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Business in China Companies Have
Words: 605 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 47956116
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Another factor that must be taken into consideration is represented by the business etiquette in China. Business etiquette in this country is significantly different than that of Western countries, but it is similar to other Asian countries. The analysis of business etiquette is based on the cultural dimensions that characterize the Chinese population. Same as in the case of other Asian cultures, China has a high long-term orientation, which means that the country's population has a strong attitude on persevering. Also, there is a high level of power and wealth inequality within the society. The Chinese culture is a collectivist one, and businessmen should refer to this fact in their meetings with Chinese partners (International Business Center, 2008).

The differences between the business etiquette in China and those in other countries refer to aspects like the appearance and clothing style, the behavior at meeting, offering and receiving gifts, and communications.…

Reference list:

1. Import Export Flow Chart (2008). HKTDC. Retrieved August 10, 2011 from .

2. China (2008). International Business Center. Retrieved August 10, 2011 from .

Business in Mexico Our Company Is Considering
Words: 1014 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67734323
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Business in Mexico

Our company is considering outsourcing and selling products abroad, and I would like you to represent us. In specific, our country of choice is Mexico. In order to be successful there, whoever, and make an effective launch as well as hit the right people and best sell our products (never mind interest the locals to our company), it is important that we become acquainted with the Mexican social and business customs of the country as well as their etiquette in related manners.

This, therefore, is a summary of the research that I have done that should give us some rough knowledge of how to be in the various business and outside-business situations.

I was astonished to discover that sharp differences sometimes exist between American culture and Mexican culture and that this intrudes into business relationships and ways of conducting business that can quite possibly spell the differnce…

Business Preparation for Communication Diversity
Words: 1412 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 26138778
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communications in business. Specifically it will discuss communication in business in Japan, including intercultural interactions and successful communications. Often we don't think about the culture and etiquette of doing business in another country, and that's a giant mistake. For example, communication with Japanese clients can be very different that communication with clients here in America. Here are some tips on how to communicate effectively while you're working with Japanese clients.

When we do business in Japan, we must be aware of differing cultural values, language, etiquette, and business customs that can be very different from our own. To ensure that we don't offend or anger our Japanese business partners, we need to ensure that we act and communicate according to their customs, to ensure our success. We also want our staff to feel comfortable while they're working in Japan, and suffer from as little culture shock as possible, so business…


Abrahams, M. (2009). Doing business in Japan. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Web site: .

Editors. (2009). Japanese business etiquette. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the University of Texas at Dallas Web site: .

Fashol, G. (2009). Japanese business etiquette. Retrieved 16 Oct. 2009 from the Web site: .

Business in Japan in Today's
Words: 1855 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65718266
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To impress Japanese business people, the fame, power and size of the organization should be presented. Documentation regarding the organization should always be presented in Japanese. and, a business person should always be on time for meetings and be well prepared.

Seating at functions, such as: meetings, dinners, and even when riding in a car has a protocol in Japan. This protocol centers around several facets including: seniority, guest-host relationship, where the door is located, and even decorations in the room. Even filling glasses at meal times has a specific order in Japanese etiquette.

Other etiquette faux-pas include:

lowing one's nose in front of others.

Kissing a person as a greeting.

Tossing objects to a person when asked for something. Instead, they should always be presented with both hands and a bow of the head.


In the end, there are significant opportunities that lie in the land of the…


Business in Japan. Why Can it be so Very Difficult? (2003). Online; available at [accessed 16 June 2005].

Doing Business in Japan: A Professional Development Program. (July 1999). Online; available at  [Accessed June 16, 2005].

Isenberg, Daniel. "Entering the Japanese Market." Japan Inc. no. 62 (January, 2005), 52-53.

Daniel Isenberg, "Entering the Japanese Market," Japan Inc. no. 62 (January, 2005), 52.

Business in Brazil A Crash
Words: 814 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29275545
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Socializing is an important part of business meetings, and Brazilians feel that people should know each other before "talking business" (Cross-cultural Maria). This is also true of telephone calls. Even on the phone, social chit chat comes before business (Hofstede, 2003). Because of that, wait for the other person to change the subject from "getting to know you" to "getting down to business." (Hofstede, 2003) In the big cities (San Paulo, Rio de Janiero), people generally expect meetings to start on time (Hofstede, 2003).

Brazilians shake hands, often in an extended way, at the beginning and the end of an encounter. If there are several people, shake hands with everyone and make eye contact (Hofstede, 2003).


For business purposes, restaurants are typically used instead of a person's home (Hofstede, 2003). The noon meal is the biggest meal, and dinner is likely to be lighter. However, if you…

Doing Business in Brazil," in "Cross-Cultural Maria. Accessed via the Internet 11/7/05. 

Business Culture," in Gateway to Brazil. Accessed via the Internet 11/7/05.

Myers, Kristin Elaine. 2003. "Getting to Know You, in Brazzil: Way of life. January. Accessed via the Internet 11/7/05.

Conducting Business in Japan
Words: 948 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23040524
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business in japan.

L. Jones

Doing Business in Japan

In today's increasing era of globalization, more and more foreign companies and individuals are discovering the wonderful, profitable, and sometimes, challenging world of doing business in Japan. However, although many have been lured by the boom time of the recent past, leaner times require a thorough knowledge of the business and cultural environment. The simple fact is, those who understand the milieu of Japanese life will in general do much better than those who do not.

Of course, one of the first steps in considering doing business in Japan involves understanding the infrastructure of the country. Although Japan is widely touted as a technological wonderland (to some degree, rightly so), there remain significant public sector improvements to be made -- along with the accompanying investments. Unfortunately, Japans infrastructure has not kept base with its rate of economic growth (ITC). This is…

Works Cited

Abacci. Abacci Atlas. "The Japanese Government." 2004. Retrieved from Web site on July 31, 2004

Executive Planet. "Doing Business in Japan. 2004. Retrieved from Web site on July 31, 2004

ITC. International Trade Canada. "A guide for Canadian businesses in Japan. 2004. Retrieved from Web site on July 31, 2004

Business Report Compares the Two Australian Service
Words: 4286 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20906580
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Business report compares the two Australian service providers where by various aspects are critically looked at in respect to the design elements of a retail store environment. The elements are categorized into exterior facilities, general interior, store layout, interior displays and the social dimensions. Each of these design elements are categorically looked into differently taking into account the services being offered by the two chosen service providers namely Fadez Barbershop and Gloria Jean's Coffees.

The two chosen service providers are unique in their own way having been selected from different industries. Various design elements in comparison with the ussell's Model of affect are discussed and how they relate in different ways. ussell's model of affect talks about the various arousal levels that the consumers achieve when in contact with the mentioned design elements of a retail store environment, the interpretations and the impact they have that affects the buying decisions…


Adam W. (2011). Fadez Barber Shop. Retrieved September 16, 2012 from 

Anna stahl, Kristina Hook & Petra Fagerberg, (n.d). Designing gestures for Affective input: An analysis of shape, Effort and valence. Retrieved September 16, 2012 from 

Authorstream, (2012). Crafting the Service Environment. Retrieved September 16, 2012 from 

Christopher Lovelock and Jochen Wirtz, (2004). Planning the Service Environment. Retrieved September 16, 2012 from

Business Communications the Company Is
Words: 1245 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17598072
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A useful recommendation in this sense is represented by the contracting of a local law firm to ease the company's penetration into the region and to help us understand and overcome the initial barriers. But aside from understanding and complying with the regulations, it is also essential to understand and comply with the cultural features.

India is one of the oldest and most impressive global cultures. And its culture has also impacted the means in which business is conducted. One specific means is represented by the language barriers which are raised. And not only that the representatives of the two countries would speak different languages, it is highly possible that the representatives of India speak different languages among themselves. This is because the states of India have different official languages, and some states even have more than one official language (Kwintessential).

