulkerson, Cheryl L. Perry, and Robert Cudeck. "Personality

and Behavioral Vulnerabilities Associated With Risk Status for Eating Disorders in Adolescent Girls." Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Volume 102, Issue 3; (1993): 438-444.

Personalizing Punishment-Based on Brain Psychology
Words: 1884 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2325030
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Psychopathology Criminal Behavior Part

What might be some of the implications for the forensic field of the differences between the "low-fear hypothesis" and the "high-impulsive" subtypes of psychopathy? In other words, how might the differences in the models help inform us about best practices for such activities as police work on the streets, interrogation methods, trial and sentencing practices, providing treatment, or evaluating recidivism risks?

In retrospect, theorists view Lykken's conceptual framework as a first step toward distinguishing between primary and secondary psychopathy (Baskins-Sommers, 2010). As theory building continues in this decade, the typology is supported by the notion of trait-like sensitivities and trait-like cognitive capacities that suggest the following implications for criminal justice procedures. Primary psychopathy is characterized by disinhibition, which is an inability to abort a dominant response, integrate socialization, or adopt alternative objectives. An individual who is considered to have primary psychopathy will fail to consider emotional…

References

Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Wallace, J.F., MacCoon, D.G., Curtin, J.J., and Newman, J.P. (2010, October 1). Clarifying the Factors that Undermine Behavioral Inhibition System Functioning in Psychopathy. Personal Disorders, 1(4), 203 -- 217. doi: 10.1037/a0018950. PMCID: PMC2992384. NIHMSID: NIHMS211679. Retrieved  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2992384/#!po=74.5614 

Baskin-Sommers, A.R., Curtin, J.J. And Newman, J.P. (2013, May). Emotion-modulated startle in psychopathy: clarifying familiar effects. Journal of Abnormal Pychology, 122(2), 458-468. 10.1037/a0030958. Epub 2013 Jan 28. Retrieved  

Human Development
Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28903202
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inpoche

In The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, Sogyal inpoche (2002) distills the essence of Tibetan Buddhist teachings into a format digestible for a modern Western audience. The central premise of The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying is that death can be a "teaching for us all," (inpoche, 2002, p. 3). The title of inpoche's book refers to the Tibetan Book of the Dead, which describes the bardo, of transition between this life and the next. Through a concerted practice of meditation and spiritual discipline cultivated in the person's current lifetime, a practitioner can remain conscious through the bardo and therefore die as a self-empowered and spiritually aware being. The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying is divided into three main parts: sections on living, dying, and on death and rebirth. There is also a conclusion and appendixes. inpoche opens his Tibetan Book of Living and Dying with…

References

Kubler-Ross, E. (1969). On Death and Dying. New York: Scribner.

Rinpoche, S. (2002). The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying. New York: Rigpa/Harper-Collins.

Human Development
Words: 823 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48680821
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Diamond

Marian Diamond addressed the nature vs. nurture issue so long debated by researchers and scientists by actually observing the effects of living in different environments on young rats. The beginnings of her research with Donald Head occurred in the 1960's, a time when the brain was not viewed as plastic. When presenting the results of their early research demonstrating a small but significant thicker cerebral cortex in rats raised in enriched environments vs. rats raised in impoverished environments she was actually told, "Young lady, that brain cannot change" (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 8). Nonetheless, Diamond believed the neurological basis that the environment provided for brain enrichment is the spreading of dendritic spines in the neuron as a result of environmental stimulation (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 25). In fact, research from her lab along with other researchers found that even honey bees' brains responded to environmental stimulation. Based on the…

References

Diamond, M.C., and Hopson, J., 1998: Magic Trees of the Mind: How to Nurture Your Child's

Intelligence, Creativity, and Healthy Emotions from Birth Through Adolescence, Dutton,

New York.

TBI and PTSD
Words: 2919 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 87152391
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Anthropologist working with the VA

Definitions / Interests / Key Problems and Issues

Previous Work Performed by Anthropologists in this Area

The Employment Situation, Current Salaries and Opportunities for Advancement

ibliography of the most important books, chapters and articles

Relevant professional organizations, ethics statements and newsletters

Names / locations of PAs and others working in the content area locally and elsewhere.

