Burglary investigations [...] theory of burglary investigations, how "surveillance" is part of the stakeout, how to look for a suspect, how fingerprinting is a part of the investigation, and will distinguish between the different types of burglaries, i.e.: First-degree; Second-degree, etc. based on using a weapon or not. It will also discuss the degrees of penalty, and how burglaries differ between day and night.
Burglary is one of the most invasive crimes perpetrated on the public. It is also known as Home Invasion, or Breaking and Entering, and is defined as "The unlawful entry into the premises of another with intent to commit a felony (usually larceny) therein."
How detective and police officers investigate this crime can mean the difference between solving the case and allowing burglaries to continue in the community, and unfortunately, burglaries are some of the crimes with the worst clearance rates in police investigation.…… [Read More]
Comparing and contrasting the definition of burglary with different legal frameworks yields some very interesting observations. Specifically, the author compared common law and Virginia’s law. Indeed, it is very diverse but yet similar when defining. Burglary is commonly defined according as the unlawful entry of a structure in order to commit a felony or theft (“Burglary Overview”, 2018). It may include actual forcible entry. However, instances where unlawful entry with no force and/or attempted forcible entry are present can also be labeled and prosecuted as burglary. While the definition of burglary is fairly consistent in most cases, there are variances in the law when comparing different types of law and differing levels of jurisdiction.
The burglary laws on the books in Virginia, on the other hand, are a little different. Virginia’s law defines burglary breaking and entering someone’s home in the night time with the intent to commit a…… [Read More]
Most likely, it was secondary data -- that is, analysis -- that led to these houses' placement on the map.
There are several elements that could be useful to this map that are not included. For example, the division of the community into different areas (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) might provide some more clues to the rate/placement of the burglaries. Similarly, median incomes/home prices for each given area might be important elements. There is very little about the map that is not pertinent, however; though there appears to be little relation between the burglaries and the location of suspected drug houses, this is important to know and recognize, and leaving the drug houses off the map would eliminate this knowledge. Other information that could usefully be included in this map includes some basic details about the individual burglaries -- whether cars were broken into or left unlocked (especially important in…… [Read More]
Figure 7 depicts 2006 Florida violent crime statistics; evolving from aggravated assault, robbery, forcible rape and murder.
Figure 7: 2006 Florida Violent Crime ates (adapted from UC crime statistics, 2008).
The 2006 National violent crime rates included: Murder -- 1.2%; Forcible ape -- 6.5%; obbery -- 31.6%; Aggravated Assault -- 60.7% Compared to Florida's 2006 violent crime rates, the murder rate and robbery rates and forcible rates are lower; however the aggravated assault rate is higher (Uniform Crime eports, N.d.).
Figure 8 depicts 2006 Florida property crime rates; evolving from burglary, larceny theft and vehicular theft.
Figure 8: 2006 Florida Property Crime ates (adapted from UC crime statistics, 2008).
The National 2006 property crime rates included: Burglary rate -- 21.9%; Larceny theft rate -- 66.2%; Vehicular theft rate -- 11.9%; Compared to Florida's 2006 property crime rates, the vehicular theft rate is lower; however the burglary rate and larceny…… [Read More]
This element is necessary to determine whether or not the offense can be considered to be aggravated sexual assault.
Explain why locating the point of origin is so important in arson investigation.
Determining the point of origin of a fire is a crucial first step in any investigation. This step is so important because it may illuminate the cause of the fire, and further identify whether the fire was criminal in nature. Fire investigation is difficult, due to the fact that evidence is often destroyed by the blaze. Before the cause of a fire can be determined, the point of origin must be identified. Often the point of origin of a fire is known, but the cause is not, and sometimes the reverse is true.
List and describe the several stages of a burglary investigation.
There are five main activities used by the authorities to respond to burglaries of dwellings…… [Read More]
Alcoholism and Upbringing
James' father is responsible for James' involvement in crime and burglary. Origin of the problem. Alcoholic parents are the reason for the moral decay of juveniles
Another reason for James' feelings of inadequacy
Effect of alcoholism in the upbringing of a child
The effect of taking James out of his mother's home as a juvenile
An examination of James' denial of his responsibility over his problem
Personality and sociological theory
An explanation of James' behaviors, and his father using the two frameworks
Thorburn (2005) suggests that a misapprehension that numerous alcoholics seem to have is that their behavior does not affect other people. They deny ever hurting other people but themselves. A great deal of research and huge anecdotal proof suggest otherwise. The behavior of alcoholics can affect those around them, including family members, friends, coworkers and employers. Children…… [Read More]
History has shown us that, time and again, more privileged offenders become excused of higher-level degrees of crime and are, instead, tagged with the lower-level descriptor of white-collar crime. The FBI's definition merges with this second definition in that the FBI agrees that most white-collar crimes are perpetrated by business and government professionals, and that these crimes can be severe in that they can devastate individuals, families, and organizations (Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). [online]).
What is the National Insurance Crime Bureau, and what functions does it perform for law enforcement?
The National Insurance Crime Bureau (NICB), supported by approximately 1,000 property/casualty insurance companies, is an American non-profit organization located in Illinois that deals with insurance-related crimes and works with law enforcement agencies to ensure control and vigilance. Much of its work is related to motor vehicle theft. In general, however, the NICB describes itself as "partnering with insurers and…… [Read More]
Security at workplaces is not only the responsibility of the management, but all the parties in the premises. Therefore, it is important that everyone is involved one way or another in maintenance of security. In a company the size of Walter Widget, with 240 personnel, it can be challenging to maintain high security standards.
