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Burglary investigations [...] theory of burglary investigations, how "surveillance" is part of the stakeout, how to look for a suspect, how fingerprinting is a part of the investigation, and will distinguish between the different types of burglaries, i.e.: First-degree; Second-degree, etc. based on using a weapon or not. It will also discuss the degrees of penalty, and how burglaries differ between day and night.
Burglary is one of the most invasive crimes perpetrated on the public. It is also known as Home Invasion, or Breaking and Entering, and is defined as "The unlawful entry into the premises of another with intent to commit a felony (usually larceny) therein."
How detective and police officers investigate this crime can mean the difference between solving the case and allowing burglaries to continue in the community, and unfortunately, burglaries are some of the crimes with the worst clearance rates in police investigation.…
Clemens, Daryl W. "Burglary Investigations." Crimes and Clues.com. 5 May 2002. 12 March 2003. http://www.crimeandclues.com/burglary.htm
Eck, John E. "10 Rethinking Detective Management: Why Investigative Reforms Are Seldom Permanent or Effective," Police and Policing: Contemporary Issues, eds. Dennis Jay Kenney and Robert P. McNamara, 2nd ed. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1999.
Kenney, Dennis Jay, and Robert P. McNamara, eds. Police and Policing: Contemporary Issues. 2nd ed. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1999.
Lanier, Mark M., and Stuart Henry. Essential Criminology. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998.
Comparing and contrasting the definition of burglary with different legal frameworks yields some very interesting observations. Specifically, the author compared common law and Virginia’s law. Indeed, it is very diverse but yet similar when defining. Burglary is commonly defined according as the unlawful entry of a structure in order to commit a felony or theft (“Burglary Overview”, 2018). It may include actual forcible entry. However, instances where unlawful entry with no force and/or attempted forcible entry are present can also be labeled and prosecuted as burglary. While the definition of burglary is fairly consistent in most cases, there are variances in the law when comparing different types of law and differing levels of jurisdiction.
The burglary laws on the books in Virginia, on the other hand, are a little different. Virginia’s law defines burglary breaking and entering someone’s home in the night time with the intent to commit a…
Burglary. (2008) West\\\\'s Encyclopedia of American Law, Edition 2. Retrieved January 4 2018 from https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/burglary
Burglary laws: State burglary laws and penalties. (2017). Retrieved from http://www.burglarylaws.com/virginia/
Burglary Overview - FindLaw. (2018). Findlaw. Retrieved 22 January 2018, from http://criminal.findlaw.com/criminal-charges/burglary-overview.html
Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act. (2018.). Investopedia. Retrieved January 7, 2018 from https://www.investopedia.com/terms/d/dodd-frank-financial-regulatory-reform-bill.asp
Rappeport, A. (2017). Bill to erase some Dodd-Frank banking rules passes in house. Retrieved from Bill to Erase Some Dodd-Frank Banking Rules Passes in House
Most likely, it was secondary data -- that is, analysis -- that led to these houses' placement on the map.
There are several elements that could be useful to this map that are not included. For example, the division of the community into different areas (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) might provide some more clues to the rate/placement of the burglaries. Similarly, median incomes/home prices for each given area might be important elements. There is very little about the map that is not pertinent, however; though there appears to be little relation between the burglaries and the location of suspected drug houses, this is important to know and recognize, and leaving the drug houses off the map would eliminate this knowledge. Other information that could usefully be included in this map includes some basic details about the individual burglaries -- whether cars were broken into or left unlocked (especially important in…
This element is necessary to determine whether or not the offense can be considered to be aggravated sexual assault.
Explain why locating the point of origin is so important in arson investigation.
Determining the point of origin of a fire is a crucial first step in any investigation. This step is so important because it may illuminate the cause of the fire, and further identify whether the fire was criminal in nature. Fire investigation is difficult, due to the fact that evidence is often destroyed by the blaze. Before the cause of a fire can be determined, the point of origin must be identified. Often the point of origin of a fire is known, but the cause is not, and sometimes the reverse is true.
List and describe the several stages of a burglary investigation.
There are five main activities used by the authorities to respond to burglaries of dwellings…
Archambault, J., Faugno, D.K. (2001). Overcoming a consent defense to sexual assault. The Journal of Emergency Nursing, 27, 204-8.
Coupe, T., Griffiths, M. (1995). Police investigations into residential burglary. The British Criminology Conferences: Selected Proceedings, 1, 18-21.
Jukanin, T.J. (1996). Model guidelines and sex crimes investigation manual for Illinois law enforcement. Illinois Law Enforcement and Training Standards Board. Retrieved 6/11/2007 at http://www.ptb.state.il.us/publications/sexassualt.pdf.
Alcoholism and Upbringing
James' father is responsible for James' involvement in crime and burglary. Origin of the problem. Alcoholic parents are the reason for the moral decay of juveniles
Another reason for James' feelings of inadequacy
Effect of alcoholism in the upbringing of a child
The effect of taking James out of his mother's home as a juvenile
An examination of James' denial of his responsibility over his problem
Personality and sociological theory
An explanation of James' behaviors, and his father using the two frameworks
Thorburn (2005) suggests that a misapprehension that numerous alcoholics seem to have is that their behavior does not affect other people. They deny ever hurting other people but themselves. A great deal of research and huge anecdotal proof suggest otherwise. The behavior of alcoholics can affect those around them, including family members, friends, coworkers and employers. Children…
Plant, M.A., Peck, D.F., Samuel, E., & Stuart, R. (2000). Alcohol, drugs, and school-leavers.
London: Tavistock Publications.
Thorburn, D. (2005). Alcoholism myths and realities: Removing the stigma of society's most destructive disease. Northridge, Calif: Galt Pub.
Floyd, M.R., & Seale, J.P. (2002). Substance abuse: A patient-centered approach. Abingdon,
History has shown us that, time and again, more privileged offenders become excused of higher-level degrees of crime and are, instead, tagged with the lower-level descriptor of white-collar crime. The FBI's definition merges with this second definition in that the FBI agrees that most white-collar crimes are perpetrated by business and government professionals, and that these crimes can be severe in that they can devastate individuals, families, and organizations (Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). [online]).
What is the National Insurance Crime Bureau, and what functions does it perform for law enforcement?
The National Insurance Crime Bureau (NICB), supported by approximately 1,000 property/casualty insurance companies, is an American non-profit organization located in Illinois that deals with insurance-related crimes and works with law enforcement agencies to ensure control and vigilance. Much of its work is related to motor vehicle theft. In general, however, the NICB describes itself as "partnering with insurers and…
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Retrieved on 4/4/2011 from:
http://www.fbi.gov /about-us/investigate/white_collar/whitecollarcrime' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Security at workplaces is not only the responsibility of the management, but all the parties in the premises. Therefore, it is important that everyone is involved one way or another in maintenance of security. In a company the size of Walter Widget, with 240 personnel, it can be challenging to maintain high security standards.
With the increasing nationwide crime against workplaces and businesses, the stakes in workplace security are high. Walter Widget must be concerned about theft of any kind including trade secrets, computer information and other resources. The firm needs to take necessary steps to prevent other security risks such as arson, vandalism and workplace violence.
Workplace crime affects production. According to Bressler (2007) businesses are prone to a wide variety of crimes and need to take action in prevention of criminal activities that influence profitability. Workplace crime affects the employees, because it results insecurity at work. Safety at…
Bressler, M.S. (2007). The Impact of Crime on Business: A Model for Prevention, Detection & Remedy. Journal of Management and Marketing Research.
Burke, M.E., & Schramm, J. (2004 ). Getting to Know the Candidate Conducting Reference Checks. Alexandria: Research SHRM.
Deitch, D., Igor, K., & Ruiz, A. (1999). The Relationship Between Crime and Drugs: What We Have Learned in Recent Decades. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs .
Idaho National Engineering and Enviromental Laboratory. (2004). Personnel Security Guidelines. U.S. Department of Homeland security. Idaho Falls: Idaho national Engineering and Enviromental Laboratory.
The common characteristics of all property crimes
Property crime can encompass aspects of burglary, theft, or motor vehicle theft and this also includes attempted as well as completed crimes. In accordance to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010), property crime comprises of the wrongdoings of motor vehicle theft, larceny-theft, burglary, as well as, arson. In particular, the object of the theft-kind transgressions encompasses the taking of money or property, however with the lack of force or threat of force against the victims. Imperatively, the property crime classification takes into account arson for the reason that the offense consists of the destruction of property. Nonetheless, arson victims may be subjected to force. There are two crime measures in the United States with regard to crimes against property. One is the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) by the Bureau of Justice Standards (BJS), which encompasses reported and unreported crime from the perspective…
BCU Local Crime Community Action
Q1 ow long have you lived in this neighborhood and do you know all your neighbors by face and name and if not can you see reasons for this, please explain?