Relevant Laws and Regulations

Relevant international / domestic organizations, private and public

Other helpful information you think about on your own

The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan had a dramatic impact on the way someone sees themselves and the world around them. This is because many veterans have been forced to serve multiple tours and are still dealing with the lasting experiences from them. Two of primary injuries most are suffering from are post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and traumatic brain injury (TI). Anthropologists are seeking to understand the…

Bibliography of the most important books, chapters and articles.

2014. Summary. BLS. Electronic document,  http://www.bls.gov/ooh/life-physical-and-social-science/anthropologists-and-archeologists.htm . accessed April 3, 2012

Driscoll Patricia

2010. Hidden Battles on Unseen Fronts. Drexel Hill: Casemate.

Elliot Marta

Astrocytic Tumors Brain Tumor Is
Words: 2607 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78488625
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Using MRS chemical composition of the tumor and the metabolite intensities can also be ascertained along with the morphological characterisitcs. Thus MRI provides better information which is useful in grading the tumor. For grade 4 astrocytoma's spectroscopic studies reveal high Cho, high lipid, high lactate and low NAA values. However, the MRI testing is time consuming (40 to 90 minutes) and is problematic for claustrophobic patients. [eMedicine] iopsy of the affected brain tissue will also help in determining the nature of the abnormal tissue growth.

Treatment

Treatment for astrocytoma includes, surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and gluco corticoid medication. Treatment improves the survival rates for patients and the type of treatment depends on the growth and location of the tumor. First grade tumors such as Pilocytic Astrocytomas are easily treated by resection. In most cases removal of the affected part would be sufficient. However, if the location of the tumor makes surgery…

Bibliography

Capodano AM. Nervous system: Astrocytic tumors. Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol. November 2000. Available at,  http://AtlasGeneticsOncology.org/Tumors/AstrocytID5007.html 

BTS, "Brain Tumor Facts & Statistics," Accessed Nov 18th 2007, available at  http://www.tbts.org/itemDetail.asp?categoryID=384&itemID=16535 

Karen T. Barker and Richard S. Houlston, "Overgrowth syndromes: Is dysfunctional P. 13 Kinase signalling a Unifying mechanism," European Journal of Human Genetics (2003) 11, 665-670. Available online at,  http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v11/n9/full/5201026a.html 

Medscape, " a Review of Astrocytoma Models: Molecular pathologies of Astrocytoma," Neurosurgical Focus 8(4), 2000 eMedicine, "Astrocytoma, Brain," Accessed on Noiv 18th 2007, available at  http://www.emedicine.com/radio/topic60.htm

How Anger Affects the Brain and Body
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Anger and Its Effects

Anger is a very intense feeling, and can be characterized by a number of behaviors. These include grinding teeth, an increased heart rate, rising blood pressure, clenched fists, and other signs of aggravation or frustration (Hendricks, et al., 2013). Each person reacts to anger in a different way, and some of the manifestations of anger may not be outwardly apparent. ises in blood pressure and heart rate, for example, are not easily noticed by others, but they can still be very damaging to the person who is struggling with the anger itself (Hendricks, et al., 2013). People also get angry for a number of different reasons, and they may react in an angry manner when they feel hurt, threatened, frustrated, or disappointed (Hendricks, et al., 2013). This is a relatively natural reaction for the majority of people, but that does not mean it is healthy or…

References

Hendricks, L., Bore, S., Aslinia, D., & Morriss, G. (2013). The effects of anger on the brain and body. National Forum Journal of Counseling and Addiction, 2(1): 2-11.

Psychology & Nbsp general Taumatic Brain
Words: 5753 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 54980300
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The accident occurred while the actress was taking a skiing lesson. She initial experienced no symptoms from her fall, but later complained of a headache and was taken to a local hospital. Reports indicate that her fall was not very spectacular and occurred at a low speed on a beginner run. She was not wearing a helmet at the time of the accident. (Quinn, 2009)

However, while it is true that sometimes there are no immediately obvious signs of a severe brain injury, at other times there are.