With the increasing nationwide crime against workplaces and businesses, the stakes in workplace security are high. Walter Widget must be concerned about theft of any kind including trade secrets, computer information and other resources. The firm needs to take necessary steps to prevent other security risks such as arson, vandalism and workplace violence.
Workplace crime affects production. According to Bressler (2007) businesses are prone to a wide variety of crimes and need to take action in prevention of criminal activities that influence profitability. Workplace crime affects the employees, because it results insecurity at work. Safety at…… [Read More]
The common characteristics of all property crimes
Property crime can encompass aspects of burglary, theft, or motor vehicle theft and this also includes attempted as well as completed crimes. In accordance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010), property crime comprises of the wrongdoings of motor vehicle theft, larceny-theft, burglary, as well as, arson. In particular, the object of the theft-kind transgressions encompasses the taking of money or property, however with the lack of force or threat of force against the victims. Imperatively, the property crime classification takes into account arson for the reason that the offense consists of the destruction of property. Nonetheless, arson victims may be subjected to force. There are two crime measures in the United States with regard to crimes against property. One is the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) by the Bureau of Justice Standards (BJS), which encompasses reported and unreported crime from the perspective…… [Read More]
BCU Local Crime Community Action
Q1 ow long have you lived in this neighborhood and do you know all your neighbors by face and name and if not can you see reasons for this, please explain?
Rationale 1 This question is designed to attempt to understand how well the neighborhood knows one another and if there is at least facial recognition between long time residents and student tenants. This question also attempts to create a written rather than anecdotal record of the residential beliefs regarding the variant student population and the increase in crime and is open ended for this purpose.
Q2 When did you first notice that crime began to increase and can you describe the events and experiences that you have been witness to or been victim of in relation to crime?
Rationale 2 Again this question is a way of discerning the current crime conditions and to…… [Read More]
Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.
Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…… [Read More]
Likely, there will never be a police department with a completely paper-less information system (Police report writing, 2011). Until then, the basics of report writing will remain the same and is the bread and butter of law enforcement.
Incident Data and Burglary Data
Time the police officer received the call- 1537 hrs.
Address of the burglary -- 2914 E. Indiana, Spokane, ashington 99207
Call sign of the police car -- Paul 302
Erynne M. Vodde
Name of victim -- Erynne M. Vodde
Date of Birth -- 5-31-77
Home Phone [HIDDEN]
Place of ork- Sacred Heart Medical Center -- Pediatrics
ork #- 474-5110
Missing Items -- Cell phone, change jar with around $15 in it (both of them were on top of the dresser in the bedroom next to the bathroom where the window was). There was also some Bud Light Beer Bottles missing…… [Read More]
This was due to the fact that defense attorneys often attempted to prove consent by showing that a victim did not resist the assault or had a sexual history suggesting that she would have consented to the sexual contact. Now, N.J.S.2C:14-2 no longer contains a requirement that the perpetrator overcame a resisting victim. Instead, in cases of forcible rape, the Code simply requires that the defendant: committed the assault during the course of certain specified felonies (N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(3); was armed or seemed to be armed (N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(4); acted with another and used physical force or coercion N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(5); used physical force or coercion N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(5) and -(1); the victim is physically or mentally incapacitated N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(7). Therefore, the Code names a variety of situations where sexual intercourse between a victim and a defendant is rape, without evidence of any type of coercion.
Maria, a single mother, goes on her third date with John. They return…… [Read More]
Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest…… [Read More]
Positive Philosophy in Law
Thomas Aquinas and Hans Kelsen held that the law enforced by human courts is indeed a positive law. Legal philosophers have since come up with a flurry of arguments claiming that positive law must have its source and content. These philosophers were and are of contention that the court's core mandate should be that of harmonizing heterogeneous sources of law into a coherent body of law for ease of administration of justice. Sources of law can be drawn from the ancient oman law, legislation, custom, precedent and equity, raw materials processed by courts into genuine law, statutes, precedents, and opinions of experts. With regard to content, law should be enforced to administer justice (Murphy, 2005).
This paper seeks to list some factors that a judge in a state's criminal court system would consider before sentencing burglary/theft offenders, people suspected to have committed aggravated battery, or those…… [Read More]
The objective of this study is to read the case Deal V. Spears United States Court Of Appeals, Eighth Circuit, 980 F. 2D 1153 (1992) and to answer the questions of whether it is lawful to monitor the telephone conversation of an employee if the employee has given prior consent and to answer if in this case whether Deal give her employer consent in this case? This study will additionally examine whether due to the recent burglary of the store, whether the employer had a legitimate business reason to record and review the employee's phone calls made or received at work. Finally, this study will consider what, under the Watkins precedent, is the extent to which an employer can monitor personal phone calls to employees within the ordinary course of business exemption of the federal wiretapping law where is no evidence of express consent here.
The basis…… [Read More]
Victor and Hugo both knowingly entered into a contract to split the proceeds from a felonious action, the contract is not enforceable. In this situation, Victor can even keep the ten percent that he has now offered to pay Hugo instead of the original fifty percent that they had agreed upon. According to the Law Commission Consultation Report 2009, "If a contract has as its object the deliberate commission of a crime, then it is illegal and the courts will not enforce it."
