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As they pushed engineers to continually test the limits when it came to the launches. This is because, the leadership inside NASA and at the different subcontractors created an atmosphere that made this possible. (Gross 1997) (Space Shuttle Challenger Case Study n.d.)
The Influence of the Media
Given the high profile nature of the program, meant that there were considerable pressures to be ready for the next shuttle launch. This is because, the various managers and executives wanted to maintain a favorable image of the program in the minds of the general public. The only way that this can be accomplished is through: not having these problems leaked to news media. As a result, there was pressure that was placed on: employees and managers to overlook some of the design issues. (Space Shuttle Challenger Case Study n.d.) the reason why, is because all of the negative press they would receive,…
Space Shuttle Challenger Case Study, n.d.
Gross, a, 1997, 'The Challenger Disaster,' Augmentation, vol. 11, 75 -- 93.
Harvard Format. http://libguides.library.uwa.edu.au/data/files2/49275/Harvard%20LibGuide%20-%20All%20Examples%20PDF.pdf
Judgment in Managerial Decision Making
Almost everyone has, at some point, been a victim of groupthink -- perhaps by thinking of speaking up in a meeting, and then deciding not to, so as not to appear unsupportive of the team's stand. Although such occurrences are quite common, and may appear quite normal, they are indicative of faulty thinking. Groupthink is, in basic terms, "a phenomenon that occurs when the desire for group consensus overrides people's common sense desire to present alternatives, critique a position, or express an unpopular opinion" (Mind Tools, 1996). Groupthink is detrimental to the process of decision-making because it drives out challenge, giving rise to poor-quality decisions (Bazerman & Don, 2008).
The Challenger disaster perfectly demonstrates how groupthink can lead to negative outcomes. Months before the space shuttle take-off, Marshall Engineers discovered a few faulty parts in the flight but opted to proceed with the launch, so…
Bazerman, M.H. & Don, A.M. (2008). Judgment in Managerial Decision-Making (7th ed.). New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Mind Tools. (1996). Avoiding Groupthink: Avoiding Fatal Flaws in Group Decision-Making. Mind Tools. Retrieved 31 March 2014 from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_82.htm
SHU (n.d.). The Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster: A Study in Organizational Ethics. Seton Hall University. Retrieved 31 March 2014 from http://pirate.shu.edu/~mckenndo/pdfs/The%20Space%20Shuttle%20Challenger%20Disaster.pdf
Space Shuttle Challenger disaster took place on January 28, 1986 as the Space Shuttle Challenger blew up into pieces just 73 seconds after its launch. The destruction blew the shuttle into flames and dust causing the death of all seven crew members. Even though the crash was a sad moment in the history of NASA and United States Space programs, it is still being studied merely to figure out what went wrong. Aboard the space shuttle was Christa McAuliffe, who was supposed to telecast live and teach in classrooms globally. Her loss and the loss of the other crew members left NASA dismantled. (Forest, 1996 p1).
Most of the blame is placed on flawed decision making and the fact that mismanagement led to the decision of launching the shuttle.. As soon as the shuttle launched, the hardware solid rocket booster (SB) "O" ring failed and thus led to the explosion.…
Amabile, T. et al. (2002) Creativity Under the Gun. Harvard Business Review, August.
Amabile, T. (1998) How to kill Creativity. Harvard Business Review 76, 5 (September-October ), p.76-87.
Bazerman, M. And Chugh, D. (2006) Decisions without Binders. Harvard Business Review, January.
Bower, J. And Gilbert, C. (2007) How Managers' Everyday Decisions Create or Destroy Your Company's Strategy. . Harvard Business Review, February.
After the Challenger disaster, NASA was required to make changes in the way it managed its operations. There was to be more communication and more centralization, as well as better consultation with experts in order to make sure that the shuttle did not launch when it was not safe to do so. Despite all of the alleged changes, though, further disaster occurred. This was believed to be a product of the fact that NASA only made some of the proposed changes after Challenger failed. Even then, most of the changes that were made were undone over time, so they did not provide any significant improvement in the agency overall. Change not only has to come from within, but it has to be something that becomes the "new normal" (Evans, 2007; Palmer, Dunford, & Akin, 2009). If the changes that are made are seen as too different, or they are…
Evans, B. (2007). Space shuttle challenger: ten journeys into the unknown. New York, NY: Praxis Publications
Kotter, J. (1996). Leading change. Boston: Harvard Business School Press
Palmer, I., Dunford, R., & Akin, G. (2009). Managing organizational change: A multiple perspectives approach (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill
In addition, the Rogers Commission made specific recommendations related to these issues. They suggested that NASA restructure its management system, including bringing astronauts into management positions, which will increase attention to flight safety issues. They suggested a full examination of all critical systems before conducting any more shuttle launches. They were instructed to establish an Office of Safety, Reliability and Quality control. These suggestions bring safety back to prominence in decision-making, and should downplay the effect of pressure to meet deadlines (Harwood, 1986).
The Rogers Commission also criticized NASA's communications and instructed them to devise ways that information flows from bottom to top as well as from top to bottom. In addition they expressed concern about a tendency for management to be somewhat isolated from others, further interfering with communication (Harwood, 1986). If middle management had been able to communicate effectively with upper levels in 1986, the GDSS would have…
Eberhart, Jonathan. 1986. "Challenger disaster muddles NASA's future." Science News, March 15.