Severe Traumatic Brain njury

The symptoms of a severe traumatic brain injury (which can result in permanent neurological damage) include a number of cognitive problems including inability to concentrate, problems with memory, problems in focusing and paying attention, ability to process new information at a normal rate, a high level of confusion, and perseveration, which is the action of doing something over…

In describing the course of their patients, experienced clinicians who use HBOT to treat patients with brain injury, cerebral palsy, and stroke refer to improvements that may be ignored in standardized measures of motor and neuro-cognitive dysfunction. These measures do not seem to capture the impact of the changes that clinicians and parents perceive. Caregivers' perceptions should be given more weight in evaluating the significance of objective improvements in a patient's function. Unfortunately, studies have not consistently measured caregiver burden, or have assessed it only by self-report. Studies in which the caregivers' burden was directly observed would provide much stronger evidence than is currently available about treatment outcome. (AHRQ Publication Number 03-E049, 2003)

In other words, this somewhat alternative treatment produces results that are more meaningful to the injured person and his or her caregivers.

I have focused here primarily on the biochemical end of treatments for those with traumatic brain injury because it is this level of treatment that offers the long-term possibility of the greatest level of treatment. Such treatments as are described here have the chance to cure traumatic brain injury. But until these are perfected, every other kind of treatment and therapy -- from drug treatments to speech therapy to the love of friends -- will remain priceless.

left brain right brain worldview and doctoral programs
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Worldview Statement

A cornerstone concept of pop psychology, the left brain/right brain divide is "largely bogus," (Lombrozo, 2013). However, the metaphor of left brain/right brain does somewhat accurately allow us to classify people into those whose worldviews are governed by logic and reason versus those whose worldviews allow for a greater degree of impulse and emotionality. My personal worldview is thankfully somewhere between these two extremes. Too much left brain emphasis leads to rigidity and an inability to welcome new ideas, whereas too much right brain focus may lead to superstition and poor decisions.

The left brain/right brain metaphor demonstrates the need for fusing qualitative and quantitative research methods. Social scientists who discount the relevance or validity of qualitative methods can be considered left brained in their worldview. As important as quantitative analyses are, social science research does not always lend itself to quantification. Human beings are not robots. Human…

Business Research Methods Brain Business
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Furthermore, the research will eventually lead to the development of both an understanding and a means through which an individual can improve his or her business sense. Though some papers have been published on this topic, there has not been enough research in this respect.

Some preliminary questions will address;.

Is the brain programmed for business success in all individuals?

If one can remember most effectively images and associations, why do so many people use standard outlining techniques?

How can one use one's whole brain to make dreams come true?

How can on improve the brain in order to maximize one's abilities?

What are the ways to increase the power of our memory, focus and creativity?

With regards to research methods, mostly qualitative research methods will be employed during the research, such as the analysis of an interview, for instance, but the addition of quantitative methods will also be employed,…

References that may be utilized

Pillay S. (November 15, 2010) Your Brain and Business: The Neuroscience of Great Leaders

Buzan T., Think Buzan Inventors of Mind Mapping,  http://www.thinkbuzan.com/us/

Trace the Development of Bipolar Through All
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Trace the development of bipolar through all three structures of your memory, according to the Dual Store Model. At each stage, give the verbal or visual stimulus and the cognitive processing for transferring information between stages.

The Dual Store Model of memory, also known as the Multi-Store Model, was first proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin in 1968 and holds that memory formation and storage is comprised of a series of stores. These stores were termed Sensory Memory, Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Memory and were used to describe the flow of information through the brain's memory storage system. The totality of information we experience moment by moment, what we see, smell and hear, is instantaneously detected and forgotten, unless it the stimuli is paid further attention. When this happens, the information is transferred to the brain's short-term memory via the process of auditory encoding. The process of recall is…

Looking at the Great Brain Race
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Brain Race: An Examination

