Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
As the proceedings of the past few years have shown, these labors, regrettably, have not prevented companies from engaging in unethical behaviors that lead to larger corporate disgraces. As a result there is augmented force to make accessible more structured power and ethics programs so that companies are more accountable to the societies in which they function.
Understanding the setting of business ethics can be very difficult. The field is vast, often encircling such concerns as corporate governance, reputation management, precise accounting, fair labor practices and environmental stewardship. In fact, the field addresses the complete range of responsibilities that a company has to each of its stakeholders like those who have a vested interest in the judgments and actions of a company, like clients, workers, shareholders, suppliers and the society. Depending upon the company in question, one may even be able to distinguish additional stakeholders. The field of business ethics…
Baker, M. (2004). Corporate social responsibility - What does it mean? Retreived from http://www.mallenbaker.net/csr/definition.php
Carroll, A.B. (1991). The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility: Toward the Moral
Management of Organizational Stakeholders, Business Horizons, (July-August).
Cline, A. (2005). Harry Potter and Popular Culture. Retrieved from http://atheism.about.com/b/2005/02/25/harry-potter-and-popular-culture.htm
Trying to arrange away conflict and difference in a dynamic atmosphere necessitates great quantities of energy, and will also repress any affirmative results that may come from variance, such as enhanced decision-making and novelty (Organizational Leadership Managing Conflict, Power and Politics, 2004).
The functional view of organizational conflict sees conflict as a creative power, one that can inspire associates of the company to augment their information and skills, and their involvement to company originality and output. This advance considers that the keys to organization achievement lie not in arrangement, clearness and organization, but in originality, receptiveness and compliance. The triumphant company needs conflict so that deviating views can be put on the table, and new manners of doing things can be produced. The functional view of conflict also proposes that conflict supplies individuals with feedback about how things are going. On the other hand, this necessitates that conflict not be…
Baligh, Helmy H. (2006). Organization structures: theory and design, analysis and prescription.
New York: Springer Science & Business Media, Inc.
Organizational Leadership Managing Conflict, Power and Politics. (2004). Retrieved March 11,
2011, from Web site:
Leadership Style Approach
GM502-xx (xx = section #)
Leadership Theories and Practice l
Drill Sergeant (Northouse, 2012)
Mark Young, a professional painter who previously worked as an independent contractor lands a job as the head of the painting department in a large health facility. He starts of as a task-oriented leader, geared towards goal attainment at the expense of the personal and work-related needs of his employees. With time, however, Mark relaxes his style of leadership, and begins to interact more with his subordinates - both at the professional level and personal level. He enjoys seeing his employees develop professionally, because such personal development drives the success of the department as a whole. In fact, he aids in such development by delegating some of his duties to subordinates. The department's performance has improved substantially since Mark took over, and a fair share of this improvement can rightly be attributed to…
Daft, R. (2014). The Leadership Experience (6th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning
Northouse, P. (2012). Leadership Theory and Practice (6th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
This would lead to a new round of calls for increased ethical standards. (De George, 2005)
Name at least three reasons why ethics are important to your job/profession or a job/profession you would like to work in Three reasons why ethics is important would include: it helps improve decision making, allows us to go beyond traditional business theories and it creates a culture of acceptable behavior within an organization. Decision making is improved, because executives can see the impact of their actions. Ethics help managers to choose the outcome that will have greatest impact, resulting in improved decision making. Once this takes place it allows, executives will be able to see what is occurring beyond traditional business theories. Where, ethics will shape how each theory is applied and to what degree. Over the course of time, the consistent application of ethical standards will become a part of the business culture,…
Business Ethics. (2010). National American University, 6 -- 146.
Securities and Exchange Act of 1934. (2010). Retrieved July 24, 2010 from Investopedia website: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/seact1934.asp
Crane, A. (2007). Why is Business Ethics Important. Business Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 9 -- 11.
De George, R. (2005). A History of Business Ethics. Retrieved July 24, 2010 from Santa Clara University website: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/practicing/focusareas/business/conference/presentations/business-ethics-history.html
It is projected that at least 10% of the individuals receiving the survey will respond.
There are a variety of reasons for using qualitative methods in a study such as this one. Even though there are drawbacks to the qualitative method including (but not limited to) the fact that respondents are not known and could be lying, the responses are very subjective, and the questions themselves are quantitative in nature, it is still deemed that the expense and time necessary to employ other methods would be to exorbiant in nature.
It is also determined that there are a number of others studies currently available that can provide data that shows the effectiveness of direct mail advertising, therefore, the focus would be on the sports magazine aspect rather than direct mail per se. Qualitative methods are therefore deemed the most appropriate for this study.
De Chematony, L.; Cottam, S.; (2009)…
De Chematony, L.; Cottam, S.; (2009) Interacting contributions of different departments to brand success, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 62, Iss. 3, pg. 297
Payne, a.; Storbacka, K.; Frow, P.; Knox, S.; (2009) Co-creating brands: Diagnosing and designing the relationship experience, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 62, Iss. 3, pg. 379
Roderick, J.B.; Whittome, J.R.M.; Brush, G.J.; (2009) Investigating the service brand: A customer value perspective, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 62, Iss.3, pg. 345
Teddington; (2008) the innovative media offerings for a man's world, Campaign, Oct 10, 2008, pg. 17
Theory vs. Creativity in Design
Leaders have a task of moving the organization forward in a fashion that is supported by all stakeholders. After allocating resources to bolster organizational success, leaders must primarily assess and accept the risks related innovation. Innovation includes accepting new management theories to replace the outdated philosophies widely incorporated into an organization's procedures and policies over time (American Evaluation Association, 2004). This study aims to identify, discuss, and recommend strategies to create tension between existing management theories and management's ability to create new business paradigms. The study will also identify and discuss stakeholder attitudes towards innovation, ethics, and inclusion as primary drivers of a successful organization. While focusing on innovation and ethics, the study will suggest ways in which organizational leadership can prepare a company for the future and current environmental changes.
How leaders integrate innovative principles while adhering to industry and market mandates
American Evaluation Association. (2004). American evaluators association guiding principles for evaluators. American Evaluation Association. Retrieved from http://www.eval.org/p/cm/ld/fid=51
Bogan, C.E., & English, M.J. (2010). Benchmarking for best practices: Winning through innovative adaptation. New York [u.a.: McGraw-Hill.
Burton, R.M. (2008). Designing organizations: 21st century approaches. New York: Springer.
DiMaggio, P. (2011). The twenty-first-century firm: Changing economic organization in international perspective. Princeton, NJ [u.a.: Princeton Univ. Press.
Business Before Referencing
Tzu, Sun. The Art of War. Forward by James Clavell. New York: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd.,
What does an ancient Chinese classic about the nature of a now-obsolete form of warfare have to teach us, in modernity, about how to manage others and navigate the current business environment? A great deal, The Art of War's presence in many business class syllabuses would suggest. Indeed, certain aspects of The Art of War by Sun Tzu seem even more relevant today than in the past. How to combine moral authority with fierceness and tenacity in an increasingly competitive environment is a challenging question faced by many organizations.