Rationale 1 This question is designed to attempt to understand how well the neighborhood knows one another and if there is at least facial recognition between long time residents and student tenants. This question also attempts to create a written rather than anecdotal record of the residential beliefs regarding the variant student population and the increase in crime and is open ended for this purpose.
Q2 When did you first notice that crime began to increase and can you describe the events and experiences that you have been witness to or been victim of in relation to crime?
Rationale 2 Again this question is a way of discerning the current crime conditions and to…
Hope T. 2007. The Distribution of Household Property Crime Victimisation: Insights from the British Crime Survey. In Surveying Crime in the 21st Century. Crime Prevention Studies Vol. 22, edited by M.G. Maxfield and M. Hough. Uffculme, Devon: Willan / New York: Criminal Justice Press.
Shu SC-F. 1999. Housing layout and crime vulnerability. In Space Syntax - Second International Symposium Proceedings 1: 25
Shu, S. And J. Huang. 2003. Spatial Configuration and Vulnerability of residential Burglary: A Case study of a city in Taiwan. In Proceedings, 4th International Space Syntax Symposium, edited by J. Hanson. London: The Bartlett, UCL.
Many people using illicit and illegal drugs often have no impulse control and may turn violent or to another form of crime. Once an individual's mind is altered from the constant use of drugs, he or she will often steal, lie, and cheat to make the next dollar to obtain more drugs.
Many people could share family related drug stories that have led to criminal activities. About 10 years ago, several acquaintances under the influence of cocaine robbed a pharmacy and stole thousands of narcotics. The man and women then stole a car and cocaine from a dealer and drove across the country; several days later they were both apprehended and sent to jail for a long time. This example illustrates that one impulsive behavior after another can lead to a series of crimes committed. Freud's Psychoanalytical Theory offers a rationale to why individuals would use illegal drugs -- impulse…
Bureau of justice statistics- drug use and crime. (2009, October). Retrieved from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=352
Crime. (2011, June). Retrieved from http://www.thefreedictionary.com/crime
Freud, S. (1961). The Complete Works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19). London: Hogarth.
Lerner, L., Lerner, B.L., & Cengage, G. (2006). Criminology. World of forensic science, Retrieved from http://www.enotes.com/forensic-science/criminology
Likely, there will never be a police department with a completely paper-less information system (Police report writing, 2011). Until then, the basics of report writing will remain the same and is the bread and butter of law enforcement.
Incident Data and Burglary Data
Time the police officer received the call- 1537 hrs.
Address of the burglary -- 2914 E. Indiana, Spokane, ashington 99207
Call sign of the police car -- Paul 302
Erynne M. Vodde
Name of victim -- Erynne M. Vodde
Date of Birth -- 5-31-77
Home Phone [HIDDEN]
Place of ork- Sacred Heart Medical Center -- Pediatrics
ork #- 474-5110
Missing Items -- Cell phone, change jar with around $15 in it (both of them were on top of the dresser in the bedroom next to the bathroom where the window was). There was also some Bud Light Beer Bottles missing…
Moss, M. (2011). How to write a police report. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/how_4441251_write-police-report.html>
Police report writing. (2011). Retrieved from ttp://www.careerpoliceofficer.com/PoliceandVictims/police_report_writing.html>
This was due to the fact that defense attorneys often attempted to prove consent by showing that a victim did not resist the assault or had a sexual history suggesting that she would have consented to the sexual contact. Now, N.J.S.2C:14-2 no longer contains a requirement that the perpetrator overcame a resisting victim. Instead, in cases of forcible rape, the Code simply requires that the defendant: committed the assault during the course of certain specified felonies (N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(3); was armed or seemed to be armed (N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(4); acted with another and used physical force or coercion N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(5); used physical force or coercion N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(5) and -(1); the victim is physically or mentally incapacitated N.J.S.2C:14-2(a)(7). Therefore, the Code names a variety of situations where sexual intercourse between a victim and a defendant is rape, without evidence of any type of coercion.
Maria, a single mother, goes on her third date with John. They return…
Workplace is not safe from numerous types of crimes. These crimes can range anywhere from burglary to homicides and from discrimination on the basis of sex to even rape for that matter. But these crimes are physical crimes and it is easy to avoid them or keep them at bay by making use of physical barriers, security cameras and a few sensible risk/security management tactics. For instance, if only 3 or 4 people work at night-time, it is easy to target anyone of them but if a considerable amount of people work together and have no hostility towards each other, these types of situations can be avoided. Use of security systems is a pre-requisite for the protection of material wealth and belongings. These types of systems can help avoid theft and burglary but if somehow these do occur, it will inform the managers of the incident at the earliest…
McCollonel '(2000). Cybercrime And Punishment. Page 8-9. www.mcconnellinternational.com.
Balkin J. M (2007)Cybercrime: digital cops in a networked environment. NYU PRESS. New York. USA.
Perline I.H. & Goldschmidt J. (2004). The psychology and law of workplace violence:a handbook for mental health professionals and employers. Charles C. Thomas Publisher. USA
Keats J. (2010) Virtual Words: Language on the Edge of Science and Technology. Oxford University Press. USA.
Positive Philosophy in Law
Thomas Aquinas and Hans Kelsen held that the law enforced by human courts is indeed a positive law. Legal philosophers have since come up with a flurry of arguments claiming that positive law must have its source and content. These philosophers were and are of contention that the court's core mandate should be that of harmonizing heterogeneous sources of law into a coherent body of law for ease of administration of justice. Sources of law can be drawn from the ancient oman law, legislation, custom, precedent and equity, raw materials processed by courts into genuine law, statutes, precedents, and opinions of experts. With regard to content, law should be enforced to administer justice (Murphy, 2005).
This paper seeks to list some factors that a judge in a state's criminal court system would consider before sentencing burglary/theft offenders, people suspected to have committed aggravated battery, or those…
Lahey, B.B., Moffitt, T.E. & Caspi, A. (2003). Causes of Conduct Disorder and Juvenile
Delinquency. New York: Guilford Press.
Murphy, J.B. (2005). The philosophy of positive law: foundations of jurisprudence. New Haven
Conn.: Yale University Press
The objective of this study is to read the case Deal V. Spears United States Court Of Appeals, Eighth Circuit, 980 F. 2D 1153 (1992) and to answer the questions of whether it is lawful to monitor the telephone conversation of an employee if the employee has given prior consent and to answer if in this case whether Deal give her employer consent in this case? This study will additionally examine whether due to the recent burglary of the store, whether the employer had a legitimate business reason to record and review the employee's phone calls made or received at work. Finally, this study will consider what, under the Watkins precedent, is the extent to which an employer can monitor personal phone calls to employees within the ordinary course of business exemption of the federal wiretapping law where is no evidence of express consent here.
Deal V. Spears United States Court Of Appeals, Eighth Circuit, 980 F. 2D 1153 (1992)
Victor and Hugo both knowingly entered into a contract to split the proceeds from a felonious action, the contract is not enforceable. In this situation, Victor can even keep the ten percent that he has now offered to pay Hugo instead of the original fifty percent that they had agreed upon. According to the Law Commission Consultation Report 2009, "If a contract has as its object the deliberate commission of a crime, then it is illegal and the courts will not enforce it."
There is substantial case law to support this stance. For example, in Brown Jenkinson & co. ltd. V Percy Dalton ltd. (1957), the court held that "a contract to indemnify for losses suffered as a result of the deliberate commission of the tort of deceit is unenforeceable."
Further, it was found in Anderson v Daniel (1924) that "a contract may be lawful in its formation but performed…
On the other hand, the situation with Kaboom Ltd. is much different. Kaboom Ltd., though remiss in not requiring Victor to show his license proving his right to purchase explosives, was an innocent party. Kaboom did not contract to be paid if the haul was sufficient. Kaboom contracted to be paid in six monthly installments, presumably with no knowledge of how these explosives were to be used. Thus, Kaboom would be considered an innocent party with regard to the burglary. However, Kaboom may be considered a "guilty" party for failing to require Victor's license prior to selling him the explosives. In the law, "there is some latitude in determining who is a "guilty party where the illegality lies in the method of performance. For the present purposes, a party is not guilty because he performs a contract in an unlawful manner."
In fact, in Hughes v Asset Manager's plc (1995), the court held that" the effect on the innocent party would be so severe that the legislature cannot have intended to prohibit the contract at all."