In terms of actual relationships between the Indians, these…


Khanna, P., Mohan, C.R., 2006, Getting India right, Policy Review, No. 135, Questia 

2011, Business laws and regulations in India, Amritt,  last accessed on March 25, 2011

2011, the world factbook -- India, Central Intelligence Agency,  last accessed on March 25, 2011

India -- language, culture, customs and etiquette, Kwintessential,  last accessed on March 25, 2011

Global Business Communication Global Communications
Words: 1787 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 84014202
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Furthermore it has become critically necessary to be equipped technologically in handling today's increased IT demands for business communication.


Video Conferencing (2006) GlobalMedia. Online available at:

Hart, Amy (2001) Global Communication Warming - The CEO Refresher. Online available at!warming.html.

Martin, Jeannet S. And Chaney, Lillian H. (2006) Global usiness Etiquette: A Guide to International Communication and Customs. Online available at

Global usiness Support: Creating the Infrastructure for International usiness Communication (2006) Nova's Communication-ased usiness Activities. Online available at

Jarvenpaa, Sirkka L. And Leidner, Dorothy E. (1998) Communication and Trust in Global Virtual Teams - JCMC 3 (4) June 1998. Online available at

Global Alliance Joins the Organization of the World Congress on Communication for Development (2006) Global Alliance 5 July 2006 Online available at

usiness Communications Applications on Any Network (2005) Avaya White Paper May 2005.

Avaya White Paper, "New Era of Intelligent…


Video Conferencing (2006) GlobalMedia. Online available at:

Hart, Amy (2001) Global Communication Warming - The CEO Refresher. Online available at!warming.html.

Martin, Jeannet S. And Chaney, Lillian H. (2006) Global Business Etiquette: A Guide to International Communication and Customs. Online available at

Global Business Support: Creating the Infrastructure for International Business Communication (2006) Nova's Communication-Based Business Activities. Online available at

Global Business the Companies Will
Words: 326 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 25247538
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In order to anticipate diversity issues and conflicts, the company will need to have a direct feedback from people who have previously lived and worked in Japan. In this sense, it is useful to see the problems that have arisen in other similar situation and, proactively, to discover ways by which such problems can either be anticipated or their effect minimized. The employees will then need to be taught the importance of age in the Japanese organizational culture, as well as different other useful information that can help them in their relationship with Japanese counterparts.

In order to prevent premature returns, one needs to have not only the right integration tools and preparatory instruments, but also the appropriate motivational elements by which the individual will want to remain and work in Japan for the company, such as a good salary, a good home, appreciation incentives etc.

International Business Tecnologia Empresa Te
Words: 3308 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 2201968
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In fact many identify as European as opposed to Latin American. In addition, although Spanish is spoken in Argentina and it is the official language of the country, it is also a quite different type of Spanish than the Spanish spoken in other Latin American countries ("Argentina cultural guide").

In addition to the aforementioned differences, there are also differences associated with Business Etiquette. In Argentina the culture is driven by relationships and as such when people are conducting businesses they tend to be more comfortable conducting business with people that they know and they are already familiar with. However, in London it will often be the case that the person that business is conducted with is not someone that is familiar to the individual. Because this is the case it will be important to prepare the Argentineans who will work in London by educating them concerning the norms of business…

Reference List

Argentina cultural guide. Retrieved April 7, 2009 from; 

Business Etiquette. Retrieved April 7, 2009 from;

Global Business Cultural Analysis
Words: 8186 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 23504537
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business culture and expansion trends that exist for American companies in India. The paper focuses on answering the following questions: 1. What are the major elements and dimensions of culture in this region? 2. How are these elements and dimensions integrated by local conducting business in the nation? 3. How do both of the above items compare with U.S. culture and business? 4. What are the implications for U.S. businesses that wish to conduct business in that region? The paper also tackles the following aspects: Dimensions of Culture, Communication. Different Meaning of Words across Languages, Verbal, Nonverbal, High Context vs. Low Context and eligion -- Christianity, Judaism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Shinto and Ethics; Definitions, The Issue of Corruption, Corporate Social esponsibility, Values and Attitudes, Variances in Attitudes across Cultures, Concept of Time, Dealing with Change, The ole of Gender, Social Status, Business Manners and Customs across National Cultures, Social…


Bose, P. And Lyons, L.E. (2010). Cultural Critique and the Global Corporation. Tracking Globalization, Bloomington, IN.

Butler, Patty. (2012). India Business Etiquette, Manners, Cross Cultural Communication, and Geert Hofstede Analysis. International Business Etiquette and Manners. Cyborlink 

Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behaviour. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Doh, J., and Luthans, F. (2009). International Management: Culture, Strategy, and Behavoir. New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

E-Mail in Business Communication E-Mail History Relation
Words: 4599 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21246394
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E-Mail in Business Communication

E-mail: History, elation, and Impact on effective Business Communication

Email in Business Communication

Electronic Mail

Impact of Email to Business Communication

Implications of Emails as Business Communication Tools

Email is an important form of communication in today's organization that is increasingly seeing a geographical dispersal of the workforce. To communication tool has replaced traditional business letters and memos in preference for email memos. The research carried out a review of literature on email and business communication and found the tool is used in 100% of businesses today. However, despite the wide acceptance, the tool lacks in social and visual cues which lender the messages toneless. The lack of tone and physical gestures leads to misinterpretation, ill will, disconnectedness, loss of intellectual capital and integrity for the business. The research finds that the informal history of emails, heterogeneity among users, technological limitations in social-emotions, and lack of…


Agnew, D.S., & Hill, K. (2009). Email etiquette recommendation for today's business student. Allied Academies International Conference. Academy of Organizational Culture, Communications, and Conflict. Proceedings, 14(2), 1-5.

Barrett, M. & Davidson, M.J. (2006). Gender and Communication at Work. Burlington, USA: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.

David, D. & Mullen, J. (2009). Email Marketing: An Hour a Day. Indianapolis, Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc.

Dufrene, D.D. & Lehman, C.M. (2010). Business Communication. 16th ed., Mason, OH: South-Wester, Cengage Learning.

Israeli Business Communication Although Geographically
Words: 1494 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 40538547
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During these times, politeness and sensitivity become necessary as this subject may be extremely emotional or explosive as many Israelis have lost family or friends in wars or bomb attacks. As Israelis are notably brusque, however, an Israeli might construe something an American deems cautious politesse as evasiveness or uncertainty. Since directness is prized, it is best to get straight answers when an Israeli questions, and/or ask straight questions. Before "getting down to business," an American business man/woman may be surprised that little small talk or "chit-chat" is exchanged. if/when an individual meets Palestinian Israelis, it is good to remember they value courtesy, dress and good form more. (Business Etiquette) the following reflect a number of points a businessperson needs to keep in mind when conducting business in Israel.

There may not be a correlation between a contacts' politics and his/her religious or ethnic background.

Initially, an individual should keep…

Works Cited

Business Etiquette. (2007). The Economist Newspaper Limited. 6 Dec. 2007  Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. 6 Dec. 2007 .

Embassy of Israel. (2006). 6 Dec. 2007 .

Gu, Paul. (2007). Executive Planet. 6 Dec. 2007 .

Israel. (2007). World Atlas. .

International Business Environment of India
Words: 2971 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 95074103
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Socio-Cultural Environment

Home to the world's tenth largest economy and second largest population, India defies swift generalization. It includes a vast range of developmental situations, cultures, languages, and climates. The country remains largely rural, with just 26% of its people living in cities. Yet in 1995 it had over 30 cities of one million or more residents, including three of the world's 20 largest cities -- Bombay, Calcutta, and Delhi -- according to United Nations estimates (The Anguish of India, 1997).

Currently Indian labor laws, regulations, and workforce standards are very outdated. India is plagued with corruption. India has been ranked 9th in a list of 75 countries where dishonest practices are common, which is indeed an uncertain distinction. The corruptions, delays, bureaucratic red tape, and archaic labor laws are ingrained in India's business culture. These pitfalls have deterred foreign investors from investing in India (Stokes, 2003).

From the…


"Background Note: India," 2010, viewed 23 August 2010,

Chennai, Matrade, 2005, "Product Market Study: Consumer Behavior in India," viewed 23 August 2010,

Das Gupta, Aruna, 2007, "Social responsibility in India towards global compact approach." International Journal of Social Economic, 34(9), 637-663.

"Doing Business in India.," n.d., viewed 24 August 2010,

Communication in a Multicultural Business Meeting
Words: 855 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93671395
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Intercultural Communication - Group

As the Manufacturing Procurement Lead for an American/Japanese automobile manufacturer, my main task is to coordinate several characteristics of production and delivery schedule of an Italian designed and manufactured electronic braking system for a new high performance sports car to be launched to the American market. An important aspect of achieving this goal is conducting a three-day meeting that incorporates various social activities, price, negotiations of delivery schedule, and creation of a preliminary contract. The social activities include cocktail reception on the first evening and a final dinner on the final day of the three-day meeting. The other vital component of success in this meeting is an understanding of group dynamics since it will affect discussions and negotiations.

The American/Japanese automotive manufacturer will be doing business with an Italian company, which implies that understanding cultural differences and business interactions with the Italian customer is essential for…


"Business Etiquette." (n.d.). Passport to Trade. Retrieved April 3, 2016, from 

"Business Meeting Etiquette." (n.d.). Passport to Trade. Retrieved April 3, 2016, from

International Business -- Communication Case
Words: 858 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6085304
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Each time cards were exchanged, the Saudis turned over the American's business card expecting Arabic on the back instead of a blank card. While this would have been excusable by itself, under the circumstances, it only further highlighted to the prospective business partners that the foreigner was simply not well prepared to conduct business in Saudi Arabia.

The American waited patiently (at least from his point-of-view) until the multiple-course meal was over and then began spreading out his materials for a business presentation. Since then, he has learned that this also is a violation of Saudi business etiquette. Generally, Saudi business people do not necessarily discuss business at all during the first business meeting. Instead, they tend to use the first (and often the second) meeting just to establish a rapport. Again, the Saudi business men did not refuse to entertain the business proposal, but in retrospect, that was also…

Business Organisation Marketing Plan Production
Words: 3242 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Business Plan Paper #: 68318293
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The age range will be between 25 and 64, and there are a lot of doctors and other professionals such as professors and lawyers in my area making this a good choice. Approximately, then between 3% and 5% of these individuals will take their dog to daycare if it is available. By adding boarding and grooming services, I can increase the number of clients available to me by 300%-600% as well as increasing my income by 200%-#400%.

Market Opportunities

There are no other dog day-care centres in the vicinity or even within neighboring localities to compete with the business

There seems to be a potential supply of clients


Training dogs: Dogyoga (innovation); cutting-hair facilities; gymnastics

Alternate products: day-care and nourishment.

Value-added products: Vet. pecial trainer. pecialist with dogs.


#40 per hour (simple day-care)

#100 per lesson -- dogyoga

#100 per lesson -- etiquette training

#100 per lesson --…


American Veterinary Medical Association, viewed January 22, 2011,

<> Viewed January 22, 2011,

Business Culture in Lithuanian
Words: 579 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78096470
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Business Culture in Lithuania

Socio-cultural environment

Lithuania has a very family-focused culture. Social obligations and protocols are very important. Fostering close relationships is vital to Lithuanians, both in business and in the general social environment. especting others by making eye contact is essential (Doing business in Lithuania, 2011, Communicaid: 3).

Elements of culture

National pride and traditions have been very important in Lithuania since its liberation from Soviet control. In general, as a people Lithuanians are quite conservative, so it is best to err on the side of caution and dress professionally and use formal modes of address. However, do not be overly brusque during first meetings and engage in respectful small talk that is not too intimate, but is still friendly (Doing business in Lithuania2011, Communicaid: 3).

Business practices and etiquette

"Organisations in Lithuania have a strong respect for hierarchy and authority, with structure and delegation coming from…


Dapkus, L. (2009). Lithuania anti-gay law. Huffington Post. Retrieved: 

Doing business in Lithuania. (2011). Communicaid. Retrieved at:

Business in Russia the Russian Federation Occupies
Words: 1518 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54015176
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Business in ussia

The ussian Federation occupies most of Eastern Europe and north Asia. It stretches from the Baltic Sea in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the East and from Arctic Ocean in the North to Black Sea in the south (Pearson Education, 2012). It is the largest of the 21 republics that make up the Commonwealth of Independent States. There are also 6 federal territories, 2 federal cities, 49 regions, 1 autonomous region, and 10 autonomous areas (Pearson Education, 2012). Norway and Finland borders the Federation in the northwest while Estonia, Latvia, Belarus, and Ukraine border it in the west. In the south it is bordered by Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, and North Korea. ussia occupies a land area of approximately 17,075,500 sq km (Pearson Education, 2012).

ussia is spread over all climatic zones except tropical. West of the Ural mountains from the Black Sea to the Arctic…

References List

Kwintessential (2004). Doing Business in Russia. Retrieved from 

Pearson Education (2013). Russia: Maps, History, Government, Geography, Culture, Facts,

Guide and Travel. Retrieved from 

Russian Embassy (2012). Russian Geography-Regions of Russia. Retrieved from

Business and Law
Words: 853 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77594534
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Outsourcing of jobs is one of the most controversial topics in today's business climate. The increase of the Internet and other global communications has made it not only possible, but easier for organizations to use workforces in other regions in which wages and benefits are far lower than in the developed world. One can ethically defend outsourcing using the principle of utilitarianism -- the greatest good for the greatest number. While initially there is a job loss in the host country, competitive pressures require that global businesses remain competitive to even stay in business. Over the long-term, this means that the stakeholders benefit from the company staying in business and making a profit, even if that is shifting jobs to other countries. Looking at the economy globally allows one to justify outsourcing as a way to improve the gist of globalization (VCG, 2011).

Part 2 -- Because the global economy…


Workplace Web Budging 'Good for Productivity.' (2009, April). The Brisbane Times. Retrieved from: 

Heffner, T. (2012, April). The Real Cost of "Free Trade." Economy in Crisis. Retrieved from:

Klopott, F. (2006, May). Should You Be Fired for Using the Internet While at Work? PC WORLD. Retrieved from: 

Olson, A. (2012). Wrongful Discharge -- An Exception to the At-Will Employment Doctrine. Retrieved March 2013 from:

This Paper Is About All Aspects of Business Communication
Words: 2575 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78807500
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Business Communication

Communication Norms

There are a number of norms for business communication . Business communications serves to perform a number of tasks, ultimately leading to improving the performance of the business. It can inform, motivate, explain or clarify, and business communication can also help to build a team. Within these roles, however, there are some norms for communication in the business setting. Business communication has a higher degree of formality than casual conversation. This is the same no matter by what means the communication occurs, but it also means that communication is more frequently in writing. That allows for better choice of words, for accurate recording of the communication and for communicating the message to many respondents. A more formal style also helps with broadcasting a message to a larger audience, because the formal style focuses the communication strictly on the issues at hand (Ingram, 2015).

The fact that…


Baack. (no date). Chapter 3: Management communications: Verbal and non-verbal channels.

Hopkins, L. (2015). The five key elements to nonverbal communication in business. Frugal Marketing. Retrieved December 5, 2015 from 

Ingram, D. (2015). Communication etiquette in business. Houston Chronicle. Retrieved December 5, 2015 from 

MSG (2014). Overcoming communication barriers. Management Study Guide. Retrieved December 5, 2015 from

Manufacturing Business Operations in Beijing China
Words: 1016 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Business Plan Paper #: 34105325
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The population of Beijing is somewhat homogenous in that the people are almost entirely Han Chinese, but the city does act as a magnet for Chinese from around the country. There can be significant cultural and even linguistic differences between Chinese from different parts of the country. hile the city is 96% Han, there are significant minorities of Manchu, Hui and Mongol (Beijing elcome, 2012), in addition a foreigner population for which estimates vary significantly but is well over 100,000 (, 2010). The primary language spoken in Mandarin. All Chinese are taught the Beijing dialect (Putonghua) in school, so even migrants from other parts of the country should be functional in Mandarin. Most long-term foreigners in Beijing also speak Mandarin.

In addition to being the political and cultural capital of China, Beijing is one of its most important economic cities. The city's economy is rapidly growing, and 71.3% of…

Works Cited: (2010). How many foreigners are there in Beijing? Experiencing China. Retrieved April 5, 2012 from

Beijing Welcome. (2012). Beijing demographics. Beijing Retrieved April 5, 2012 from 

Beijing Travels. (2012). Beijing economy. Beijing Retrieved April 5, 2012 

Walsh, P. & Lin, C. (2012). China: Beijing

Global Business Analysis on Brazil
Words: 5554 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41963007
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Global Business Cultural Analysis: Brazil

Cultural backgrounds reflect the ways and standards of living, which is unique and different for each country. In fact, the business world is also profoundly influenced by the cultural differences of the counties. This focus of this research paper, in this regard, is to analyze the cultural perspectives of doing business in Brazil. Therefore, major elements and dimensions of Brazilian culture such as business structures, management styles, communication, ethics, values, and customs are discussed comprehensively.

Moreover, the discussion has also been made on how the local businessmen integrate these cultural dimensions and elements. Indeed, a detailed comparison United States business has been made with that of Brazilian culture and business elements by means of Hofstede's dimension tool (that is particularly used for measuring cultural differences). Finally, the paper concludes with the implications for the U.S. businesses that plans and desires to conduct business in Brazil.…


Aswathappa. (2010). International Business 4E. India: Tata McGraw-Hill Education.

Beekun, R.I., Stedham, Y. & Yamamura, J.H. (2003). Business Ethics in Brazil and the U.S.: A Comparative Investigation. Journal of Business Ethics, 42(3), 267-279.

Boraas, T. (2001). Brazil. USA: Capstone.

deVries, A. & Blore, S. (2010). Frommer's Brazil. 5th Edition. USA: John Wiley & Sons.

Culture Is Playing on International Business This
Words: 2607 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 94473161
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culture is playing on international business. This is accomplished by comparing cultural traditions of elgium and South Africa using Arcelor Mittal. Once this occurs, is when we are able to understand how the firm is able to utilize these factors to give them an advantage in the global marketplace.

Over the last several years, globalization has been having profound impact on firms. What has been happening is corporations, have been seeking out those areas that can provide them with the lowest costs. This is part of an effort to increase productivity and their overall profit margins. As a result, a variety of different firms have been establishing operations around the world to deal with these underlying challenges. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than the fact that 47% of American and European companies are outsourcing some aspect of their operations. (Sears, 2009) This is important, because…


About. (2011). Arcelor Mittal. Retrieved from: 

Belgium. (2011). CIA World Fact Book. Retrieved from: 

Belgium. (2011). KWI Essential. Retrieved from: 

Financial Highlights. (2010). Arcelor Mittal. Retrieved from:

Mills Decisions About International Business Take Into
Words: 2411 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55186592
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Decisions about international business take into account a wide range of different factors, including political, economic and social environments, in addition to firm-specific issues such as where to produce, what the company makes and how easy it is to ship the company's product. In this report, the case of General Mills in Europe will be considered. General Mills is a major producer on consumer consumables, and the countries in question are going to be France and Greece. The paper is going to discuss the key issues with respect to each country, keeping in mind the General Mills context.

General Mills produces food under a number of common household brands -- Cheerios, Betty Crocker, Pillsbury, Haagen-Dazs, Old El Paso, Yoplait and Nature Valley. The company is based in Minneapolis and began in 1860 with two flour mills, hence the name. The company would change its name to Gold Medal Flour…

Works Cited:

ABC. (2012). Brain drain: 120,000 professionals leave Greece amid crisis. Der Spiegel. Retrieved May 6, 2013 from 

General (2013). History & brand heritage. General Mills. Retrieved May 6, 2013 from 

2012 General Mills Annual Report.

Hofstede, G. (2013). France. Retrieved May 6, 2013 from

Role of Culture in International Business
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ole of Culture in International Business

In an attempt to further enhance their bottom-line while at the same time taking advantage of the benefits and conveniences of globalization, businesses are increasingly extending their operations abroad. Although there are many benefits that such businesses stand to reap, the said global expansion presents its own unique challenges. Indeed, multinational companies operating in global markets face a raft of challenges. These challenges include but they are not limited to business structure adaptation, staffing issues, regulatory and legal hurdles, economic volatility, financial reporting, etc. Multinational companies also have to contend with cultural issues as they conduct their businesses internationally. This is more so the case in terms of the management of their human resources. This text concerns itself with the role of culture in international business. The company of choice for purposes of this discussion is a global electronics company with offices in four…


Kania, S.M., 2010. The Role of Cultural Differences in Forming a Business Strategy. Journal of Intercultural Management, 2(2), p.16-25.

Pride, W.M. & Ferrell, O.C., 2011. Marketing. Mason, OH: Cengage Learning.

Wagner, T., 2009. Foreign Market Entry and Culture. Norderstedt: GRIN Verlag.

HRM Issues in Global Business Expansion Introduction
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HM Issues in Global Business Expansion

Introduction to Human esource Management

In the last several decades, human resource management (HM) has evolved into a major component of modern business organizations (George & Jones, 2008). In principle, HM functions have always been part of professional business management; however, it became a distinct professional field with dedicated specialists only since the latter part of the 20th century. Generally, HM consists of all of the processes and functions that relate to personnel management, from the entire cycle in between recruitment and retirement or alternative ends of careers such as voluntary departure and involuntary termination. More specifically, HM departments typically handle the hiring process, new-employee orientation and training, the resolution of personnel issues and conflicts, benefits administration, employee performance review, and post-employment debriefing processes (George & Jones, 2008).

Contemporary Human esource Management in the Age of Globalization

In the age of globalization, HM departments…


George, J.M. And Jones, G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational

Behavior. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.

Cincinnati, OH: West Legal Studies.

Managing Across Culture in Doing Business Oversea
Words: 1147 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 8489084
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oles and Experiences in Cross-Cultural Business

Cross-cultural differences are recognized as the biggest barrier to doing business in the world market (Fan & Zigang, 2004). esearch aimed at exploring cross-cultural differences in regards to international business investigated key differences in personality traits between business leaders in different countries. The key finding demonstrated by this research was that the factors that counted for most of the differences experienced by executives working internationally were agreeableness and emotional balance (P Newswire, 2007). This is expressed in differences between countries with regard to how extensively group harmony is valued and the extent to which emotions are expressed or muted (P Newswire, 2007).

The way businesses in China experience and process risk has been found to differ significantly to that of the West (Brumagim & Xianhua, 2005). These differences may be appropriated explained through prospect theory, which hypothesizes that potential losses are experienced more intensely…


Bouncken, R.B., Ratzmann, M., and Viviane, A., 2008. Cross-cultrual innovation teams: effects of four types of attitudes towards diversity. International Journal of Business Strategy [e-journal]. Available through HighBeam Research database [accessed 3 December 2010].

Brumagim, A.L. And Xianhua, W., 2005. An examination of cross-cultural differences in attitudes towards risk: testing prospect theory in the People's Republic of China. Multinational Business Review [e-journal]. Available through HighBeam Research database [accessed 5 December 2010].

Business Editors, 2003. Cultural and communication barriers are of the greatest challenges when conducting business in China. Business Wire [e-journal]. Available through HighBeam Research database [accessed 3 December 2010].

Fan, P. And Zigang, Z., 2004. Cross-cultural challenges when doing business in China. Singapore Management Review [e-journal]. Available through HighBeam Research database [accessed 3 December 2010].

Social Media by Business Using the Best
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social media by business, using the Best Buy case as an example. The benefits of social media in the business context are explained, as are the downsides. There are also recommendations with respect to the use of social media by a law firm, and in this case it is recommended that the law firm should not engage in social media. Compared with a retailer -- especially one with a connection to technology -- there is less upside for a law firm and more downside risk. Understanding the benefits of social media as well as the business context is essential to developing an effective social media plan.

Best Buy has successfully embraced social media, something that fits with its brand image, but also something that has helped to enhance its business. This report will outline the principles of successful social media usage, the value that social media has to business, and…


Dunn, B.J., (2010, Dec). Best Buy's CEO on Learning to Love Social

Media, Harvard Business Review, 88(12), 43-48. Retrieved from EBSCO.

Reed, T. (2008, May 1-7). Blogging: 21st Century Marketing: Small

Businesses sell the 7Cs by using blogging as a marketing tool. The Tennessee Tribune, 19(6), 9. Retrieved from ProQuest.

Social Business and Retailer
Words: 12746 Length: 50 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 58098465
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Using contemporary illustrative examples from academic literature and reputable business publications, discuss the concept of "Social Business" and the resultant opportunity and challenges that are currently being faced by the retail industry globally.

Concept of Social Business

Concept of Social Business with etailers

Social Media and etailing

Best Practices in Administering Social Media

There is a growing body of research that confirms that companies of all sizes and types can realize a wide array of benefits from the use of social media networks. While the types and applications of social media experience constant change, social media content such as blogs and microblogs have become some of the more popular social media tools that have emerged in recent years. Although there a number of benefits and advantages that can be achieved through the use of social media resources, there is a concomitant danger that inappropriate or misguided content can backfire…


'About MySpace,' 2013, MySpace. [online] available: .

'About YouTube,' 2013, YouTube. [online] available: .

Anderson, DJ 2011, Winter, 'The Foray into Social Media: A Clinician, and Skeptic,

Sold,' Frontiers of Health Services Management, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 23-29.

Integrated Business Communications Integrated Business Communication Write
Words: 899 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25678177
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Integrated Business Communications

Integrated Business Communication. Write (3-4) page paper addresses: As a future executive, explain important communication issues face embark career. Discuss communication complex, complex,

Assessing integrated business communication today

Ultimately, business is about serving customers, and customers will not understand the value one's business can give them without effective communication. However, the need for effective communication is not limited to people who buy an organization's goods and services. The ability to frame a cohesive organizational message begins with strong, effective workplace relationships between employees and employers and then spills out into the other facets of the workplace.


Given the profound shifts that have occurred in workplace communication, it is necessary even for well-functioning organizations to review their standard operating procedures. Workers, thanks to the availability of online technology, are often spaced out farther from one another than ever before yet are also far more constantly connected: the…


Adams, D. (2012). How technology changed our workplace communications. Bit Rebels.

Retrieved from: 

Kiisel, T. (2012). Gimme gimme: Millennials in the workplace. Forbes. Retrieved from:

Law and Business When Glenn
Words: 5286 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Assessment Paper #: 17345660
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During this Diaspora, the African Slave Trade transferred 9-12 million people from one continent to another with major repercussions on cultural and political traditions in the New World. There have been a number of modern Diasporas based on the post-Cold War world in which huge populations of refugees migrated from conflict, especially from developing countries (Southeast Asia, China, Afghanistan, Iran, Latin America, South American, Rwanda, etc.).

Part 1.2.1 - Civil Law is a legal system inspired by Ancient Roman law. In Civil law, laws are written into a codified collection that is a group of ideas and systems that work in tandem to help organize societies without the need for judicial interpretation. Overall, civil law is in place to formulate general principles and to distinguish substantive rules from procedural rules, and is based on the tenet that legislation is the primary source of law.

Conceptually, civil law is a group…

Global Business Analysis - India
Words: 4108 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 29496853
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This behavio is not consideed dishonest; in fact, and Indian peson would be consideed ude if he o she did not ty to attempt to give a peson what has been equested.

Anothe vey impotant aspect of business cultue in India is the meeting etiquette. Meeting Etiquette is influenced by all sots of cultual elements descibed above, including social class. Fo example, in India, one must geet the eldest o moe senio fist, and when leaving a goup each peson must bid faewell individually. Though shaking hands is common, this is only in big cities, whee the natives ae accustomed to Westenes. Men and women, howeve, do not usually shake hands.

The next pat of the business cultue is knowing Indian names, and whee they oiginate. Accoding to one aticle, names ae based upon "eligion, social class, and egion of the county." Fo Hindus fo example, in the noth, people…

references taken from "India: Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette." (2011). Kwintesential. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from .

List provided by Shukla, M. (2011). "Guide to India." Executive Planet: Wiki. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from < >.

Jayaganesh, M & Shanks, G. (2009). "A cultural analysis of Business Process Management governance in Indian organizations." Department of Information Systems, University of Melbourne. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from .

Jayaganesh, M & Shanks, G. (2009). "A cultural analysis of Business Process Management governance in Indian organizations." Department of Information Systems, University of Melbourne. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from . s

McKnight, D., Stokes, P., Vilmenay, J. (2003). "India - A Market Analysis: For Staples Incorporated." University of Maryland. Retrieved August 13, 2011, from < >.

Ethics the Art and Etiquette
Words: 2626 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 43796381
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Men and women who work directly with each other often get hung up on communication issues, particularly over concerns that entail authority, support, and the supervision of others. This happens due to the fact that the sexes have different methods of communicating. They call for achievement and guidance in a different ways. Their spoken answers and moments are often dissimilar. And they have diverse approaches for articulating workplace burdens. The consequence of this can be mistakes. In the end this leads to a lot of cross talk. Presently, almost half of all privately held companies are 50% or more owned by women. This translates to there being 11 million private ventures at which women owners must converse their objectives and operational needs to both male and female clients, merchants, associates and employees. Women have to appreciate how men talk during business, and the other way around as well (Krotz, 2010).…


Business Conversation Etiquette. (2010). Retrieved September 15, 2010, from Work Etiquette

Web site: 

How to Have a Business Conversation. (2010). Retrieved September 15, 2010, from eHow Web


Tastes & Communication Business Communication on a
Words: 545 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33566149
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Business Communication

On a recent trip to India, Mr. Yang, a prominent Chinese executive, dined with his client Himanshu Jain. Mr. Yang commented that the food was spicy, which Mr. Jain interpreted as an opportunity to discuss Indian cuisine. After lengthy explanations, Mr. Yang commented again that the food was spicy. What happened? What barrier is likely getting in the way of clear communication and how could this barrier have been overcome?

This situation exemplifies a breakdown in crosscultural communication. There could have been several factors that contributed to their miscommunication. Language is likely a prominent factor in why they had a problem. Certainly, they must share some common language in order that they conduct business together, but because this cultural conundrum stems from a linguistic misfire, language barriers are a good place to start. There also seems to be some contextual confusion. Yang perceived his comment…


Rentz, L.F. (2008). Chapter 16 -- Techniques of Cross-Cultural Communication. Business Communication: Making Connections in a Digital World, 11th Edition. The McGraw-Hill Companies.

Global Business Culture Analysis China
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Many of them are either uddhist or Taoist, and both of these religions teach respect very seriously. In order to understand the idea of respect amongst siblings in the way that the Chinese individuals see it, it becomes necessary to also understand some of the Taoist and uddhist traditions and beliefs. These are not always seen as being very significant, largely because many individuals in the west do not understand Taoism and/or uddhism, and therefore it gets largely ignored. However, it is also important to understand the importance of schooling and how this affects the way that the Chinese individuals think when it comes to the respect that they show to their siblings (ogdan & iklen, 1992).

Integration of the Elements by Locals

Religion and usiness in China

uddhism is the religion that is generally seen in the Chinese culture. uddhists seek an elimination of suffering. The uddha teaches that,…


Balfour, Frederik. (2006). B&Q stores: Renovating China's attitudes. BusinessWeek. Retrieved from: . htm

Bass, Frank M. The Future of Research in Marketing: Marketing Science. Journal of Marketing Research 30, 1 (1993): 1-6.

Bogdan, R.C., & Biklen, S.K. (1992). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theory and methods (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Cateora, P.R., & Graham, J.L., (2002) International Marketing 11th Ed. Mc Graw-Hill

Global Business Culture Analysis of
Words: 4614 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 6188631
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There are also some words that are used, which do not translate into English such as privacy. This is because the cultural traditions of Russia do not understand such concepts, which makes translating certain ideas more challenging. (Richmond, 2009, pp. 109 -- 117)

1.3.1: Russian

Russian is a Slavic language that has close ties to all of the different European languages including: English and German. This means that many of the root words are similar to what is used in the common languages spoken throughout the West. However, as far as the alphabet is concerned, the language will utilize what is known as the Cyrillic alphabet. This is different from Western languages, as each of 32 different symbols will represent particular roots of certain words. When reading the language and learning Russian, the basic alphabet will help foreign business executives to navigate their way around. With the alphabet is pronounced…


Andresen, F. (2007). Walking on Ice. Denver, CO: Outskirts Press.

Ayios, A. (2004). East West Relationships in Russia. Trust and Western Russian Business Relationships. (pp. 156 -- 180). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Horton, P. (2006). Religion. Russia and Belarus. (pp. 77 -- 83). Melbourne: Lonely Planet Publications.

Jones, A. (1994). Education and Society in the New Russia. Armonk, NY: ME Sharpe.

How to Conduct Business Internationally
Words: 1437 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 37537851
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International Communication in International Business

Words are very important in a high context culture and have much more significance and carry far more meaning and weight than in a low context culture. In a high context culture, words are chosen carefully and one must be familiar with the culture itself because it is this that informs the words and gives them their weight.

In business negotiations, the type of behavior that I believe will manifest itself when players from a High Context Culture engage with those of a Low Context are the indirect and direct types of communication that are likely to exist. The high context culture negotiator will likely tend to be more indirect, assuming that his meaning and point will be inferred, whereas the low context culture negotiator will be direct, expecting there to be no hidden meaning behind his words. The contrast could result in confusion and…


Business Meeting Etiquette. (2015). Passport to Trade. Retrieved from 

Hall, E. (1976). Beyond Culture. NY: Anchor Books.

Hofstede, G. (1997). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind (second ed.).

New York: McGraw-Hill.

Adjourning While Recognizing the Sates
Words: 914 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77293123
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Another reason why it may be difficult for businesspeople to understand business etiquette is culture difference. Globalization has made the business world a more diverse area. Whether one is working in an office in his or her own country or negotiating business dealings with clients and partners in other cultures, cultural and ethnic differences can place stress on the business etiquette relationship. One person may not know that another from a different culture is offended by certain hand gestures or does not find it appropriate to discuss certain topics. Finally, business has a great deal to do with why business ethics remains a difficult concept to grasp. In the business world, most people are incredibly busy. Because they think the focus of business is money or achievements for themselves and the company, some are just willing to sacrifice ethical behaviors for reasons of time and comfort. In order to solve…

China-Cultural Review Touching Upon the
Words: 1888 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 88159045
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The latter type of employees will act as mediators between the foreigner and the host, will point out potential mistakes and will also be more easily accepted by the staff. Undoubtedly, if Chinese who haven't had international experiences are capable of appropriately managing the business, they will be given the chance to hold top management positions after a certain period of intercultural training.

4) Referring to demand and customer relations, a foreign company should display a high respect towards its clients by offering them qualitative products and services that take into account their cultural background (i.e. avoiding colors which are associated with fatality, avoiding gestures, words that are considered to be offensive etc.).

The Chinese market's demand for a foreign company's products is significantly influenced by collectivism. For instance, in Japan which is a collectivist culture too, a U.S. based company selling ice cream paid several Japanese to stay in…


1. China Interview (2007). On the internet at: Retreievd March 4.

2. Chinese Business Etiquette (2007). On the Internet at: Retrieved March 4.

3. Geert Hofstede Analysis (2007). On the Internet at: Retrieved March 4.

4. Hofstede's Analysis for China (2003). On the Internet at: Retrieved March 4.

International Human Resources From the
Words: 2779 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 43032842
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Uncertainty Avoidance, according to Hofstede's model, refers to how comfortable the people of a certain culture are with structure as opposed to flexibility. Notable disparities in negotiating styles between those nations scoring high and low on the uncertainty avoidance index have been known to cause significant conflict. This conflict is mostly likely to occur when people who prefer structured activities because they entail less risk encounter people from a culture with a more spontaneous style. Those with a structured mindset are likely to regard a lack of structure as a form of disrespect -- as if the culture does not care about risk because the deal or the negotiation is not as important to them. According to Goodwin "Uncertainty avoidance concerns planning and stability as a way of dealing with life's uncertainties: those high on uncertainty avoidance have a strong desire for consensus, and deviant behavior is unacceptable. Because high…


Buckley, P.J. (1994) International business vs. international management? International strategic management from the view of point of Internalisation Theory. International Journal of the Economics of Business 1, 95-104.

Evans, P., Pucik, V., & Barsouxs, J.L. (2002). The global challenge: Frameworks for international human resource management. New York: McGraw-Hill

Freedland, B. (2003, August) Market research in Japan: it's one of the world's biggest consumer markets, but when it comes to market research, Japan is way behind. Japan, Inc. Retrieved from 

Goodwin, R. (1999), Personal relationships across cultures. London: Routledge,

Cultural Briefing Document Zurich Switzerland the Lj
Words: 1885 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 91934749
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Cultural Briefing Document Zurich Switzerland

The LJ Products Co. is proud to announce that one of our executive staff will be joining our staff in Zurich Switzerland in January of 2012. Mr. Didier Burkhalter will be joining our Zurich staff as chief financial officer. Mr. Burkhalter will report directly to the CEO and other members of the board. To make Mr. Burkhalter feel welcome in his new position it is requested that all staff members read the following briefing prior to his arrival and that they become familiar with the customs of Mr. Burkhalter's country of origin. All staff members should extend Mr. Burkhalter a warm welcome by familiarizing themselves with his customs. The following summarizes many of the customs of Swiss society, using American culture as a reference point.

Cultural Dimensions

Hofstede's cultural dimensions is the most widely used system for developing a framework that assesses national cultures and…


COMMUNICAID GROUP LTD. 2009. Doing Busineass in Switzerland: Swiss Social and Business Culture. [online] Available from: [accessed to December 2011}.

EDIPLOMAT. 2011. Switzerland. [online] Available from:  [accessed to December 2011}.

EXPATICA. 2011. Management Culture in Switzerland. [online] Available from:  [accessed to December 2011}.

HOFSTEDE, G. 2001. Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. (2nd ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Saudi American Midwest Cultural Differences in
Words: 5760 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 22642492
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Therefore, Americans seeking to do business with Saudi nationals would be well advised to research their prospective Saudi counterparts thoroughly but to make preparations to travel to Saudi Arabia first before actually initiating contact with Saudi business people. Doing so and calling after arriving in Saudi Arabia instead of initiating contact from abroad demonstrates awareness of and respect for Saudi business customs right off the bat and in a way that should be noticed by Saudis, especially those who might be familiar with the fact that the norm in the U.S. is simply to call first or email to arrange the first meeting.

Saudis seeking to do business with American firms should understand that in the U.S., it might be inappropriate to travel to the location of a business first and then make initial contact expecting that the meeting will necessarily be planned during their stay. That is because in…


Harris, P., Moran, R. (2007). Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership

Strategies for the 21st Century

Hughes, R., Chesters, G. (2003). Living and Working in Gulf States & Saudi Arabia.

Survival Books: London

Brand Repositioning Consumer Product Brand Repositioning of
Words: 1921 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65877946
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Brand epositioning

Consumer Product


epositioning in the Target Market

Hallmark greeting cards are the most ubiquitous printed greeting cards found across the United States. The company prides itself on having a card for every occasion and to express every sentiment. Hence, the volume of cards printed by the company has increased with time. The chief strengths of the brand are excellent product quality, the quality of the sentiment, the visual appeal and the convenience of accessing and purchasing the card. However, with the advent of free and interactive online greeting card services, the popularity of printed greeting cards has been declining over the years. According to Kardes et al. (2011), brands need to be rejuvenated when they are in the decline stage. Franzen & Moriarty (2009) state that a brand needs to be repositioned when it fails to remain relevant to the value patterns…


Franzen, G., & Moriarty, S. (2009). The science and art of branding. (p. 187) M.E. Sharpe.

Kardes, F., Cronley, M., & Cline, T.W. (2011). Consumer behavior. (p. 350). Cengage Learning.

United States Census Bureau. (2012). Statistics about Business Size (Including Small Business) from the U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved from 

Wreden, N. (2007). Profit brand. (p. 130). Kogan Page Publishers.

Turkish Culture Is Generally Considered to Be
Words: 1304 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60414616
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Turkish culture is generally considered to be quite homogenous; even so many business people of Turkey are used to doing business with people from all over the world and from a range of different cultures (Katz, 2008). However, this doesn't necessarily imply that Turkish people are open-minded. Sometimes they are quite the opposite and prefer to have things done "their way" or in the specific manner in which they are used to. In that sense, it's absolutely helpful to have a guide of all the aspects of Turkish culture, so that one can better familiarize oneself with the nuances of this culture so that communication is facile, and so that one can achieve the business related goals that are most important and specific. When it comes to the culture of Spain and of those from Catalan, there are areas of overlap and areas of difference.

elationships and Showing espect



EC. (2013). Meeting etiquette. Retrieved from 

Ediplomat. (2013). Turkey. Retrieved from

Katz, L. (2008). Negotiating international business: Turkey. Retrieved from

Miami Mr Chow Firstly We
Words: 1612 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 93527374
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Moreover, because of the high levels of tourism, no one would be out of place in Miami. acism exists in North America, in the United States and in Miami; however, it is determined to be as pronounced in some other more conservative cities.


With race and ethnicity it is important to mindful of the history of America in relation to how immigrants have been treated in general, and to Latin immigrants specifically. There are a number of ethnic groups represented within the Latin immigrant population and there should not be blanket generalizations applied to the group as though they represent one culture or ethnic group.

Non-verbal Communication

Ofttimes, nonverbal communication can be as significant as verbal communication. For those individuals of Latin descent, some of the more general associations with nonverbal communication are the importance of shaking hands in the introduction process. Culturally, there is purportedly the view that…


Hofstede, G. (1984) Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work Related

Values, (2nd ed). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.

Hofstede, G. (2001) Culture's Consequences: comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations (2nd ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Educating the Expatriate in Papua
Words: 1469 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 50310566
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Like many traditional societies in Hofstede's typology, PNG is also called a 'feminine' society, in the emphasis it places upon relationships. The nation would be characterized very much as a 'high context' culture, one in which relational status is very important when conveying meaning. How information is conveyed is more important than the actual wording of the message. Nonverbal language is very important in high context cultures, and it can be very difficult for cultural outsiders to translate the dominant cultural script into their own terms. The culture is very change resistant in PNG, and this is exacerbated by logistical difficulties, such as the lack of highly qualified IT and business professionals to teach current undergraduates to pass on information about new ways of doing business.

Behaviors, ethnocentrism, self-reference criteria

However, while it has been called 'feminine' in terms of its valuation of relationships, an observer should know that for…


Cultural differences between Australia and Papua New Guinea. (2010). Convict Creations.

Retrieved November 8, 2010 at 

Kelegai, Limbie & Michael Middleton. (2002). Information technology education in Papua New

Guinea: Cultural, economic and political influences. Journal of Information Technology

Venezuela Annotated Bibliography -- Venezuela What Are
Words: 1067 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Annotated Bibliography Paper #: 35956454
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Annotated Bibliography -- Venezuela

What are the major elements and dimensions of culture in this region?

Centre for Intercultural Learning. (2012) Cultural Information -- Venezuela. Available from 2012 April 04.

his is an interactive tool for people interested in different cultures and companies. here is home page for each country with information about Venezuela divided into sections via hyperlinks. he structure is conversational style between the user and the content provider. Statistical information as well as information regarding cultural norms and behaviors are provided.

Interknowledge Corporation. (2010) Venezuela -- History and Culture. Available from 2012 April 04.

his article provides a lot of details regarding the social and the cultural aspects of Venezuela. Particular attention is paid to aspects such as language, art history, behaviors, norms, dress, and cultural aesthetics. here is less statistical data and more qualitative data regarding Venezuela culture. (2011) Republica de Venezuela…

This article is specifically focused on the history of trade between the U.S.A. And Venezuela. History is always useful in any industry and the narrowness of the scope of the article is different from the other sources. Many of the other sources focus upon many issues, but this article focuses upon one. This would prove useful to professionals interested in changing trade policy or specializing in trade policy.

Hornbeck, J.F. (2011) U.S. -- Latin America Trade: Recent Trends and Policy Issues. Congressional Research Service, Available from . 2012 April 05.

Hornbeck offers the same narrow focus as the previous source, but from a strictly USA governmental perspective. He describes the history of trade policy within South America the continent, as well as with individual countries in South America. This article puts the last article into context and builds upon its objectives.

Promoting Cultural Integration and Mindset
Words: 2046 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 63528753
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Cross Cultural Interaction etween Corporations

As per CEO of Finisar, Jerry Rawls, 'Culture eats strategy for breakfast'.

During a panel discussion revolving around authentic leadership, Jerry Rawls said this famous line to signify the influence culture can have on best of strategic plans which companies fail to oversee and implement at around 70% of the time (Charan & Colvin, 1999). All small, medium and large enterprises are held responsible for this strategic implementation failure as global trends affects business strategy increasingly. The leaders need to assess the challenges arising whilst working in a worldwide marketplace relying on information, goods and services changing borders quickly which have transformed the landscape for competitive edge for most companies (Clapp-Smith, 2009)

In this modern era, communication takes place regularly between international suppliers, consumers, moderators and workers in a real time or a virtual time environment. The changes coming with globalization had compelled organization's top…


Barmeyer, C., & Mayrhofer, U. (2008). The contribution of intercultural management to the success of international mergers and acquisitions: An analysis of the EADS group. Elsevier, 28-38. Retrieved from: 

Bovee, C.L., & Thill, J.V. (2010). Business communication today (10th ed.). Boston: Prentice Hall.

Clapp-Smith, R. (2009). Global Mindset Development During Cultural Transitions. Nebaska: College of Business Administration. Retrieved from: 

Charan, R., & Colvin, G. (1999, June 21, 1999). Why CEOs Fail. Fortune.

How Companies can Prepare Their Workforces for the Future
Words: 3783 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23258346
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Table of ContentsWorkforce Action Plan .Inclusion and Diversity .Current State of the Workforce .Future State of the Workforce .AbstractToday, like many companies, Mi-ORG, a successful, customer-centered consultancy, is faced with a wide array of challenges, including reducing unplanned turnover, ensuring a smooth succession of a significant number of retirees and expected departures as well as developing and sustaining a diverse workforce that promotes employee morale and organizational loyalty and places a high priority on innovative practices. In addition, Mi-ORG tries to maintain a laser-sharp focus on its clients, but all of these trends have created a critical juncture in the companys path moving forward. Indeed, Mi-ORGs current human resource management practices, especially its web task management application, are adversely affecting employee morale and productivity, and timely interventions are clearly needed to avoid even higher levels of unplanned turnover in the future. Using a systematic review of the literature, this project…

ReferencesAn average day at Mi-ORG. (2021, May 31). University of Maryland global campus.Diversity and inclusion. (2021, May 31). University of Maryland global campus.Dobbin, F. & Kaley, A. (2018, September 18). Why doesnt diversity training work? The challenge for industry and academia. Anthropology Now, 10(2), 37-44.Engaging in succession planning. (2021). Society for Human Resource Management. Retrieved from engaginginsuccessionplanning.aspx.Larcker, D. F. & Tayan, B. (2020, April 1). Diversity in the C-suite: The dismal state of diversity among Fortune 500 senior executives. Rock Center for Corporate Governance at Stanford University Closer Look Series: Topics, Issues and Controversies in Corporate Governance No. CGRP-82.Mi-ORG company overview. (2021. May 3). University of Maryland global campus.Organizational culture. (2021, May 3). University of Maryland global campus.Practices to increase cultural awareness in the workplace (2017, September 22). Deakin. Retrieved from gap analysis template. (2021, May 3). University of Maryland global campus.Trends that impact the workforce. (2021, May 3). University of Maryland global campus.