There is substantial case law to support this stance. For example, in Brown Jenkinson & co. ltd. V Percy Dalton ltd. (1957), the court held that "a contract to indemnify for losses suffered as a result of the deliberate commission of the tort of deceit is unenforeceable."
Further, it was found in Anderson v Daniel (1924) that "a contract may be lawful in its formation but performed…… [Read More]
Psychology and the Criminal Offender
Individuals commit crimes for many different reasons, and some of these and psychological in nature. In other words, the way that a person's brain works and the way that the person looks at the world can contribute to how that person reacts to many different things and whether that person commits crimes, or what kinds of crimes. The circumstances of the individual can also contribute to what kind of crimes are committed, since access to different things affects the types of crimes that are committed by specific individuals. Looked at here will be white collar, blue collar, and organized crime, since they are all different and those differences can be important. In addition to this, it will be important to describe and distinguish the common characteristics that these criminals have.
White collar crime is generally committed by those that make more money and that work…… [Read More]
By contrast, other studies have revealed that 69% of those committing violent crimes against whites are also white, and that 81% of those committing violent crimes against African-Americans are also African-Americans (Violent pp).
In 2004, Thomas B. Heffelfinger, the United States Attorney for the state of Minnesota, called for a major overhaul of the criminal law enforcement system in Indian Country, calling it a "national shame" (Federal pp). Heffelfinger said statistics reveal that Native American Indians and Alaska Natives are the victims of violent crime more than the any other group in the country, and that includes every crime, child abuse, sexual assault, homicide, assault, etc. (Federal pp).
Heffelfinger complained that the current system of law enforcement "is taking the leaders of our national tribes, making them victims of crime and sending them to prison" (Federal pp). Heffelfinger, who chairs the Native American Issues sub-committee for the Department of Justice,…… [Read More]
Hate and Violence
Perhaps one of the greatest challenges we face in the United States today is the need to reduce hate and violence in ourselves and our society. As a teacher in a juvenile detention facility, I have struggled with ways to teach children nonviolent approaches to conflict, and the importance of tolerance and respect for others. This paper will describe student responses to a movie program designed to teach core values of non-violence and tolerance, and discuss these findings in the larger context of the juvenile criminal justice system and society.
In my last eight years as a teacher at a juvenile detention facility, I have struggled to find meaningful ways to reach my students. Students are often highly resistant to both authority and advice from sources that they initiated a Friday afternoon movie program at the juvenile detention facility as a way to encourage nonviolence as a…… [Read More]
on should have locked his car doors. However, whoever took the new slacks he left in his car knew or should have known that it is wrong to steal, even if it is easy to do so. on should have the right to live his life without his property being stolen, and being careless (leaving the door unlocked) does not give someone else a right to take his things. While he should have been more careful, he really does not have any official responsibility for the theft. The thief bears 100% of the responsibility for the theft of the slacks, since he (or she) made the conscious choice to steal something that did not belong to him (or her). Even if a person leaves something valuable just sitting out, no one should take that item (Wallace, 2004). One could argue that on should "know better" or that he was very…… [Read More]
crime rate data of burglaries in two U.S. metropolitan localities.
The UC (Uniform Crime eporting) Program of the Federal Bureau of Investigation describes the act of burglary as illegal entry into a structure for committing theft or a felony. For labeling a crime as burglary, it is not necessary for the element of 'forced entry'. UC provides three sub-categories of burglary: forced entry; non-forced, illegal entry; and attempted forced entry. It defines the term "structure" as any apartment, houseboat or house trailer (utilized as permanent lodgings), office, barn, stable, vessel or ship, and railroad car (however, automobiles are not included). In the year 2012, approximately 2,103,787 burglaries were reported -- a 3.7% decline from the previous year (FBI -- Burglary). Compared to the figures for 2003 and 2008, burglaries declined in 2012 by 2.4% and 5.6%, respectively. The approximate burglary rate constituted 23.4% of the approximate property crime rate. Subcategory-wise,…… [Read More]
Based on the foregoing considerations, it is suggested that the DCMP restructure their existing training programs and administration so that a more unified and centralized plan is in place, as well as providing for better instructor qualifications, evaluation, learning retention and more efficient and effective use of resources which are by definition scarce.
These broad general issues were refined for the purposes of this study into the research questions stated below.
What is the background of the District of Columbia area policy and community relations since World War II?
What are some major problems preventing positive relations between communities and the District of Columbia Metropolitan area police?
Can training programs of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department enhance community relations?
What training modules can be used to enhance relations between surrounding communities in the District of Columbia Metropolitan area law enforcement?
Significance of the Study
esearch Design…… [Read More]
It is methodological individualism which makes up the group, creating problems for the ational Theories which tout individualism as the driving force in motivation. Some say that the actions of individuals results in an unintended consequence when done in a group (Scott, p. 30).
If you look long enough for the secret of society you will find it in plain sight: the secret of society is that it was made by men, and there is nothing in society but what men put there'" (Homans, p. 385).
Captain David Poston, head of the CMPD Property Crimes Unit, who spoke to the problem of this rash of burglaries within the metropolitan area in November, 2007, said that "while citywide, burglaries were down nearly 5% last year compared to 2006, we have seen an increase in the past couple of weeks" (Charlotte, p. 1).
He admits that over the month preceding, detectives saw…… [Read More]
Further, an argument could also be made that the act did not occur at night. Although "daylight was waning" it was not yet actually nighttime when it occurred. Finally, a defense can be made as to the intent to commit a felony element. From the facts given, their intent was to enter the cabin to dry off and warm up. Unless it can be proved that their intent was to steal the dry pasta, this element will fail. If all six of the elements of burglary are not proved, then the defendants are not guilty of the burglary charge.
Another possible defense available to the defendants is that of justification. If they can show that their actions were justified in light of their situation and that there was no other reasonable alternative to the breaking and entering, then they have a valid defense against the charge.
Question Four: Was Pierson…… [Read More]
3 for robbery, 244.0 for assault, 367.7 for burglary, 1,617.7 for larceny theft and 213.3 for vehicle theft
In 2005: 4.5 for murder, 18.9 for rape, 182.7 for robbery, 239.7 for assault, 351.3 for burglary, 1,569.6 for larceny theft and 185.6 for vehicle theft
Year Population Murder Rape Robbery Assault urglary Larceny-Theft Vehicle Theft 2003-19,212,425-934 3,775-35,790-48,987-75,453-311,422-45,204-2004 19,227,088-889 3,608-33,506-46,911-70,696-311,036-41,002-2005 19,254,630-874 3,636-35,179-46,150-68,034-302,220-35,736
FI, Uniform Crime Reports, (http://www.disastercenter.com/crime/nycrime.htm)
As the charts prove, there has been a decrease in the number of murders, larceny thefts, assaults, burglaries and vehicle thefts. As for rape and robbery we can notice that year 2005 has brought a slight increase in the percentage comparatively with the previous year, meaning 2004.
I believe that these drops in criminal activity are not due only to the better coordination of the police compared to the previous years. I must admit, though, that the greatest part may have been achieved by it.…… [Read More]
Criminal Justice Research Review
Ricciardelli, R., Bell, J., & Clow, K. (2009). Student attitudes toward wrongful conviction, Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice, 51(3), 411-427.
There has been considerable research addressing the underlying factors regarding wrongful conviction; however, minimal research has been completed that investigates attitudes toward wrongful conviction. First and third year Canadian undergraduate students in criminal and non-criminal justice majors were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward various facets of wrongful conviction, the need to educate criminal justice personnel regarding contributing factors to wrongful conviction, the Blackstone ratio ("better that ten guilty persons escape than that one innocent suffer), and the question as to whether wrongful conviction causes individuals to lose faith in the criminal justice system.
The problem was sufficiently narrowed down into a researchable problem, and is certainly formidable enough to warrant formal research efforts. The authors complete a significant comparison to the most…… [Read More]
In a recently-conducted survey, the following 10 metropolitan cities had low to very low crime rates: Scottsdale (AZ), Plano (TX), Virginia Beach (VA), Fremont (CA), Honolulu (HI), San Jose (CA), Anaheim (CA), Fort ayne (in), Santa Ana (CA), and Garland (TX). It seems that most cities with scores of 6 and lower (out of 10 on the crime rate scale) were located mostly in the south and the west, with the exception of Fort ayne. (Area Vibes, 2012)
It is interesting to see, then, if weather contributes to these low crime rates. Some experts would agree that weather, indeed, has a lot to do with the low crime rates in these cities. However, most would venture to state that the low crime rate is attributed to the fact that in most of these cities, the average median income is over $60,000. Yet another facet to point out would be that…… [Read More]
Beginning in April 1984, Malcolm Fairley would burglarize, sexually assault, and rape a number of victims and was becoming bolder with each assault. The braver he become, the more careless and easily startled he was, which would lead to his apprehension in September 1984. Using paint flake analysis, coupled with eyewitness testimony, law enforcement officials were able to track down Fairley and bring him to justice. During the course of subsequent investigation, they found evidence to connect him to various assaults and burglaries, including a facemask made out of a pair of trousers.
During the summer of 1984, the British countryside would be rocked by a series of burglaries, assaults, and rapes committed by an unknown assailant who would become known as "The Fox." "The Fox" prowled the countryside beginning in April when he committed his first burglary until September, when he was identified as Malcolm Fairley and…… [Read More]
activities of the U.S. criminal justice system focus for the most part on immediate events. Nonetheless, it is important to take a broad look at changes in criminal rate across a period of time, in order to comprehend the context in which individual crimes occur, and establish better means of minimizing their incidence. The present work's aim is to analyze characteristics of New York City's crime rates from the past three years, as reported by authorities, and envision a setting whereby criminality might diminish.
Firstly, local data gathered consistently by The Division of Criminal Justice Services from year to year is to be compared and contrasted in order to identify and assess New York City's important crime trends. The following table illustrates the results pertaining to the analysis.
New York City crime statistics of the last three years
Difference in Percentage
2011 compared to 2010
2012 compared…… [Read More]
The Freedom Information Act of 2002 reported 2,351 occurrences of forcible sex offenses on campus and 1,670 in residence halls; 2,953 aggravated assaults on campus; 2,147 robberies on campus and 29,256 burglaries also on campus; and 1,098 arsons on campus in that year alone. This was the summary of campus crime statistics released by the U.S. Department of Education (Security on Campus 2004).