Globalization, evolution and technology. It's notable that when many professionals discuss these elements, they talk about them with fear and apprehension. On the other hand Ben Wildavsky presents the rapid evolution of mankind across the globe and the manner in which higher education is being transformed with celebration and open arms. Wildavsky looks particularly at the phenomenon of international students studying outside their homes, increasing each year. The elite universities that exist around the world aren't just those that exist in the western hemisphere, but in places like Saudi Arabia and Russia. With the rapid development of the internet, satellite campuses have become an even more growing trend, and that more and more opportunities are expanding to more people. Wildavsky demonstrates that the fervor created in the international arena characterized by the desire to get ahead and become more and more elite, creates a global marketplace…

Utero Development on the Health
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The program includes five components namely 'Family Support', 'Maternal Interview', 'Records review', 'case review' and 'Community action'. (FIMR, 2010)

The FIMR Process

FIMR Informed of Fetal/Infant Death

Family Support

Data Collection/Record Review

Maternal Interview

Records Review

Case Review

Community Action

Improved Maternal & Infant Health

(FIMR)

Conclusion

Fetal origins of health and disease has developed into a new medical frontier for researchers. The growing body of research evidence has affirmed positive associations between the gestational environment and the development of various physical and mental disorders in the infant, adolescent and the adult population. The new knowledge that even gestational diet composition has the ability to alter the human epigenome resulting in the expression of undesirable genes and the onset of obesity, diabetes, cancer and other chronic health conditions, is convincing scientific evidence for pregnant women to be careful and cautious in their diet choices. Results from the studies on maternal…

Bibliography

1) Annie Murphy Paul, (Nov 4-2010), "How the First Nine Months Shape the Rest of Your Life," TIME, retrieved Dec 3rd 2010, from,  http://www.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,2020815-1,00.html 

2) Barry E. Levin. (July 2006) " Metabolic Imprinting: Critical Impact of the perinatal environment on the regulation of energy homeostasis," Biol Sci. 29; 361(1471)

3) Irwing B. wiener & Richard M. Lerner et.al (2003), "Handbook of Psychology: Developmental Psychology," John Wiley & Sons

4) Kjersti M. Aagaard-Tillery, Kevin Grove, & Jacalyn Bishop et.al (Aug 2008), "Developmental Origins of Diseases and Determinants of chromatin Structure: Maternal diet modifies the Primate fetal epigenome," J. Mol Endocrinol 41 (20) 91 -- 102

Milestones in Physical Motor and Perceptual Development of Children
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Developmental milestones are important for comparison and to make sure that a child is growing at what is considered the normal pace. For this we will take a look at some important milestones from birth to 3 years. These developmental milestones are considered a rough account of how a child should develop. Some children will demonstrate all of these while others will master some skills and may lag behind in others. Generally physicians would not consider it a sign of developmental delay unless the child is markedly slow in some areas of development. General milestones from birth to 3 years are mentioned below and it must be noted that these milestones are important for professionals in related fields since they can assess a child's progress against these milestones and at the same time study the reasons behind developmental delays.

Birth to one year:

Motor Skills

During this critical period of…

References

All information comes from: Developmental milestones. Retrieved online from  http://www.med.umich.edu/yourchild/topics/devmile.htm

Preschoolers Drawing Development Artistic Development
Words: 1518 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 66484431
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To use personal and later, cultural schemas in their most fruitful ways, the crayon and the magic market cannot be abandoned in favor of clicking a mouse, nor can arts education be relegated to second-class status, especially young children. Art teaches students motor skills, about space and depth, about using the world around them in a creative fashion, and helps them see things anew, as well as sharpens their realistic observational skills.

orks Cited

Popular magazine:

Dewan, Shalia. (2007, September 17). Using Crayons to Exorcise Katrina.

The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved March 21, 2009 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/17/arts/design/17ther.html

Newspaper:

Geracimos, Ann. (2008, August 17). A box of possibilities: Children can learn a lot from colorful world of low-tech crayons. ashington Times, M.14. Retrieved March 21, 2009, from ProQuest Newsstand database. (Document ID: 1533647331).

ebsite:

Toku, Masami. (2002, Summer). Children's artistic and aesthetic development: The influence of pop-culture in children's drawings. Presented…

Works Cited

Popular magazine:

Dewan, Shalia. (2007, September 17). Using Crayons to Exorcise Katrina.

The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved March 21, 2009 at  http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/17/arts/design/17ther.html 

Newspaper: