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Early History and Discover
Current artifacts, including cave paintings, suggest that human beings inhabited razil more than 300,000 years ago. European explorers found only a small indigenous population when they arrived in the land, but archaeological records indicate that there were large settlements in other areas, which could have been substantially reduced by smallpox and other diseases brought in by the European explorers.
These early indigenous inhabitants were classified into a sedentary population, who spoke the Tupian language and similar cultural patterns, and a nomadic population. Historians assume that there were approximately a million of these early peoples scattered throughout the territory. Some historians believe that these aborigines were native American tribes, composed of the Arawaks and Caribs in the north, the sedentary Tupi-Guarani of the east coast and the Amazon Valley, the Ges of the eastern and southern sides, and the Pano in the west. These tribes were…
1. Central Intelligence Agency. Brazil. World Fact Book, 2004. http://www.cia.gov/publication/factbook/geos/br_html
2. Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia. Brazil. Columbia University, 6th edition, 2004. http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/A0808783.html
3. Global Exchange. Brazil Campaign, 2004. http://www.globalexchange.org/countries/brazil
4. -- . Struggles for Justice.
ith respect to organizational structures, Brazil has traditionally been oriented towards large firms, either owned by the state or by wealthy families, and a high level of government control. There is room in the economic system for tiny businesses but seldom for small business. In recent years, this has been changing, but it will take time for the heavy hand of government to leave the business arena, and for economic power to become more democratized.
International consumer markets are significantly different from domestic ones. Each culture has its own unique characteristics, and in a country the size of Brazil there are distinct regional characteristics as well. It is critical to understand the Brazilian culture in order to market to Brazilians, as they do not respond to the same messages that Americans will. Political factors are worth considering as well, because the government is still heavily involved in business.…
CIA World Factbook. (2013). Brazil. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html
Brown-Lima, C., Cooney, M. & Carey, D. (2010). An overview of the Brazil-China soybean trade and its strategic implications for conservation. The Nature Conservancy. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/regions/southamerica/brazil/explore/brazil-china-soybean-trade.pdf
Transparency.org. (2013) Corruption perceptions index. Transparency.org. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://cpi.transparency.org/cpi2012/results/
Forbes. (2012). Best countries for business. Forbes Magazine Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://www.forbes.com/best-countries-for-business/list/
The economy of Brazil is one of the most attractive and promising market in the world. In recent times, Brazil's strong currency, the Real, has hit higher against the U.S. dollar; the inflation rate is under control and the standard of millions of Brazilians is also improving rapidly. The largest stock exchange of Brazil which is located in Sao Paulo showed best performance last year and looking at these impressive achievements of Brazil, it was awarded with the "investment grade" status. The growing population and increasing consumer demand makes Brazil an ideal place for the foreign investors to enter, make investments, penetrate in the markets and take benefit from this opportunity.
Brazil, the fifth largest country of the world, is also the largest country (PriceaterHouseCoopers 13) of South America in terms of area as well as population. Having a wide area of 8.5 million square; it has borders…
Ernst and Terco, Young. Doing Business in Brazil. GYGM Limited, 2011.
KPMG. Developing a Market Entry Strategy for Brazil Transactions and Restructuring, 2010.
Malinak, Cora. Doing Business in Brazil. .Intercultural Communication. Communicaid Group Ltd. 2012.
OSEC. Brazil Legal Provisions, Business Network Switzerland. Swiss-Brazilian Chamber of Commerce,
Many people today see Brazil's diverse racial and cultural foreground as one of the nation's strengths. hroughout its development as a nation, the intermixing of several different cultures has given this country it own unique blend. Race and the mixing of race has played a key role in this development. he widely held belief that Brazil was less able to develop due to its mixed races spurred many discussions and debate. he purpose of this essay is to explore the cultural roots of Brazil by examining the streams of intermingling culture and their sometimes violent clashes of customs and laws.
he quick and swift rise of Brazilian national identity followed a familiar form common to many other developmental histories of European colonial territories. During Brazil's colonial period (1500 -- 1822), individuals born in Brazil were subject to rules and taxes that were enforced and created in the homeland of…
The African, Indian, European and other cultural influences of Brazil all contribute to a swirling of beliefs and traditions. Brazil is a unique place because of its excessive diversity. Brazil, coming from a place of slavery and domination, now has grown out of this cultural and economic situation into a much more promising nation. The 2016 Summer Olympics will be held in Brazil, demonstrating the country's ability to assimilate many different cultures into a respectful union with a unique and diverse lineage.
The 2016 Olympics
Rio de Janeiro, Brazil was awarded by the International Olympic Committee the hosting nation for the Summer Olympics in 2016. Rio beat out many larger and more developed cities such as Chicago to earn this distinction. This award has catapulted Brazil out of third world status and has cemented the country as one of the truly emerging nations of the world. Brazil will be significantly challenged in this process as much construction and organization is needed to successfully host the Olympics. The Olympic Games usually is a poor investment for the host cites as many times millions of dollars are misspent and wasted in preparing to host.
The economy may be strong in some areas but weak in others as the fuel industry seeks to deprive the culture of traditional food bearing crops, in exchange for fuel bearing ones, and decreases the biodiversity of the nation in the process. "... with ethanol and biodiesel as a springboard, Brazil's President...Lula da Silva aims to turn his country into an energy superpower --...environmentalists warn that although bio-fuels reduce emissions of greenhouse gases...they could also trigger a massive expansion of the bio-fuel crops... destroying habitat and biodiversity." (Osava, 2006, NP)
ccording to the International Food & gricultural Trade Policy Council (October 2006), "in Brazil,...the growth in world demand for ethanol will affect the environmental sustainability of sugar production...." (International Food & gricultural Trade Policy Council, 2006, NP). Yeedt the council goes on to say that; "...liberalization in the world sugar market will benefit Brazil in terms of its ability to…
According to the International Food & Agricultural Trade Policy Council (October 2006), "in Brazil,...the growth in world demand for ethanol will affect the environmental sustainability of sugar production...." (International Food & Agricultural Trade Policy Council, 2006, NP). Yeedt the council goes on to say that; "...liberalization in the world sugar market will benefit Brazil in terms of its ability to export both sugar and ethanol..." (NP) Lastly, "The resulting increase in sugarcane monoculture will have a net negative effect on soil quality and water use, perhaps more negative for water than soil, because sugarcane is a "thirsty" crop." (NP) The council also stresses that there will likely be an unknown effect, on air quality, as burning of cane will decrease air quality and yet the ethanol will replace other fuels that are more damaging to the air, greater market demand for sugar may assist Brazil in rural employment and eventually when technology improves more sugar production byproducts may be able to be converted into ethanol, which will eventually decrease the need for new growth. (NP) In Another economic change note there is a movement in Brazil to invest in ethanol production plants located in nations that are exempt from U.S. tariffs, to increase profitability of Brazilian sugar ethanol exports to the U.S. market. (Constance, 2006).
The consolidation of bio-ethanol as an important source of energy is linked to the creation of about one million direct jobs and an extensive agribusiness supply chain that has been contributing to rural and industrial development. Also bio-ethanol has helped to improve air quality in urban areas due to its much lower pollution characteristics and it has been regarded as an important alternative to greenhouse effect mitigation...Based on the successful experience of bio-ethanol Brazil is just starting a biodiesel program that aims basically to reduce imports of diesel oil, stimulate social development of poor rural areas, mainly in the Northeastern part of the country, and reduce emissions from diesel-powered vehicles.... It is worth of note that conversely to what happens elsewhere where vegetable oil is processed with methanol to produce methyl ester in Brazil the preferred route for biodiesel production will use bio-ethanol to produce ethyl ester. The environmental advantage is obvious considering that methanol is mainly produced from fossil feedstocks. (Szwarc, 2004 December 9, NP).
According to Morgan the Brazil trend for producing and selling bio-fuels has many implications for other nations with regards to economy, environmental policy, trade and development, and could potentially greatly influence how poor nations begin to compete in the global market. Some
In the latter half of the 20th century, Brazil faced conditions of political instability and poor policy-making that resulted in a country with a high degree of wealth disparity, chronic inflation problems and an antiquated economic structure with high levels of privatization and low levels of foreign investment. The Cardoso regime tackled inflation through a currency-fixing scheme that was ultimately ill-fated, and began an extensive process of privatization and attempts to increase foreign direct investment. The government of Luiz da Silva (Lula) then halted the privatization program (Baer & Love, 2009), but continued to seek out foreign investment, while placing more emphasis on addressing the high degree of wealth disparity in the country. Ten years on from the beginning of that plan, it is worth taking a look at how Brazil's attempts to reduce poverty have been structured, and whether or not those plans have been successful. The evidence…
Baer, W. & Amman, E. (2002). Neoliberalism and its consequences in Brazil. Journal of Latin American Studies. Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 945-959.
Baer, W. & Love, J.. Brazil under Lula: Economy, politics, and society under the worker-president. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
Cepalini, G. (2007). Lula's foreign policy and the quest for autonomy through diversification. Third World Quarterly. Vol 28, No. 7, pp. 1309-1326.
CIA World Factbook. (2012). Brazil. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved February 17, 2012 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html
One would think, then, that in light of these glaring disparities, the environmental movements in Brazil would be perceived as indigenous, as indeed they are, fostered by FUNAI (National Foundation of Indians) and "famished peasants." However, they are regarded as more unwanted imports from the "owners of power," in this case, the United States. This is problematical, considering that the environmental movement, "composed of some 800 organizations stirred into being by the uncontrolled destruction of the Amazon rain forest, ecological disasters in the grotesquely polluted chemical complex at Cubatao in Sao Paulo state, and rampant encroachment on the remnants of the once lush Atlantic forests" could otherwise be instrumental in creating a sustainable economy, despite the operational fact of the 'transformational' economic environment.
The physical setting
The Amazon rain forest covers 40% of Brazil's total territory or 2,722,000 square miles, and is the drainage basin for the Amazon River…
Amazon Basin Facts, New Internationalist, Issue 219, May 1991, http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/Amazonia/images/title.gif
Amazon Rain Forest, http://www.rain-tree.com/
Facts & Statistics from the pharmaceutical industry. Association of the British Pharmaceutical industry http://www.abpi.org.uk/statistics/section.asp?sect=1
Layland, Michael F. "A Country So Favorably Situated: Maury's Ambitions for the Amazon." Mercator's World, March-April 2003, 46+. Database online. Available from Questia, http://www.questia.com/.Internet . Accessed 8 November 2004.
The country's GDP is the 7th largest in the world at $2.2 trillion, and has grown rapidly in the past decade. Russia faces major issues, however. The country has significant security concerns in the Caucasus Mountain region, an ethically and politically fractured area of strategic importance as a transit point for Caspian oil to the West. Russia is also stricken by high rates of poverty outside of its major cities and a sharply reduced industrial capacity. While the nation's development has revitalized Moscow and t. Petersburg, the benefits have not trickled through the rest of the country.
Brazil's economy is the tenth largest in the world at just under $2 trillion. Brazil's economy has also grown rapidly in recent years. Brazil's economic drivers remain resource exploitation, including mining and agriculture. The country is developing significant manufacturing capacity, however, in an attempt to diversify its economy. Brazil's main economic problems are…
CIA World Fact Book: Russia. (2009). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved December 4, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rs.html
CIA World Fact Book: Brazil. (2009). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved December 4, 2009 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html
Indexmundi website, various pages. (2009). Retrieved December 4, 2009 from http://www.indexmundi.com/
Foreign investors feel more comfortable with mainstream liberal policies instead of socialist ones. And foreign investment was extremely critical to the survival of Brazil's economy. It had been a major source of debt servicing and Brazil couldn't afford to turn foreign investors out. This heavy dependence on foreign investment also meant that Lula and his government had to allow investors considerable control over domestic economic policies. Amaral et al. explain the effect of foreign investor sentiment on Brazilian economy: "…if the capital markets had decided Brazil was insolvent, the resulting pressure on the eal and domestic interest rates would guarantee that Brazil would in fact be insolvent. If capital markets had decided Brazil was solvent, Brazil would in fact have been solvent. The investor community was entirely aware of this role, noting that Lula needed to strongly signal a fiscally conservative orientation, so that he could "win the game" of…
Wendy Hunter. The Partido dos Trabalhadores: Still a Party of the Left?
Aline Diniz Amaral, Peter Kingstone, and Jonathan Krieckhaus. The Limits of Economic Reform in Brazil
Janice E. Perlman. Re-Democratization In Brazil: A View From Below
Urban Poverty and Politics in Rio de Janeiro 1968-2005
Still, challenges remain and Brazil struggles with a gap between the rich and poor, skewed land ownership, and foreign debt. President Lula's economic policy includes long-term investments and strengthening trade agreements with developing countries and other Latin American nations.
Good trade depends on strong foreign relations. "Brazil has traditionally been a leader in the inter-American community and played an important role in collective security efforts, as well as in economic cooperation in the estern Hemisphere. Brazil supported the Allies in both orld ars" and "played a key role in the Allied victory" in Italy (Pearson 9). Brazil also belongs to such groups and pacts as the Organization of American States, the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, the Community of South American Nations, and the United Nations. Brazil also enjoys a friendly and healthy relationship with the United States. President Lula has met with U.S. President Bush on a number of…
Pearson Education, publishing as Infoplease. "U.S. Department of State
Background Note: Brazil. (2006). Retrieved 7/28/2006 at http://print.infoplease.com/country/profiles/brazil.html
Pinheiro, Paulo Sergio. "Human Rights." Retrieved 7/28/2006 from www.mre.gov.br/cdbrasil/itamaraty/web/ingles/polsoc/dirhum/apresent/apresent.htm
Yet another paradox in the legacy of Vargas became manifest -- while before Nazi Germany had maintained a close connection with Brazil, helping to modernize the army and Brazil's industry, Vargas used his new, singular authority to turn to the United States for support. Brazil became an important supplier of raw materials to the U.S. during orld ar II, in exchange for American investments in Brazil's infrastructure. The U.S. helped build Brazil's first major highways, railroads, ports, and airports. This increased national prosperity and affection for Vargas. The new, government-controlled unions formed the core of his urban power base.
The United States' funding helped create Brazil's first steel mill, as well as factories that manufactured truck and airplane engines. This expanded urban employment possibilities and consolidated Vargas' power as all of these powerful enterprises were state-controlled, in contrast to the coffee exporting business that was dominated by landowners. Thus while…
"The Getulio Vargas administration in Brazil." Essortment.com. June 6, 2009.
Poppino, Rollie E. "Getulio Vargas." Encyclopedia Britannica. 2009. Encyclopedia Britannica
Online. June 6, 2009
For example, Brazil was instrumental in the collapse of the orld Trade Organization (TO) talks in September 2003 at Cancun, Mexico when Lula led a walkout by the developing countries over the issue of agricultural subsidies by the G8 nations. Under Brazil's lead, the developing nations, refused to negotiate new foreign-investment rules until powers like the U.S. And the European Union promised to cut the lavish agriculture subsidies that effectively keep developing-world farmers out of lucrative markets (Padgett). Lula has similarly been opposed to the Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA) trade pact for the North and South America that the United States wants to promote. Instead, Brazil has supported regional trade pacts such as Mercosul and the South American Community of Nations, which envisage not only a free-trade area within the South American region but a common market like the European Union. It has also promoted increased trade…
Biography." Presidency of the Republic. 2008. May 6, 2008. http://www.presidencia.gov.br/ingles/president/
Brazil to Pay off Debts." BBC News. December 14, 2005. May 6, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4527438.stm
Leftist Lula wins Brazil election." BBC News. October 28, 2002. May 6, 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/2367025.stm
Padgett, Tim. "Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva." Leaders & Revolutionaries: Time Magazine. April 26, 2004. May 6, 2008. http://www.time.com/time/subscriber/2004/time100/leaders/100lula.html
Less obvious is the threat the merger of Brahma and Antarctica poses to Coke. Because Brazilians are unusual in their cultural approach to beer -- that it's a soft drink that just happens to be alcoholic -- the most successful beverage sellers here are those that distribute soda and suds together. That is something, critics say, the image-conscious Coke has failed to grasp fully, at the cost of market share.
any believe Coke has the ability to meet the AmBev threat. However, to do so, some analysts say, it will need to fight fire with beer. That strategy is already working with great success for Coke bottler Spaipa SA in the southern Brazilian city of Curitiba. There, Spaipa has fought to win a more than 50% market share for Kaiser. That success has allowed it to avoid having to offer the kind of discounts for Coke products seen elsewhere in…
Fritsch. Peter Fritsch a Beverage War Is Brewing in Brazil Over Planned Big Merger - Coke Has to Battle View That Beer Is a Soft Drink. Wall Street Journal. (Eastern edition). New York, N.Y.: Mar 6, 2000. pg. a.17
This "new" middle-class was frustrated with its lack of participation or even access to Brazil's politics. They began a movement and demanded a place in the nation's government. Organized unions and strikes by various groups and dissidents encountered intense repression from the government.
Propping up Brazil's Inequalities
There existed a "two-faced" political system in Brazil that took shape at the beginning of the twentieth century -- a "Jekyll and Hyde" government. First, there existed, supposedly, the official system of the constitutional United tates of Brazil; then there was the actual system of unwritten agreements among local bosses, or, as they were referred to -- the colonels. Coronelismo it was called, and it stood up for autonomy of the individual states. By another name it was labeled the "politics of the governors." Under it, the local "patron-client networks" chose the state governors, who in turn selected the president.
The wealthier and…
Secondly, the control of the state-level government was completely in the hands of the oligarchies, or "patron-client networks." These groups, controlled mostly by the coffee-growers, made agreements among and between themselves and, as mentioned, controlled who was elected president of the country.
But, let's not forget that it was the working class, combined with disillusion in the junior ranks of the military that swept GetulioVargas to power in 1930. Both groups, disgusted with government corruption in support of coffee growers during the Great Depression, rebelled.
Once in power, Vargas, popular, charming, and ruthless, based his power in the new urbanized working class that had helped bring him to power.
In many ways, Catholicism perpetuated oppression. It did this in the form of religious ideals such as its views on abortion and birth control. These are two of the main forms of female oppression: unwanted pregnancy was not allowed to be terminated, and women within marriage were not allowed to use birth control. These issues play a significant role in the migration of the religious away from Catholicism and towards Pentecostal churches, where there were no oppressive religious rules.
Also, Pentecostal churches were not as hierarchical as the Catholic Churches. In many ways, the oppressive nature of Catholicism and the rigidity of its rules were simply a replacement for or at least reminiscent of an equally oppressive government. Pentecostal churches tend to be much more part of the struggle than assuming a role above it, with religious leaders helping with the struggle rather than being part of it. Pentecostal churches…
Burdick, John. Looking for God in Brazil. University of California Press, 1996.
Minority religions include Judaism, Islam, and Buddhism.
An interesting and significant fact attached to Roman Catholicism is that it was not only used as a form of control over the poverty-stricken masses of the country, but also later as a vehicle of liberation from these circumstances. The Church organized communities around the concept of militant liberation from the oppressive forces of government and class. However, these communities are diminishing rapidly, together with the decline of the Roman Catholic Church.
The greatest change in the religious demographic of Brazil is ascribed to the movement away from Roman Catholicism to the more charismatic forms of Christianity, and specifically to the Pentecostal churches. The reasons for this are both personal and collective. On a personal basis, Brazilians are experiencing a need for a more democratic form of religion than the rigid rules and regulations imposed by Roman Catholicism. Many are beginning to find…
Despite the great advances in communication, and the rise in what is now known as the "Global Village," there remain significant cultural differences in specific communication methods, elements, and etiquette. These differences are particularly important for the business person to understand, which is why many companies today include cultural sensitivity training in their programs for employees who are to work abroad. Differences between western and eastern countries have been well publicized. South American countries like Brazil also have their particular etiquette in terms of communication and presenting arguments.
The first important aspect of communication, especially in the light of today's digital paradigm, is that Brazilian business people attach great importance to face-to-face communication (Kwintessential, n.d.). This is regarded as more important than written communication. In the same light, the individual is considered as more important than the group in a meeting setup. When presenting arguments, it is therefore important…
Kwintessential. (n.d.) Brazil -- Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette. Retrieved from: http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/brazil-country-profile.html
World Business Culture (n.d.) Brazilian Communication Styles. Retrieved from: http://www.worldbusinessculture.com/Brazilian-Business-Communication-Style.html
Brazil's Street Kids
Brazilian Street Children: A Historical and Causative Perspective
The presence of children working and living in the streets of Brazil's cities and towns is nothing new. In the 1960s, these moleques, or scamps and rascals, were known for their ability to survive on the street using their own wits (Scheper-Hughes and Hoffman, 1994). They would try to find work when they could, beg in the streets when they couldn't, or occasionally sell themselves for sex. In essence, society seemed to tolerate their presence, if not occasionally exploiting them.
Tolerance and even compassion for the plight of the vulnerable segments of Brazilian society date back to the period of slavery that ended in the latter part of the 19th century (Filho and Neder, 2001). The Church was tasked with taking in the infirm, elderly, and the young, since plantations had little room for persons who could not contribute…
Consortium for Street Children. (2009). Street Children Statistics. StreetChildren.org.UK. Retrieved 5 Jun. 2013 from www.streetchildren.org.uk/_uploads/resources/Street_Children_Stats_FINAL.pdf.
Filho, Gisalio Cerqueira and Neder, Gizlene. (2001). Social and historical approaches regarding street children in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in the context of the transition to democracy. Childhood, 8(1), 11-29.
Scheper-Hughes, Nancy and Hoffman, Daniel. (1994). Kids out of place. NACLA Report on the Americas. Retrieved 5 Jun. 2013 from http://pangaea.org/street_children/latin/sheper2.htm .
amazon-rainforest.org).Exploitation of the rainforest has been severe; a strategy to move settlers into the Amazon rainforest in the 1970s - during a period when Brazil was ruled by military dictators - caused "considerable damage to vast areas of rainforest" the eb site points out. Indeed, continuing deforestation by cattle ranchers and logging interests is having a negative impact; the Brazilian government's own report in 2005 asserted that upwards of one fifth of the Amazon forests had been cleared due to massive deforestation.
Personal Reflective Response: Meanwhile, the student approaching a research project which embraces the fascinating and powerful country of Brazil, its history and culture and economy, should also be interested in the literature of Brazil. Literature offers a kind of historical review of a nation and its peoples. There are in fact novels written by Brazilian writers that offer good information about the country, which is a very good…
BBC NEWS. "Country Profile: Brazil." Retrieved May 17, 2007 at http://newsvote.bbc.co.uk/mpapps/pagetools/print/news.bbc.co.uk.
Goldberg, Isaac. "The Romantic Transformation." Brazilian Literature pp. 72-102, New York:
Alfred a. Knopf, 1922.
Margolis, Maxine L., Enedina, Bezena Maria, & M. Fox, Jason. "Brazil." Ed. Melvin Ember & Carol Ember, pp. 283-301. New York Macmillan Reference USA 2001.
Investors willing to investigate the market should make note of what points are best for entry and exit in the market in order to maximize profits (edig & Price, 2003). Local money is primarily credited with driving the growing economy, and as the authors point out the Brazilian economy is "no less risk averse" than any other country (edig & Price, 2003).
Though there is risk involved with investing in Brazil (as with anywhere) the potential for rewards is also tremendous, as evidenced by Telecom Italia Mobile and LG Phillips, both who invested several hundred million in the company and are now well positioned to capture millions of additional customers (edig & Price, 2003). The key to business success is simply market entry timing, and best practice observations from competitors has been cited as the answer to investor problems and concerns (edig & Price, 2003).
Effects Conditions Business Operations
CC Consulting. (2004). "Brazil - Business and Social Etiquette." CC Consulting Limited.
7, December, 2004: http://www.crazycolour.com/os/brazil_02.shtml
Kullman, P. (July-August, 2004). "Opportunities in Brazil." Export America, 5(6). 4,
December, 2004: http://www.buyusa.gov/fresno/brazilmeansbusiness.html
First of all, it would allow Brazil to access markets that are geographically much closer, with large populations and a medium to upper level income. This would mean that Brazil could serve these markets with manufactured products of good quality that would bring a higher added value than primary products.
At the same time, regional and bilateral agreement could be seen as an intermediary step that would help Brazilian producers become more trained and better adapted before aiming for the global market. The Brazilian economy and Brazilian companies are not yet able to fully compete with all foreign companies on all foreign markets. Starting lower, at a regional level, could make them more adaptable and better prepared.
There is another element that should be included in this analysis and in the argumentation. Brazil's economy has performed well in the past decade and Lula's government was very involved in promoting policies…
Institutional analysis of the political, economic and socio-cultural environment of Brazil as an Emerging Market for processed foods
Justification for the selection of Brazil as a potential market for a Mexican based canned/processed foods manufacturing company
Brazil has a population of approximately 200 million persons (UN Data 2018), thus it is a rich market for products and services. Over the years, the processed foods industry in the country has been on a steady increase, from 2009 to 2017 (Machado et al. 2018). However, this progressive and continued growth was interrupted by the political and financial challenges that hit the country in 2017. Even in the face of the 2017 challenges, the country was able to post a reasonable performance of processed foods except for some categories e.g. dairy products and snacks. The primary reason for the decline in the performance of these products, specifically yogurt, ice cream, and confectionaries…
Dix-Carneiro, R., 2018. Trade and Labor Market Adjustment: Recent Evidence from Brazil.
EUROMONITOR International, 2017. Packaged Food in Brazil. Accessed 3 July 2018 < http://www.euromonitor.com/packaged-food-in-brazil/report >
Johnson, J.J., 2018. Political change in Latin America: the emergence of the middle sectors. In Promise Of Development (pp. 88-99). Routledge.
Machado, P.P., Claro, R.M., Martins, A.P.B., Costa, J.C. and Levy, R.B., 2018. Is food store type associated with the consumption of ultra-processed food and drink products in Brazil? Public health nutrition, 21(1), pp.201-209.
Monteiro, C.A. and Cannon, G., 2012. The impact of transnational “big food” companies on the South: a view from Brazil. PLoS medicine, 9(7), p.e1001252.
Statistica, 2018. Retail sales of frozen processed food in Brazil from 2009 to 2018 (in billion U.S. dollars). Accessed 3 July 2018 < https://www.statista.com/statistics/496591/frozen-processed-food-retail-sales-brazil/>
Teberga, P.M.F., Oliva, F.L. and Kotabe, M., 2018. Risk analysis in introduction of new technologies by start-ups in the Brazilian market. Management Decision, 56(1), pp.64-86.
UN Data, 2018. Statistics. Accessed 3 July 2018 < http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=POP&f=tableCode%3A22 >
Base in the U.S.: McCarran International Airport.
The city and country selected: San Paulo, Brazil.
Brazil remains one of the most influential countries in South America. Its economy has been rising over the last few years and the country continues to be regarded as one of the largest democracies in the world. The country has in place a democratic federal republic form of government and its current president is Michael Temer. It is important to note that although the country still experiences a wide gap between the rich and the poor, various policies have been adopted by the government in recent times to remedy the situation. With a population of 208 million, the country ranks as number 5 in a country comparison index - according to population comparison estimates done by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) - effectively making it one of the most populous countries in the…
CIA. (2018). South America: Brazil. Retrieved from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html
Heng, A., Heermann, J., Samaranayake, C. & Sath, L. (2018). Technology Trends in Latin America. Retrieved from https://cs.stanford.edu/people/eroberts/cs181/projects/2010-11/TechnologyTrendsLatinAmerica/brazil.html
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2018). Brazil – Economic Forecast Summary (November 2017). Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/eco/outlook/brazil-economic-forecast-summary.htm
Trading Economics. (2018). Brazil Foreign Direct Investment. Retrieved from https://tradingeconomics.com/brazil/foreign-direct-investment
Walters, D.J. (2006). Operations Strategy. New York, NY: Thomson.
Jeter's assertion that "debt is merely exploitation by another name, a way for party a to get over on party B," is overly-simplistic and inflammatory enough to cause one to doubt that rationales of any of his arguments (Jeter 56). hile debt certainly can be constructed in such a way as to create usurious processes whereby the borrower is in constant debt to the extreme benefit of the lender, in other instances it is a valuable economic tool that many individuals and businesses depend on. Very few families would be able to buy homes without incurring debt; few small business could get started and even major corporations would have trouble operating continuously without available capital.
The Recession's Aftermath
The most egregious oversight in Jeter's account of the recession that Brazil experienced in 2003 is the fact that he ignored all of the positive economic indicators that existed at the same…
Jeter, Jon. Flat Broke in the Free Market. New York: Norton, 2009.
Loudiyi, Isshane. "Brazil Still on the Fast Track for Growth." World Bank. Accessed 30 April 2010. http://blogs.worldbank.org/growth/category/countries/brazil
MercoPress. "Brazil in recession." South Atlantic News Agency. Accessed 30 April 2010. http://en.mercopress.com/2003/08/29/brazil-in-recession
Heise, Tatiana S. Remaking Brazil: Contested National Identities in Contemporary Brazilian Cinema. Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2012.
Brazil is a deeply diverse society with dozens of ethnic and racial groups represented in its citizenry. Many of these ethnic and racial influences have been present in contemporary Brazilian cinema, but there has been a dearth of academic research on these highly diverse films, filmmakers, stories, themes, and actors. Heise frames her discussion by presenting the concept of the nation of Brazil as an imagined community. Through this framework, she considers how the dominant constructs of brasilidade are represented in film. Brasilidade is the popular term for the national consciousness of people living in Brazil. The application of brasilidade in contemporary fiction movies and documentary films enables an examination of the way the ethnic and racial influences are dramatized, supported, attacked, or deconstructed. Moreover, Remaking Brazil takes its…
Global Business Trends- Brazil
The extreme growth of Brazil across the recent years is heavily fueled through the increment of prices of commodities as well as the ideal approach to handling 2008 and 2009 global recession.
The most apparent trend in Brazil is the easy access to credit. Credit has become easily available and accessible in Brazil than in the previous years. Credit is both granted to organizations and people with a capacity for managing them. However, most of the credit is availed through a "sub-prime" definition to the poor households. Programs like Minha Casa Vida have been dedicated to creating "sub-prime" markets for credit real estate (Ibp Inc. 2013). The national government continues to stimulate unsecured credit for lower classes while creating defined gaps in the credit conditions. The middle-class is not in a position of getting conditions of the open markets while close to the elements offered to…
Frynas, J.G. (2002). The Limits of Globalization -- Legal and Political Issues in E-Commerce. Management Decision, 40(9), 871.
Jagersma, P.K. (2005). Cross-Border Alliances: Advice from the Executive Suite. The Journal of Business Strategy, 26(1), 41.
Ibp Inc. (2013). Brazil Business and Investment Opportunities Yearbook Volume 1 Practical Information and Opportunities. New York: Int'l Business Publications.
Michitaka, K., (2013). Progressive Trends in Knowledge and System-Based Science for Service Innovation. New York: IGI Global.
Brazilian Ethnic Issues
The racial / ethnic composition of Brazilians is quite different from the racial / ethnic make up of people in the United States, and unique in the world in many respects. How is the government dealing with ethnic and racial relations within their very large and culturally diverse country? This paper will review the literature on the dynamics (and history) of this multi-ethnic, multi-racial South American nation. And in addition some aspects of ethnicity and racial data in Brazil will be compared and contrasted with those data in the United States.
Racism is Learned, Justified, and Reinforced
According to author Benjamin P. Bowser, racism is "…a historic and cultural belief (in one race's inferiority and in another's superiority) that has been used by national elites" in order to continue a kind of "social stratification" that leans in their favor (Bowser, 1995, p. 285). Racism has been "very…
Bowser, Benjamin P. (1995). Racism and Anti-Racism in World Perspective. Thousand Oaks,
CA: SAGE Publications.
Daniel, G. Reginald. (2010). Race and Multiraciality in Brazil and the United States:
Converging Paths? University Park, PA: Penn State Press.
Time delays and cost would be an additional concern. I would, therefore, go for Brazilian-produced material and forego the glass.
In regards to the gold leaf, I would also go for the cheaper local material, but I may decide to conduct some impromptu surveys amongst potential businessmen of the market that I am seeking in order to identify their aesthetic opinions in regards to internal and external architectural decoration. I would use the results of these surveys to lead me in my final selection.
I would prefer to lease the building to multiple, rather than to one single tenant, particularly given Brazil's lack of foreclosure laws and its bungling leasing system. Multiple tenants would pose less of a risk and would also, simultaneously and hopefully, provide me with the desired publicity that I would like for this development to attract further lessees in the future. Multiple tenants may also induce…
Poorvu, W.J. (2003). Financial analysis of real property investments
Segal, A.J. & Reisne, R. (2004). Hines goes to Rio. 9-805-001.
Unilever in Brazil
Situation Analysis, Evaluation of Options and ecommendations
Situation Analysis of the Market
The Product Positioning
Options for the company
While attempting to increase its market share in the Northeastern part of Brazil, Unilever is faced with the problem of deciding on the most appropriate strategy for product, branding and marketing. They must consider factors such as the creation of the value proposition, the brand positioning of the new product, whether to create a new brand strategy for the new product or to continue with the old strategy, product characteristics so that it suits the needs of the customers, appropriate packaging for the new detergent, the pricing strategy, the promotional mix and the distribution channels to be established are the issues of decision making for the executive management of the company. The target market is a new market that Unilever is trying to enter which is…
Cadogan, J. (2009). Marketing strategy. London: SAGE.
Can't, M. (2006). Marketing management. Cape Town, South Africa: Juta.
Cluley, R. (2014). Consumption and repression. Marketing Theory.
Getnet, K. (2008). From market liberalization to market development: The need for market institutions in Ethiopia. Economic Systems, 32(3), pp.239-252.
Global Business Cultural Analysis: Brazil
Cultural backgrounds reflect the ways and standards of living, which is unique and different for each country. In fact, the business world is also profoundly influenced by the cultural differences of the counties. This focus of this research paper, in this regard, is to analyze the cultural perspectives of doing business in Brazil. Therefore, major elements and dimensions of Brazilian culture such as business structures, management styles, communication, ethics, values, and customs are discussed comprehensively.
Moreover, the discussion has also been made on how the local businessmen integrate these cultural dimensions and elements. Indeed, a detailed comparison United States business has been made with that of Brazilian culture and business elements by means of Hofstede's dimension tool (that is particularly used for measuring cultural differences). Finally, the paper concludes with the implications for the U.S. businesses that plans and desires to conduct business in Brazil.…
Aswathappa. (2010). International Business 4E. India: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
Beekun, R.I., Stedham, Y. & Yamamura, J.H. (2003). Business Ethics in Brazil and the U.S.: A Comparative Investigation. Journal of Business Ethics, 42(3), 267-279.
Boraas, T. (2001). Brazil. USA: Capstone.
deVries, A. & Blore, S. (2010). Frommer's Brazil. 5th Edition. USA: John Wiley & Sons.
Police eform in Post-Authoritarian Brazil
A majority of new democracies entail an unbelievable illogicality of an immensely feeble citizenship coalesced with a stern description of the constitutional guarantees. In order to explicate this disparity it would be prudent to contemplate the significance of political institutions regarding representation of citizen, which were prevalent subsequent to the military establishments attributed as troublesome and a majority of the new restrictions. A few defined in the autocratic establishment, were implemented by quite a few new establishments prominently by the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 (Pinheiro, 1996).
The prominence out of such institutions of Brazil were the excessive illustration of lesser populated regions on the contrary to the regions with greater population: Sao Paulo in recent times incorporates 60 Congressmen (which is analogous to 11.9% of the entire constituents of a Congress) depicting a voting strength of 20,774,991. This strength makes up 21.9% of the entire…
Amnesty International (2002). 'Subhuman': Torture, overcrowding and brutalization in Minas Gerais police stations. London, Amnesty International.
Bailey, Willian C. 1984. "Poverty, Inequality and City Homicides Rates." Criminology. Vol. 22. no0 4. November.
Beato F., C.C. Accion y Estrategia de las Organizaciones Policiales In: Policia, Sociedad y Estado: Modernizacion y Reforma Policial en America del Sul.1 ed.Santiago: Centro de Estudios del Desarrollo, 2001a, p. 39-56.
Beato F., Claudio Chaves, Renato Martins Assuncao, Braulio Figueiredo Alves da Silva, Frederico Couto Marinho, Ilka Afonso Reis, Maria Cristina de Mattos Almeida. 2001. "Conglomerados de homicidios e o trafico de drogas em Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil, de 1995 a 1999." Cadernos de Saude Publica. Rio de Janeiro: v.17, n.5, p.1163-1171, 2001b.
The relationship they had with one another included a fair division of land, and a good balance of trade. Unfortunately, after the settlers learned what they needed from the Native Americans and took what they could from them, they no longer had any use for the proud people whose land they had invaded.
The relationship between the settlers and the Native Americans began to change as settlers learned to do things for themselves, grow their own crops and breed their own animals for food. With the settlers being able to survive on their own, there was no longer any need for the Native Americans to help. The population of settlers was also growing, and new villages were being built on land that used to belong to the Native Americans.
The settlers kept expanding the areas that belonged to them, and this made the areas belonging to the Native Americans smaller…
An Outline of American History. 2002. From Revolution to Reconstruction. http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1954uk/chap4.htm.
This Web site gives a timeline and outline of many of the things that took place throughout the history of the United States and ensures that individuals who are studying history are aware of the good and the bad that occurred.
Foreigners in our own country: Indigenous peoples in Brazil. 2005. Amnesty International. http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/ENGAMR190022005.
Brazilians are struggling today because they are still losing land to foreign development. Because of that they are being forced to move into smaller and smaller areas and their resources are diminishing.
Substitute strategy or substitution strategy was put in place by Brazil’s government following the 1930’s Great Depression because of the disastrous turn of events in its economy. With coffee being its main exporter at the time, Brazil had to change its economy. It did so during this time by creating an import substation strategy where the government would invest a massive amount of money and targeted key industries. Along with the investments and focus in other areas, Brazil’s government also safeguarded against competition using high tariff walls.
The article notes that the strategy worked for four decades. Brazil saw a 7% growth from 1950 to 1980. The strategy also led to the creation of a diversified and large industrial sector. However, in the 1980’s inflation soared, and disaster came once again. Along with high inflation, investment fell due to the fear of foreign investors in Brazil’s economy. As a…
In addition, increased awareness of both testing and treatment options can help to eliminate the stigma associated with HIV and AIDS. Marketing should focus on the normative lifestyle now available to those infected with HIV; the fact that a positive test result is now no longer the death sentence it once was has made the disease less socially abhorrent, and increased testing has shown positive results in the reduction of spread (Pembrey, 2009). Brazil has excellent social programs in place to deal with HIV / AIDS, and public awareness of these programs and their benefit to individuals and society at large is essential in combating the disease in Brazil.
Pembrey, G. (2009). "HIV & AIDS in Brazil." AVET.org. Accessed 17 February 2009. http://www.avert.org/aids-brazil.htm
Plan UK. (2008). "aising awareness of HIV / AIDS in Maranhao, Brazil." Accessed 17 February 2009. http://www.plan-uk.org/wherewework/southamerica/brazil/hivaidsawarenessbrazil/
US AID. (2008). "Brazil." U.S. AID from the American…
Pembrey, G. (2009). "HIV & AIDS in Brazil." AVERT.org. Accessed 17 February 2009. http://www.avert.org/aids-brazil.htm
Plan UK. (2008). "Raising awareness of HIV / AIDS in Maranhao, Brazil." Accessed 17 February 2009. http://www.plan-uk.org/wherewework/southamerica/brazil/hivaidsawarenessbrazil/
US AID. (2008). "Brazil." U.S. AID from the American people: HIV / AIDS." Accessed 17 February 2009. http://www.usaid.gov/our_work/global_health/aids/Countries/lac/brazil.html
Muriel's edding vs. Brazil
Religion and creating an attainable myth of self and cultural reinvention: "Muriel's edding" versus "Brazil" in Film
Both the Australian films "Muriel's edding" and the 1980's film directed by former Monty Python cartoonist Terry Gilliam entitled "Brazil" makes use of fantastic tropes and mythical tribulations to weave different myths about the truth of human existence. Both films have used the epistemology of magic to articulate the psychological longings of, in one case, a lonely young woman, and in the case of "Brazil," a lonely aboriginal society that exists as a mirror of even a lonelier consumerist contemporary world.
At first, "Muriel's edding" seems the more realistic of the two films, beginning with a portrait of an overweight Australian teenage girl named Muriel who uses shoplifting and her father's pilfered credit cards to try to buy herself happiness, as well as trying on bridal gowns in shops…
Brazil." (1981) Directed by Terry Gilliam.
Muriel's Wedding." (1994) Starring Toni Collette.
They feel they have survived and overcome harsh business environment and want to operate in risky markets like razil. Some of them benefited from privatization or part-privatization. The current government dislikes the notion of privatization, which tends to improve businesses. ut it likes national champions to succeed abroad. A government minister wrote the World Economic Forum in 1996 that it was not in the interest of the government for razilian companies to expand abroad. He said that capital was limited and they wanted to create local jobs. razil's laws also make the sending of profits from foreign subsidiaries back to razil impossible. They also refuse to recognize losses incurred abroad in company accounts. Some of the olivian assets of foreign investor Petrobras were nationalized by razil's president, Evo Morales. Multinationals are likely to encounter similar obstacles, but commodity producers, consumers or traders can be sure that their built-in comparative advantage…
Ardichvili, a. et al. (2010). Ethical business practices in BRICs. Society for Business
Ethics: Center for Ethical Business Cultures. Retrieved on December 13, 2010 from http://www.cebglobal.org/uploadedfiles/Ethical_Business_Practices_in_BRICs.pdf
Banham, R. (2010). The party gets started in Brazil. Treasury & Risk: the Free Library.
Retrieved on December 13, 2010 from http://www.thefreelibrary.com/the+party+gets+started+in+Brazil%3A+multinational+corporations+are...-a02212023634
Situation Analysis, Evaluation of Options and ecommendations
Situation Analysis of the Market
The Product Positioning
Options for the company
Unilever faces a critical strategic decision concerning its attempts to increase sales in the Northeastern regions of Brazil. The aspects of marketing that the company needs to decide are the creation of a new value proposition and the brand positioning of the new product, development of brand strategy for the new product or to continue with the old strategy, the characteristics of product so that it suits the needs of the customers, the need for suitable packaging for the new detergent to be launched in the new market, and the pricing strategy of the product. Unilever is trying to market the product in a market that is predominantly composed of customers from the low-income groups. Promotional strategies and selection of the most effective distribution channel need to…
Cadogan, J. (2009). Marketing strategy. London: SAGE.
Grewal, D. And Levy, M. (2010). Marketing. Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Iacobucci, D. (2013). Marketing models. Mason, Ohio: South-Western, Cengage Learning.
Iacobucci, D. (n.d.). Marketing management.
Dutch invasion of razil
In the 17th Century razil found itself the centre of contesting and warring European powers. The Portuguese colonization of razil was followed by the invasion from Holland as well as by French attempts to establish a presence in the country. Historians however describe the Dutch invasion of razil in the 17th century as one of the most damaging, imposing and far-reaching occupations of the country. This was mainly due to the well-organized and well-planned nature of the Dutch intrusion.
The Dutch invasion was an attempt not merely at establishing some fortuitous harbors for trade but was colonization in the true sense of the term. One of the obvious reasons was export of natural resources such as sugar.
The Dutch occupation of razil presents a number of pertinent and important questions that will form the fulcrum of the discussion in this paper. These are - the reasons…
Alden, Dauril, ed. Colonial Roots of Modern Brazil: Papers of the Newberry Library Conference. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973.
Alden, Dauril and Warren Dean, eds. Essays concerning the Socioeconomic History of Brazil and Portuguese India. Gainesville, FL: University Presses of Florida, 1977.
Azevedo, Fernando de. Brazilian Culture: An Introduction to the Study of Culture in Brazil. Translated by Crawford, William Rex. New York: Macmillan, 1950.
Barbour, Violet. Capitalism in Amsterdam in the Seventeenth Century. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1950.
Some Brazilian businesses might want to engage in joint arrangements to have workers going to do business or live abroad in English-speaking languages learn from these tapes, and there could be special discount agreements with such companies, to make use of these resources. Additionally, the national economy would greatly benefit from a more fluent population that was better able to engage in a variety of business endeavors in other nations. This would encourage the Brazilian government to not place any additional legal obstacles when engaging in negotiations regarding such an exporting arrangement.
There already a clear and strong desire to learn more about the United States, to do business with the United States, and to travel to the United States. Brazil was the ninth largest source of visitors to the United States in 2004 and has one of the fastest growing outbound travel markets in the world. "ith only 4…
Brazil." (Nov 2006) The Office of Electronic Information, Bureau of Public Affairs Retrieved 6 Dec 2006 at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35640.htm
Brazil: CS Market of the Month." (2006). Export.gov. U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved 6 Dec 2006 at http://export.gov/comm_svc/press_room/marketofthemonth/Brazil/011006brazil.html#business
Chapter 4: Best Prospects for U.S. Businesses -- Travel and Tourism." (Jan 2006).
Focus Brazil: U.S. Government Export Portal. Retrieved 6 Dec 2006 at http://www.focusbrazil.org.br/ccg/Reports/Travel%20&%20Tourism.pdf
e-anking as a Competitive Advantage in razil
The Federative Republic of razil is the largest and most populous country in Latin America, and fifth largest in the world. Spanning a vast area between central South America and the Atlantic Ocean, it is the easternmost country of the Americas and it borders Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, olivia, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana - every South American nation except for Ecuador and Chile. Named after brazilwood, a local tree, razil is home to both extensive agricultural lands and rain forests. The official language of razil is Portuguese.
Possessing large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, as well as a large labor pool, razil's economy outweighs that of all other South American countries and is expanding its presence in world markets. Major export products include coffee, soybeans, iron ore, orange juice, steel and airplanes.
After crafting a fiscal adjustment…
Bank of America. 9 April 2005. Retrieved June 9, 2005 from http://www.bankofamerica.com/deposits/checksave/ .
Benson, Todd. Brazil's Banks Adjust View of Their Market. April 9, 2005. The New York Times. Retrieved June 9, 2005 from http://www.changemakers.net/library/temp/nytimes04905.htm .
Chandler, Lester V. And Goldfeld, Stephen M. The Economics of Money and Banking. New York. Harper & Row. 1977.
Colitt, Raymond. A modest start for flashy virtual malls. October 30, 2000. Retrieved June 7, 2005 from ePayNews.com. 9 April 2005. Retrieved June 9, 2005 from http://www.epaynews.com/statistics/bankstats.html .
Developing Country and Health: Enhancing Public Health in Brazil
In Brazil, public health issues are similar to those in other developing and developed countries. For instance, just as obesity and diabetes is a problem of epidemic proportions in the U.S., so too is it in Brazil. Brazil's health care structure, however, is significantly different, with free health care for all citizens being available (the finer details of this policy are not as alluring as they may seem on the surface, as long wait times for health care can often be the result) (Fleury, 2011). Nonetheless, this paper will highlight eight significant categories in order of importance and discuss why these particular variables should be focused on in Brazil.
Top Eight Categories
Health care reform. In Brazil, free health care is on the surface a good thing -- but the way in which health care is provided and funded is not…
un.org)." However, the CIA estimated that in 2004 there were "30.66 deaths/1,000 live births, with 34.47 deaths/1,000 live births among males, and 26.65 deaths/1,000 live births among females (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/br.html)."
AIDS plays a role in the demographics of the Brazilian population. In 2003, the CIA estimated that the "adult prevalence rate of HIV / AIDS was 0.7%, the number of people living with HIV / AIDS was 660,000 and the number of deaths that year from HIV / AIDS was 15,000 (www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/br.html)."
One important point about the population data is that when Brazil performed its census in August 2000, it "reported a population of 169,799,170. That figure was about 3.3% lower than projections by the U.S. Census Bureau, and is close to the implied undernumeration of 4.6% for the 1991 census. Estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS, and this can…
Country at a Glance. Brazil: Health. (accessed 22 April 2005). www.un.org/).
D'allegro, Joseph. "Brazil Attracting U.S. Insurers' Interest." National Underwriter Life & Health-Financial Services Edition. (1999): 25 October.
Encyclopedia: Demographics of Brazil. (accessed 22 April 2005). http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Demographics-of-Brazil ).
Migration and Urbanization. (accessed 22 April 2005). www.mongabay.com/reference/country_studies/brazil/29.html).
S. (Diaz 2007).
Apple stores may have a slightly different 'spirit' as evidenced by the long-haired slinky girls and champagne in the opening of the Brazilian store, but that is only to honor Apple's emphasis on public relatability. The retail outlets all deploy the same product conception. Apple's first self-run stores in Brazil all stressed friendly, approachable customer service, and Apple also strove to implement its store-within-a-store concept in Brazil soon after the opening of the first store " (Malley 2008). The store-within-a-store concept allows Apple consumers to go to other technology or department stores and receive Apple support and buy Apple products at a booth or kiosk from a knowledgeable, trained company representative.
Apple's overall Latin American strategy overall has come under criticism for some time although its recent expansionist efforts in Brazil have drawn praise. Many nations in the region remain underserved. One Argentinean technology correspondent complained that…
Apple Brazil. (2009). Official Website. Retrieved February 9, 2009 at http://www.apple.com/br/
Apple Brazil: Apple Shop Paulista opens officially. (2009, August 8). Visual Media.
Retrieved February 9, 2009 at http://www.visual -- media.com/blog/?p=351
Diaz, Jesus. (2007). Apple to Latin America: We don't care about you. Gizmodo.
Over the last several years, globalization is having a profound impact on the way investors will look at the risks and rewards of specific countries / regions of the world. Inside many developing countries, they need their support in order to enhance growth and encourage them to create jobs. However, several major problems have emerged with certain areas having a lack of transparency and basic safeguards. The result is that investors will become reluctant to provide capital in regions where they do not receive the support and protections they require. ("Dell's Dilemma," 2014)
This could have a negative impact on the development of Brazil with local governments not honoring their commitments. The case with Dell is illustrating how the firm is facing challenges in opening a manufacturing plant in Minas Gerais. The best option is to abandon building facilities inside the country and concentrate on outsourcing their manufacturing to…
Dell's Dilemma. (2014). Thunderbird School of Global Management.