One of the first principles stressed by Sun Tzu is the need for a leader to follow a moral law, what we might call a vision statement in modern business vocabulary. It is not enough for a leader to command and reward,…
Despite the fact that extreme poverty exists in many areas, Mexico's rising middle class is increasingly seeking out the trappings of American success. "The middle class in Mexico includes 39.2% (44 million people) of the country's total population. Mexico's middle class increased 11.4% during between 2000 and 2010" and these consumers are seeking out cellular phones and flat screen TVs in record numbers (Flannery 2013). Unfortunately, an increasingly affluent culture has brought forth one of the problems of industrialized prosperity, namely a rise in obesity. To take advantage of this concern, one possible product to market to the population coping with more sedentary jobs and a taste for highly caloric foods is that of gym memberships. Introducing a chain of low-cost gyms modeled on popular chains such as WOW and Planet Fitness, particularly in cities with high concentrations of white collar office workers would be an ideal way to…
Theory X and Theory Y (2015). Mind Tools. Retrieved from:
Sustainability is a term that is often used in reference to environmental responsibility. This is the most common use of the term that many people have come to associate with "sustainability." Seldom do people consider sustainability to be associated with other areas of the business environment. Upon reading the article by Swartz (2010), two different connotations of sustainability stood out in my mind. The issue that Swartz addressed which created his very long day was accusations that Timberland was engaging in corporate irresponsibility concerning the environment. This is the only definition of sustainability that many people consider.
Swartz's reaction to 65,000 emails made me think about what I would have done as a CEO, if I had been the one to open my own e-mail inbox to find 65,000 angry emails. Upon reflection of Schwartz's response, I feel that he acted in the best way possible. First, he knew that…
Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits The New York Times Magazine, September 13, 32-33 (and then continued on pages 122 -- 126). Story of Stuff ( http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLBE5QAYXp8 )
Porter, M.E., & Reinhardt, F.L. (2007). A strategic approach to climate. Harvard Business Review, 85(10), 22-26.
Swartz, J. (2010). "Timberland's CEO on standing up to 65,000 angry activists." Harvard Business Review, 88(9), 39-43.
Accounting for Disruptive Technologies
There is a significant amount of insight found in Christensen and Overdorf's "Meeting the challenge of disruptive change," especially for those in a managerial position or studying to be in such a position. The article is useful because it combines theoretical knowledge with a solid application of real-world examples, so that the reader is best able to grasp the author's concepts. Moreover, the article takes a wide and integrative approach at addressing the various challenges and potential solutions organizations can implement pertaining to a very real facet of conducting business in the 21st century, "disruptive changes," typically in the form of technological innovations.
Quite frankly, however, a number of points that the authors make are trenchant and can aid those who are looking to prevent disruptive change from ruining their organization or its method of conducting business. One of the more notable of these is the…
Bower, J.L., Christensen, C.M. (2000). Disruptive technologies: catching the wave. Harvard Business Review.
Christensen, C.M., Overdorf, M. (2000). Meeting the challenge of disruptive change. Harvard Business Review.
Theory vs. Practice
When it comes to working in any sort of organization or corporation, one of the obvious chasms that becomes clear here is the relationship between theory and what is practiced in a small business setting. To truly look at and assess that paradigm, the author of this report has interviewed an owner/manager at a small business to discuss what they do to make things work, what is suggested in theory and scholarly literature and how those frameworks and lessons do or do not work for their particular situation. The author of this report will personally be making a comparison and contrast between what is asserted within the literature and compare it to the feedback and personal experience narrative of the owner/manager. A common refrain seen in the blogosphere and elsewhere is that there is a disconnect between what is suggested in the minds of theorists and within…
When it comes to working in any sort of organization or corporation, one of the obvious chasms that becomes clear here is the relationship between theory and what is practiced in a small business setting. To truly look at and assess that paradigm, the author of this report has interviewed an owner/manager at a small business to discuss what they do to make things work, what is suggested in theory and scholarly literature and how those frameworks and lessons do or do not work for their particular situation. The author of this report will personally be making a comparison and contrast between what is asserted within the literature and compare it to the feedback and personal experience narrative of the owner/manager. A common refrain seen in the blogosphere and elsewhere is that there is a disconnect between what is suggested in the minds of theorists and within the so-called ivory…
Business -- Annotated Bibliography
Drucker, P.E. (1994,). The theory of business. Harvard Business Review, September-October. Retrieved from http://www.mindz.com/images/Ronaldvandenhoff/file/the_theory_of_business_drucker.pdf
Credibility: Author Analysis
Peter Drucker was the Clarke Professor of Social Science and management at the Claremont Graduate School in Claremont, California. The university has named the Drucker Management Center in his honor. This article was the thirty-first article for Harvard Business Review. Business students across the globe know Drucker's seminal work in business theory as it plays a prominent role in business school curricula.
Credibility: Intended Audience
The intended audience for this article is executives in the C-suite -- particularly chief executive officers (CEOs). This article is a call to action pointed at business executive and directors who are equipped to influence business thought leadership.
Drucker cites many actual businesses in his argument for addressing the obsolescence of business theories.
Drucker presents four specifications for a valid…
The office and administrative expenses would remain constant even to that point, as would the insurance expense.
Exhibit B: Cash Flow Statement, Year Two
At this point, the business is earning a healthy return and Mr. Ahn is receiving will be able to bring in a reasonable salary. The nature of the business may well change at this point. At the maximum revenue of $144,000 per year the pretax profit would be $63,600. As a result, it is likely that a clinic will be formed with other practitioners in order to minimize expenses and increase profitability.
e did not include taxes in our cash flow examples because the company is going to be set up as a sole proprietorship. This means that the income from the company will be rolled into the income for Mr. Ahn, as well as his liabilities. Mr. Ahn's personal expenses are therefore not included in…
No author (2007). Traditional Chinese Medicine. Alternative Medicine Foundation. Retrieved December 18, 2008 at http://www.amfoundation.org/tcm.htm
No author (2005). Regulation of TCM in the United States. Medscape Today. Retrieved December 18, 2008 at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/511877_7
No author (2008). HIV / AIDS, the U.S.-China Partnership for Public Health at Work, and Traditional Chinese Medicine in the U.S. Fact Sheet. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved December 18, 2008 at http://www.hhs.gov/news/facts/chinahiv.html
Census information from U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved December 18, 2008 at http://factfinder.census.gov/home/saff/main.html?_lang=en
An ethical issue refers to a situation whereby an organization is required to choose amongst alternatives that must be evaluated as either wrong or right. For example, an ethical issue arises when a business company opts to make as much profit while pollution the environment, the dilemma here being the regulation and social consequences. The company management may opt to bribing the regulation implementing organization as long as they continue making short-term profits before the law catches up with them, by then they may be forced to attire with the rule or shut down but they will have made as much finances than when they may have started and the consequences on the social life will have reached the stage where it affects their health and made the environment unbearable. The principle of autonomy; which requires individuals to be left on their own independence to conduct their activities,…
Andrew, J. (2008). Utilitarianism and deontology theories. New York: John and sons ltd.
Ferrell, O.C., & Fraedrich, J. (2012). Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making & Cases. Salt Lake: Cengage Learning.
Joanne, B. (2010). Ethics and Business success. Mexico: Greenwood press.
John, K., & Berlyn, M. (2009). Assessing the effectiveness of decision making models. Normative and rationale models, 15 (14), 319-325.
Interaction of the Business Environment
The environment of a company is much like the natural world in that there are many layers to any single organization (Marques, 2007). Political forces are present because there are factions and beliefs within a company which cause different politics to be formed. The economics of running an organization are a different facet of the environment which many consider the most important part of the business (after all the business of business is to make money), but it is actually a piece of the larger while which is neither more important or less than any other. Very business also has a social component. All of the different relationships that occur in the wider world can be found in any large organization. Another part of the environmental whole that affects every other part has to do with the technical functioning of the business. Technology…
Laumer, S., Eckhardt, A., & Weitzel, T. (2010). Electrojnic human resources management in an e-business environment. Journal of Electronic Commerce Management, 11(4), 240-251.