This document and national studies reveal the prevalence of sexual assault on both male and female college and university students. In a number of these recent surveys conducted in approximately 6,000 schools, one of four female students admitted to having been subjected to forced sexual contact or forced sexual intercourse and that 90% of them knew their offenders. At the time of assault, 75% of these male students and 55% of the female were either drunk or under the influence of drugs (Security on Campus).…… [Read More]
Criminal Decision Making: The Elements of the Culture of the Street and Party Life and Their elation to Criminal Decision-Making
Understanding offenders' lifestyles and the process by which they choose to commit criminal acts is critical particularly because it has important implications for crime control. Very often, certain elements of the street and party life influence the offender's assessment of the risks and rewards of crime. According to Shover and Honaker (1992), commitment to drugs and partying, as well as street culture, leads to alienation of offenders from mainstream society and pushes them away from a conventional life. Over time, they adopt a socially bounded rationality and become accustomed to a criminal lifestyle to a point where they break the law as a result of addiction, rather that free will. It is, therefore, imperative to understand the role played by these lifestyles in shaping the motivation for crime because it…… [Read More]
In 1993 there were 155,704 recorded crimes of burglary and of these 20,200 were residential burglaries. Since the mid-1970s the level of recorded burglaries has fluctuated around a level of 130,000 to 150,000 crimes per year although during the three last years, 1991 to 1993, the level has been close to 155,000. The number of recorded car thefts in 1993 was 61,141 and of these 18,300 were attempts. During the 1980s the number of recorded thefts of cars has doubled from 34,301 in 1980 to 69,003 in 1989. However, in the last three years this crime has decreased from roughly 70,000 in 1991 to roughly 61,000 in 1993.
Drug offenses. In 1993, 40,700 violations of the Narcotic Drugs Act were reported to the police. This figure is 40% higher than in 1990. Due to the method of counting drug offenses and the fact that this is a crime category highly…… [Read More]
herefore, by increasing the costs of imprisonment by the three strikes law, it is intended that there will be less crime. Marwell and Moody express several difficulties with the laws in the 24 states: Criminals are not always aware of the laws, at least not initially; repeat criminals can be expected to serve substantial prison terms even in the absence of the laws; almost all of the states already had habitual criminal statutes where criminals with prior convictions could be given lengthy sentences under the judge's discretion; the deterrent effect on homicides is limited in any case because the law most likely does not increase sanctions for homicides. However, the law may reduce homicides by deterring robberies and other felonies where homicides may take place; some criminals may limit their expected costs by taking evasive action, such as moving to another jurisdiction or to other areas of crime where the…… [Read More]
This firm's client, Franklin Olsen ("Olsen") was arrested and subsequently charged with burglary of the home of Lindsay Young ("Young"). Young informed the police that she had found Olsen in her home on October 15, 2010, at dusk and observed Olsen for approximately one minute prior to his leaving the property. Young described Olsen as being dark haired, wearing all black clothing and being extremely tall. At that time that Olsen was taken into custody.
Young was asked to make identification of the suspect to the burglary in a police lineup. Olsen was one of six white males in the police lineup and had an attorney present to represent him. All the participants in the lineup other than Olsen were between 5'8: to 5'10" in height and all wore clothing that was light in color however, Olsen was instructed to wear all black clothing. Olsen was additionally the only…… [Read More]
It was the apprehension of being struck that induced compliance" (Perkins 1954: 346).
As well as a feasible threat, to prove there was an attempt to commit a crime requires defining the attempt as distinct from mere preparation. It is also noteworthy that "a distinction is made between measures taken by way of preparation for the commission of a crime and steps taken in the direction of its actual perpetration" (Perkins 1954: 325). But the actual preparation for the crime is not synonymous with the attempt. "So far as the common law is concerned there is no criminal attempt unless what was done went beyond the stage of preparation" and the "act must reach far enough toward the accomplishment of the desired result to amount to the commencement of the consummation" (Perkins 1954: 325). Of course, this can be difficult to define: for example, in the case of an attempted…… [Read More]
I would not suggest that Mary Lou plea-bargain to any offense.
II. First, I would suggest that all she did was buy gasoline, which is not illegal, and that she was not aware of Bubba's plans to use it to burn down the houses. If the evidence demonstrated that Mary Lou was aware of Bubba's plans to use the gasoline to burn down the house when she purchased it, I would explore the use of the Battered Women's Syndrome. Using that, I would suggest that if Mary Lou purchased gasoline knowing that Bubba intended to use it to commit an arson, that she did so because she feared the consequences of telling Bubba "no." I would show Bubba's history of domestic violence with a prior spouse, his long string of marriages, and present any evidence suggesting that Mary Lou was a battered woman.
Roe v. Wade
From a constitutional perspective,…… [Read More]
Presently, the ed Line consists of three segments Downtown LA, Wilshire Center and N. Hollywood and the total coverage is 17.4 miles. Apart from this, the review identified the possible financial and schedule risks. It was inferred that the cost and completion schedules were justified; however funding risks were present for the North Hollywood segment. Apart from that, MTA's overall finances and the operating budget shortfalls might impact the ed Line. Therefore it was recommended that FTA need MTA to keep its finance plan up-to-date and to clearly find out and make priority in its different capital and operating costs revenues by source, and the specific revenues which are to cover specific costs. FTA approved the recommendation. Finally the report concluded that the ecovery Plan's 7-year projections of revenues and costs can be supported and were justified. Nevertheless MTA would be encountering a deficit of $1.1 billion. ("Transportation Investment Projects…… [Read More]
What Do You Think?
Crime eporting: UC and NCVS
The Uniform Crime eport is a compilation of offensives collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from all police stations in the United States. Data collected is divided into two groups, Part I and Part II. Part I data includes violent and property crimes such as aggravated assault, forcible rape, murder, robbery, arson, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft. Part II offenses include simple assault, curfew offenses and loitering, embezzlement, forgery and counterfeiting, disorderly conduct, driving under the influence, drug offenses, fraud, gambling, liquor offenses, offenses against the family, prostitution, public drunkenness, runaways, sex offenses, stolen property, vandalism, vagrancy, and weapons offenses ("Uniform Crime eports.," 2012).
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is conducted by telephone and collects information on nonfatal crimes reported and not reported to the police against persons age twelve and older from a nationally…… [Read More]
Crime Trends in Indiana, 1981-2011
With an economy founded on agriculture and industry, and few blighted urban centers, Indiana's crime rates in all indexed categories have historically been lower than the national average. However, data collected between 1995 and 2005 shows a disturbing trend: the crime rate for many categories is declining in the rest of the country faster than in the state of Indiana. This data is shown in Figure 1, below.
Indiana Crime Index ate per 100,000 esidents Compared to National. From Indiana Criminal Justice Institute.
Currently, Indiana's cities are suffering from the loss of jobs in the state and the region, especially the northern cities like Gary and Hammond. Trends in urban crime are different from trends in rural crime, and it is also helpful for business owners and community leaders to understand the answer to the question "who commits crimes?" Community members and prospective Indiana homebuyers…… [Read More]
crime of burglaries within the locality, the following investigation strategy has been devised, on the basis of community concerns and questions:
What technological aid is required for carrying out this operation?
Geographic Information System or computer-based crime mapping has been adopted on an extensive scale by a number of police forces across the globe. GIS aids law enforcement agencies in locating and keeping an eye on problematic sites (Watkins, et.al, 2002). CCTV (closed-circuit TV) helps them in detecting, preventing, and reducing chaos and crime in the streets. This form of technology may be applied to identify problem points where future robberies may possibly take place.
What course would you assume for examining robbery patterns?
Mapping of crime scenes will be heavily relied on (Writer Thoughts). Sites where robberies have occurred previously will be recorded in the police force's computer database, for enabling us to identify possible sites where robberies might…… [Read More]
Stu Dents Charges
The author of this report has been asked to revisit the case of Stu Dents and the litany of crimes he is alleged to have committed against Uma Opee and in general. There is indeed a laundry list of issues to be seen and charges when it comes to Stu Dents and they will be listed out within this report. Each crime that applies will be listed and there will also be the associated act and detail that supports Stu Dents being charged with the crime. For all of the crimes listed, there will be an associated state that Stu will be charged within. While Stu and his counsel might be able to make some arguments for some of the crimes, the case against him is rather formidable and there are a number of different charges that definitely apply to Stu and what he allegedly did.
Analysis…… [Read More]
Its claim of inebriated behavior by Margreiter was unsubstantiated by witnesses; its claim that he was well enough to travel also unsubstantiated based on medical treatment necessary when he returned to Denver. The subsequent surgeries and medical issues were proven to have a permanent effect upon his livelihood as well as permanent brain damage. With the lack of earnings, the trauma to his life, and his pharmaceutical expense, the Court did not find it necessary to reduce his award or find any evidence of fault other than the hotel.
Part 2 -- the Normann case -- the Court indicates that regarding safety, "The law imposes upon innkeeper's at least ordinary or reasonable care to protect their guests against injury by third persons, and some cases call for the exercise of a higher degree of care." The claims that the hotel permitted criminals to wander through the hotel, filed to maintain…… [Read More]
The data grid showing the various crimes in raidsonline.com entails columns for the class, incident, crime, date/time, location, address, distance, accuracy and distance. Crimereports.com has its data grid having the date when the event was entered, the event location, event type and the identifier. Crime reports is said to be the largest and highly comprehensive.
On the other hand, raidsonline.com is said to be the highly advanced public crime mapping. Crime mapping is described as the network in the world that is not yet sophisticated but a key component in crime analysis. In the raidonline.com the various crimes can be viewed by use of an integrated feature that has a street map, a sophisticated data grid as well as an analytics dashboard. In addition to this, in this site, crimes can also not only be filtered but also queried by use of several features for instance, the type of crime,…… [Read More]
50 had been stolen out of the $1,000 in his drawer. The police interviewed Jones and after he admitted that he had ended his friendship over an unpaid $157 debt, they arrested him believing the neighbor's claim to have seen Jones climb out his window when he thought he was dreaming.