In a similar manner and with common purpose is the razilian Association for Teleservices (Associacao rasileira de Telesservicios), except that this is concentrated most notably on this particular type of marketing services (teleservices and telemarketing). The area of activity is in fact vast and covers any telemedia, including thus call centers etc. The association was created 19 years ago, in 1989, and has grown tremendously in number of members in these years. In a similar manner to the AEMD, the company aims to both disseminate information and provide guidance and help for its members, as well as a framework where information and experience can be shared between the members. In terms of instrument, an important one is the magazine that the association publishes, the Chamada Geral.
An important and original direction for the AT is its association with NGOs, which can be instrumental in carrying the message across to both…
1. On the Internet at http://www.abemd.org.br/English/Default.aspx.Last retrieved on January 30, 2009
2. On the Internet at http://www.dhl-globalmail.com/servlet/exittracking?target=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.abt.org.br%2F&xmlFile=5001815&lang=en.Last retrieved on January 30, 2009
On the Internet at
Urban Areas in South America
In the scholarly journal ETHOS, there is an article by Baran (2007) entitled “Girl, You are Not Morena. We are Negras! Questioning the Concept of ‘Race’ in Southern Bahia, Brazil” that examines the way in which race is perceived in urban areas on South America—particularly in Brazil where the city of Salvador is located. Race is a major issue for urban areas in the United States, but in a different way than it is an issue for people in this part of South America. It is almost the exact opposite, in fact. While in the U.S., people are taught to embrace their ethnicity and to be proud of the things that make them unique and different, in Brazil there appears to be a campaign in the cities for people to categorize everyone as the same in terms of being light-skinned or dark.
Baran (2007) notes…
They must be able to work with all different personalities in a way where they can represent your business standards and know when it is appropriate to conform to local business practices.
I agree completely that social and communication skills are essential in modern business. That is especially true in connection with a global international society. In many instances, different cultures have such different social expectations that failure to respect and adhere to those social and cultural norms could easily make the difference between success and failure with respect to collaboration with foreign nationals.
I think there are many characteristics that a successful candidate in international business must possess. The probably most important is a willingness to learn and understand other cultures. Every country has its own and unique business practices and rituals. What may be appropriate for closing a deal in America could be rude and unacceptable…
Plantar's business model. What are its strengths and weaknesses?
Plantar is a raw materials company, focusing on forest management, tree plantations, and the production of pig iron from those materials. By taking the raw materials to manufacture pig iron while also engaging in reforestation, Plantar created a sustainable business model. Plantar also provides a wide range of forestry services as they diversified, from nursery administration to timber supply management. Pig iron was only one of the many areas Plantar was engaged in, but became an important part of the overall business model. As a dedicated pig iron plant, Plantar contributed to the burgeoning pig iron industry in Brazil. The business also operated with a "on the spot" purchasing model in which, unlike other commodities, did not depend on external buyers purchasing futures. Instead, the pig iron would be purchased on the spot by the buyers. Prices could also be negotiated…
Socializing is an important part of business meetings, and Brazilians feel that people should know each other before "talking business" (Cross-cultural Maria). This is also true of telephone calls. Even on the phone, social chit chat comes before business (Hofstede, 2003). Because of that, wait for the other person to change the subject from "getting to know you" to "getting down to business." (Hofstede, 2003) In the big cities (San Paulo, Rio de Janiero), people generally expect meetings to start on time (Hofstede, 2003).
Brazilians shake hands, often in an extended way, at the beginning and the end of an encounter. If there are several people, shake hands with everyone and make eye contact (Hofstede, 2003).
MEALS AN ENTERTAINING
For business purposes, restaurants are typically used instead of a person's home (Hofstede, 2003). The noon meal is the biggest meal, and dinner is likely to be lighter. However, if you…
Doing Business in Brazil," in "Cross-Cultural Maria. Accessed via the Internet 11/7/05. http://www.maria-brazil.org/business_in_brazil.htm
Business Culture," in Gateway to Brazil. Accessed via the Internet 11/7/05. http://www.tky.hut.fi/~rembussi/projects/gw_to_brazil/Part_IV.htm
Myers, Kristin Elaine. 2003. "Getting to Know You, in Brazzil: Way of life. January. Accessed via the Internet 11/7/05. http://www.brazzil.com/p111jan03.htm
dawn of the 20th century gave rise to racial consciousness and an awareness of racism as a potential political force. All around the world, oppressed persons became aware of the systemic nature of oppression. National boundaries and situational differences existed, but did not cloud the fact that European racial hegemony had long been a part of the means by which power had been established for centuries. Colonialism and imperialism were racist enterprises. The teachings of Marx and other sociologists helped raise awareness and provided the means by which to analyze and understand racism throughout the world. In Uneven Encounters: Making Race and Nation in Brazil and the United States, Micol Siegel traces the way racial consciousness developed simultaneously in different regions, and how that consciousness manifested in Brazil and the United States in particular. Siegel explores the importance of global communications technologies, the media, and other practical factors that made…
Peller, Gary. "Race Consciousness." Duke Law Journal 1990. Retrieved online: http://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3122&context=dlj
Pitts, James P. "The Study of Race Consciousness: Comments on New Directions." American Journal of Sociology. Volume 80, No. 3, Nov 1974.
Siegel, Micol. Uneven Encounters: Making Race and Nation in Brazil and the United States. Duke University Press, 2009.
SPLC (2015). Nation of Islam. Retrieved online: https://www.splcenter.org/fighting-hate/extremist-files/group/nation-islam
Empire of the South Atlantic
"Slave owners in Brazil were not unanimous about whether Sudanese slaves from Guinea or the Bantu from Angola were the best; and fashions in slaves, as in other commodities, were not always the same. Broadly speaking, the slaves of Sudanese origin tended to be more intelligent, more robust, and more hard working (when they did work), but they were more rebellious and less disposed to become reconciled to their menial lot. The Bantu on the other hand, were more cheerful, adaptable, and loquacious, but were not so strong or so resilient to disease" (Charles B., 4).
The excerpt above gives central aspects that informed the choice of slaves and hence the geographical areas of concertation by the slave traders. Basically the slaves were seen as commodities whose value was based on the needs of the slave owner, the physical capabilities and the inner or innate…
BIC Country Analysis
The objective of this report is to carry out economic analysis of Brazil, ussia, India, and China (BIC) and provide the country projected economic growth, country business environment and country risk. The GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is one of the major economic tools to measure economic growth of a country. Using GDP, the report analyzes the country's economic growth.
China is a country enjoying rapid economic growth among the BIC countries. Over the years, the country has maintained a strong economic growth and between 2007 and 2011, the China's economy showed constant growth with economic output reaching $3.7 trillion in 2010. As being revealed Table 2, China ranks third with reference to personal disposable income where personal disposable income is projected to increase from $2,300 in 2011 to $4,190 in 2015. However, the global economic crisis that affected many advanced countries also affected China making the…
Datamonitor. (2011). Country Analysis Report: China.
Economist Intelligence Unit Limited .(2012). China Country Report. The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited. United Kingdom.
Economist Intelligence Unit Limited .(2012). Russia Country Report. The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited. United Kingdom.
PRS Group (2011).Brazil Country Conditions Climate for Investment & Trade. PRS Group Inc.
Influx of Money Impact Hospitality Sector in Brazil
how influx of money impact brazil'S HOSPITALITY SECTO
How Money Influx from World Cup 2014 Impact Brazil's Hospitality Sector
How Money Influx from World Cup 2014 Impact Brazil's Hospitality Sector
The literature review seeks to scrutinize and evaluate the probable effects of the influx of money from 2014 World Cup in Brazil in relation to growth and development of the country's hospitality industry (Jones 2012). Since the major declaration (October 2007) by FIFA that Brazil shall be hosting the biggest world event, the hospitality sector has embarked on building new hotels, bistros, and lodges. The sector has also stepped up efforts to renovate existing facilities ahead of the tournament slated for June 2014. Although preparations are still underway, an influx of visitors and money is inevitable with considerable accommodation bookings reported across the country (Jones 2012).
Influx of Money is…
Burt, J. (2012, May 25). Boys staying in brazil. The Daily Telegraph.
Davis, J.A. (2012). The Olympic Games Effect: How Sports Marketing Builds Strong Brands.
Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons
Global outlook: Sporting events - sporting chance. (2010). Foreign Direct Investment,, n/a.
" (U.S. Secuities and Exchange Commission Annual Repot No. 1-2217)
Economical and Political Influences:
Economical and political conditions in the intenational maket place include: "civil unest, poduct boycotts, govenmental changes and estiction on the ability to tansfe capital acoss bodes." It is vey possible that the cuent instability in economic and political conditions in the Middle East, Noth Koea, Iaq o elsewhee as well as continued teoism could advesely impact the Company's financial esults in business."