Loewe, M., Blume, J., & Speer, J. (2008). How favoritism affects the business environment: Empirical evidence from Jordan. The Middle East Journal, 62(2), 259-272.
Marques, J. (2007). The influence of the global business environment in realizing the millennium development goals. Journal of Global Business Issues, 1(1), 17-25.
Ruff, F. (2006). Corporation foresight: Integrating the future business environment into innovation and strategy. Research Technology Management, 278-295.
Business cluster refers to the geographical concentration of closely related businesses, suppliers, and firms belonging in a given field. The primary objective of forming these clusters is to boost the productivity with which firms compete at both national and international levels. Clusters are also crucial in the strategic management processes. This article discusses the benefits of such clusters, the management at domestic and international scales, and the negative aspects of clustering (DeWitt, Giunipero & Melton, 2006).
Concentrated clusters promote the management of supply chains by developing strong relationships between the customer and supplier. Employing the concept of concentrated clusters enhances the benefits a company derives from its interaction by linking various companies and other business entities within the same industry. Operating in concentrated cluster enables firms to understand the precise needs of customers and vice versa. With this situation in place, businesses are able to establish permanent clientele who in…
Fischer, M. (2007). Determination of Critical Success Factors for the Development of Biotechnology Clusters. New York, NY: GRIN Verlag
Porter, M.E. (2000). Location, Clusters, and Company Strategy; Oxford Handbook of Economic
Geography. Oxford: Oxford University Press
DeWitt, T., Giunipero, L.C., & Melton, H.L., (2006). Clusters and supply chain management:
This is further based on the following assumptions:
1. The company will charge $150 per hour for each client.
2. The company expects to spend at least 80 hours a year with each client.
3. The company expect to see at least 30 clients per year, which will generate a revenue of $150 x 30 x 80 = $360,000. For the purpose of this computation, this will be regarded as the selling price.
4. The company expects its yearly fixed costs to be $526,000. This fixed cost consists of the cost of staff remuneration, utility bills and advertising.
5. The company expects its variable costs to be about $344,000 a year, comprising of the cost of equipment servicing and maintenance, legal costs, and so on.
Given the above assumption, the company's yearly break-even point can be computed as follows:
The implication of the above computation is that LNS must service…
Graham J.R., Smart S.B., & Megginson W.L. (2010): Corporate Finance -- Linking
Theory to What Companies Do. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.
Hubbard R.G., O'Brien a.P. (2009): Macroeconomics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-
In this case the affair did not have any apparent effect on the business. In fact during the time of the nearly two-year affair profits actually rose. However the whistle blower believed that the affair was morally wrong, particularly because the boss was married with children.
The whistleblower believed that ultimately the affair would be detrimental to the business so he blew the whistle. He believed that the affair was an indication that the boss was a poor decision maker and that this poor decision making would ultimately cause the business some harm. Some people believed that he was not obligated to tell of the affair. However, others argued that it would be just a matter of time before the decisions that he made in his private life would affect the manner in which the business was run. In this instance the idea of preventing harm encompassed a broad scope.…
Dahlsrud A. (2006) How Corporate Social Responsibility is
Defined: an Analysis of 37 Definitions. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management.
Davis, Michael. Some Paradoxes of Whistle Blowing. Business and Professional Ethics Journal. 15 (1)
McWilliams A., Siegel D.S. Wright P.M. (2005) Corporate Social Responsibility: Strategic Implications. Retrieved November 24 from; http://www.economics.rpi.edu/workingpapers/rpi0506.pdf
One set of concepts from each area was utilized to explain how the situation at Grand Bois may have come about. The end goal of the authors was to "provide business practitioners, ethics teachers, and readers interested in corporate conduct with insights useful in understanding why managers may act the way they do."
It could be argued, according to Hamilton and Berken (2005), that Exxon managers had made a sound business judgment, based on facts that were not known, at the time. The industry still contends that the majority of exploration and production waste contains no harmful compounds, and that for this reason the disposal techniques that are used at the Grand Bois facility were not only cost effective, but also environmentally safe.
Just because the exemption of this waste for hazardous materials was brought about by political lobbying does not mean that it is not scientifically or justified.
Beschorner, T. (2006). Ethical theory and business practices: The case of discourse ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 66. Retrieved December 1, 2006, from ProQuest database.
Bowen, M. & Power, F. (1993 Apr). The moral manager: Communicative ethics and the Exxon Valdez disaster. Business Ethics, 3(2). Retrieved December 1, 2006, from Business Source Complete database.
Call for an extra Exxon Valdex payout. (2002). Disaster Prevention and Management, 11(3). Retrieved December 1, 2006, from ProQuest database.
Carson, S. (2006 Mar). Gert's moral theory and its application to bioethics cases. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, 16(1). Retrieved December 1, 2006, from ProQuest database.
In this context, the learning curves followed by the collective of entrepreneurs place that collective of entrepreneurs within the still larger setting of the global marketplace. Taylor and Asheim refer to an economic geography that is more than merely a map of where economic activities take place (Taylor & Asheim, 2001, p. 315). A modern learning organization integrates itself on virtually every conceivable level. Much as its individual members make use consciously and unconsciously of a variety of learning techniques in order to work together as a unit, so too do all of their learning paradigms combine to make them a single, effective player on a larger global stage.
Taylor and Asheim encourage firms to immerse themselves in the concept of economic geography, to complete, as it were, the learning curve, by employing their cognitive abilities vis-a-vis the global marketplace, and so use that marketplace as a source for policies…
Chen, G. (2005). Management Practices and Tools for Enhancing Organizational Learning Capability. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 70(1), 4+.
Chrisman, J.J., Chua, J.H., & Steier, L.P. (2002). The Influence of National Culture and Family Involvement on Entrepreneurial Perceptions and Performance at the State Level. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 26(4), 113+.
This allows for greater levels of planning and cooperation, and fills in the information gap that currently exists between the factory floor and the rest of the supply chain.
Lexmark provides an example of waste. Recently, the company found itself with more than $1 million in scrap from one lot. Engineers had insufficient information to isolate and fix the problem, so were instead relegated to crisis control. With more accurate data from each step of the operation, the engineers could have been more involved in the process and made improvements along the way before it became a large-scale crisis.
Through web-based business applications, engineers can now examine a defective printer cartridge and then use a thin client to put a hold on the entire batch if necessary, regardless of its physical location (anywhere in the world)
In conclusion, it is apparent that e-business is making its mark on the business…
Alexander, Michael. (2001). Factory Floors Go Online -- Pioneering manufacturers close the final gap in their supply chains. InternetWeek; Manhasset; Mar 12, 2001.
2002) Automotive Design & Production. Cincinnati, 114(8), 70-72.
Steele, a.L. (2001). Cost drivers and other management issues in the JIT supply chain environment. Production and Inventory Management Journal. Alexandria, 42(2), 61-68
Drickhammer, D. (2001, May 21). Peak performance. Industry Week. Cleveland, 250(8) 36-40.
This would have been a truly unethical action.
The second objection that can be brought to the sustained thesis is represented by the fact that censorship is a violation of several human rights. These rights include the right to freedom of speech, the right to self-expression and the right to be well informed. It might be argued that Google made a mistake and created a precedent, proving that totalitarian regime scan impose their rules even upon independent companies because these companies are more interested in obtaining financial profits rather than defending human rights and liberties.
This may be true to a certain limited extent. Supposing that Google had refused to implement its dot cn service. In this manner it would have made a statement regarding censorship and freedom. but, at the same time, it would have failed to serve the Chinese people in any way.
An action of this kind…
Martin, K.E. "Google, Inc., in China (condensed)." Business roundtable Institute for Corporate Ethics. 30 October 2008. http://www.darden.virginia.edu/corporate-ethics/pdf/BRI-1004.pdf
Mill, J.S. "Utilitarianism." Google Books online. 30 October 2008 http://books.google.it/books?hl=it&id=9PE1LARQNV8C&dq=utilitarianism&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=54SBhkL_2p&sig=jUOgPaHFZE0wtGFE9IPUjqiAE8Q&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=4&ct=result
Thus, the authors do not advocate an ethical free for all, for they acknowledge certain ethical broaches can result in corporate legal costs, thus resulting in executives violating the ethics of their profession -- but this is a more important ethical standard than either laws or social responsibility, stress the authors.
The authors also acknowledge that in the current environment, government regulations must be obeyed by businesses, else they face the costs of litigation. But Macham and Chester also question whether this is a good, namely if too many regulations exist and ultimately hamper corporate profits. In fact, they believe that in the ideal business environment, other than protecting property, the government should not regulate business at all, and rather internal ethical systems should govern the organization, ideally in a Friedman-like utilitarian fashion, taking into consideration the fate of stakeholders only so much as need be, for the organization to…
Boaz, David Editor. Libertarianism: A Primer. New York: Free Press, 1997.
Friedman, Milton. "The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits." New York Times Magazine. 1 September 1970. Reprinted in Ethical Theory and Business, edited by Tom L. Beauchamp and Norman E. Bowie. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1993.
Macham, Tibor and James E. Chesher. A Primer on Business Ethics. Rowman & Littlefield: 2003.
Both the government and the company failed to ensure that employees suffer as least as possible for the company's difficulties. This means that ethical responsibilities towards employees were not put into practice. Although Carroll rates ethical responsibilities on the third line of the CS pyramid, it is not appropriate to rate economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic responsibilities with different importance. Each of them should be treated with the same importance, developing a strategy that manages to address each type of responsibility. Carroll's view on CS, mainly referring to the pyramid he developed, is considered by some as a limited approach (Visser, 2005).
3. In the MG over case, it is obvious that the government was surpassed by the situation and by the private players involved in this business. The government was unable to help the company maintain its activity and most of its employees, and this was admitted by the…
1. Carroll, a. (1991). The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility: Toward the Moral Management of Organizational Stakeholders. Business Horizons. Retrieved February 10, 2010 from http://www-rohan.sdsu.edu/faculty/dunnweb/rprnts.pyramidofcsr.pdf .
2. Visser, W. (2005). Revisiting Carroll's CSR Pyramid. The University of Nottingham. Retrieved February 10, 2010 from http://www.waynevisser.com/chapter_wvisser_africa_csr_pyramid.pdf.
3. Pichet, E. (2008). Enlightened Shareholder Theory: whose interests should be served by the supporters of Corporate Governance? BEM -- Bordeaux Management School. Retrieved February 10, 2010 from http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1262879 .
4. Smith, J. (2003). The Shareholders vs. Stakeholders Debate. MIT Sloan Management Review. Retrieved February 10, 2010 from http://sloanreview.mit.edu/the-magazine/articles/2003/summer/44411/the-shareholders-vs.-stakeholders-debate/ .
For instance, if a business is keenly aware of the manner in which different conditions are effecting business relationships, that businesses to work to make the appropriate changes.
Stages of Development
All relationships are governed by stages. Business relationships are no exception to this rule. There are various characteristics that businesses must be aware of as it pertains to each stage.
According to Brooks (2008) that are four primary stages of business relationship development. These four stages of development are as follows:
Emerging - getting familiar with one another with test transactions. These test transactions are both financial and non-financial (Brooks, 2008). During this stage first impressions are made and businesses can determine the reliability, quality of products/services and whether or not the cost of the product/service is equivalent to the cost of the product. This stage is critical because it establishes the type of relationship that the businesses will…
Barry, J.M., Dion P., Johnson W. (2008) A cross-cultural examination of relationship strength in B2B services. Journal of Services Marketing. 22/2 114 -- 135
Brooks, N. (2008, December 3). Building Strong Relationships - Four Stages of Development, Four Phases of Connection. Retrieved June 12, 2009, from http://ezinearticles.com/?Building-Strong-Relationships-Four-Stages-of-Development,-Four-Phases-of-Connection&id=1694468
Hakansson, H. And Snehota, I. (2006) No business is an island: The network concept of business strategy. Scandinavian Journal of Management
Volume 22, Issue 3, September 2006, Pages 256-270
To run a business profitably, especially in the modern times where business is dome at the speed of thought, achieving business stability and growth can be made possible by setting goals that have to be achieved and using the proper tools and methods. (Elkin, 1998) Enhancing the business can be achieved by reaching the predetermined point where the investments match the output and there is a situation where the investment has begun paying. This point is called the break even point. In every business there is a great element of risk. A business becomes successful only when the risks are minimized. isks cannot altogether be eliminated but can be minimized. This is done by structuring the credit risk and adjusting the spending and other influential patterns of the entity. (Culp, 2001)
Sometimes the very core of the business need be redefined to achieve the objective of making profits. Strategic redefinition…
Culp, Christopher L. (2001) "The Risk Management Process: Business Strategy and Tactics."
Wiley. New York.
Elkin, Paul. (1998) "Mastering Business Planning and Strategy: The Power of Strategic
Thinking" Thorogood. London.
Reasons for Failure
usiness failures have become a properly investigated field of study in the past few years as a struggling economy and an overall difficult business environment have combined to discourage potential entrepreneurs from entering the market place and to cause many existing business owners / entrepreneurs from continuing their endeavors. This interest in business failures is precipitated by the fact that the number and nature of business failures impacts negatively on the overall business climate and examining possible causes in an effort to forestall further such failures is vital to maintaining a healthy business environment. The emphasis in recent years has shifted from examining why and how businesses fail toward an analysis of how to avoid and prevent business failures.
The failed business that I chose to review was a small ice cream / restaurant in my neighborhood. The name of the business was Charlie's Ice…
Goltz, J. (2011, January 5). Top 10 Reasons Small Business Fail. New York Tmes .
U.S. Small Business Administration. (n.d.). Standard Operating Procedures. Retrieved May 25, 2011, from SBA: http://www.sba.gov/about-sba-services/
Every company has corporate governance initiatives in place. Consider that corporate governance simply refers to how the company is run and controlled. The current usage of the buzzword derives from the issues that a few companies had where executives or managers were not subject to appropriate levels of governance. Thus, the guidelines issued recently by the OECD, the ASX, the Combined Code and in Sarbanes-Oxley serve to institutionalize stronger corporate governance policies in order to strengthen public confidence in capital markets. Most companies would already be following these guidelines.