Though there is also case law rejecting the innocent party's claim (Re Mahmoud and Ispahani (1921), the court held that the "innocent party may have three other remedies. First, the innocent party may be able to recover damages for breach of "collateral warranty (See Strongman v Sincock . Secondly, the innocent party may be able to recover damages for misrepresentation (See Shelley v Paddock . Thirdly, innocence may
Psychology and the Criminal Offender
Individuals commit crimes for many different reasons, and some of these and psychological in nature. In other words, the way that a person's brain works and the way that the person looks at the world can contribute to how that person reacts to many different things and whether that person commits crimes, or what kinds of crimes. The circumstances of the individual can also contribute to what kind of crimes are committed, since access to different things affects the types of crimes that are committed by specific individuals. Looked at here will be white collar, blue collar, and organized crime, since they are all different and those differences can be important. In addition to this, it will be important to describe and distinguish the common characteristics that these criminals have.
White collar crime is generally committed by those that make more money and that work…
By contrast, other studies have revealed that 69% of those committing violent crimes against whites are also white, and that 81% of those committing violent crimes against African-Americans are also African-Americans (Violent pp).
In 2004, Thomas B. Heffelfinger, the United States Attorney for the state of Minnesota, called for a major overhaul of the criminal law enforcement system in Indian Country, calling it a "national shame" (Federal pp). Heffelfinger said statistics reveal that Native American Indians and Alaska Natives are the victims of violent crime more than the any other group in the country, and that includes every crime, child abuse, sexual assault, homicide, assault, etc. (Federal pp).
Heffelfinger complained that the current system of law enforcement "is taking the leaders of our national tribes, making them victims of crime and sending them to prison" (Federal pp). Heffelfinger, who chairs the Native American Issues sub-committee for the Department of Justice,…
Federal prosecutor seeks to change 'national shame.' April 19, 2004. Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://indianz.com/News/archive/001804.asp
Some crimes, arrests increase among Native Americans. October 18, 2005.
Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://indianz.com/News/2005/010832.asp
Violent Crime and Native Americans. February 16, 1999. Retrieved October 20, 2005 at http://www.democracynow.org/article.pl?sid=03/04/07/0356209
Hate and Violence
Perhaps one of the greatest challenges we face in the United States today is the need to reduce hate and violence in ourselves and our society. As a teacher in a juvenile detention facility, I have struggled with ways to teach children nonviolent approaches to conflict, and the importance of tolerance and respect for others. This paper will describe student responses to a movie program designed to teach core values of non-violence and tolerance, and discuss these findings in the larger context of the juvenile criminal justice system and society.
In my last eight years as a teacher at a juvenile detention facility, I have struggled to find meaningful ways to reach my students. Students are often highly resistant to both authority and advice from sources that they initiated a Friday afternoon movie program at the juvenile detention facility as a way to encourage nonviolence as a…
Monk, Richard C. 2000. Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Crime and Criminology, 6th ed. McGraw-Hill/Dushkin.
QuoteGarden. Quotations about Books & Reading. 27 May 2004. http://www.quotegarden.com/books.html
Walker, Samuel. 1997. Sense and Nonsense About Crime and Drugs: A Policy Guide (Contemporary Issues in Crime and Justice Series). Wadsworth Publishing.
on should have locked his car doors. However, whoever took the new slacks he left in his car knew or should have known that it is wrong to steal, even if it is easy to do so. on should have the right to live his life without his property being stolen, and being careless (leaving the door unlocked) does not give someone else a right to take his things. While he should have been more careful, he really does not have any official responsibility for the theft. The thief bears 100% of the responsibility for the theft of the slacks, since he (or she) made the conscious choice to steal something that did not belong to him (or her). Even if a person leaves something valuable just sitting out, no one should take that item (Wallace, 2004). One could argue that on should "know better" or that he was very…
Dutton, D.G. (2006). Rethinking domestic violence. Vancouver, BC, Canada: UBC Press.
Wallace, H. (2004). Family violence: Legal, medical, and social perspectives. NY: Allyn & Bacon.
crime rate data of burglaries in two U.S. metropolitan localities.
The UC (Uniform Crime eporting) Program of the Federal Bureau of Investigation describes the act of burglary as illegal entry into a structure for committing theft or a felony. For labeling a crime as burglary, it is not necessary for the element of 'forced entry'. UC provides three sub-categories of burglary: forced entry; non-forced, illegal entry; and attempted forced entry. It defines the term "structure" as any apartment, houseboat or house trailer (utilized as permanent lodgings), office, barn, stable, vessel or ship, and railroad car (however, automobiles are not included). In the year 2012, approximately 2,103,787 burglaries were reported -- a 3.7% decline from the previous year (FBI -- Burglary). Compared to the figures for 2003 and 2008, burglaries declined in 2012 by 2.4% and 5.6%, respectively. The approximate burglary rate constituted 23.4% of the approximate property crime rate. Subcategory-wise,…
(2014). Atlanta Criminal Law Attorney - Lisa L. Wells - Former Prosecutor - Atlanta Criminal Defense Lawyer - DUI Attorney. Conviction of a Georgia Burglary Carries Severe Penalties - Lisa L. Wells - Former Prosecutor - Atlanta Criminal Defense Lawyer - DUI Attorney. Retrieved August 25, 2016, from http://atlantacrimelawyer.com/conviction-georgia-burglary-carries-severe-penalties/
Diggs. (n.d.). EHow - How to - Discover the expert in you! - eHow. Factors Influencing the Crime Rate - eHow. Retrieved August 28, 2016, from http://www.ehow.com/list_5969328_factors-influencing-crime-rate.html
(n.d.). FBI -- Uniform Crime Reporting. FBI -- Burglary. Retrieved August 25, 2016, from http://ucr.fbi.gov/crime-in-the-u.s/2012/crime-in-the-u.s.-2012/property-crime/burglary
Miller. (2016). KTXS Homepage - KTXS. Abilene crime stats for 2014: Drastic increases in serious crimes - KTXS. Retrieved August 25, 2016, from http://www.ktxs.com/news/abilene/abilene-crime-stats-for-2014-drastic-increases-in-serious-crimes/12504383
Based on the foregoing considerations, it is suggested that the DCMP restructure their existing training programs and administration so that a more unified and centralized plan is in place, as well as providing for better instructor qualifications, evaluation, learning retention and more efficient and effective use of resources which are by definition scarce.
These broad general issues were refined for the purposes of this study into the research questions stated below.
What is the background of the District of Columbia area policy and community relations since World War II?
What are some major problems preventing positive relations between communities and the District of Columbia Metropolitan area police?
Can training programs of the District of Columbia Metropolitan Police Department enhance community relations?
What training modules can be used to enhance relations between surrounding communities in the District of Columbia Metropolitan area law enforcement?
Significance of the Study
Aben, E.L. (2004, September 13) Local police institution cites linkages with foreign law enforcement agencies. Manila Bulletin, 3.
About OPC. (2008). District of Columbia Office of Police Complaints. [Online]. Available: http://occr.dc.gov/occr/cwp/view , a,3,q,495435,occrNav_GID,1469,occrNav,|31085|,.asp.
Bedi, K. & Agrawal, R.K. (2001). Transforming values through Vipassana for principle- centered living: Evidence from Delhi police personnel. Journal of Power and Ethics, 2(2), 103.
Billington, J. (2008, March 7). Officers get crash course. Tulsa World, 1, 3.
It is methodological individualism which makes up the group, creating problems for the ational Theories which tout individualism as the driving force in motivation. Some say that the actions of individuals results in an unintended consequence when done in a group (Scott, p. 30).
If you look long enough for the secret of society you will find it in plain sight: the secret of society is that it was made by men, and there is nothing in society but what men put there'" (Homans, p. 385).
Captain David Poston, head of the CMPD Property Crimes Unit, who spoke to the problem of this rash of burglaries within the metropolitan area in November, 2007, said that "while citywide, burglaries were down nearly 5% last year compared to 2006, we have seen an increase in the past couple of weeks" (Charlotte, p. 1).
He admits that over the month preceding, detectives saw…
Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Dept. (2008). Recent spike in home break-ins: suspects & Methods. Crime in Charlotte, NC. Retrieved January 26, 2008 at http://www.crimeincharlotte.com/ .
Homans, G. (1961). Social Behaviour: Its Elementary Forms. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Scott, John. (2000). Rational Choice Theory. Understanding Contemporary Society: Theories of the Present, Boston: Sage Publications.
Further, an argument could also be made that the act did not occur at night. Although "daylight was waning" it was not yet actually nighttime when it occurred. Finally, a defense can be made as to the intent to commit a felony element. From the facts given, their intent was to enter the cabin to dry off and warm up. Unless it can be proved that their intent was to steal the dry pasta, this element will fail. If all six of the elements of burglary are not proved, then the defendants are not guilty of the burglary charge.
Another possible defense available to the defendants is that of justification. If they can show that their actions were justified in light of their situation and that there was no other reasonable alternative to the breaking and entering, then they have a valid defense against the charge.