You have determined from interviewing several mutual friends of Jones and the neighbor that Jones was indeed owed the $157, and that Jones did commit the burglary, but you can easily subpoena the EZ-Pass records to prove that Jones' car was an hour out of town at the time he claimed to have been sleeping at home when the burglary occurred. The American Bar Association (ABA) Model Rules of Professional Conduct also allows you to use this witness who provided the information about the neighbor's habits during the discovery process to impeach the credibility of the neighbor as well…… [Read More]
Change them often; (2) Use disposable instruments or clean them thoroughly before and after handling each sample; (3) Avoid touching the area where you believe DNA may exist; (4) avoid talking, sneezing, and coughing over evidence; (5) Avoid touching your face, nose, and mouth when collecting and packaging evidence; (6) Air-dry evidence thoroughly before packaging; and (7) Put evidence into new paper bags or envelopes, not into plastic bags. Do not use staples." (National Institute of Justice, 2007)
V. Future of CODIS
The work entitled: "Communication, Documentation and Information Services" states that in the future CODIS will "continue to place a major emphasis on upgrading technology in all areas of its responsibility." (Vest of Research, nd) in a National Institute of Justice report entitled: "The Future of Forensic DNA Testing: Predictions of the Research and Development Working Group" published in November 2000 states that "technology projections for 2010" include transition…… [Read More]
According to the same source, the Australian market proves to be very fertile for the U.S. companies which already account for the greatest import share (over 50% in 2004). Such data are outlined by the following table:
Total market (million of dollars)
Total imports (million of dollars)
Imports from U.S. (million of dollars)
2002 2004%Change 2002-2004%Change 2002-2004%Change Australia 950-1400 47% 380-560 47% 185-285 54% 51% Source: http://www.buyusainfo.net/docs/x_4239321.pdf.
The U.S. home security market is another outlet offering promising perspectives. According to Frost & Sullivan's report (http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reportinfo.asp?report_id=365296),one of the levers responsible for increased demand is the emergence of new homes as a result of the low interest rate. The U.S. Census ureau studies showed that, in 2002, 1.7 million new houses were built in comparison with 2001 when 1.6 million new constructions were made. Moreover, the number was expected to grow in the near future.
Other reasons for a…… [Read More]
law and society are intertwined, and how social conflict can actually aid in creating criminology. I also have a much deeper understanding of the many different theories on criminology and society, and how each of them has merit, at least in one form or another.
Just about all of this information was new to me because sociology is not my strongest interest, and yet the information here was informative and interesting. I did not know there were so many different perspective theories pertaining to the legal and criminology community, and I did not know the ideas of each one. I knew that Marxist philosophy and criminology had many commonalities, but I did not know the extent of them until I read this chapter. I also did not know about "radical" criminology.
It was surprising to me that so many criminologists have studied these social causes of crime, and made such…… [Read More]
Community Safety and Crime eduction: An Evaluation of the ole of New Technology
ecent technological advances have effectively changed the way we conduct business, secure our borders, fight our wars, diagnose diseases, etc. Indeed, thanks to advances in technology, the world as we know it today looks very different from the world of yesteryears. The fact that technology continues to have a significant impact on almost every facet of our lives is undeniable. One of the areas in which recent advances in technology remains most visible is security. Today, unlike two or three decades ago, there are a wide range of hi-tech security devices that have been specifically developed to help in fighting crime. From CCTV cameras to alarm systems to GPS tracking and even software designed to examine online chat records, the fight against crime has surely gone high-tech. It is however important to note that the utilization of…… [Read More]
isk Management Consultant Proposal
Event: The Global Event for Biotechnology in Chicago, Illinois
In brief, this event will bring together professionals from not only the academia but also from government and the industry. The convention will in this case provide participants with a unique opportunity to explore, describe, and probe the various global challenges we are faced with today, and the most appropriate measures that can be adopted to rein in the said challenges.
isk assessment in the words of Dampsey (2007) "is the process of identifying potential areas of security and loss, and the development and implementation of effective measures or countermeasures to deal with these problems." This particular risk assessment for the aforementioned event will take into consideration not only the hazards but also the nature of risks, and the measures that should be taken to control them. In this particular case, a hazard…… [Read More]
Skinner's radical behaviorism has been used to provide explanations for a number of behavioral phenomenon including criminal behavior (Skinner, 1966). For instance, the crime of burglary offers an example of how antisocial behaviors are learned through reinforcement. Members of society that commonly engage in theft or burglary learn their trade via the reinforcing aspects of stealing. The need to steal may be initially activated by means of some form of need or desire to have material gain; however, for many individuals who habitually engage in thievery repeated stealing is positively reinforced by the tangible acquisition of goods provided by these activities. For many of these individuals this behavior is reinforced by the notion that it is easier to steal from others then to apply oneself, work hard, and take the chance on getting the lees than desired rewards. However, many habitual criminals actually put in as much effort into…… [Read More]
history of crime measurement as well as the major strengths and limitations of current measurement techniques. I have also included the discussion regarding the importance of crime measurement in criminology. In the end, I have put emphasis on the need of the development of more crime measurement techniques.
The measurement of crime is done with the objective of monitoring and this is mostly done in the same manner as the measurement of "consumer prices, stock market activity, traffic fatalities, population, unemployment, and HIV infection rates" (Maxfield & Babbie, 2011). However, much more is done in measuring the crime instead of just counting things. An assortment of societal, fiscal, geographic, and medical concerns is measured for keeping a record of communal and monetary conditions, population size, age distribution and hazards to physical well-being of the people. Similarly, crime measurement has the main concern of keeping track of criminal behavior so that…… [Read More]
For Possible Outcome 2, two groups in a population have been subjected to different treatments. One group served as the control group and was not given the opportunity to engage in an educational program that featured the study of human rights violations. However, the group was given course credit for watching a series of films on nature. he second group watched films that dealt with the Holocaust, Darfur, Rwanda, and the famines in eastern Africa. he groups randomly selected from the prison population, but were not randomly selected for the groups. Both groups had been in the prison facility an average of five years. Both groups were surveyed before watching any films, following each film and at the completion of the courses to measure the effect of the film on the subjects' empathy scores using standardized instruments. Mean scores of empathy ratings were charted below, with the blue…… [Read More]
Program Attendance Policy Proposal and Analysis
As we are nearing the end of the third school year of the P.A.S.S. program it is beneficial to evaluate the standards and practices which have been set forth through the past three years and determine the efficacy of them. In accordance with the Pennsylvania Standards for Elementary and secondary education school principals (January 2001), data driven assessment of the policies is due. The need for implementation of best practices, be they new or accepted older models is especially great given the proven success of the P.A.S.S. program which has resulted in the proposal for expansion of enrolment and services to meet a greater demand within the local district.