For example, the first category covered by the Combined Code is about the Board of Governors. Boards of Governors have always been responsible for corporate governance -- for our company not to have any governance policy would imply that it does not have a Board. hat is recommended is that the Board has specific features and structures. One recommendation…
ASX: Corporate governance. (2011). Retrieved November 30, 2011 from http://www.asx.com.au/governance/corporate-governance.htm
Friedman, M. (1970). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. New York Times Magazine. Retrieved November 30, 2011 from http://www.colorado.edu/studentgroups/libertarians/issues/friedman-soc-resp-business.html
No author. (2011). Management compliance guide. Sox Toolkit. Retrieved November 30, 2011 from http://www.soxtoolkit.com/sox-govern.htm
OECD principles of corporate governance. (2004). Retrieved November 30, 2011 from http://www.oecd.org/document/49/0,3746,en_2649_34813_31530865_1_1_1_1,00.html
In addition, we might ask ourselves if the richer nations have or not a greater responsibility as far as the research and development in the area of sustainable energy are concerned. (Reid, environmentalleader.com)
elieving that there are such energy sources or consumption policies which would allow the planet's resources to be maintained for a longer period, while making sure that all the nations are provided with a comfortable living is rather naive. Under these circumstances, it has been argued that doing the moral thing means choosing the least terrible solution. The problem is that this implies a relativistic evaluation of the matter which impacts the manner in which the moral principles are conceived.
efore stepping into a debate regarding the character of the moral principles, we may state that we agree with the opinions which state that there is no such thing as objective moral principles."Ethics can be seen as…
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics (Ross, W.D. Translator). Retrieved fromhttp://socserv.mcmaster.ca/econ/ugcm/3ll3/aristotle/Ethics.pdf September 30, 2010
Hartman Laura P. & Joe DesJardins. Business Ethics Decision Making for Personal integrity & Social Responsibility, Second Edition
Finally, Change in approach is a more tactical answer to Change Character. It is using specific techniques to engender change within and organization or population (Chapman, 2005).
Discuss the difference between business development based on problem solving vs. business development-based learning. Within any organization, individuals tend to see themselves as cogs in the wheel, not really making much of a difference to the success or failure of the organization as a whole. It is really at the micro level that change (learning, evolution, etc.) takes place. The enemy is not external; it is falling into an internal rut and seeing only the short-term, instead of broadening the picture. Learning is not easy; people, and therefore organizations, are sometimes resistant to movement. However, thinking about one's position within an organization as a critical part of the whole, dedicating oneself to team learning, "suspending assumptions and entering into genuine thinking together" allows…
Annacchino, M. (2007). The Pursuit of New Product Development. Burlington, MA: Butterworth.
Bradley, F. (2003). Strategic Marketing In the Customer Driven Organization. New York: Wiley.
Chapman, A. (2005, January). Change Management. Retrieved September 2010, from Businessballs.com: http://www.businessballs.com/changemanagement.htm
Frappaolo, C. (2006). Knowledge Management. Mankato, MN: Capstone Press.
Independent dealers must sign a contract that sets forth the manner in which they will operate their rental centers. Often a small business owner will supplement their income be adding U-Hauls to their market mix. Independent contractors earn a commission on their sales.
Each division of AMERCO has it own president. All of them must report to a Board of Directors. The Chairman of the Board and overall President is Edward Shoen, descendent of the original founders of the company. Many members of the Shoen family still control much of the company (Google Finance). Little information is available about the company, aside from their financial statements. Although they have a Board of Directors, the company continues to operate as a family-style operation, with the family members occupying many positions in upper management. The company structure is simple and little is available beyond basic information.
Purchasing Contract Analysis and the UCC…
Ceh v. UHaul International, Inc., 11th district court of appeals, No. 04-10031.
A www.ca11.uscourts.gov/opinions/ops/200410671.pdf. Accessed January 22.
Company News; U-Haul's Parent Seeks Bankruptcy Protection." June 21, 2003. New
York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9800EFDF173BF932A15755C0A9659C8B63 . Accessed January 23, 2007.
UK National Environment
In UK, the allocation of resources is purely based on the forces of demand and supply. This form of economy is a free economy in which competition is embraced and firms have to become efficient to increase their level of competitiveness. The government only intervene to provide the necessary infrastructure and to ensure that consumers are not exploited by the businesses. Besides, the government will formulate policies that ensure fair competition and collect revenues for the country development agenda. With these, businesses must ensure that they operate within the law and abide by the regulations that are set by the state. Barr Company can therefore conduct business in a competitive industry without government interference on what form of business to do or the amount of prices to charge on their products. The management has large latitude of choice to make on how to produce, what to produce,…
2003. Soft drinks in the UK, London, Euromonitor.
A.G., B.P.L.C. 2012. a.G, Barr plc financial results 2012 [Online]. Available: http://www.agbarr.co.uk/agbarr/newsite/ces_docstore.nsf/wpg/1B9A74B86C552270802579CD00485134/$file/Final%20results%20announcement%20January%202012.pdf .
AGRAA, a. 2007. The European Union: economics and policies (8th ed.), Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
BOTHA, a. & KOURIE, D. 2008. Coping with continuous change in the business environment:knowledge management and knowledge management technology, Oxford, Chandos Pub.
Business Structure and Ethics in Organizational Behavior
Business ethics can also be known as corporate ethics. It is described as a form of professional or applied ethics that helps in investigating ethical principles as well as moral or ethical problems that comes up within different business environment. Its application takes place within every aspects of business conduct and it is always of relevance to the individuals' conducts and the organization as a whole. The aim of the paper is to examine ramifications and application of business structure and ethics in organizational behavior that will impact businesses in the next ten years.
Sometimes business may try to make short-term gains when it decides to turn a blind eye to ethics. Even though there are laid down regulatory oversight, code of practice, as well as ever-increasing public pressure, most of the firms always decides to ignore ethical considerations. Moreover, they…
Arnold, Denis G. And Keith Bustos., (2005) "Business, Ethics, and Global Climate Change."
Business and Professional Ethics Journal.
Matt Zwolinski (2013) Recent Work in Ethical Theory and its Implications for Business Ethics. Retrieved August 19, 2013. http://www.academia.edu/250075/Recent_Work_in_Ethical_Theory_and_its_Implications_for_Business_Ethics
Paul Merchant (2013) A Definition for Business Ethics. Retrieved August 19, 2013. http://business.lovetoknow.com/wiki/A_Definition_for_Business_Ethics
Business and Corporate
business strategy analysis of kraft foods
Analysis of Business Level Strategy
Kraft Foods Inc. is the second largest food company in the world and makes annual revenues in excess of $54 billion (Kraft Foods Annual eport, 2012). It operates in a highly competitive consumer foods industry where high volume sales are essential for competitive success. Tapping into new markets and growing one's brand portfolio are also important for growth and success.
Kraft Foods Inc. pursues a number of business-level strategies to support its corporate level strategies. The business level strategies are determined by answering the question How do we compete? (Ireland, Hoskisson & Hitt, 2008). Kraft Foods Inc. has selected product differentiation and brand development as its primary business level strategy. Product differentiation involves creating and conveying to the consumer a unique feature of the product portfolio that distinguishes the company from the competition and…
Furrer, O. (2011). Corporate level strategy: Theory and applications. (p. 2). Routledge
Ireland, R.D., Hoskisson, R.E., & Hitt, M.A. (2009). Understanding business strategy: Concepts and cases. (p. 88). Cengage Learning
McKern, B. (2003). Managing the global network corporation. (p. 125). Routledge
O'Grady, T.P., & Malloch, K. (2010). Innovation Leadership. (p. 371). Jones & Bartlett Learning.
usiness Software Technology
The information technology industry is vitally important to the advancement of our society and our world. This discussion will explore the business software technology aspect of the industry. First, we will discuss the tasks performed by individuals in this field. We will then look at the economic impact of this segment of the industry. Finally, we will explore the benefits and rewards of working in the business software technology field.
Tasks Performed by individuals in the usiness Software Technology Field
The usiness software technology field is critical to the success of any firm. The field researches and develops software applications that allow firm's to thrive. The usiness Software Alliance explains that, "usinesses use software to collect, analyze, and present information; to buy and sell goods and services; to design better products; and to facilitate communications." ("uilding an Information Technology")
usiness software technology is particularly critical for e-business…
Amos, Susan. "Help is on hand for software developers." Computer Weekly. Feb 5, 1998. Retrieved March 21, 2003 at http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0COW/1998_Feb_5/20382110/p1/article.jhtml?term=business+software+
Barack, Lauren. "Software knows if you've been Naughty or Nice. New York Post.
Building an Information Economy." Business Software Association. June, 1997. Retrieved March 23, 2003 at http://www.caast.org/resources/econstudy.pdf
E-business Technology." Seminole Community College. Retrieved on March 22, 2003 at http://www.seminole.cc.fl.us/e-business/softwaretechcert.htm
This is because as night club owner, you will have to deal with host of issues to include: underage drinking, noise, possible violence and drugs. All of these different situations will inevitably bring law enforcement to your establishment. (Smith, 2007, pp. 7 -- 25) This is problematic, because as a club owner you are not responsible for the actions of a few individuals. However, you do have responsibility to uphold the law and cooperate with law enforcement in achieving this objective. This means that you must be able to have some kind of people skills, in being able to work with the customers and law enforcement about these issues. In my case, seeing these situations up close and how they were successfully resolved provides me with a basic foundation for having common sense. Where, I can be able to adjust to the different challenges that could be faced when owning…
Owning Your Own Night Club. (2010). Faze Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.fazeteen.com/issue03/owning_a_bar.html
Cassovoy, L. (2009). A Look Back At History. Start Your Own Bar and Nightclub. (pp. 3 -4). Irvine, CA: Jere Calms
Smith, R. (2008). Getting Started. How to Set Up and Operate A Successful Nightclub. (pp. 7 -- 25). Iowa City, IA: Upland Publishers.
Solgar is one of the foremost manufacturers of vitamin, mineral and herbal supplements in the nation. It has a long history of providing quality products to consumers who are interested in alternative methods for improving health and treating ailments. Throughout its history, Solgar has been faced with a number of changes that have fundamentally altered the way in which business is conducted. From the passage of legislation to the discovery of new supplements and uses for supplements, the organization has been faced with difficult challenges and has found a way in which to cope. Over the next twenty years the vitamin industry is challenged with a significant number of external forces that will undoubtedly cause Solgar to change the way it does business. One specific change that is virtually inevitable has to do with the regulation actions that were enacted in 1994 by the…
Schwartz, Peter (1991). The Art of the Long View. New York: Doubleday.
Kea Fashion Ltd., a national New Zealand garment chain, has come to an important point in its development: the decision to internationalize its business and to enter a foreign market. In general, and it is also the case here, such a decision can have a double goal. One would be to find sources of production that would decrease production costs. This is usually done by extending the company's activity in the production area in a country where the wages are much lower than in the country of origin. Usually, the developing countries are the best places to relocate one's business in this sense, because of two reasons. One of them is related to lower wages, as I have mentioned here above. Another reason is that, even if the wages are low, the workers' experience is notable and it would not affect the quality of the products they make. In…
http://www.ttf.co.uk/industry/csr/issues_brief.asp http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/ (for general information on China, such as population, etc.)
4. Adler, Nancy. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, 2nd ed., PWS- Kent Publishing, Boston, 1991.
5. Buckley, Peter, J. The Internationalization of the Firm, 1994
Social responsibility in this context exemplifies the ethical principles of beneficence, justice, and non-malfeasance. More specifically, examples of beneficent corporate responsibility would be the use of corporate profits to return a benefit back to the community from where those profits were made, such as through financial support of education and social services in the community (Stevens, 2008).
Examples of justice and non-malfeasance would include purposeful decisions to avoid profitable policies and procedures that are perfectly legal but that are also associated with greater harm to the community than policies and procedures that are somewhat less profitable but safer for the community (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008). Typical examples of corporate beneficence would include the use of company profits to fund welfare organizations, to promote education and health in the community, and to provide scholarships to disadvantaged youth in the local community (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008).
More global examples of corporate beneficence…
Halbert, T. And Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati: West Legal Studies.
Hursthouse, R. (2005). On Virtue Ethics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Mihaly, M. "Moral Theory: The Fundamentals." Ethics & Behavior Vol. 17, No. 4;
However, often firms face dilemma: should they recall the product and suffer loss or should they be silent? An organization that takes its ethical responsibilities seriously would recall the products, because it knows that in the long-run, consumers will trust the company and will have high confidence with the company's responsibilities.
Another thing that management needs to consider is that traditionally belief of firm relies on a 'win and loss" strategy. That means, if a business gains benefit, someone else will bear the costs. However, in the present time, the philosophical outlook has changed, which relies on a "win/win" strategy. That means, if a firm that follows ethical rules seriously will win as well consumers win by buying the reliable products and services from the company.
ecognizing interdependence between business and society, therefore, becomes important for managers for clearly visualizing the role of the ethics for the organizations. By clearly…
Collins, John W. (1994) Is Businss Ethics an Oxymoron? Business Horizons (Sept-Oct).
When the Truth Takes a Stretching Class
Maria Bailey clearly and blatantly misrepresented the size of her start-up business, but shrugged it off saying she knew what she was "capable of doing" and just wanted to show potential clients "what we were going to be," rather than tell them the truth about how fledgling her business actually was at that time.
Was it immoral for Mary Bailey to misrepresent her company?
Looking at the "consequential" side of her decision to fudge the truth about her company, moral decisions are made based upon what the consequences of the action will be. The results of her action actually could have several consequences. The one first and pivotal consequence Maria hopes will happen, of course, is that the fact of her deciding to embellish the truth about the size of her company will bring potential customers into her business start-up Web…
Australasian Business Intelligence. (2004, May 4). Guilty plea follows workplace death.
Bauman, Margaret. (2004). Alaska leads nation in workplace death rate, report says.
Alaska Journal of Commerce.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. (1999). Improvements in workplace safety
This can hurt the returns of the portfolio over the long-term.
Although legally not all information must be disclosed, should companies be obligated to disclose the true nature of investor risk? Or are investors responsible for determining such risk?
Yes, under the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934 all firms must provide material changes in their financial condition to regulators. However, investors also need to understand that investing in common stocks entails more risks in comparison with CDs or U.S. Treasuries.
Did Enron's overstating of profits amount to a manipulation of investors? as the manipulation intentional? Should investors assume a high level of risk unless told otherwise?
Yes, the reason why is because the stock was valued for much more than it was really worth. This harmed investors who believed what management was telling them the about future profit margins. The fraud was intentional. This is because executives knowingly lied…
"Evidence of a Corporations Debts." Free Dictionary. Last modified 2012. http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Securities+Exchange+Act+of+1934
Beachamp, Tom. Ethical Theory and Business. New York: Prentice Hall, 2008.
Chicago Format. http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/717/03/
Tom Beachamp, Ethical Theory and Business (New York: Prentice Hall, 2008), 404
Mounted on the side of the pole are 2 solar panels made by F3 Solar that are capable of generating up to 80 W. Of power.
-No lamp changes -- sealed for life.
-Fully controllable with excellent colour rendition
-Multi combination outputs.
-LED Life expectancy -- 25 years +
Prices vary by distributor
Green Column (http://www.wirefreedirect.com / green_column.asp)
The wind and solar powered solution delivers free, renewable energy which is stored in a battery ready to be consumed when darkness falls. Green Columns are already in use all over the UK on footpaths, playgrounds and car parks. (Note: Product's current battery lasts up to 10 days in mild weather, but only 4-5 days in inclement weather conditions.)
Prices vary by distributor
The following questions will be submitted to potential vendors for the solar and wind powered street LED light systems needed for the initiative envisioned herein.
Alsos, G.A., Isaksen, E.P. & Ljunggren, E. (2006). New venture financing and subsequent business growth in men- and women-led businesses. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 30(5), 667-670.
Hildrum, J.M., Finsrud, H.D. & Klethagen, P. (2009). The next generation of national R&D
programmes in Norway: Consequences for action research and regional development.
International Journal of Action Research, 5(3), 255-257.
Business intelligence degrees are not entirely available in Canadian colleges as ‘Business Intelligence’. For example, a private university like University of British Columbia has the Business and Computer Science Bachelor’s degree. It combines a typical business degree with background and experience in computer science. “The Business and Computer Science combined major will give you the technical background and understanding to apply IT solutions in a business context and use them to develop opportunities for growth” (UBC, 2018). Each semester, students take a combination of commerce and computer science-related courses. The official degree name is Bachelor of Commerce and takes on average, 4 years to complete.
This kind of BI program is located mainly in the computer science department with year 1 courses consisting of computation, programs, and programing, models of computation, and integral calculus. Although commerce essentials are part of the program as well, like managerial accounting, course offering consisting…
While at J.C. Penney, Walton read extensively about retailing theory and principles. He also had the insight to consider the importance of proximity to his merchandise suppliers and he took full advantage of his ability to turn around merchandise so fast that he could leverage his short-term debts to suppliers into capital for investment and growth.
6. Who is in charge of the company now?
Michael Terry Duke, became the Chief Executive Officer and President of Wal-Mart tores Inc. In 2009. Previously, he was the Executive Vice President of Wal-Mart tores Inc., and before that, he served as Executive Vice President of Administration, and Executive Vice President of Logistics, enior Vice President of Logistics at Wal-Mart tores Inc., and enior Vice President of Distribution of Wal-Mart tores Division (UA).
7. Describe any "barriers of entry," competition or marketing challenges the Entrepreneur overcame.
The principal barrier of entry faced by Walton…
Kennon, J. (2011) Sam Walton (aka Samuel Moore Walton)
The Hershey Company. (2011). Our Story.
What are the significant trends you found in Workforce 2020?
This textbook was written in 1997 based on data the authors had at that time. Now that we are into the year 2003, do you agree or disagree with the various topics being assessed/predicted/presented in the book?
Select two topics from the following list and discuss:
The trends found in the book included the prediction that the United States will deal with very tight labor markets in the years to come. The book also discusses the impact of technology on the job force and concludes that new technologies will create more jobs than they will destroy. The authors describes this theory by explaining that, experience suggests that the development, marketing, and servicing of ever more sophisticated products-- and the use of those products in an ever richer ensemble of personal and professional services -- almost certainly will create…
Kippen Rebecca and Mcdonald, Peter. Labor Supply Prospects in 16 Developed Countries, 2000-2050.
Population and Development Review, Vol. 27, 2001
R.W. Judy & C. D'Amico, Workforce 2020: Work and Workers in the 21st Century. Indianapolis, IN: Hudson Institute, 1997.
Business: The Dark Side of Meeting Online
Corporate Governance and the Failed Marriage of AOL and Time arner
"The mating ritual began in September 1999 in the most romantic of cities, Paris" (p.88): Steve Case, an AOL-T merger in mind, starts approaching Jerry Levin. On January 9, 2000, "it was done." (p.99). May 2002, newly appointed AOL-Time arner CEO Parsons announced "a repudiation of the basic raison d'etre of the merger itself" (p.284).
hy did the AOL-Time arner merger take place? hat's your evaluation of the process through which it was decided upon? And the terms agreed upon?
Bella gerant alii, tu felix Austria nube!' - Let others wage war, you, happy Austria, marry!" There are many ways to build an empire, and love is almost always better than war. So, when two corporate giants agreed to march down the aisle together, all Street - and the world - eagerly…
Houston, Frank. "AOL/TW SPELLS BIG." Columbia Journalism Review July 2001: 22.
Glanz, William "America Online to buy Time Warner," The Washington Times 11 Jan. 2000: 1.
Klein, Alec. Stealing Time: The Collapse of AOL-Time Warner. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2003. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?action=openPageViewer&docId=85927102
However, the issue is more nuanced -- what if, as a humanitarian effort, a pharmaceutical company sold recently expired drugs at very low cost to an impoverished developing nation in the grips of an epidemic? hat if a food company donated food that was safe but 'past its expiration date' to a famine-stricken nation? In this case, a utilitarian calculus would support such exchanges. The balance between the benefit of being cured or not starving to death and potential harm of bad drugs or food would suggest such a donation was ethical. From a Rawlsian point-of-view, imagining whether you were the producer or the consumer, it seems likely that 'you' the consumer would take a risk of eating safe but recently stale rice to avoid starvation, much like a producer would be happy to gain good publicity and unload goods that cannot be sold in the U.S. Everyone, in short,…
Shaw, W.H. & Barry, V. (2007). Moral issues in business. (10th ed.). USA: Thomson
How important is an individual's privacy in the workplace? Is an individual's privacy in the workplace the most important consideration to be taken into account? hat constitutes privacy in a workplace environment? Do the goals and the mission of the organization supersede an individual's desire to protect his or her privacy? Is it ethical for an employer to collect and disperse personal information from employees without their knowledge? How does the philosophy of utilitarianism play into this issue? This paper delves into those questions and provides supporting information for the resolution of this issue.
After careful review of the textbook for this course, after reviewing additional scholarly resources and taking into consideration a utilitarian approach to this issue -- and after researching the Australian laws regarding workplace privacy -- this paper takes the position that an individual's privacy is indeed vitally important (and must by law be protected)…
Doyle, Carolyn, and Bagaric, Mirko. (2005). Privacy Law in Australia. Annandale, AU:
Fair Work Ombudsman. (2011). Best Practice Guide / Workplace Privacy. Retrieved September
25, 2012, from http://www.fairwork.gov.au .
Organizational studies benefits from interaction with other areas of study. The articles and research questions in the paper reflect a curiosity of the connection among media, technology, and behavior. Each article and set of authors approaches this question from a different perspective and in conjunction with another school of thought to help problem solve and with which to cooperate. The paper selects and uses three heuristics as way to explore research questions and hypotheses further and better. The paper substantiates the validity of the proposed research question. The paper also describes the context within which the proposed research would fit.
Generating Research Questions & Hypotheses
Part 1 - DeLorme, D.E., Huh, J., Reid, L.N., & An, S. (2010) The state of public research on over-the-counter drug advertising. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, (3), 208 -- 231.
DeLorme et al. propose several key research questions and hypotheses. One…
4. Orlikowski, W.J., & Barley, S.R. (2001) Technology and Institutions: What can Research on Information Technology and Research on Organizations Learn from Each Other? MIS Quarterly, 25(2), 145 -- 165.
We argue that because of the important epistemological differences between the fields of information technology and organization studies, much can be gained from greater interaction between them. In particular, we argue that information technology research can benefit from incorporation institutional analysis from organization studies, while organization studies can benefit even more by following the lead of information technology research in taking the material properties of technologies into account. We further suggest that the transformations currently occurring in the nature of work and organizing cannot be understood without considering both the technological changes and the institutional contexts that are reshaping economic and organizational activity. Thus, greater interaction between field of information technology and organization studies should be viewed as more than a matter of enrichment. In the intellectual engagement of these two fields lies the potential for an important fusion of perspectives, a fusion more carefully attuned to explaining the nature consequences of the techno-social phenomena that increasingly pervade our lives.
Robert Nozick's Entitlement Theory asserts that free market exchanges are manifestations of society's respect for people as equal -- an economic phenomenon that is given a moral dimension/explanation. This theory is hinged on three principles: transfer principle, acquisition principle, and rectification principle. The first principle holds the argument that all holdings or properties freely acquired from others are considered justly acquired. In the same vein of argument, the second principle posits that people are entitled to have holdings/properties, so long as they are acquired in a just manner. Lastly, an "injustice" committed can be rectified by giving the property back to its rightful owner (i.e., a property unjustly acquired can be corrected by returning it back to the original owner/first owner).
John Rawls' theory of distributive justice contains within its argument the principles of liberty and difference. In his theory, Rawls argues that the principles of justice determine how the…
It is critical for people to have a voice in what's required of them if they are going to change their behavior and take responsibility for their jobs. Second, employees need to be recognized as the authorities in their jobs, no matter how trivial to complex, a job must be a source of respect in any organization if the employee is going to actively take responsibility for accomplishing its goals and objectives.
There also needs to be freedom for defining how a job gets done. To reduce a job to mere procedures is to take the responsibility away from it. Conversely, to give employees freedom in how they complete tasks is to create an environment of creativity.
Ultimately employees the most accountable and responsible when they have the opportunity to define what their goals, objectives and approach to completing their jobs are. Second, there needs to be an opportunity for…
Business Communications Final Analysis Report
In order to apply the strategies and decisions formulated in the initial phases of the communication research, they are applied in the context of business communication, particularly in group decision-making processes. In the final analysis report, the case study on the Creative Media team conflict is discussed, addressing the prevalent issues that bring about miscommunication within the team.
The case study on the Creative Media team situation has the following specifics: Gap Jeans, Inc. is planning to launch a new advertising campaign for its new product, called the Gap Washed Jeans, which features a denim-wash (faded look) feature for women, which will be available in hipster and flared styles. Gap is looking for a creative ad agency that will conceptualize and produce the ad campaign, although specific information about the nature of the ad campaign is not yet formulated. Thus, the whole advertising and marketing…
Reflection Prompt #1
Summarize three of the ethical theories that are explained in Chapter 1 of Introduction to Business Ethics. Explain how people running businesses would construct their companies if they utilized these ethical theories. For example, you might personally think that people should act to increase the overall happiness for the greatest number of people (utilitarianism). You would explain utilitarianism and then explain how a company based in utilitarian ethics would function. In other words:
What products would they make?
How would they treat their employees? How would they treat their customers?
How would they manufacture their products?
How would they utilize their resources and profits were they to become successful?
At the basis of the ethical considerations rests the question of whether or not ethics are static or they are relative. The example is give of Lockheed Martin who was caught offering a quarter of a…
S. jobs, or approx. 25% of its employees, overseas by end of 2004. The plan is to ultimately move EVERY job that supports an internal account. I also hear they are behind schedule at the moment.
Certainly, this is a very significant proportion of the computer giant's American workforce. Yet, IBM's management justifies such drastic demographic changes by appealing to the humanitarian side of the globalization debate.
It's not about one shore or another shore," an I.B.M. spokeswoman, Kendra R. Collins, said. "It's about investing around the world, including the United States, to build capability and deliver value as defined by our customers.
And to further emphasize their socially-redeeming values,
Executives at I.B.M. And many other companies argue that creating more jobs in lower cost locations overseas keeps their industries competitive, holds costs down for American consumers, helps to develop poorer nations while supporting overall employment in the United States…
About IBM." IBM.com. (No Date). URL: http://www.ibm.com/ibm/us/ .
Brotherton, Phaedra. "Meyners Pays for Performance: Changing a Compensation System Is a Sensitive Undertaking. Here's How One Firm Handled it." Journal of Accountancy 196.1 (2003): 41+.
On the other hand, applicable laws do have authority and under the concept of moral relativism, it may be justified that any duly passed law be complied with (Svensson & Wood, 2008).
One lesson from this case might be that laws between entities in different sovereign nations can be much harder to enforce than laws between entities within the same nation. In the future, Pakistan and other nations might want to make sure that their contractual agreements contain mechanisms that make them enforceable across international borders. On a broader level, another lesson might be that ill-gotten gains should not be promoted by governments in the first place. Those who believe in the supremacy of divine law might consider the position in which Pakistan found herself to be an example of God's reminding us of the obligation to conduct ourselves ethically toward our fellow man.
Creffield, Lisa. "Why you can't…
Creffield, Lisa. "Why you can't block Skype." (August 14 -- 2006).
Halbert, Terry and Ingulli, Elaine. (2009). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.
Cincinnati: West Legal Studies.
The organization should take a position that it is okay to pursue its actions on the issue. Hartman (2013) makes the point that the business, and the people within the business, should follow a path that emphasizes selfishness. This selfishness is an expression of individual liberty and should not be constrained by the wishes of others, so long as the actions do not harm others. Given that actions are apt to have unpredictable and unknown outcomes, the only reasonable response is either to never do anything, or to do what you need to do.
The company should have, however, an ethical code that helps to guide decisions. It not reasonable that the organization should approach a complex ethical dilemma with an ad hoc system of solutions, but rather it should focus on developing a system by which managers within the company should know what their course of action…
Carmeli, A., Sheaffer, Z. (2009). How leadership characteristics affect organizational decline and downsizing. Journal of business Ethics, 86(3), 363-378.
Hartman, L.P., DesJardins, J.R., & MacDonald, C. (2013). Business ethics: Decision-making for personal integrity & social responsibility (3rd ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Rhode, D.L. (Ed.). (2006). Moral leadership: The theory and practice of power, judgment, and policy. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Stevens, B. (2008). Corporate ethical codes: Effective instruments for influencing behavior. Journal of Business Ethics, 78(4), 601-609.
Alford reports that "for some, the earth moves when they discover that people in authority routinely lie and that those who work for them routinely cover up. Once one knows this, or rather once one feels this knowledge in one's bones, one lives in a new world. Some people remain aliens in the new world forever. Maybe they like it that way. Maybe they don't have a choice." (Alford, 52).
ith respect to the case study at hand here, this was an experience which afflicted me with heavily mixed feelings at Allied. The vacuum of integrity in the industry was counterintuitive to my understanding of business practices that were sensible in the long-term and that abided traditional moral conditions in their execution. As a major consequence of this paradox, I found myself often in a position where balance was crucial. The major divide between my commitment to my principles and…
Adams. G. And Balfour, D. (1998). Unmasking Administrative Evil. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Alford, C. (2001). Whistleblowers. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Bennis, W. & Biederman, P.W. (1997). Organizing genius: The secrets of creative collaboration. Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.
Berman, E. et al., eds.(1998).The Ethics Edge. Washington, DC: International City/County Management Association.
Privileging the rights and needs of people with financial stakes in the American auto industry runs counter to American ideals of equality and Rawlsian justice.
Should we try to restrain, in this and other product liability situations, the litigiousness that seems to characterize American life? How might we do this?
Litigation that is blatantly foolish against corporations, such as a recent lawsuit against Quaker Oats for false advertising because Crunchberry cereal did not contain real fruit, usually fails, or is reversed upon appeal (inter 2009). The appeals process is the constitutional 'check' to juror's tendency to award too much to aggrieved plaintiffs. ithout the ability to sue corporations, the corporate lack of concern at Ford for the safety of the Pinto can occur once again. Litigation can be a powerful tool of consumers against large corporations.
Ford Pinto. Engineering.com. Retrieved June 17, 2009 at http://www.engineering.com/Library/ArticlesPage/tabid/85/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/166/Ford-Pinto.aspx
Shaw, .H. &…
Ford Pinto. Engineering.com. Retrieved June 17, 2009 at http://www.engineering.com/Library/ArticlesPage/tabid/85/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/166/Ford-Pinto.aspx
Shaw, W.H. & Barry, V. (2007). Moral issues in business. (10th ed.). USA: Thomson
Winter, Michael. (2009, June 8). Judge kills suit claiming crunchberries aren't real fruit.