Diversity People Across All Nations
Words: 554 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 39111647
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In fact, there have been a number of women who have proven themselves capable of leading the country. In the Philippines, there was former president Corazon Aquino and the current president Gloria-Macapagal Arroyo who both have proven that they can be in control and bring back the glory to the country. Other countries that have had a woman president as are: India, Chile, Liberia, Finland, Panama, Sri Lanka and Ireland.

Hence, it is already proven that any woman has a chance of becoming a president if she can prove that she is credible and capable of doing so. omen are perceived as an equal ally of men nowadays. They are not anymore the weaker sex. They have already gained the respect and trust by the populace - men and women, young and adults.

This goes the same with the idea of having a black man as a president. Any black…

Works Cited

Schuler, a.J. 2001. Tips for Successful Cross-Culture Communication.

Hateful Acts Towards Muslims Following 9 11
Words: 2084 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56115127
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Globalization and Cultural Conflict

The authors (Gardner, et al., 2008, Author House, 82-83) explain that several IT and business professionals have been hired to transfer a business from an existing system to a completely automated system. This project was launched prior to the terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001. The key question comes down to a leadership scenario: hat leadership approach should be taken when two out of a dozen talented contractors that have been hired happen to be Islamic, and those two individuals ask for an hour off every Friday for religious purposes? This paper delves into that subject using narrative from the available literature, and from two books: Corporate Leadership Selection: Impact on American Business, Employees, and Society; and Managing Cultural Differences: Global Leadership Strategies for Cross-Cultural Business Success.

Gardner, et al., on Leadership

As an introduction to what Reginald J. Gardner writes about leadership in…

Works Cited

Akram, S.M. "The Aftermath of September 11, 2001: The Targeting of Arabs and Muslims

in America." Arab Studies Quarterly, 24(2&3), 61-119.

Ali, Y. "Shariah and Citizenship -- How Islamophobia Is Creating a Second-Class Citizenry

In America." California Law Review, 100(4), 1027-1068.

Culture and Diversity Issues in
Words: 2845 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 13936527
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Silence too is an important part of communication in Singapore. It is customary to pause before answering a question, to indicate that the person has given the question the appropriate thought and consideration that is needed. Westerners habit of responding quickly to a question, to Singaporeans, often indicates thoughtlessness and rude behavior. Their demeanor is typically calm, and Westerners more aggressive style is often seen as off putting ("Singapore: Language," 2009). Authority is to be respected for both employees of an organization, in Singapore, and when dealing with other organizations (Tse, 2008), and communication content and tone should represent this respect. Business etiquette is also different in Singapore than in many Western countries.

Cultural Business Etiquette in Singapore:

Business is more formal in Singapore than non-Asian organizations are often used to. There are strict rules of protocol, with a clear chain of command, which is expected to be kept on…


Choy, W. 1 Jul 2007, "Globalisation and workforce diversity: HRM implications for multinational corporations in Singapore," Singapore Management Review, .

Edewor, P. & Aluko, P. May 2007, "Diversity management, challenges and opportunities in multicultural organizations," International Journal of Diversity in Organisation, Communities & Nations vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 189-195.

Hofstede, G. Feb 1993, "Cultural constraints in management theories," Executive, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 81-94.

Ismail, R. & Shaw, B. Feb 2006, "Singapore's Malay-Muslim minority: Social identification in a post 9/11 world," Asian Ethnicity vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 37-51.

Outsourcing Jobs to India Outsourcing
Words: 2981 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 71914611
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They grant significant respect to women, which allows them to easily adapt to the workplace. Humor is not valued within the Indian workplace, their culture encouraging formal relationships between employees.

The Work Environment in the U.S.

The U.S. work environment is significantly different than that in India. The business environment in the U.S. is results-oriented, encourages and support performance, efficiency, and productivity. The U.S. managers are trained in time management, given the fact that they must reduce the time spent for certain tasks and activities.

In addition to this, the work culture in this country is rather informal. Even so, employees must respect the work relationship they have with their superiors. In comparison with Indians, U.S. workers hold frequent meetings. The common characteristic is represented by the fact that participants in the meeting must respect certain speaking rules. The dressing code is variable and is established in accordance with the…

Reference list:

1. The Outsourcing History of India (2011). Outsource2India. Retrieved February 19, 2011 from .

2. India (2009). ITIM. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from .

3. United States (2009). ITIM. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from .

4. Doing Business in India: A Cultural Perspective (2004). Stylusinc. Retrieved February 20, 2011 from

Value of Virtual Teams
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team have to address the challenges and leverage the opportunities associated with operating as this particular type of virtual team

Multinational virtual teams allow organizations to benefit from the cultural knowledge conveyed to the base organization from interacting with employees from local businesses without some of the costs of transferring members of the organization abroad. Organizational members can be mobile "any place, any time, anywhy" in a virtual team without leaving behind family, friends, and familiarity (Collings, Doherty, Luethy, & Osborn 2011, p.364). However, this is also one of the challenges of a virtual team. Because the members are not actively forced to make a cultural adjustment because they are not expatriates, they can ignore the need to make cultural accommodations or appreciate cultural nuances and differences (between low-context cultures like the U.S. And high-context cultures like Thailand). Just as with a formal transfer to a foreign nation, preparation is…


Collings, D. Doherty, N., Luethy, M. & Osborn, D. (2011). Understanding and supporting the career implications of international assignments. Journal of Vocational Behavior 78,

361 -- 371

Haslberger, A., Brewster, & Hippler. (2013). The dimensions of expatriate adjustment. Human Resource Management.

Welch, D. & Steen, A. (2013). Repositioning global staff transfers: A learning perspective.

Marketing Men's Attire in New York City
Words: 5242 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Business Plan Paper #: 29884621
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Business Plan for Tailoring Workshop Company: A Tailor Shop on Wheels

This business plan is for the Tailoring Workshop Company (hereinafter alternatively "the company"), a mobile tailor shop for men clothes that will have a Web site and a mobile app available through the Apple Store. The company will focus on tailoring men's suits only. Customers will be able to contact their personal tailor through the company's Web site or via the mobile app, but there will be no physical brick-and-mortar facilities or retail outlet. Customers will be able to create a free online account that enables them to explore all fabric choices and design collections so they can select the combinations that most appeal to them. The mobile app and Web site will facilitate changes so that customers can instantaneously visualize the results of their choices. In addition to using the company's available designs, customers will also be able…


Craik, J. (1993). The face of fashion: Cultural studies in fashion. London: Routledge.

Dahl, D. (2011). How to write an operational plan for your business. Inc. Retrieved from .

Davis, J. (2009, October 12). Clothier of generations, Svoboda will close Arlington Heights

men's store bows to age, fashion trends. Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL), 1.

Affect on Social and Economic Standards
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Business on Social Standards

It is often said that air, water, food, clothing, and shelter are the basic needs for human survival. However, while this statement may be fundamentally true, the fact is that the structure of modern day economies has resulted in expanding basic human needs to include a whole host of products and services. Indeed, this is evident in the manner in which the average consumer sees yesterday's luxuries as today's essential comforts or even necessities of life. Further, since modern economies depend on continuously increasing the demand for products and services, it can be well argued that business has become the main driving force behind the evolution of not just economic standards but social ones as well.

Trade and commerce have always been central to the functioning and progress of human society down the ages. This fact is apparent in virtually all chronicles of human history, which…

Works Cited

Field, A.E., Cheung, L., Wolf, A.M., Herzog, D.B., Gortmaker, S.L., & Colditz, G.A.

"Exposure to the Mass Media and Weight Concerns Among Girls." Pediatrics. Vol. 103:3, p. e36. Accessed Oct. 11, 2004: ; HITS=10& hits=10& RESULTFORMAT=& author1=Field%2C+A.+E.& searchid=1097581434848_3019& stored_search=& FIRSTINDEX=0& sortspec=relevance& journalcode=pediatrics "Colonialism." Accessed Oct. 11, 2004: 

Williams, J. "Unbending Gender: Why Family and Work Conflict and What to Do about It."