Question Four: Was Pierson…
UCR and NIBRS
Two of the primary data sources used in modern criminological research are the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) and the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS). The UCR, compiled and published by the FBI, has been in existence for nearly a century and is the most well-known data set in the field of criminal justice (Maltz & Targonski, 2002). The National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) is another data source of the FBI but it classifies crime statistics differently than UCR, and its purpose has been “to enhance the quantity, quality, and timeliness of crime data collection ... and to improve the methodology used in compiling, analyzing, auditing, and publishing the collected crime statistics” (US Department of Justice, 2000, p. 1). This paper will compare and contrast these two crime data sources in terms of methodological procedures and implications between the two.
The UCR collects monthly aggregate crime…
Addington, L. A. (2004). The effect of NIBRS reporting on item missing data in murder cases. Homicide Studies, 8(3), 193-213.
Addington, L. A. (2008). Assessing the extent of nonresponse bias on NIBRS estimates of violent crime. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 24(1), 32-49.
Biderman, A. D., & Lynch, J. P. (2012). Understanding crime incidence statistics: Why the UCR diverges from the NCS. Springer Science & Business Media.
Daly, K. (2016). What is restorative justice? Fresh answers to a vexed question. Victims & Offenders, 11(1), 9-29.
Maltz, M. D., & Targonski, J. (2002). A note on the use of county-level UCR data. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 18(3), 297-318.
Menard, S., & Covey, H. C. (1988). UCR and NCS: Comparisons over space and time. Journal of Criminal Justice, 16(5), 371-384.
Nolan, J., Haas, S. M., Lester, T. K., Kirby, J., & Jira, C. (2006). Establishing the “Statistical Accuracy” of Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) in West Virginia. West Virginia Criminal Justice Statistical Analysis Center, Charleston.
Odunze, D. O. (2019). Uniform Crime Report (UCR) and 2012 Redesign. The Encyclopedia of Women and Crime, 1-3.
3 for robbery, 244.0 for assault, 367.7 for burglary, 1,617.7 for larceny theft and 213.3 for vehicle theft
In 2005: 4.5 for murder, 18.9 for rape, 182.7 for robbery, 239.7 for assault, 351.3 for burglary, 1,569.6 for larceny theft and 185.6 for vehicle theft
Year Population Murder Rape Robbery Assault urglary Larceny-Theft Vehicle Theft 2003-19,212,425-934 3,775-35,790-48,987-75,453-311,422-45,204-2004 19,227,088-889 3,608-33,506-46,911-70,696-311,036-41,002-2005 19,254,630-874 3,636-35,179-46,150-68,034-302,220-35,736
FI, Uniform Crime Reports, (http://www.disastercenter.com/crime/nycrime.htm)
As the charts prove, there has been a decrease in the number of murders, larceny thefts, assaults, burglaries and vehicle thefts. As for rape and robbery we can notice that year 2005 has brought a slight increase in the percentage comparatively with the previous year, meaning 2004.
I believe that these drops in criminal activity are not due only to the better coordination of the police compared to the previous years. I must admit, though, that the greatest part may have been achieved by it.…
FBI, Uniform Crime Reports, http://www.disastercenter.com/crime/nycrime.htm (n.d.)
Criminal Justice Research Review
Ricciardelli, R., Bell, J., & Clow, K. (2009). Student attitudes toward wrongful conviction, Canadian Journal of Criminology & Criminal Justice, 51(3), 411-427.
There has been considerable research addressing the underlying factors regarding wrongful conviction; however, minimal research has been completed that investigates attitudes toward wrongful conviction. First and third year Canadian undergraduate students in criminal and non-criminal justice majors were surveyed to determine their attitudes toward various facets of wrongful conviction, the need to educate criminal justice personnel regarding contributing factors to wrongful conviction, the Blackstone ratio ("better that ten guilty persons escape than that one innocent suffer), and the question as to whether wrongful conviction causes individuals to lose faith in the criminal justice system.
The problem was sufficiently narrowed down into a researchable problem, and is certainly formidable enough to warrant formal research efforts. The authors complete a significant comparison to the most…
Hickle, K., & Roe-Sepowitz, D. (2010). Female juvenile arsonists: An exploratory look at characteristics and solo and group arson offences, Legal and Criminological Psychology, 15, 385-399.
The purpose of the study was to examine a sample of 114 female juveniles charged with arson in a large juvenile justice system, as there is limited descriptive literature about female juvenile arsonists. The methodology included looking into familial characteristics, abuse, neglect, school related issues, mental health, substance abuse, and crime characteristics. Individual and group offenders were explored in depth, and were followed over a five-year period of time.
The literature review was very detailed and provided comparative as well as empirical information that highlighted the current gap that this study was designed to address. T test and chi square tests were used to establish whether the 86 that were excluded from the study demonstrated any significant differences than those who participated in the study. The 114 females included represented 22 counties in the state of Florida. The supervision Risk Classification Instrument was completed by juvenile probation officers within 6 hours of custody. This is a standard tool used for all juvenile offenders. It was difficult to discern from the study whether or not the participants assented to participation in the study, or whether it was required. The study did indicate that permission for the study was granted by the Florida Juvenile Justice Review board. The research design is appropriate to address the research problem; and issues of internal and external validity are adequately addressed. Data collection instruments are adequately described and the statistical tests are correct for answering the questions posited by the hypothesis.
In a recently-conducted survey, the following 10 metropolitan cities had low to very low crime rates: Scottsdale (AZ), Plano (TX), Virginia Beach (VA), Fremont (CA), Honolulu (HI), San Jose (CA), Anaheim (CA), Fort ayne (in), Santa Ana (CA), and Garland (TX). It seems that most cities with scores of 6 and lower (out of 10 on the crime rate scale) were located mostly in the south and the west, with the exception of Fort ayne. (Area Vibes, 2012)
It is interesting to see, then, if weather contributes to these low crime rates. Some experts would agree that weather, indeed, has a lot to do with the low crime rates in these cities. However, most would venture to state that the low crime rate is attributed to the fact that in most of these cities, the average median income is over $60,000. Yet another facet to point out would be that…
Bushway, Shawn, and Peter Reuter. "Economists' Contribution to the Study of Crime and the Criminal Justice System." University of Maryland Criminology and Economics. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
"Democratic Underground Forum." Democratic Underground. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
Drehle, David Von. "What's Behind America's Falling Crime Rate." Time. Time, 22 Feb. 2010. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
"Information on Crime, Crime Statistics, Crime Rates, Violent Crime, Crime News, Crime Prevention." Crime in America.Net: Crime, Violent Crime, Criminals, Crime News, Statistics and Research. Web. 27 Apr. 2012. .
Beginning in April 1984, Malcolm Fairley would burglarize, sexually assault, and rape a number of victims and was becoming bolder with each assault. The braver he become, the more careless and easily startled he was, which would lead to his apprehension in September 1984. Using paint flake analysis, coupled with eyewitness testimony, law enforcement officials were able to track down Fairley and bring him to justice. During the course of subsequent investigation, they found evidence to connect him to various assaults and burglaries, including a facemask made out of a pair of trousers.
During the summer of 1984, the British countryside would be rocked by a series of burglaries, assaults, and rapes committed by an unknown assailant who would become known as "The Fox." "The Fox" prowled the countryside beginning in April when he committed his first burglary until September, when he was identified as Malcolm Fairley and…
August 17, 1984: A serial rapist strikes in England. (2013). This Day In History. History Channel Online. Retrieved 31 July 2013, from http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/a-serial-rapist-strikes-in-england
Malcolm Fairley -- The Hunt for the Fox (2013). Watford Observer. Accessed 31 July
2013, from http://www.watfordobserver.co.uk/nostalgia/crimelibrary/malcolmfairley/
Norfolk, G. Payne-James, J. Squires, T. Wyatt, Jonathon (2011). Case Study: Malcolm
activities of the U.S. criminal justice system focus for the most part on immediate events. Nonetheless, it is important to take a broad look at changes in criminal rate across a period of time, in order to comprehend the context in which individual crimes occur, and establish better means of minimizing their incidence. The present work's aim is to analyze characteristics of New York City's crime rates from the past three years, as reported by authorities, and envision a setting whereby criminality might diminish.
Firstly, local data gathered consistently by The Division of Criminal Justice Services from year to year is to be compared and contrasted in order to identify and assess New York City's important crime trends. The following table illustrates the results pertaining to the analysis.
New York City crime statistics of the last three years
Difference in Percentage
2011 compared to 2010
Division of Criminal Justice Services (June 7, 2013). Crime, Arrest and Firearm Activity Report: Data Reported through April 30, 2013 (page 3001). New York City, NY: Office of Justice Research and Performance. Retrieved from: http://www.criminaljustice.ny.gov/criment/ojsa/greenbook.pdf
Oppel, R.A. Jr. (2011). Steady Decline in Major Crime Baffles Experts, New York Times, May 24,-page A17.