Othe factos include: "Changes in the nonalcoholic beveages business envionment which is inclusive of changes in consumes pefeences due to health o nutition aspects, competition pessues in poduct and picing competitive poduct. Othe changes such as changes in foeign cuency fluctuation and inteest ates as well as othe capital maket conditions, weathe conditions advesely effecting the Company by a eduction in demand, vaiations in effectiveness of advetising, maketing and pomotions. Fluctuations on cost and…
references due to health or nutrition aspects, competition pressures in product and pricing competitive product. Other changes such as changes in foreign currency fluctuation and interest rates as well as other capital market conditions, weather conditions adversely effecting the Company by a reduction in demand, variations in effectiveness of advertising, marketing and promotions. Fluctuations on cost and availability of raw materials as well as variables in energy costs and transportation costs as well as other necessary services along with the variables in maintaining supplier arrangements and relationships. Natural disasters will be possible threats due to power disruptions and labor strikes. Other variables in business are: "Our ability to effectively align ourselves with our bottling system as we focus on increasing the investment in our brands; seeking efficiencies throughout the supply chain; delivering more value for our customers; and better meeting the needs of our consumers. Changes in laws and regulations, including changes in accounting standards, taxation requirements
Including tax rate changes, new tax laws and revised tax law interpretations), laws concerning food and beverages, competition laws, employment laws and environmental laws in domestic or foreign jurisdictions. Our ability to penetrate developing and emerging markets, which also depends on economic and political conditions, and how well we are able to acquire or form strategic business alliances with local bottlers and make necessary infrastructure enhancements to production facilities, distribution networks, sales equipment and technology. Moreover, the supply of products in developing markets must match the customers' demand for those products, and due to product price and cultural differences, there can be no assurance of product acceptance in any particular market. • the uncertainties of litigation, as well as other risks and uncertainties detailed from time to time in our Company's Securities and Exchange Commission filings. The foregoing list of important factors is not exclusive.
Third Quarter Statement (2004) Coca-Cola FEMSA a DE CV Earnings Conference [Online] Highbeam Research.
South American Business Information 4.8.2004 Comtex news.
Latin America Operating Segment" the Coca-Cola Company 2003 [Online} available at http://www2.coca-cola.com/investors/annualandotherreports/2003/opseg_latin.shtml
For an industry that is fast becoming a verifiable and sustainable model of energy development, the labor that supplies the demand will likely get its fair share of attention (Goldemberg, 2007).
On the marketing end of the industry, there is the automobile manufacturing boom of flex cars, and the new multi-billion dollar deals between the largest ethanol producer in Brazil, Cosan Limited, and Royal Dutch Shell. The most recent joint venture between these fuel giants is worth an estimated $12 billion dollars. However, Cosan has encountered pushback due to its treatment of employees, and even global market giants like almart have suspended contracts with Cosan until this issue is resolved. Additionally, the banks of Brazil have put holds on any future lending until Cosan deals with the labor issue (Martinelli & Filoso, 2008).
On the ethanol end of business, Royal Shell and British Petroleum are to date the only major…
Delgadoa, R., Araujo, A., & Fernandes, J.V. (2007). Properties of Brazilian gasoline mixed with hydrated ethanol for flex-fuel technology. Fuel Processing Technology, 365-368.
Goldemberg, J. (2007). Ethanol for a Sustainable Energy Future. Science, 808-810.
Martinelli, L., & Filoso, S. (2008). EXPANSION OF SUGARCANE ETHANOL PRODUCTION IN BRAZIL: ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL CHALLENGES. Ecological Society of America, 885-898.
Brazil's culture is a fascinating blend of European, African and Amerindian influences. Portuguese settlers brought with them strong influences in religion, later Europeans such as Italians and Germans arrived bringing 20th century ideas about government, Africans brought drums and dance, and Amerindian influences can be found in a number of spheres. Over the course of the past five hundred years, these influences have been shaped by the vast and varied landscape, the climate and political events. Even though different parts of the country developed almost in isolation from one another due to geographic distance, some elements of culture bind all Brazilians. Carnival is one of those. The combination in dance, music, costume and religion into a single event is one of the defining elements of Brazilian culture. At once, it takes deep roots and social significance, while maintaining a lighter popular side that pays only superficial homage to…
Lewis, C. (1996). Woman, body, space: Rio Carnival and the politics of performance. Gender, Place and Culture: A Journal of Feminist Geography. Vol. 3 (1) 23-42.
Maria Helena, another woman from later in Patai's book, shows a much more direct rejection of masculine dominance, particularly in the context of a marriage. She admits to being something of a lapsed Catholic, which could be seen to tie into her statement that "when I was married, my husband always liked to tell me what to do, but I wouldn't let him. For example, he didn't want our boys to go to school...hen he dies, most of them were already in secondary school" (Patai 195). Maria Helena did not completely reject her Church or her husband, but she refused to let either of these institutional structures make decisions for her, or to influence or even dictate what she felt would be most important and advantageous for her family.
These stories also illustrate the increasing importance the women of Brazil felt, perhaps unconsciously at first, in having the ability to…
Patai, Daphne. Brazilian Women Speak. New York: Rutgers University Press, 1988.
Revolution Through the Lens of Agricultural Industrialization
The revolutions in Cuba, Mexico and Brazil Bahia as described and detailed in the three text From slavery to freedom in Brazil Bahia, 1835-1900 by Dale Torston Graden, Insurgent Cuba race, nation and revolution, 1868-1898 by Ada Ferrer and The Mexican Revolution: 1910-1940 Dialogos Series, 12 by Michael j. Gonzales all tell varied stories regarding the thematic development of revolution and change. Each has a different story to tell about labor, free and slave, politics, race and freedom yet underlying each of these themes is a current that is not only consistent but largely underdeveloped. This theme is agricultural and its changing labor and production practices. This work will analyze and compare the treatment of agriculture as a theme associated with each local. Each nation demonstrates the story of profiteering through agriculture in varied ways, and the rejection of it.
In each work…
Ferrer, Ada. Insurgent Cuba: Race, Nation, and Revolution, 1868-1898. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1999.
Gonzales, Michael. The Mexican Revolution, 1910-1940. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. 2002.
Torston Graden, Dale. From Slavery to Freedom in Brazil: Bahia, 1835-1900. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press. 2006.
managing a start- firm tasked preparing operating plan import coffee U.S. Brazil. The plan intend operate coffee import business "Inventory Warehousing policy."
The organization will be importing coffee from Brazil and selling it into the United States. The idea behind this strategy is based on both cost efficiencies, as well as the long lasting history of Brazilian coffee, which is highly respected across the entire globe.
Still, in order to ensure the final success of the company, it is necessary to devise a strong strategic plan focusing on a multitude of aspects. Some of these aspects include the selection and motivation of the staff members, the purchase of the machineries, the renting of the space and so on. Each of these issues is dealt with in precise order, based on priority and importance.
At the present moment, the priority is represented by the creation of an operating plan in…
Jaecques, T., 2002, Logistics planning, Buildings, http://www.buildings.com/ArticleDetails/tabid/3334/Default.aspx?ArticleID=884#top last accessed on February 13, 2012
Lorrette, K., How to set up inventory in a warehouse, Small Business, http://smallbusiness.chron.com/set-up-inventory-warehouse-2348.html last accessed on February 13, 2012
Creating a logistics business plan- questions to consider, Best Logistics Guide, http://www.bestlogisticsguide.com/logistics-business-plan.html last accessed on February 13, 2012
Inventory Management Strategy. In his book, Streetwise Project Management, Dobson (2003) advocates the use of a just-in-time inventory management strategy to keep inventories low and manufacturing process more productive. This approach, though, will require close coordination with a Brazilian supplier, warehousing operations, planners and forecasters, and transportation directors throughout the inventory management process. In this regard, Epps (1995) advises, that such an approach requires the efficient transportation of materials from outside vendors directly to the work-in-process area, where the required value added processes of the manufacturing operations take place, which is followed by the shipping of the finished products to the customer within a reasonable timeframe. This inventory management strategy can save manufacturers the costs of inspection, stocking, material handling, inventory tracking, carrying the inventory, and the dangers that are typically related to damage to parts and their tendency to become obsolete over time (Epps).
The just-in-time inventory management strategy…
Bolten, E.F. (1997). Managing time and space in the modern warehouse with ready-to-use forms, checklist & documentation. New York: AMACOM.
Boyson, S., Harrington, L.H. & Corsi, T.M. (2004). In real time: Managing the new supply chain. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Brazil. (2009). U.S. government: CIA world factbook. [Online.] Available: https://www.cia.