Editorial. 2003. "Bad News Rising." Air Safety Week, Feb. 17. (Editorial, 2003)
Forrest, Jeff. 1995. "The Challenger Shuttle Disaster," in Aviation & Aerospace. Accessed via the Internet 11/1/05. http://frontpage.hypermall.com/jforrest/challenger/challenger_sts.htm
Harwood, William. Voyage Into History. CBS, 1986. Accessed via the Internet 11/1/04. http://www.cbsnews.com/network/news/space/51Lintro.html
Challenger Launch Decision
JOE KILMINSTE'S ACCOUNTABILITY IN THE CHALLENGE DISASTE
On January 28, 1986, the Challenger, one of the reusable space shuttle by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration or NASA, was launched off at the John F. Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida but exploded 72 seconds after liftoff. The launch was approved and ordered by the management of the Morton Thiokol, Inc., an aerospace company, that manufactures solid propellant rocket motors for big clients, including the NASA, and per NASA's urging despite the objection of Morton Thiokol's engineers that the 30-degree F. temperature was inclement to the shuttle's boosters. The launch was a publicized event as NASA's 25th mission and had a selected teacher, Christa McAulifee and six astronauts on board. All these passengers perished (Jennings 1996).
The launch was repeatedly postponed because the engineers of Thiokol notes the failure of an O. ring assembly in the…
Benner, L. (1996). The Challenger Launch Decision by Diane Vaughan. Book Review, International Society of Air Safety Investigators: ISASI Forum. http://www.ipri.org/Reviews/Vaughan.html
Jennings, MM. (1996). Summary of the "Challenger" Episode. Case Studies in Business Ethics, second edition. West Publishing. http://www.calbaptist.edu/dskubik/nasa.htm
Stubley, G. (1998). Engineers and Integrity. The Objectivist Center. http://www.ios.org/tex/gstubley_engineers-integrity.asp
Vaughan, D. (1996). The Challenger Launch Decision: Risky Technology, Culture and Deviance at NASA.. Paperback. University of Chicago Press.
There was one thing or the other to delay the launch of the Challenger, until the D-Day, when the shuttle was launched at 11:38 AM as against the scheduled take off time of 9:38 AM on January 28. About seventy three seconds into the mission, the Challenger exploded in mid air, and all the seven crew members were killed instantaneously. For the hundreds of people, the family and friends and others who had gathered at the site to watch the launching of the Challenger, it was a sight that they would never be able to forget. They were forced to watch helplessly and fearfully, as the fiery flames consumed their loved ones. The entire nation, which was watching events as they unfolded on their television sets, was rendered speechless. (Challenger Disaster, a National Tragedy)
onald eagan, the President of the United States of America at the time, stated, "Today is…
Administrator Goldin issues statement on Tenth Anniversary of Challenger Observance.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. January 16, 1996. http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/administrator.html
Baura, Gail D. Engineering ethics, an industrial perspective.
Academic Press. 2006.
Too often, important issues are overlooked because people fail to realize that there are deeper concerns that are not being considered. When managers address problems, they have to frame them the right way, so anyone they communicate with sees the value of what they are trying to say and the goals they are attempting to reach (Bazerman & Moore, 2008). This was something that can and should have been done with the Challenger disaster, but that was not done. A significant number of lives were lost because of that, and that could have really been avoided with proper communication and framing techniques on the part of both NASA and the engineers at Morton-Thiokol. What happened with the shuttle that day was tragic, and many argued that it was unavoidable.
However, it was actually an avoidable issue that appeared to be brought on simply by improperly framed communication. Framing has to…
Bazerman, M.H. & Moore, D.A. (2008). Judgment in managerial decision making. NY: Wiley.
Pinkus, R.L. (1997). Engineering ethics: Balancing cost, schedule, and risk. NY: Cambridge University Press.
speech "Challenger Address to the Nation" by President onald eagan. Specifically, it will analyze the elements of the rhetorical situation in the address. It will also discuss how the elements relate to eagan's presidency and popularity at the time of the speech in January 1986. onald eagan endures as one of the most popular American presidents, and speeches such as this one are one indication of his popularity. They are poignant, resilient, and emotional, all of which characterize his administration and his outlook as a politician and a person.
When the Challenger space shuttle exploded during take-off in 1986, the event shocked and saddened the nation. America lost seven of its brightest and best astronauts, and the country grieved over the loss. eagan's speech acknowledged that grief and mourned along with the nation. The speech is quite indicative of eagan's public popularity at the time. Just like eagan himself, the…
Cannon, L. (2001). Ronald Reagan: The Presidential portfolio: a history illustrated from the collection of the Ronald Reagan library and museum. New York: Public Affairs.
Ritter, K., & Henry, D. (1992). Ronald Reagan: The great communicator. New York: Greenwood Press.
White, J.K. (2004). Ronald Reagan: The power of conviction and the success of his Presidency. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 34(1), 173+.
Reagan, Ronald. (1986). Ronald Reagan: The space shuttle Challenger tragedy address. Retrieved from the American rhetoric.com Web site: http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/rreaganchallenger.htm 29 Aug. 2005.
The report identifies NASA as "working with an unrealistic set of flights" (Cases Study. N.D.); timelines "which were retained and increased pressure to meet schedules by senior NASA managers" (Case Study. N.D.). The Challenger disaster was marked by the reality that
"NASA had found evidence that O-rings had allowed hot exhaust to burn through a primary seal. Since 1982 the O-rings had been designated a "Criticality 1" issue. Indeed, a January shuttle launch in cold weather just a year earlier had shown significant burn through of the O-rings. The day before the Challenger launch, engineers at orton Thiokol, a NASA contractor, raised concerns that the frigid temperatures at Cape Canaveral would cause the shuttle's rocket booster "O-rings" to fail -- which would mean catastrophe for the shuttle. Just hours before liftoff, Thiokol engineers were recommending that the launch be delayed. After hours of discussion, NASA pressed forward with the launch…
Much like the Challenger incident the CAIB report finds "NASA management practices to be as much a cause of the accident as the foam that struck the left wing 81 sec into flight. These practices included: allowing the shuttle to fly with known flaws, blocking the flow of critical information up the hierarchy, and inadequate safety monitoring" (O'Leary, J. June 2, 2010). As with the O-ring on Challenger, a seemingly minor technical issue was the problem. "Foam had been falling off the tank since the very first shuttle flight, and NASA had long been trying to fix it. But in each case, NASA decided it was okay to keep flying. Over time, this led to a significant understating or a collective ignoring of an actual risk" (O'Leary, J. June 2, 2010).
Clearly, there were systemic organizational issues which confronted NASA over the course of several decades which led to the two disasters however, what specifically went wrong and more importantly how could these areas have been addressed?
At the core of both of these incidents was an organizational inertia "reflecting missed opportunities, blocked or ineffective communication channels, flawed analysis, and ineffective leadership" (Case Study. N.D.). After the Challenger flight the Rogers report's "recommendations included that NASA restructure its management to tighten control, and set a group dedicated to finding and tracking hazards in regard to shuttle safety" (Case Study. N.D.). Yet, after the Columbia disaster, the CAIB report found that "though NASA underwent many management reforms in the wake of the Challenger accident…the agency's powerful human space flight culture remained intact, as did many practices…such as inadequate concern over
The examples and the codes show that healthy competition is good, but must not lead to disrespectful cut-throat practices. Further, as these documents say, the engineer must resist the drive for individual gain if it puts the entire profession at stake. Everyone wants to profit, but the engineer in particular must be driven by a sense of duty and pride in solid work that goes beyond the individual to consider the needs and well-being of the public. Engineering ethics is profoundly social. The engineer must always remember that lives are in their hands when he or she is designing some product or working on a project. Nothing should stand in the way of performing this responsibility with absolute integrity, even if there are other forces pressuring the engineer to break down, whether in deception or inaccuracy or in any other way. At all times, safety should be the priority.
American Institute of Chemical Engineers. AIChE Code of Ethics. March 20, 2010. < http://www.aiche.org/About/Code.aspx >. New York: Author, 2003.
Boisjoly, Roger M. "The Challenger Disaster: Moral Responsibility and the Working Engineer." Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, MA, January 7, 1987.
National Society of Professional Engineers. NSPE Code of Ethics for Engineers. March 20, 2010. . Alexandria, VA: Author, 2007.
Slater, Lauren. "In the Event of a Water Landing: Darley and Latane's Training Manual -- a Five Step Approach." In Opening Skinner's Box: Great Psychological Experiments of the Twentieth Century, 94-112. New York W.W. Norton, 2004.
Dumping $2.6 Million on Bakersfield (Or How Not to Build a Migratory Farm orker's Clinic)
The central issue of this case was that the social ecology of administration and other external factors were not taken into consideration during the implementation of a plan to build new health clinics for migrant farm workers in Bakersfield California.
The program was created to meet the requirements of legislation of the 1970 Migrant Health Act sponsored by Senator alter Mondale. Although there was plenty of money available, the money came with time constraints and the group who needed to spend the money had a poor overall knowledge of the community the funding was supposed to serve. This case was significant because it demonstrated how multiple levels of government, both federal and local, often mismanage their responsibilities simply because of poor communication and planning.
There were several factors that created this problem. The…
Aron, Michael. (1972). "Dumping $2.6 Million on Bakersfield (Or How Not to Build a Migratory Farm Worker's Clinic)." The Washington Monthly. October: pp.23-32.
Charles, Michael T.. (1989). "The Last Flight of Space Shuttle Challenger." Coping With Crises: The Management of Disaster, Riots and Terrorism.
Sciolino, Elain., Bronner, Ethan. (1999). "The Decision To Bomb the Serbs." New York Times. April 18.: p.1+.
Critical Thinking for Homeland Security
The capacity of a government to protect its citizens pivots on the ability of its leaders and high-placed specialists to think critically. Few times in history point so clearly to this principle than the 9/11 disaster. In 1941, the same year that the attack on Pearl Harbor occurred, Edward M. Glaser published a book titled, An Experiment in the Development of Critical Thinking. Glaser's practice of psychiatry was remarkable in that he dispensed with the Freudian deep dive into past events, pushing his patients to deal with problem solving in the present -- a critical thinking practice he called reality therapy. Many of Glaser's tenets were adopted by other disciplines because of their universal utility and association with positive results. Glaser defined critical thinking as, "A persistent effort to examine any belief or supposed form of knowledge in the light of the evidence that supports…
Albert Einstein. Brainy Quotes. Retrieved from http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/a/albert_einstein.html
Chow, D. (2011, January 25). Space Shuttle Challenger disaster FAQ: What went wrong? www.SPACE.com. Retrieved from http://www.space.com/10677-challenger-tragedy-overview.html
Eichorn, R. (2012). Developing thinking skills: Critical thinking at the Army Management Staff College. Fort Belvoir, VA: Strategic Systems Department. [Webpage, last modified: 4 2012 January.] Retreived from http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/army/critical/roy.htm
Glaser, E.M. (1941). An experiment in the development of critical thinking. New York, Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University.
eserve Personnel Management Systems Division: Officer Evaluations
This paper engages in a thorough assessment of the culture, organization and technology of the reserve personnel management that operates as a branch within the Personnel Service Center of the United States Coast Guard: specifically the Officers Evaluation Systems. The method used to assess this particular branch relies heavily on ethnographic skills and related techniques. According to the official website of the U.S. Coast Guard, this is the division which handles "boards, panels, promotions, evaluations, advancements, retirements, resignations, discharges and separations for all reserve officer, chief warrant officers, and enlisted members" (uscg.mil, 2013). This is the division which deals with assignments, copies of records, medical issues and disability, individual ready reserve, promotions, separations, reserve retirement requests, policy waives and a host of other connected factors.
By scrutinizing closely factors like culture, organization, technology and related issues, one is able to obtain an accurately…
Boisjoy, R. (2013). Professional Responsibility and Conduct (Ethical Decisions - Morton Thiokol and the Challenger Disaster) . Retrieved from Onlineethics.org: http://www.onlineethics.org/Topics/ProfPractice/PPEssays/thiokolshuttle/shuttle_pro.aspx
Goldstein, H. (2005, September 1). Who Killed the Virtual Case File? Retrieved from ieee.org: http://spectrum.ieee.org/computing/software/who-killed-the-virtual-case-file/0
Howard, A. (2012, February 22). Data for the public good. Retrieved from Oreilly.com: http://strata.oreilly.com/2012/02/data-public-good.html
Israel, J. (2012). Why the FBI Can't Build a Case Management System. Computer, 73-80.
It was a poor policy at best, and the President's Cabinet approved the plan, even if he did not. In fact, Congress specifically denied the request to send money to the Contras, so it was done in secret, and this violated the law and the trust of the nation. It was dishonest, it was covert, and it cast a dark cloud over the presidency and eagan's own motives.
In comparison, oosevelt has his own legacy of poor judgement, too. oosevelt tried to pack the Supreme Court by proposing to add new justices, and many believe he pointed the country toward socialism.
oosevelt felt the Supreme Court was too conservative when they overthrew many of the social changes he had created in the New Deal. He felt they were not following the Constitution in their decisions, but were following their own feelings. He wanted to bring the number of Supreme Court…
Felzenberg, Alvin S. "There You Go Again:" Liberal Historians and the 'New York Times' Deny Ronald Reagan His Due." Policy Review, no. 82 (1997): 51+.
McKenna, Marian C. Franklin Roosevelt and the Great Constitutional War: The Court-Packing Crisis of 1937. New York: Fordham University Press, 2002.
Reagan, Ronald. 2008. Inaugural Address. [Online] available from the Internet at http://www.americanpresidents.org/inaugural/39a.aspaccessed 3 May 2008.
Siracusa, Joseph M., and David G. Coleman. Depression to Cold War: A History of America from Herbert Hoover to Ronald Reagan. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2002.
Spending any time at all at one of the nation's first, oldest and largest state theaters, a founding member of the League of esident Theaters, brings to mind only one phrase above all others: "Off with their heads." The theatrical organization is run as if by the mad Queen in Alice in Wonderland. No real management is performed. Instead, edicts are issued by the CEO and founder and carried out without regard to the bottom line or any standards of acceptable organizational behavior. In short, there is the rule of fear, and nothing more.
When the theatre runs into problems, the solution is not to find remedies for those problems, but to replace personnel -- itself a highly expensive proposition -- and seek more government and corporate grants to cover the costs of operating the theater. The board of directors has been asked by more than…
A psychologist named Ulric Nessier believes that flashbulb memories are formed because they represent an intersection of historical and personal trajectories, and this makes them events that people want to retell and rehearse again and again. t is through these rehearsals and retellings that inaccuracies manage to creep in, and as they are reinforced through repeated retellings they become just as much a part of the memories as the actual events. That is, retelling the flashbulb memory to others is the same as rehearsing the memory, or reliving it to a certain degree, and when there are inaccurate elements in this reliving they eventually become as firmly entrenched in the memory of the true-life event as the factual memories. This explains why so many people remember seeing both planes hit on 9/11 when this was actually impossible.
For this assignment, completed the test found at http://www.intelligencetest.com/, after searching…
For this assignment, I completed the test found at http://www.intelligencetest.com/ , after searching the term "intelligence test" at askjeeves.com. While many of the questions did seem to be fairly accurate ways of gauging intelligence in certain areas, such as pattern recognition or mathematical abilities, many of the questions seemed to depend on knowledge that would have to be acquired prior to taking the test. While this information was fairly basic for the most part, it was easy to see that someone who simply hadn't been exposed to the facts would be gauged as having a lower intelligence than they might actually possess based on this feature of the test. While I feel that I possessed the knowledge that was required in these certain items on the test, this reflects the cultural bias that exists in many intelligence tests, and arguably in all intelligence tests. It also calls into question the definition of intelligence as it is defined in various intelligence tests, including this one.
As far as how it felt to take this test, I actually found it kind of exciting -- especially when I was pretty sure (or positive) that I had the right answer. Many of the items appeared incredibly easy, while others were less so, and the fact that I didn't get a perfect score means that the test obviously had some items that were more difficult than I thought. I was very eager to see my results, and throughout the test I found it difficult to concentrate only on the questions/items as they were presented because I kept wondering what each specific item was supposed to measure and what my answer would say about my intelligence. Ultimately, I don't think any internet-administered test that takes a maximum of fifteen minutes to complete can accurately assess anyone's intelligence, so I do not have a great deal of faith in my score, but the experience was definitely fun and made taking the test worthwhile.
It is essential fo company manages, safety pactitiones and manufactuing enginees to be infomed of and gain sufficient knowledge about cuent eseach developments in this field and implement safety stategies as well as systems to minimize occupational health and safety isks. (Bie; Kuneuthe; Phimiste, 103); (Stellman, 17)
Active and pocedual isk management stategies ae impotant elements in any manufactuing unit. Active isk management efes to implementing intelocks, alams and mitigation systems that can detect a hazad and immediately shut down o set the system into a safe position. Pocedual isk management efes to implementing safety checklists, opeato taining, standad opeating pocedues and seveal such people dependent management systems. Ceating "inheently safe design stategies" in a manufactuing unit would involve fou key stategies. These ae minimizing, modeating, substituting and simplifying systems. (Bie; Kuneuthe; Phimiste, 103); (Stellman, 17)
Despite all safety guidelines, accidents still occu mainly as a esult of human complacence…
references and further reading you must purchase this article.
Ellacott, Michael V; Reed, Sue. Review: Development of Robust Indoor Air Quality Models for the Estimation of Volatile Organic Compound Concentrations in Buildings. Indoor and Built Environment, vol. 8, no. 6, 1999. pp: 345-360.
Falzon, Pierre. Enabling safety: issues in design and continuous design. Cognition, Technology & Work, vol.10, no. 1, Jan 2008, pp: 7-14.
Fleming, Mary Louise; Parker, Elizabeth. 2007. Health promotion: principles and practice in the Australian context. Ligare Book Printer, Sydney.
International Labour Organization. Occupational safety & health. 2009. Retrieved 12 November, 2009 from http://www.ilo.org/public/english/dialogue/sector/sectors/mee/safety.htm
Hubble Space Telescope
As the world's first Earth-orbiting reflecting telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) represents the culmination of the dreams of many astronomers and the fulfillment of a hope that began in the 1950's when the United States launched instruments into space in order to study the Earth's atmosphere. Our planetary speck in space, namely the Earth, is only one of hundreds of billions of planets that surely orbit other star systems; our Milky Way galaxy, composed of billions of stars and other astronomical bodies, is but one out of billions of other galaxies. Thus, in order to increase our knowledge of the universe, the Hubble Space Telescope serves a vital function, for since its launch in 1990, despite several crucial problems, it has revealed a universe full of mysterious bodies, nebula, star systems and galaxies and has expanded the possibilities that humankind is not alone in the universe.…
"Eye on the Universe: The Hubble Space Telescope." Internet. HST Update: October 29, 1997. Accessed April 18, 2005. http://www.thetech.org/exhibits/online/hubble .
"Hubble Space Telescope." Internet. Encyclopedia.com. 2005. Accessed April 18, 2005.
Nemiroff, Robert. "Astronomy Picture of the Day." Internet. Accessed April 18, 2005.
Iranian & Global Nuclear Realism
Iran has made a choice, and that choice is to sustain a global stance of nuclear realism. And it has chosen to do this in no small part because its chief opponents who favor the new school of institutionalism are unable and unwilling to counterpunch. For right now, the major organizations of global collaboration are actually down if not out on the mats of the boxing ring, fearing, in reality, their own revival. If they arise and confront Iran, they would not only bring unwanted attention to a significant and potentially expensive conflict (which they cannot afford), they might also even have to acknowledge that they are able to unleash an entire new level of nuclear manipulation and confusion, one that would engage the destructive capabilities of cyberwarfare -- a potential blow to many elements of deterrence and power.
At this point, however, the match…
BIBLIOGRAPHY AND REFERENCES
Boucek, C. And Sadjadpour, K. (2011) Rivals -- Iran vs. Saudi Arabia. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved from http://carnegieendowment.org/2011/09/20/rivals-iran-vs.-saudi-arabia/56t9 .
Hirsch, M. (2008). Iran's Great Game. The Daily Beast. Retrievable from http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2008/07/02/iran-s-great-game.html
Jonsson, C. And Tallberg, J. (n.d). International Theory and International Relations. Retrievable from http://www.uni-muenster.de/Politikwissenschaft/Doppeldiplom/docs/IIR.pdf .
Korab-Karpowicz, W. Julian, "Political Realism in International Relations," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2010 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .
"Greasy Lake" is one of the most notable, readable and critically acclaimed contemporary short stories written by T. Coraghessan Boyle. The fact that he took the a line and an idea from the iconic, venerable rock star Bruce Springsteen has gained Boyle's book a lot of press although the story stands on its own as a piece of biting social satire, mixed with humor and drenched in bad behavior, felonious sexual behaviors, and alcohol. Not all critics praise this story, however, because though well written, it is very dark, sometimes it stretches credulity a bit too far, and the behavior of the characters is mindlessly violent and morally bankrupt.
The Greasy Lake Story
"…Thirty-three percent of teenagers experience problems at home, school, work or the in community stemming from substance abuse. The fact that teenagers become addicted more quickly than adults contributes to these problems… between…
Boyle, T. Coraghessan. Greasy Lake & Other Stories. New York: Penguin, 1986.
Colorado State University. "Family: Adolescent Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse." Retrieved
June 11, 2011, from http://www.ext.colostate.edu .
Hennessy, Denis. "Thomas Coraghessan Boyle." American Short-Story Writers Since World
In addition, individuals have ethical decisions when it comes to whistleblowing, because very often, when they bring attention to a problem or concern within an organization, they pay the ultimate price - they lose their jobs, or lose the respect of their peers and management. In this, the organization is to blame, and it indicates the ethics of the organization do not encourage truth and doing the right thing. A good case in point of whistleblowing that was ignored is the case of the Challenger space shuttle, which blew up in 1986. Engineers had called attention to the problem with the o-rings that caused the explosion, but NASA ignored their concerns and it resulted in a disaster (Cadbury, 2002, p. 108-116). There are many other examples of this kind of unethical behavior on the part of organizations, and it results in individuals who may be afraid to do the right…
Berlau, J., & Spun, B. (2002, March 18). Is big business ethically bankrupt? Insight on the News, 18, 16+.
Cadbury, a. (2002). Chapter 1 Business dilemmas. In Case histories in business ethics, Megone, C. & Robinson, S.J. (Eds.) (pp. 9-22). London: Routledge.
Editors. (2008). Business ethics: Definition. Retrieved 14 June 2008 from the Answers.com Web site: http://www.answers.com/topic/business-ethics?cat=biz-fin .
Editors. (2008). Ethics resource center. Retrieved 14 June 2008 from the Ethics.org Web site: http://www.ethics.org/ .
Furthermore, while it established Canada as an independent
nation, it also established America. As a war over its previous colonizer,
America can be said to have won a second war of independence. This is
further reflected in considering President Madison's war message to
Congress. Madison appeals to the "honor" of his country, as if Britain has
violated it and it is America's responsibility to retain it (Madison,
1812). Although the war was fought primarily for economic reasons, the
"honor" Madison is referring to was regained during the war as Great
Britain was unable to dominate the United States. In fact, the United
States did more than a good job of fighting the British. Thus, it appears
that the war was fought somewhat over honor, and the United States
maintained their honor in the war. This means that the United States
established itself, and its pride, in the war, and this…
Feldmeth, Greg D. (31 March 1998). U.S. History Resources. Retrieved 3
March 2007 from
Harney, Major W. (1989). The Causes of the War of 1812. Retrieved 4 March
With regards to improving the prospects for the Gray Eagle, the United States Army must apply the core principles of CM to its operations. This entails a strategic decision-making training session, an improved technology interface that will facilitate ground and flight operations, and a thorough training module related to leadership development and communications. When FAA regulations are also integrated with Army safety regulations, the result will be an improved and safer UAS system.
Beckhusen, . (2012). 'Gray Eagle' Drone Fails All the Time, but Army Still Wants More. Wired. June 15, 2012. etrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
Dorr, L. & Duquette, a. (2013). Fact sheet -- Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Federal Aviation Administration. etrieved online: http://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsId=14153
Helmreich, .L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. etrieved online: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/helmreichlab/publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
Mulenberg, J. (n.d.). Crew resource management improves decision making. NASA. etrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oce/appel/ask/issues/42/42i_crew_resource_management_prt.htm…
Beckhusen, R. (2012). 'Gray Eagle' Drone Fails All the Time, but Army Still Wants More. Wired. June 15, 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/06/grey-eagle/
Dorr, L. & Duquette, a. (2013). Fact sheet -- Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved online: http://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsId=14153
Helmreich, R.L., Merritt, a.C., & Wilhelm, J.A. (1999). The evolution of crew resource management training in commercial aviation. Retrieved online: http://homepage.psy.utexas.edu/homepage/group/helmreichlab/publications/pubfiles/Pub235.pdf
Mulenberg, J. (n.d.). Crew resource management improves decision making. NASA. Retrieved online: http://www.nasa.gov/offices/oce/appel/ask/issues/42/42i_crew_resource_management_prt.htm
Com industry crash after the boom
This is a paper examining some of the factors that caused the dot-com crash
Many believe the root cause of the dot-com crash was over valuation of stock prices relative to the actual underlying value of the companies themselves. Stocks of Internet companies traded at Price-Earning ratios of higher then 30, buoyed by a speculative bubble. When reality set in for investors many realized that the companies that they were so heavily invested in were little more then money sucking black holes with no upside potential in the near or long-term future. This triggered mass self-offs of not only Internet related stocks but soon impacted the market value of many companies associated with computer, network or telecommunications industries.
This paper will show in fact that over valuation was more a symptom of the speculative boom and was only one of the multifaceted factors that…
Baldwin Carliss Y. Clark Kim B. "Modularity After the Crash" working paper Managing the Modular Age: Architectures, Networks And Organizations,
Brick Michael, "Pets.com Closing Up Shop" TheStreet.com/NYTimes.com November 11, 2000 (www.nytimes.com) March 27, 2003
Buckman Rebecca, "Who Caused the Dot-Com Crash?" The Wall Street Journal, Monday, March 5, 2000 p. 42
Cassidy John Dot.con: "The Greatest Story Ever Sold" 2002 HarperCollins
2.0 Strategic Situation Analysis
In order to understand the nature of aircraft manufacture at Boeing, it is important to have a clear vision of how outsourcing plays into the manufacture of aircraft. Let us use the example of Boeing's Dreamliner. The following illustration explains how outsourcing plays a key role in Boeing's business strategy. These represent TIER 1 suppliers.
From here, the parts go to the plant in Everett and are assembled by TIER 2 suppliers as follows:
These two illustrations clearly help to develop an understanding of the relationship between TIER 1 and TIER 2 suppliers at Boeing.
2.1 SOT Analysis:
SOT analysis is a planning method used to evaluate a company's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. In a business analysis, all of these factors are analyzed for the company under study and their competitors. This analysis allows the researcher to see both…
Airbus. "Welcome to the world of Airbus." 2011. < http://www.airbus.com/company / ..
Accessed February 17, 2011.
BA. "Boeings Outsourcing for the 787 "Dreamliner",." September, 28, 2006 <
Behrens and Rosens (2002) have an entire discussion pertaining to the effects of sleep deprivation on adolescents. College students, actually, routinely deprive themselves of sleep as does the American nation in general (Weiten, 184) mainly in the hope and mistaken belief that they can achieve more in their life this way. According to Dumer and Dinges (2005), in fact, approximately 20% of adults are routinely sleep deprived.
cientific research on sleep, actually, presents something of a paradox since, whilst on the one hand, it indicates that sleep deprivation is not as detrimental as one might expect, on the other hand, evidence seems to indicate that sleep deprivation may be a major social problem, undermining efficacy in school and academic achievement, contributing to countless accidents, and negatively impacting an adolescent's life in various aspects.
The level of seriousness of the effects of partial sleep deprivation depends on the amount of sleep…
Behrens, L. & Rosens, L.J. Writing and Reading Across the Curriculum. NY: Longman Pub., 2002.
Dumer, J., & Dinges, D.F. "Neurocognitive Consequences of Sleep Deprivation," Seminars in Neurology, 25 (2005): 117-129.
Weiten, W. Psychology: Themes and Variations. NY: Thomson & Wadsworth, 2007.
Fatigue Management in Aviation
Many documented incidents can be linked to pilot fatigue. A case in kind occurred on August 18, 1993, where a Connie Kalitta DC-8 crashed whilst completing its 1/4-mile base leg. The flight crew had flown for 9 hours and been on duty for 18 hours, accordingly disrupting their circadian rhythm and experiencing sleep loss (National Transportation Safety Board, 1993).
Showing how fatigue was determined to be a contributing safety factor in the event
That the accident was, to a great extent, contributory to sleep loss was confirmed by Jim Danaher, chief of the NTSB's Operational Factors Division at the November 1995 Fatigue Symposium near Washington, D.C.:
The company had intended for the crew to ferry the airplane back to Atlanta after the airplane was offloaded in Guantanamo Bay. This would have resulted in a total duty time of 24 hours and 12 hours of flight time…."(National…
Brandon Printup, M. 2000. "The effects of fatigue on performance and safety" Airlinesafety.com http://www.airlinesafety.com/editorials/PilotFatigue.htm
Duke, T. 1997 "Battling Fatigue -- the Challenge is to Manage It." NATCA Voice. Editorial pp.49-52
Dumer, J., & Dinges, D.F., 2005, "Neurocognitive Consequences of Sleep Deprivation," Seminars in Neurology, 25, pp. 117-129.
National Transportation Safety Board, Aircraft Accident Report, 1993, In Flight Loss of Control and Subsequent Collision with Terrain, DC-8-61, N814CK, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, Washington, DC.
Rove made an art form out of stirring up his client's opponents with whispers, innuendos and lies, while his candidates stood high above the dust and dirt. "A lot of times it wasn't enough for Karl to just win. He had to crush you in the process," according to "an adversary" quoted in Moore and Slater's book on page 28. On page 175-176, the details of Guerrero's demise are written out fully; Rove produced a "mass mailing" in 1992, as Guerrero was running for re-election as State Railroad Commissioner; it suggested she was "soft on crime, pro-gay rights, antigun, and an enemy of traditional family values." Soon thereafter, came the Rove-driven word that Guerrero was not a graduate as she claimed, and she fell like a big oak tree.