The Freedom Information Act of 2002 reported 2,351 occurrences of forcible sex offenses on campus and 1,670 in residence halls; 2,953 aggravated assaults on campus; 2,147 robberies on campus and 29,256 burglaries also on campus; and 1,098 arsons on campus in that year alone. This was the summary of campus crime statistics released by the U.S. Department of Education (Security on Campus 2004).
This document and national studies reveal the prevalence of sexual assault on both male and female college and university students. In a number of these recent surveys conducted in approximately 6,000 schools, one of four female students admitted to having been subjected to forced sexual contact or forced sexual intercourse and that 90% of them knew their offenders. At the time of assault, 75% of these male students and 55% of the female were either drunk or under the influence of drugs (Security on Campus).…
Clery, Connie and Howard. (2001). What Jeanne Didn't Know. Security On Campus, Inc. http://www.securityoncampus.org/aboutsoc/didntknow.html
Security on Campus. (2004). Campus Crime Statistics Summary. http://www.securityoncampus.org/crimestats/index.html
2002). What to Do If You Become a Victim of Campus Sexual Assault. Security on Campus, Inc. http://www.securityoncampus.og/victims/campussexualassault.html
United States Congress. (2001). Campus Sexual Assault Victims' Bill of Rights. Higher Education Amendments of 1992.Victim Assistance: Security on Campus, Inc. http://www.securityoncampus.org/victims/billofrights.html
Criminal Decision Making: The Elements of the Culture of the Street and Party Life and Their elation to Criminal Decision-Making
Understanding offenders' lifestyles and the process by which they choose to commit criminal acts is critical particularly because it has important implications for crime control. Very often, certain elements of the street and party life influence the offender's assessment of the risks and rewards of crime. According to Shover and Honaker (1992), commitment to drugs and partying, as well as street culture, leads to alienation of offenders from mainstream society and pushes them away from a conventional life. Over time, they adopt a socially bounded rationality and become accustomed to a criminal lifestyle to a point where they break the law as a result of addiction, rather that free will. It is, therefore, imperative to understand the role played by these lifestyles in shaping the motivation for crime because it…
Brookman, S. F (2001). Accounting for Homicide and Sublerthal Violence. In P. Cromwell & M.L. Birzer (Eds), In Their Own Words: Criminals on Crime (pp. 175-191). Madison Avenue, NY: Oxford University press.
Hochstetler, A. (2001). Opportunities and decisions: Interactional Dynamics in Robbery and Burglary Groups. In P. Cromwell & M.L. Birzer (Eds), In Their Own Words: Criminals on Crime (pp. 70-91). Madison Avenue, NY: Oxford University press.
Mullins, W.C., & Charbonneau, G.M. (2010). Establishing Connections: Gender, Motor Vehicle Theft and Disposal Networks . In P. Cromwell & M.L. Birzer (Eds), In Their Own Words: Criminals on Crime (pp. 87-112). Madison Avenue, NY: Oxford University press.
Shover, N., & Honaker, D.(1992). The Socially Bounded Decision Making of Persistent Property Offenders. In P. Cromwell & M.L. Birzer (Eds.), In Their Own Words: Criminals on Crime (pp. 35-51). Madison Avenue, NY: Oxford University press.
In 1993 there were 155,704 recorded crimes of burglary and of these 20,200 were residential burglaries. Since the mid-1970s the level of recorded burglaries has fluctuated around a level of 130,000 to 150,000 crimes per year although during the three last years, 1991 to 1993, the level has been close to 155,000. The number of recorded car thefts in 1993 was 61,141 and of these 18,300 were attempts. During the 1980s the number of recorded thefts of cars has doubled from 34,301 in 1980 to 69,003 in 1989. However, in the last three years this crime has decreased from roughly 70,000 in 1991 to roughly 61,000 in 1993.
Drug offenses. In 1993, 40,700 violations of the Narcotic Drugs Act were reported to the police. This figure is 40% higher than in 1990. Due to the method of counting drug offenses and the fact that this is a crime category highly…
An Introduction to the Sami Culture" (1996) Retrieved, January 28, at http://boreale.konto.itv.se/samieng.htm
Criminal Matters" Swedish Government Offices Website Retrieved, January 28, at http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/2138/a/14884
Malmstrm, C. "Diversity in the European Context" Retrieved, January 28, at http://www.sweden.gov.se/sb/d/8660/a/82943
Reiter, P.L. (2007), Comparative criminal justice systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall/Pearsons.
herefore, by increasing the costs of imprisonment by the three strikes law, it is intended that there will be less crime. Marwell and Moody express several difficulties with the laws in the 24 states: Criminals are not always aware of the laws, at least not initially; repeat criminals can be expected to serve substantial prison terms even in the absence of the laws; almost all of the states already had habitual criminal statutes where criminals with prior convictions could be given lengthy sentences under the judge's discretion; the deterrent effect on homicides is limited in any case because the law most likely does not increase sanctions for homicides. However, the law may reduce homicides by deterring robberies and other felonies where homicides may take place; some criminals may limit their expected costs by taking evasive action, such as moving to another jurisdiction or to other areas of crime where the…
Trends: Crime, the Police, and Civil Liberties
Greg M. Shaw; Robert Y. Shapiro; Shmuel Lock; Lawrence R. Jacobs
1998 62:405-426. Public Opinion Quarterly
This firm's client, Franklin Olsen ("Olsen") was arrested and subsequently charged with burglary of the home of Lindsay Young ("Young"). Young informed the police that she had found Olsen in her home on October 15, 2010, at dusk and observed Olsen for approximately one minute prior to his leaving the property. Young described Olsen as being dark haired, wearing all black clothing and being extremely tall. At that time that Olsen was taken into custody.
Young was asked to make identification of the suspect to the burglary in a police lineup. Olsen was one of six white males in the police lineup and had an attorney present to represent him. All the participants in the lineup other than Olsen were between 5'8: to 5'10" in height and all wore clothing that was light in color however, Olsen was instructed to wear all black clothing. Olsen was additionally the only…
It was the apprehension of being struck that induced compliance" (Perkins 1954: 346).
As well as a feasible threat, to prove there was an attempt to commit a crime requires defining the attempt as distinct from mere preparation. It is also noteworthy that "a distinction is made between measures taken by way of preparation for the commission of a crime and steps taken in the direction of its actual perpetration" (Perkins 1954: 325). But the actual preparation for the crime is not synonymous with the attempt. "So far as the common law is concerned there is no criminal attempt unless what was done went beyond the stage of preparation" and the "act must reach far enough toward the accomplishment of the desired result to amount to the commencement of the consummation" (Perkins 1954: 325). Of course, this can be difficult to define: for example, in the case of an attempted…
Kichyun, P. (1957). Contemporary problems of criminal attempts. NYU Law Review, 1170-
Perkins, R. (1954). Criminal attempt and related problems. UCLA Law Review, 319 -355.
I would not suggest that Mary Lou plea-bargain to any offense.
II. First, I would suggest that all she did was buy gasoline, which is not illegal, and that she was not aware of Bubba's plans to use it to burn down the houses. If the evidence demonstrated that Mary Lou was aware of Bubba's plans to use the gasoline to burn down the house when she purchased it, I would explore the use of the Battered Women's Syndrome. Using that, I would suggest that if Mary Lou purchased gasoline knowing that Bubba intended to use it to commit an arson, that she did so because she feared the consequences of telling Bubba "no." I would show Bubba's history of domestic violence with a prior spouse, his long string of marriages, and present any evidence suggesting that Mary Lou was a battered woman.
Roe v. Wade
From a constitutional perspective,…
Presently, the ed Line consists of three segments Downtown LA, Wilshire Center and N. Hollywood and the total coverage is 17.4 miles. Apart from this, the review identified the possible financial and schedule risks. It was inferred that the cost and completion schedules were justified; however funding risks were present for the North Hollywood segment. Apart from that, MTA's overall finances and the operating budget shortfalls might impact the ed Line. Therefore it was recommended that FTA need MTA to keep its finance plan up-to-date and to clearly find out and make priority in its different capital and operating costs revenues by source, and the specific revenues which are to cover specific costs. FTA approved the recommendation. Finally the report concluded that the ecovery Plan's 7-year projections of revenues and costs can be supported and were justified. Nevertheless MTA would be encountering a deficit of $1.1 billion. ("Transportation Investment Projects…
Albrecht, Steven. (1996) "Crisis management for corporate self-defense." American
Management Association, New York.
"Case Study: Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) District of Columbia" pp: 39-48. Retrieved 10 May, 2007 from http://www.cutr.usf.edu/security/documents/UCITSS/WMATA.pdf
Gibbs, Michael. (2002, October) "Home on the Page: Retail Burglary" Security
What Do You Think?
Crime eporting: UC and NCVS
The Uniform Crime eport is a compilation of offensives collected by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from all police stations in the United States. Data collected is divided into two groups, Part I and Part II. Part I data includes violent and property crimes such as aggravated assault, forcible rape, murder, robbery, arson, burglary, larceny-theft, and motor vehicle theft. Part II offenses include simple assault, curfew offenses and loitering, embezzlement, forgery and counterfeiting, disorderly conduct, driving under the influence, drug offenses, fraud, gambling, liquor offenses, offenses against the family, prostitution, public drunkenness, runaways, sex offenses, stolen property, vandalism, vagrancy, and weapons offenses ("Uniform Crime eports.," 2012).
The National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) is conducted by telephone and collects information on nonfatal crimes reported and not reported to the police against persons age twelve and older from a nationally…
"Crime rates are down." (2012, June 11). Crime in the United States 2011. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Retrieved April 21, 2013, from http://www.fbi.gov /news/stories/2012/june/crimes_061112/crimes_061112' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Crime Trends in Indiana, 1981-2011
With an economy founded on agriculture and industry, and few blighted urban centers, Indiana's crime rates in all indexed categories have historically been lower than the national average. However, data collected between 1995 and 2005 shows a disturbing trend: the crime rate for many categories is declining in the rest of the country faster than in the state of Indiana. This data is shown in Figure 1, below.
Indiana Crime Index ate per 100,000 esidents Compared to National. From Indiana Criminal Justice Institute.
Currently, Indiana's cities are suffering from the loss of jobs in the state and the region, especially the northern cities like Gary and Hammond. Trends in urban crime are different from trends in rural crime, and it is also helpful for business owners and community leaders to understand the answer to the question "who commits crimes?" Community members and prospective Indiana homebuyers…
Agnew, R. & White, H. (1992). "An Empirical Test of General Strain Theory." Criminology 30(4): 475-99.
Bureau of Labor Statistics (2011). Labor Force Overview. Retrieved from http://www.stats.indiana.edu August 15, 2011.
Checkpoint (2010). The Global Retail Theft Barometer, 2010 Edition. White paper retrieved from http://globalretailtheftbarometer.com August 15, 2011.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (2010). Uniform Crime Report. Retrieved from http://www.fbi.gov August 19, 2011.
crime of burglaries within the locality, the following investigation strategy has been devised, on the basis of community concerns and questions:
What technological aid is required for carrying out this operation?
Geographic Information System or computer-based crime mapping has been adopted on an extensive scale by a number of police forces across the globe. GIS aids law enforcement agencies in locating and keeping an eye on problematic sites (Watkins, et.al, 2002). CCTV (closed-circuit TV) helps them in detecting, preventing, and reducing chaos and crime in the streets. This form of technology may be applied to identify problem points where future robberies may possibly take place.
What course would you assume for examining robbery patterns?
Mapping of crime scenes will be heavily relied on (Writer Thoughts). Sites where robberies have occurred previously will be recorded in the police force's computer database, for enabling us to identify possible sites where robberies might…
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Psychology: Theories, Experiments, and Quizzes. Examining Data and Drawing Conclusions. Retrieved January 6, 2015, from http://psychology.about.com/od/researchmethods/a/drawing-conclusions.htm
(n.d.). NIJ Home Page NIJ Home. Why Crimes Occur in Hot Spots -- National Institute of Justice. Retrieved January 6, 2015, from http://nij.gov/topics/law-enforcement/strategies/hot-spot-policing/pages/why-hot-spots-occur.aspx
Watkins, C., Mazerolle, L., Rogan, D., & Frank, J. (2002). Technological approaches to controlling random gunfire: Results of a gunshot detection system field test. Policing, 25(2), 345. Retrieved, from http://cjonline.uc.edu/resources/criminal-justice-research/technological-approaches-to-controlling-random-gunfire-results-of-a-gunshot-detection-system-field-test/
(n.d.). WikiHow - How to do anything. How to Prevent a Robbery (with Pictures) - wikiHow. Retrieved June 6, 2015, from http://www.wikihow.com/Prevent-a-Robbery
Stu Dents Charges
The author of this report has been asked to revisit the case of Stu Dents and the litany of crimes he is alleged to have committed against Uma Opee and in general. There is indeed a laundry list of issues to be seen and charges when it comes to Stu Dents and they will be listed out within this report. Each crime that applies will be listed and there will also be the associated act and detail that supports Stu Dents being charged with the crime. For all of the crimes listed, there will be an associated state that Stu will be charged within. While Stu and his counsel might be able to make some arguments for some of the crimes, the case against him is rather formidable and there are a number of different charges that definitely apply to Stu and what he allegedly did.
New York. (2017). Article 135 | Penal Law | Kidnapping Imprisonment Custodial. Ypdcrime.com. Retrieved 5 April 2017, from http://ypdcrime.com/penal.law/article135.htm
New York. (2017). Article 140 | NYS Penal Law |Burglary Criminal Trespass Laws. Ypdcrime.com. Retrieved 5 April 2017, from http://ypdcrime.com/penal.law/article140.htm
New York. (2017). Article 220 | NY Penal Law | Controlled Substances Offenses. Ypdcrime.com. Retrieved 5 April 2017, from http://ypdcrime.com/penal.law/article220.htm
Its claim of inebriated behavior by Margreiter was unsubstantiated by witnesses; its claim that he was well enough to travel also unsubstantiated based on medical treatment necessary when he returned to Denver. The subsequent surgeries and medical issues were proven to have a permanent effect upon his livelihood as well as permanent brain damage. With the lack of earnings, the trauma to his life, and his pharmaceutical expense, the Court did not find it necessary to reduce his award or find any evidence of fault other than the hotel.
Part 2 -- the Normann case -- the Court indicates that regarding safety, "The law imposes upon innkeeper's at least ordinary or reasonable care to protect their guests against injury by third persons, and some cases call for the exercise of a higher degree of care." The claims that the hotel permitted criminals to wander through the hotel, filed to maintain…
The data grid showing the various crimes in raidsonline.com entails columns for the class, incident, crime, date/time, location, address, distance, accuracy and distance. Crimereports.com has its data grid having the date when the event was entered, the event location, event type and the identifier. Crime reports is said to be the largest and highly comprehensive.
On the other hand, raidsonline.com is said to be the highly advanced public crime mapping. Crime mapping is described as the network in the world that is not yet sophisticated but a key component in crime analysis. In the raidonline.com the various crimes can be viewed by use of an integrated feature that has a street map, a sophisticated data grid as well as an analytics dashboard. In addition to this, in this site, crimes can also not only be filtered but also queried by use of several features for instance, the type of crime,…
50 had been stolen out of the $1,000 in his drawer. The police interviewed Jones and after he admitted that he had ended his friendship over an unpaid $157 debt, they arrested him believing the neighbor's claim to have seen Jones climb out his window when he thought he was dreaming.
You have determined from interviewing several mutual friends of Jones and the neighbor that Jones was indeed owed the $157, and that Jones did commit the burglary, but you can easily subpoena the EZ-Pass records to prove that Jones' car was an hour out of town at the time he claimed to have been sleeping at home when the burglary occurred. The American Bar Association (ABA) Model Rules of Professional Conduct also allows you to use this witness who provided the information about the neighbor's habits during the discovery process to impeach the credibility of the neighbor as well…
If you allow Jones to take this plea, the consequences will be comparatively harmless: he will have to return $157.50 that was rightfully his in the first place and he will have to avoid any criminal conduct for six months to avoid jail time on the burglary charge. Jones could still sue the neighbor in civil court and recoup his debt by proving his case with the witnesses to the debt that you already interviewed. If you tell Jones about the neighbor's affair and you introduce that information in court, his family will be devastated. Your dilemma is whether or not to allow Jones to take the guilty plea or advise him to go to trial and then use the neighbor's lies to prove that he could not have witnessed the crime and that he is of questionable character in terms of his truthfulness as a witness. You know that Jones is guilty because he admitted it and you also know that the neighbor did owe Jones the exact amount that Jones stole from his drawer.
Implementing Cooper's Analysis:
This situation illustrates Cooper's definition (1998) of a complex ethical issue that involves multiple perspectives. You can prove the neighbor lied about witnessing Jones in his apartment even though you know that Jones did, in fact, steal the money that night while the neighbor was with his girlfriend. From the point-of-view of general equitable principles, Jones was morally and ethically entitled to the money that he stole from the neighbor. From the legal perspective, Jones did commit the exact crime of which he stands accused because he resorted to theft to recoup his debt. You use of the witness to impeach the
Change them often; (2) Use disposable instruments or clean them thoroughly before and after handling each sample; (3) Avoid touching the area where you believe DNA may exist; (4) avoid talking, sneezing, and coughing over evidence; (5) Avoid touching your face, nose, and mouth when collecting and packaging evidence; (6) Air-dry evidence thoroughly before packaging; and (7) Put evidence into new paper bags or envelopes, not into plastic bags. Do not use staples." (National Institute of Justice, 2007)
V. Future of CODIS
The work entitled: "Communication, Documentation and Information Services" states that in the future CODIS will "continue to place a major emphasis on upgrading technology in all areas of its responsibility." (Vest of Research, nd) in a National Institute of Justice report entitled: "The Future of Forensic DNA Testing: Predictions of the Research and Development Working Group" published in November 2000 states that "technology projections for 2010" include transition…
Combined DNA Index System CODIS (nd) Fast Facts from the DPS. Online available at http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/director_staff/public_information/Fast_facts/Codis.pdf
CODIS (2007) SAIC. Online available at http://www.saic.com/justice/codis.html
Lessons Learned From 9/11: DNA Identification in Mass Fatality Incidents. (2007) President's DNA Initiatives. Online available at http://www.dna.gov/uses/mass_fatalities/
Using DNA and Other Resources to Identify Missing Persons (2007) President's DNA Initiative Online available at http://www.dna.gov/uses/m_person/.
According to the same source, the Australian market proves to be very fertile for the U.S. companies which already account for the greatest import share (over 50% in 2004). Such data are outlined by the following table:
Total market (million of dollars)
Total imports (million of dollars)
Imports from U.S. (million of dollars)
2002 2004%Change 2002-2004%Change 2002-2004%Change Australia 950-1400 47% 380-560 47% 185-285 54% 51% Source: http://www.buyusainfo.net/docs/x_4239321.pdf.
The U.S. home security market is another outlet offering promising perspectives. According to Frost & Sullivan's report (http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reportinfo.asp?report_id=365296),one of the levers responsible for increased demand is the emergence of new homes as a result of the low interest rate. The U.S. Census ureau studies showed that, in 2002, 1.7 million new houses were built in comparison with 2001 when 1.6 million new constructions were made. Moreover, the number was expected to grow in the near future.
Other reasons for a…
Brown, C., (2000). Australians' attitude to security. On the Internet at: www.infolink.com.au/articles/A4/0C0026A4.aspx.Retrieved February 20.
Best Export Markets for U.S. Security and Safety Equipment (2005). On the Internet at: www.buyusainfo.net/docs/x_4239321.pdf.Retrieved February 20
Environmental Scan of the Security Industry (2006). On the Internet at http://www.asial.com.au/default.asp?page=/media%20centre/research+and+articles/environmental+scan+of+the+security+industry.Retrieved February 20, 2007.
Home Security Market Goes Hi-tech (2006). On the Internet at: svconline.com/resav/hitech_home_security_06192006. Retrieved February 20, 2007.
law and society are intertwined, and how social conflict can actually aid in creating criminology. I also have a much deeper understanding of the many different theories on criminology and society, and how each of them has merit, at least in one form or another.
Just about all of this information was new to me because sociology is not my strongest interest, and yet the information here was informative and interesting. I did not know there were so many different perspective theories pertaining to the legal and criminology community, and I did not know the ideas of each one. I knew that Marxist philosophy and criminology had many commonalities, but I did not know the extent of them until I read this chapter. I also did not know about "radical" criminology.
It was surprising to me that so many criminologists have studied these social causes of crime, and made such…
Chapter Nine: Sociological Theories III: Social Conflict.
Chapter Eleven: Crimes Against Property.
Community Safety and Crime eduction: An Evaluation of the ole of New Technology
ecent technological advances have effectively changed the way we conduct business, secure our borders, fight our wars, diagnose diseases, etc. Indeed, thanks to advances in technology, the world as we know it today looks very different from the world of yesteryears. The fact that technology continues to have a significant impact on almost every facet of our lives is undeniable. One of the areas in which recent advances in technology remains most visible is security. Today, unlike two or three decades ago, there are a wide range of hi-tech security devices that have been specifically developed to help in fighting crime. From CCTV cameras to alarm systems to GPS tracking and even software designed to examine online chat records, the fight against crime has surely gone high-tech. It is however important to note that the utilization of…
Alarid, L.F. And Carmen, R.V.D., 2010. Community-Based Corrections. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.
Barak, G., 2007. Battleground: Criminal Justice. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), 2012. Latest Crime Stats: Annual Crime in the U.S. Report Released. [online] Available at: < http://www.fbi.gov /news/stories/2012/october/annual-crime-in-the-u.s.-report-released/annual-crime-in-the-u.s.-report-released' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
isk Management Consultant Proposal
Event: The Global Event for Biotechnology in Chicago, Illinois
In brief, this event will bring together professionals from not only the academia but also from government and the industry. The convention will in this case provide participants with a unique opportunity to explore, describe, and probe the various global challenges we are faced with today, and the most appropriate measures that can be adopted to rein in the said challenges.
isk assessment in the words of Dampsey (2007) "is the process of identifying potential areas of security and loss, and the development and implementation of effective measures or countermeasures to deal with these problems." This particular risk assessment for the aforementioned event will take into consideration not only the hazards but also the nature of risks, and the measures that should be taken to control them. In this particular case, a hazard…
Dampsey, J.S. (2007). Introduction to Private Security. Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education.
Wells, G. (1996). Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment. Rugby, Warwickshire: Institute of Chemical Engineers.
Skinner's radical behaviorism has been used to provide explanations for a number of behavioral phenomenon including criminal behavior (Skinner, 1966). For instance, the crime of burglary offers an example of how antisocial behaviors are learned through reinforcement. Members of society that commonly engage in theft or burglary learn their trade via the reinforcing aspects of stealing. The need to steal may be initially activated by means of some form of need or desire to have material gain; however, for many individuals who habitually engage in thievery repeated stealing is positively reinforced by the tangible acquisition of goods provided by these activities. For many of these individuals this behavior is reinforced by the notion that it is easier to steal from others then to apply oneself, work hard, and take the chance on getting the lees than desired rewards. However, many habitual criminals actually put in as much effort into…
Andrews, D.A. & Hoge, R.D. (1999). The psychology of criminal conduct and principles of effective prevention and rehabilitation. Forum on Corrections Research. Special Edition. 12 -- 14. Retrieved on April 1, 2013 from http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/pblct/forum/special/espe_b-eng.shtml
Bandura, A. (1977). Social leaning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Raine, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q Wilson & J. Petrsilia (Eds.) Crime:Public policies for crime control. Oakland: ICS Press.
Skinner, B.F. (1966). The phylogeny and ontogeny of behavior. Science, 153, 1204 -- 1213.
history of crime measurement as well as the major strengths and limitations of current measurement techniques. I have also included the discussion regarding the importance of crime measurement in criminology. In the end, I have put emphasis on the need of the development of more crime measurement techniques.
The measurement of crime is done with the objective of monitoring and this is mostly done in the same manner as the measurement of "consumer prices, stock market activity, traffic fatalities, population, unemployment, and HIV infection rates" (Maxfield & Babbie, 2011). However, much more is done in measuring the crime instead of just counting things. An assortment of societal, fiscal, geographic, and medical concerns is measured for keeping a record of communal and monetary conditions, population size, age distribution and hazards to physical well-being of the people. Similarly, crime measurement has the main concern of keeping track of criminal behavior so that…
Advantages of Incident-Based Reporting Over Summary Reporting. (n.d.). Justice Research and Statistics Association. Retrieved February 2, 2013, from http://www.jrsa.org/ibrrc/background-status/advantages.shtml
Brown, S.E., Esbensen, F., & Geis, G. (2013). Criminology: Explaining Crime and Its Context (8thth ed.). Waltham: Anderson Publishing (Elsevier Inc.). Retrieved February 2, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=brRgAYhyhsoC&pg=PA82&dq=NIBRS+limitations&hl=en&sa=X&ei=0R0MUZePBs7Y4QTogoCQAQ&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=NIBRS%20limitations&f=false
Manual on Victimization Surveys. (2010). Institute for Security Studies. Retrieved February 3, 2013, from http://www.issafrica.org/crimehub/uploads/Manual_on_Victimization_surveys_2009_web.pdf
Maxfield, M.G., & Babbie, E.R. (2011).Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology (6th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Retrieved February 2, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=-Z_xfTn1hT8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Research+Methods+for+Criminal+Justice+and+Criminology&hl=en&sa=X&ei=McwOUfO7PLCV0QXx0oDIBg&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA
For Possible Outcome 2, two groups in a population have been subjected to different treatments. One group served as the control group and was not given the opportunity to engage in an educational program that featured the study of human rights violations. However, the group was given course credit for watching a series of films on nature. he second group watched films that dealt with the Holocaust, Darfur, Rwanda, and the famines in eastern Africa. he groups randomly selected from the prison population, but were not randomly selected for the groups. Both groups had been in the prison facility an average of five years. Both groups were surveyed before watching any films, following each film and at the completion of the courses to measure the effect of the film on the subjects' empathy scores using standardized instruments. Mean scores of empathy ratings were charted below, with the blue…
The study population. All homicides in the murder analysis files of the Chicago Police Department from 1965 through 1995
The observation unit. Individuals.