The establishment of best practices for the future is the goal of the current assessment. Since its inception the P.A.S.S. program has used a program completion option strategy with at-risk students attending classes at Howell…… [Read More]
There is generally a concept that police respond only after a crime is committed. However, now police do have opportunities to be proactive. Today proactive policing has emerged as the key to a booming future in crime prevention and control. Now police uncompromisingly carries out required investigation and works with citizens and social service groups in order to contain crime-breeding conditions and decrease the rate of street crime.
Proactive/community policing stresses on clarification, forecast and avoidance of crime occurrence. This is done through the investigation of fundamental issues of offenses and chaos and through proactive problem solving for problems that are anticipated to culminate into criminal / anti-social activism, if not controlled at the initial stage.
Outline of the Paper
The article discusses police practices towards controlling crime. Its main emphasis is on analyzing proactive practices adopted in the police systems over the years, translating from the early…… [Read More]
Of even more significance is that twelve states go ahead to extend litigation costs and attorney fees "to a shooter who prevails in a civil lawsuit, creating a strong disincentive for a shooting victim to pursue justice in the civil system" (Mayors against Illegal Guns 6)
The Reach of Stand Your Ground Law
Although the Stand Your Ground Law is largely and extensively linked to Martin's case, a 2012 investigation by Tampa Bay Times revealed that "the Martin incident is far from the only example of the law's reach" (Lee). The relevance of this law as a major factor in judges' decisions, acquittals, and prosecutors' decisions, some of which involved cases that did not result in the victim's death, cannot be overstated (Lee).
In 2012, a Louisiana court acquitted Byron Thomas of all charges relating to an incident in which the 21-year-old, after a marijuana transaction turned sour, opened fire,…… [Read More]
Predictive analytics is a statistical technique used to analyze current and historical data in order to make a reasonable prediction about future. In a business environment, organizations employ predictive analytics model to identify market trends, opportunities and risks. Using the predictive analytics, organizations are able to assess potential risks and opportunities to achieve competitive market advantages. In other word, predictive analytics is part of data mining focusing on extracting information from historical data and used the data to predict behavioral patterns and trends. Typically, predictive analytics can be applied to any type of unknown events in order to predict the presents and future events. Banks are the early adopters of predictive analytics model. For example, banks use the data collected from credit scores to determine the likelihood of an individual to qualify for a bank loan. The technique has assisted banks to minimize the risks by detecting applicants likely to…… [Read More]
UC, NIBS and NCVS Programs
Uniform Crime eports (UC), the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), and the National Incident-Based eporting System (NIBS) are programs or systems that have been developed to collect and report on national crime rates in the United States. UC is a cooperative initiative for law enforcement agencies across the nation to provide report on national crime statistics. On the other hand, NIBS is a program designed to provide detailed information regarding crime incidents to the general public, researchers, students of crime, law enforcement agencies and personnel, and governmental planners. NCVS is a program by the Bureau of Justice Statistics which provides crime reports based on surveys by the United States Census Bureau. These programs have several similarities and differences as they focus on gathering and providing reports on United States' crime rates.
The major similarity between these programs is their focus on collecting and reporting crime…… [Read More]
Community Treasure Hunt: Pleasant Grove, Texas
In Pleasant Gove news coverage has stopped depicting violent crimes in its articles because it's old news. People die here every day, it's nothin'.
Pleasant Grove, Texas resident c. 2015
I was born and raised here and have traveled the world, but I could never imagine any place lovelier to call home.
Norma Davis, Chair, Pleasant Grove Historical Society, 2015
Introduction, Demographic Information, and Community Immersion (suggested length: 3 pages)
There are a number of ways to conceptualize a community, with its geographic boundaries being among the most straightforward (Knowing your community). The geographic boundaries of Pleasant Grove, located in the southeast section of the Dallas, are shown in Figure 1 below.
Figure 1. Location of Pleasant Grove
Geographic boundaries alone, however, reveal little about the people that comprise a community and this is certainly the case with the working-class community of…… [Read More]
The increased expectation of lawful income will reduce the temptation of illegitimate activity.
This is referred to as the 'motivation effect. The opportunity effect is a long- term influence that is positively correlated with crime, while the motivation effect is more short-term and has a negative correlation with crime. Thus, in years when people increase their spending by very small amounts or reduces it altogether, notably quickly. In contrast, during year when people rapidly increase their expenditure, property crime tends to grow less rapidly or even fall.
In relation to San ernardino, Miguel (2006) argues that with the recent renewal of the city by industries, the unemployment rate has been reduced to a large extent. The number and value of goods available as a result of this growth in income can be linked to the upsurge in robbery cases in homes and public places such as banks.
Economic growth, unemployment…… [Read More]