The methodical way in which Rove plowed acting Governor Ann Richards into the dust for his candidate, George . Bush, is…
Moore, James, & Slater, Wayne. (2003). Bush's Brain: How Karl Rove made George W. Bush
Presidential. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Hamlet act3 sene3 Machiavelli chapter 7-15-25-26 Lens Machiavelli concept Hamlet Intro - text author, content, method Paragraph1- Machiavelli concept explain applied hamlet compare Hamlet act3 sene3 Machiavelli chapter 7-15-25-26 work enables misunderstand play's ending significant relevant divergence hamlet Machiavelli Second essay compare Hamlet act 4.
Unlike Prince Hamlet, who is a man who is concerned with the morality of kingship as well as is an aggrieved son avenging his father, King Claudius of Shakespeare's Hamlet is primarily concerned with holding onto his power. Claudius does have some moral qualms about his actions, but not enough to repent. This is seen when Claudius tries to pray for forgiveness but is unable to do so: "O, my offence is rank it smells to heaven" (3.3). However, the political theorist Niccolo Machiavelli would diagnose Claudius' problem as being insufficiently ruthless up to this point in his dealings with his nephew. Claudius…
Machiavelli, Niccolo. The Prince. Written c. 1505, published 1515. Translated by W.K.
Marriott, 1908 [13 Dec 2012]
Shakespeare, William. Hamlet. MIT Shakespeare Homepage. [13 Dec 2012]
political framework of EU and OCT
European Union (EU) and Overseas Countries and Territories (OCTs) are in association with each other via a system which is based on the provisions of part IV of the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU (TFEU), consisting of detailed rules and measures which are laid down in the document issued on 27th November 2001 title Oversees Association Decision. The expiry date of this association decision is 31st December 2013. Stress has been laid down by the European Council in its conclusions issued on 22nd December 2009 that the relationship between OCT and EU should continuously be updated in order to reflect latest developments not only in EU and OCT but thorough out the world. The commission has also been encouraged to make revisions to the Overseas Association Decision and present it in front of the council prior to July 2012 (Hill et al.,…
Agnew John, "Geopolitics re-vision world politics," Routledge Taylor & Francies Group, pp 1-5
Alan Taylor, American Colonies: New York: Viking, 2001, pp. 57 -- 8.
Baldwin, David. Ed. Neo-Realism And Neoliberalism: The Contemporary Debate, New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.
Balzacq, T. (Ed.). Understanding securitization theory. The design and evolution of security problems. Oxon: Routledge, 2010.
nation-altering event of the 1960s. Specifically it will discuss man's first walk on the moon by astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldren, and how it stimulated the nation's growth, made an indelibly positive impression upon America's institutions, and if it/they provide sufficient substance to be incorporated into the future study of America during the 1960s.
MAN ON THE MOON
One of the most important and nation altering events to occur in the 1960s was the Apollo astronaut program, specifically, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldren's successful walk on the moon on July 20, 1969.
On July 20, 1969, people around the world watched in awe as Neil Armstrong became the first human to walk on the moon. The event symbolized, as Armstrong laconically radioed to earth, a "giant leap for mankind." In fact, the achievement was so overwhelming that a few people refused to believe it actually occurred, claiming that it…
Byrnes, Mark E. Politics and Space: Image Making by NASA. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1994.
Flatow, Ira, "Analysis: Anniversary of First Plans for Going to the Moon." Talk of the Nation Science Friday (NPR). 25 May 2001.
Levins, Harry. "In 1969, the U.S. Won the Cold War Race to the Moon." St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 18 July 1999, pp A4.
Public Affairs. "V-2 Rocket." White Sands Missile Range. 2002. 22 March 2003. http://www.wsmr.army.mil/paopage/Pages/V-2.htm
1948?" It will inform the reader of important events that occurred in the world in 1948. For America and the world, 1948 was a year in transition. World War II had ended, but there was still war in the world. America was entering into an era of prosperity, and families were engaging in the "baby boom." 1948 was a banner year for many improvements and innovations that would prove to be important in the years ahead.
War and Peace
It would seem that 1948 would be a year of peace, and that the world would be at peace after the horrors of World War II, but that is not the case. The State of Israel became reality in May 1948, and the day after it was created, the neighboring Arab nations of Egypt, Transjordan, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia declared war on the fledgling nation. First created as Palestine…
References (17 April 2004). 1948. Retrieved from the Wikipedia Web site: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1948
Author not Available. (2004). 1948 in History. Retrieved from the BrainHistory.com Web site: http://www.brainyhistory.com/years/1948.html21 April 2004.
Author not Available. (2004). Highlights of 1948. Retrieved from the BabyBoomers.com Web site: http://www.babyboomers.com/years/1948.htm21 April 2004.
Author not Available. (2004). IBM Archives: 1948. Retrieved from the IBM.com Web site: http://www-1.ibm.com/ibm/history/history/year_1948.html21 April 2004.
Author not Available. (1999). The 1948 Tucker. Retrieved from HenryFord.org Web site: http://www.hfmgv.org/exhibits/showroom/1948/tucker.html21 April 2004.