The sampling method. All homicides were included, but In cases where the offender data were completely missing in the victim-level data, no offender records were generated in the offender-level file. The offender-level data do not contain information about the victims in these cases.
Program Attendance Policy Proposal and Analysis
As we are nearing the end of the third school year of the P.A.S.S. program it is beneficial to evaluate the standards and practices which have been set forth through the past three years and determine the efficacy of them. In accordance with the Pennsylvania Standards for Elementary and secondary education school principals (January 2001), data driven assessment of the policies is due. The need for implementation of best practices, be they new or accepted older models is especially great given the proven success of the P.A.S.S. program which has resulted in the proposal for expansion of enrolment and services to meet a greater demand within the local district.
The establishment of best practices for the future is the goal of the current assessment. Since its inception the P.A.S.S. program has used a program completion option strategy with at-risk students attending classes at Howell…
ERIC Raising School Attendance. Education Digest, Feb2002, 67.6, pgs.54-57.
ERIC Urban Policies and Programs To Reduce Truancy. ERIC/CUE Digest 129.
ERIC Jay DeKalb Student Truancy. ERIC/CUE Digest 125.
ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management and Linn-Benton Education Service
There is generally a concept that police respond only after a crime is committed. However, now police do have opportunities to be proactive. Today proactive policing has emerged as the key to a booming future in crime prevention and control. Now police uncompromisingly carries out required investigation and works with citizens and social service groups in order to contain crime-breeding conditions and decrease the rate of street crime.
Proactive/community policing stresses on clarification, forecast and avoidance of crime occurrence. This is done through the investigation of fundamental issues of offenses and chaos and through proactive problem solving for problems that are anticipated to culminate into criminal / anti-social activism, if not controlled at the initial stage.
Outline of the Paper
The article discusses police practices towards controlling crime. Its main emphasis is on analyzing proactive practices adopted in the police systems over the years, translating from the early…
Angell, J. Towards an Alternative to the Classic Police Organizational Arrangement: A Demographic Model. Criminology 8. 1971
Bennett, T. Evaluating Neighborhood Watch. Brookfield, VT: Gower Publishing, 1990.
Brodeur, Jean-Paul. High Policing and Low Policing: Remarks about the Policing of Political
Activities. Social Problems. 1983.
Of even more significance is that twelve states go ahead to extend litigation costs and attorney fees "to a shooter who prevails in a civil lawsuit, creating a strong disincentive for a shooting victim to pursue justice in the civil system" (Mayors against Illegal Guns 6)
The Reach of Stand Your Ground Law
Although the Stand Your Ground Law is largely and extensively linked to Martin's case, a 2012 investigation by Tampa Bay Times revealed that "the Martin incident is far from the only example of the law's reach" (Lee). The relevance of this law as a major factor in judges' decisions, acquittals, and prosecutors' decisions, some of which involved cases that did not result in the victim's death, cannot be overstated (Lee).
In 2012, a Louisiana court acquitted Byron Thomas of all charges relating to an incident in which the 21-year-old, after a marijuana transaction turned sour, opened fire,…
Gardner, Thomas and Anderson Terry. Criminal Law. Stamford: CT: Cengage Learning, 2014. Print.
Havis, Devonya. Pursuing Trayvon Martin: Historical Contexts and Contemporary Manifestations of Racial Dynamics. Ed. Yancy George and Jones Yanine. Plymouth: Rowman & Littlefield, 2013. Print.
Lee, Suevon. "Five 'Stand Your Ground' Cases You Should Know About." Pro-Publica, 2012. Web. http://www.propublica.org/article/five-stand-your-ground-cases-you-should-know-about
Mayors against Illegal Guns. "Stand Your Ground Laws and Their Effect on Violent Crime and the Criminal Justice System." Mayors against Illegal Guns, 2013. Web. 8 May 2014 https://s3.amazonaws.com/s3.mayorsagainstillegalguns.org/images/ShootFirst_v4.pdf
Predictive analytics is a statistical technique used to analyze current and historical data in order to make a reasonable prediction about future. In a business environment, organizations employ predictive analytics model to identify market trends, opportunities and risks. Using the predictive analytics, organizations are able to assess potential risks and opportunities to achieve competitive market advantages. In other word, predictive analytics is part of data mining focusing on extracting information from historical data and used the data to predict behavioral patterns and trends. Typically, predictive analytics can be applied to any type of unknown events in order to predict the presents and future events. Banks are the early adopters of predictive analytics model. For example, banks use the data collected from credit scores to determine the likelihood of an individual to qualify for a bank loan. The technique has assisted banks to minimize the risks by detecting applicants likely to…
Budale, D. & Mane, D. (2013). Predictive Analytics in Retail Banking. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT), 2 (5): 508-509.
Kent, B. (2006). Predictive Analytics: Algorithm Nirvana. DM Review,16(30):40.
Maciejewski, R. Hafen, R. Rudolph, S. et al. (2011).Forecasting Hotspots -- A Predictive Analytics Approach. IEEE Computer Society.Issue 10.
NYPD CompStat Unit (2014). CompStat. Police Department City of New York. 21(22).
UC, NIBS and NCVS Programs
Uniform Crime eports (UC), the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), and the National Incident-Based eporting System (NIBS) are programs or systems that have been developed to collect and report on national crime rates in the United States. UC is a cooperative initiative for law enforcement agencies across the nation to provide report on national crime statistics. On the other hand, NIBS is a program designed to provide detailed information regarding crime incidents to the general public, researchers, students of crime, law enforcement agencies and personnel, and governmental planners. NCVS is a program by the Bureau of Justice Statistics which provides crime reports based on surveys by the United States Census Bureau. These programs have several similarities and differences as they focus on gathering and providing reports on United States' crime rates.
The major similarity between these programs is their focus on collecting and reporting crime…
James, N. & Council, L.R. (2008, January 3). How Crime in the United States is Measured. Retrieved March 27, 2016, from https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL34309.pdf
"The Nation's Two Crime Measures." (2014, September). Program Report. Retrieved from Bureau of Justice Statistics website: http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/ntcm_2014.pdf
Community Treasure Hunt: Pleasant Grove, Texas
In Pleasant Gove news coverage has stopped depicting violent crimes in its articles because it's old news. People die here every day, it's nothin'.
Pleasant Grove, Texas resident c. 2015
I was born and raised here and have traveled the world, but I could never imagine any place lovelier to call home.
Norma Davis, Chair, Pleasant Grove Historical Society, 2015
Introduction, Demographic Information, and Community Immersion (suggested length: 3 pages)
There are a number of ways to conceptualize a community, with its geographic boundaries being among the most straightforward (Knowing your community). The geographic boundaries of Pleasant Grove, located in the southeast section of the Dallas, are shown in Figure 1 below.
Figure 1. Location of Pleasant Grove
Geographic boundaries alone, however, reveal little about the people that comprise a community and this is certainly the case with the working-class community of…
Davis, N. (2017, April 5). The Pleasant Grove Historical Society. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/groups/156970454468433/ .
Davis, N. (2015, June 25). Why I love Pleasant Grove. D Magazine. Retrieved from https://www.dmagazine.com/neighborhood-guides/2015/06/why-i-love-pleasant-grove/ .
Hallman, T. & Martin, N. (2015, March). Fear, fights, crime thrive at Pleasant Grove intersection. The Dallas Morning News. Retrieved from https://www.dallasnews.com/news/crime/2015/03/01/fear-fights-crime-thrive-at-pleasant-grove-intersection .
Humphrey, J. P. (2017, May 28). The Pleasant Grove Historical Society. Retrieved from
The increased expectation of lawful income will reduce the temptation of illegitimate activity.
This is referred to as the 'motivation effect. The opportunity effect is a long- term influence that is positively correlated with crime, while the motivation effect is more short-term and has a negative correlation with crime. Thus, in years when people increase their spending by very small amounts or reduces it altogether, notably quickly. In contrast, during year when people rapidly increase their expenditure, property crime tends to grow less rapidly or even fall.
In relation to San ernardino, Miguel (2006) argues that with the recent renewal of the city by industries, the unemployment rate has been reduced to a large extent. The number and value of goods available as a result of this growth in income can be linked to the upsurge in robbery cases in homes and public places such as banks.
Economic growth, unemployment…
Becker, Gary 1999, Crime and Punishment: An Economic Approach, Journal of Political Economy
Becker, Gary and Murphy, Kevin 1999, A Theory of Rational Addiction, Journal of Political Economy
Richardson, Isaac, (2009) Participation in Illegitimate Activities: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation, Journal of Political Economy
Ehrlich, Isaac 1975, The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment: A Question of Life